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Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of Central Punjab

Machining Operations
(Milling and Related Operations)


Chapter 22 Course Instructor: Umer Hayat

Summary of Last Lecture

 Work Holding Devices on Lathe

 Drilling

 Operations Related to

 A machining operation in which work is fed past a rotating tool with

multiple cutting edges
 Axis of tool rotation is perpendicular to feed direction
 Creates a planar surface; other geometries possible either by cutter
path or shape
 Owing to the variety of shapes possible and its high production rates,
milling is one of the most versatile and widely used machining
 Other factors and terms:
 Milling is an interrupted cutting operation-the teeth of the milling
cutter enter and exit work during each revolution
 Cutting tool called a milling cutter, cutting edges called "teeth"
 Machine tool called a milling machine
Basic Types of Milling Operation

 Peripheral milling or plain milling:

 Cutter axis is parallel to surface being machined
 Cutting edges on outside periphery of cutter

 Face milling
 Cutter axis is perpendicular to surface being milled
 Cutting edges on both the end and outside periphery of the cutter

(a) peripheral milling

(b) face milling
Types of Milling

 Peripheral Milling  Face milling

 Slab milling  Conventional face milling
 Slotting  Partial face milling
 Side milling  End milling
 Straddle milling  Profile milling
 Form milling  Pocket milling
 Surface contouring
Peripheral Milling

Slab Milling Slotting

 The basic form of peripheral ❑ Width of cutter is less than
milling in which the cutter workpiece width,
width extends beyond the creating a slot in the work
workpiece on both sides
Peripheral Milling

Side Milling Straddle Milling

 Cutter cuts the side of  Same as side milling but the cutter
workpiece cuts both sides of the workpiece
Peripheral Milling

Form Milling
 Milling tooth defines the cut profile
Forms of Peripheral Milling w.r.t Rotation

 Up milling
 Conventional milling
 Direction of motion of teeth is opposite to
the feed
 Milling against the feed

 Down milling
 Climb milling
 Milling with the feed
 More tool life
 Tends to hold the work
Face Milling

Conventional Face Milling Partial Face Milling

 Dia of cutter is greater than  Cutter overhangs the work on
work part, so cutter overhangs only one side
work on both sides
Face Milling

End Milling Profile Milling

 Cutter diameter is less than  Form of end milling in which the
work width, so a slot is cut into outside periphery of a flat
part part is cut
Face Milling

Pocket Milling Surface Contouring

 Another form of end milling  Ball-nose cutter (rather than
used to mill shallow pockets square-end cutter) is fed back
into flat parts and forth across the work
along a curvilinear path at
close intervals to create a
three dimensional surface form
Cutting Conditions in Milling

 Cutting Speed

 Feed f
 The feed in milling is usually given as a feed per cutter tooth; called
the chipload, it represents the size of the chip formed by each cutting

 Feed Rate
fr=feed rate, mm/min; N=spindle speed, rev/min; nt=number of
teeth on cutter; f=chip load in mm/tooth

w=width of machined
 Material Removal Rate
d= depth of cut
Cutting Conditions in Milling

Peripheral Milling
 Approach Distance (distance to reach full cutter depth)

 Milling Time
Cutting Conditions in Milling

Face Milling
 Cutter is centerd over workpiece  Cutter is offset to one side of

 A peripheral milling operation is performed on a rectangular

workpiece that is 320 mm long by 60 mm wide by 56 mm thick. The
65-mm-diameter milling cutter has 4 teeth, is 80 mm long, and
overhangs the work on either side by 10 mm. The operation reduces
the thickness of the piece to 50 mm. Cutting speed = 0.50 m/s and
chip load = 0.24 mm/tooth. Determine (a) machining time and (b)
metal removal rate once the cutter reaches full depth

 A face milling operation is used to machine 6.0mm from the top

surface of a rectangular piece of aluminum 300 mm long by 125 mm
wide in a single pass. The cutter follows a path that is centered over
the workpiece. It has four teeth and is 150 mm in diameter. Cutting
speed = 2.8 m/s, and chip load =0.27 mm/tooth. Determine (a) the
actual machining time to make the pass across the surface and (b) the
maximum metal removal rate during cutting
Milling Machines

 Milling machines must provide a rotating spindle for the cutter and a
table for fastening, positioning and feeding the workpart

Classification of Milling Machines w.r.t Spindle Direction

 Horizontal milling
 Spindle is horizontal
 Designed to perform peripheral mill

 Vertical milling
 Spindle is vertical
 Appropriate for
◼ Profile mill, end mill, face mill, surface mill etc.
Other Classifications of Milling Machines
(Self Study)

 Knee-and-column milling machine

 Universal milling machine
 Ram mill

 Bed type milling machine

 Planer type
 Tracer mills
 CNC milling machines
Horizontal Knee-and-column Milling Machine

 It has horizontal spindle

 Suitable for peripheral
Vertical Knee-and-column Milling Machine

 Suitable for face milling