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Pump-is a machine used to add energy to a liquid in order to transfer the liquid from one point to another

point of higher energy level. A pump is a machine that converts mechanical energy into fluid energy.

Function of a pump – is to add to the pressure existing on a liquid an increment sufficient to the required

service. This service maybe the production of a velocity or the overcoming of friction or external pressure.

At ordinary temperatures; 1000 kg = 1 m3, or 1 kg= 1 litre, 1 kg/cm2 = 10 m. Note; This could not be used in

hot water.

1. Condensing water

2. Condensate

3. Boiler feed

4. Heater drains

5. Booster flows

6. Sump drain and other services

Upper

Reservoir

Discharge Pipe

Pressure Gauge

Gate Valve

Pump Check Valve

Suction Pipe

Lower Reservoir

CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS

1. Centrifugal pump- is a machine which the pumping action is accomplished by imparting kinetic energy

to the fluid by a high speed revolving impeller with vanes and subsequently converting this kinetic

energy into pressure energy either by passing through a volute casing or through diffuser vanes. It is

high discharge, low head, high speed, not self priming.

2. Rotary Pump- a positive displacement pump consisting of a fixed casing containing gears, cams, screws,

vanes plungers or similar elements actuated by rotation of the drive shaft. It is low discharge, low head,

used for pumping viscous liquids like oil. Example; Gear pump, Screw pump, vane Pump

3. Reciprocating pump- is a positive displacement unit wherein the pumping action is accomplished by

the forward and backward movement of a piston or plunger provided with valves. It is low discharge,

high head, low speed, self- priming.4.0) Deep well pump- is divided into plunger or reciprocating,

turbine, ejector-centrifugal types and air lifts. Turbine pumps-are used for pumping water with high

suction lift, for pumping condensate. Jet Pump or Injector pump- used for pumping boiler feed water,

used as accessory of centrifugal pump.

Types of pumps are classified into two major category.

1. Dynamic or kinetic – are types of pumps in which energy is continuously added to the fluid to

increase its velocity. Examples; centrifugal, jet and turbine pumps

2. Positive displacement pumps-are types of pumps, in which energy is continuously added by

application of force to an enclosed volume of fluid and resulting to a direct increase in its pressure.

Examples: Reciprocating, rotary, and diaphragm pumps.

Some other ways of classifying pumps includes the following;

1. Type of flow of fluid at the impeller; radial semi-axial, or axial

2. Type of casing; volute or diffuser pumps

3. Type of design: single stage, multi-stage, single suction, dual suction, horizontal, vertical pump,

submersible.

4. Type of application: fire, dredge, slurry, deep well, irrigation, drainage, circulating, boiler feed,

condensate, clogless.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

A centrifugal pump consist of stationary casing and an impeller connected in rotating shaft. Liquid

enters the centre of the rotating impeller and leaves at a high velocity and passes to a stationary

volute casing which transforms kinetic energy into pressure. The term “centrifugal” came from the

centrifugal force created as the water move outward from the centre of impeller rotation. A

centrifugal pump whose drive unit is supported by the pump having its suction and discharge flanges

on approximately the same order is called in line pump. A centrifugal pump characterized by a housing

which is split parallel to the shaft is called horizontal split case pump. A centrifugal pump with one or

more impellers discharging into one or more bowls and a vertical ejector or column pipe used to

connect the bowls to the discharge heads on which the pump driver is mounted is called vertical shaft

turbine pump.

FIGURE: Impeller

Casing

Vane or

Blade

Advantages of centrifugal pumps

1. Simple and compact

2. Easy to maintain

3. Adaptability with motor with high rpm

4. Little vibrations

5. Flow can be controlled from full to non-discharge without shutting the pump

Disadvantages

2. Usually needs priming

3. Cavitation may develop during operation

4. Needs multi-stage to increase discharge pressure

5. Cannot handle very viscous fluid

6. Check valve is required to avoid back flow.

One of the disadvantages of a centrifugal pump is that the liquid is delivered at a relatively low

pressure. This due to the high velocity acquired by the liquid as it leaves the impeller. Therefore,

liquids are delivered at low pressure but at a high velocity. In order, to increase the discharge pressure

of liquids, a decrease in its velocity at the impeller discharge is required. This is usually done by

providing additional impellers to the pump. The liquid exits the first impeller at high velocity then

passes thru a series of impellers thus, additional pressure is added.

1. The shaft- is a piece of metal where the internal parts of the pump are mounted. Its function is to

transmit torque from the motor to the rotating parts of the pump.

Pump shaft has also a shaft sleeve, it is a metal cylinder that fits over the shaft to protect it from

corrosion, erosion, and wear.

2. The impellers of a centrifugal pumps are the most critical part of the pump, because the capacity

of the pump depends on its diameter and speed of which it turns. Impellers can be open, semi-

open and closed type impellers.

FIGURE:

3. The pump casing- is the stationary part of a centrifugal pump and it can either be volute or circular.

The main function of the volute is to convert the kinetic energy acquired by the fluid into pressure.

It could be single and double volute casing. Diffuser volute design has a set of fixed vanes in its

casing that gradually reduces fluid velocity. It gives direction to the flow from the impeller and

converts this velocity energy into pressure energy

4. Wear rings-are fitted to the impellers or to the pump casing to protect the actual impeller and

casing from wear. Excessive wear in the pump will reduce its efficiency particularly in small pumps

used in high speed applications. Wear rings should be replaced periodically to avoid damage in the

impeller or in the casing. It keeps internal recirculation down to a minimum.

5. Packing or mechanical seal- the main function of packing or mechanical seal is to protect the pump

from leakage in the area where the shaft passes through the casing. The most common means of

throttling the leakage between the inside and outside of the casing.

6. Bearings-are used to keep the correct alignment of the shaft with other stationary parts of the

pump. It accurately locate shaft and carry radial and thrust loads.

7. Labyrinth and seals and deflectors- the main purpose is to retain oil in the pump housing and to

prevent foreign materials entering the pump housing.

FIGURE:

Motor

Static Discharge Total Static

Head Head

Pump

Pump

Center Line

Static

Sunction

Head- total energy developed by the pump, expressed in height of the liquid in meters.

Basic Principles:

General Flow Equation: Q= A v or v=Q/A

H= total head or total dynamic head (TDH)

䗸ւ 䗸 ւ

H= ( zd – zs ) + + (hfs + hfd ) + t

Note:

Zs is negative if source is below the pump centre line

Ps is negative if it is vacuum

Static head- is the height of the surface of the water above the gauge point.

Velocity head-is the head required to produce the flow of water.

Pressure head= is the static head plus gauge pressure on the water surface plus friction head

Dynamic head= is the pressure head plus velocity head.

Pump operating head-is the algebraic difference of discharge and suction head. This can also be

called as total dynamic head.

WATER POWER OR HYDRAULIC POWER- is the theoretical power necessary to raise a given volume

of liquid from a lower to a higher elevation.

Water Power= Q w H; kW

Where;

Q = discharge, m3/s

W= specific weight=9.81 kN/m3 for water

H= total head, in meters

t

Brake (Input) Power = th

Motor efficiency –is the ratio of brake power to input power.

ܽ t

em = t t

Overall efficiency – is the ratio of hydraulic power or water power to the input power.

t

e= t t

Head, as determined from readings of pressure gauges

䗸ւ 䗸 ւ

H= + t

Note: Ps is negative if a vacuum

Friction head is the head lost by the flow in a stream or conduit due to frictional disturbances set

up by the moving liquid and its containing conduit and by intermolecular actions.

t

hf = th

, (Darcy equation)

t

hf= th

, ( Morse equation)

where;

hf = friction head loss, m

f = coefficient of friction ( should be taken from Morse table if Morse equation is used)

L= total length, m (including equivalent lengths of the fittings)

V= velocity, m/s

g = 9.81 m/s2

D= inside diameter, m

Example Problems:

1. Water in the rural areas is often extracted from underground water source whose free surface

is 60 m below ground level. The water is to be raised 5m above the ground by a pump. The

diameter of the pipe is 10 cm at the inlet and 15 cm at the exit. Neglecting any heat interaction

with the surroundings and frictional heating effect, what is the necessary power input for the

steady flow of water at the rate of 15 litres/ sec in kW?

Solution:

FIGURE:

5m 15cm

60m 10cm

alilri

Vs = = alirl

= 1.91 m/s

lilri

Vd = aliri

=0.85 m/s

䗸 ւ li i ւari r

H=( Zd – Zs ) + t

= 5-(-60 ) +a a i r

=64.85 m

WP= Q w H =0.015 (9.81) (64.85) = 9.54 kW

2. Calculate the drive horsepower for pumping 1703 L/min cold water to a tank suction at 127

mm Hg vacuum, delivery at 5.3 kg/cm2 ga., both measured close to pump, efficiency of the

pump is 0.65.

ܽt

Solution: 5.3 h t t

Figure:

Pump

127mmHgvac

Let;

hd= total head at discharge

hs =total head at suction

h= pump head

By Bernoulli’s Equation

䗸ւ 䗸 ւ

H= hd – hs = + t

+ (Zd – Zs ) +( hfd + hfs)

Where; Pd= 5.3 kg/cm2ga

Ps=-127 mmHg = -0.1727 kg/cm2

ii lir⿏ r ܽt ti harll h ti h

H= rlllܽt ti h

= 54.72 m

Pbrake =wQh

=1000kg/m3(1703 L/min) (1m3/1000L) (54.72)

=93,188.16 kg-m/min ( I kW/6116.3 kg-m/min)=15.24 kW=20.42 hp

Drive hp of the pump;

li

Hp= lihi = 31.42 hp

3. Water from a well is to be pumped to a height of 40 meters from the source. The quantity of

water to be delivered is 500 L/s, through a 480 mm diameter pipe. It is also desired to

maintain a 100 kPa pressure at the summit. The frictional head losses from the suction and

discharge of the pump are equivalent to 2.0 m. If the pump speed is 850 rpm, determine the

power needed by the pump in hp.

Solution: 100kPag

Figure:

40m

Water Source

Source: suction lift

WP = hs + hv + hP + hL

hs =40 m

Solving for the velocity at discharge;

Q= A2 v2

ali l

0.5 m3/s = Π (v2)

v2 = 2.7631 m/s

Neglecting the velocity at suction;

ւ r a i⿏h r ւl

hv = t

= a i r

=0.3891 m

ւ r arllւl

hf = = i r = 10.1937 m

hl = 2.0 m

TDH = 40m +0.3891 +10.1937 + 2.0 m = 52.5828 m

Thus,

WP= 0.5 m3/s (9.81 kN/m3) (52.5828m) = 257.9186 kW

WP = 257.9186 kW x 1 hp/0.746 kW =345.7354 hp

reservoir at an elevation of 80 m. The suction pipe and discharge pipe diameter is 255mm and

200 mm, respectively. The pump centreline is at 5m. The head loss at suction pipe is 0.05m

and 0.45 at the discharge pipe. The pump delivers water at 15 L/s and has an efficiency of 75%

while the electric motor is 80%. Determine:

a. Water horsepower of the pump

b. Brake horsepower of the pump

c. Power input to drive the motor, in kW

d. The pressure gage readings installed before and after the suction and discharge of the

pump, kPa.

Solution;

Figure: B

Reserve

Oil

70m 200mm

Source

80m

10m

2

1 225mm

5m

Solving for WP

Source: Suction head

WP =QΥTDH; TDH = hs + hv + hf + Hl

Solving for the water velocity at the suction and discharge

Q= Av= A1v1 = A2v2

ali iih

0.015 =Π V1 ; V1 = 0.2937 m/s

ali llh

0.015 m3/s = Π v2 ; v2 = 0.4775 m/s

ւ r ali ⿏⿏i ւali ⿏

hv = t

= a i r

=0.0072246 m

Since both the source and the reservoir are open to the atmosphere

Hp =0

HL =0.05m + 0.45 m =0.5 m

TDH=70m + 7.2246 x 10-3 +0 +0.5 =70.5072

Thus,

WP = 0.015 m3/s (9.81)kN/m3 (70.5072 m) = 10.3751 kW ; Thus;

r

Whp =10.3751 kW x li⿏ hܽ

=13.9077 hp

Solving for the brake horsepower of the pump;

Np =

r i l⿏⿏

0.75 =

Bhp = 18 5436 hp

nm = x 100

ar ii h li⿏ h ܽ

0.80 = r

EP = 17.2919 kW

Solving for the gage pressure readings;

Applying energy equation from the water surface level of the source (A) to the suction

point of the pump (1), we’ll have

ZA + VA2/2g + PA/Υw = Z1 + V12/2g + P1/Υw + HLA-1

Where; PA/Υw = 0 kPa, ( the water is open to the atmosphere)

VA = V1 (equal suction pipe diameter)

Z1 =0( used as the datum or reference line)

Thus; ZA = r

+HLA-1

P1 = (ZA –HLA-1) Υw = ( 5m-0.05m)(9.81 kN/m3) = 48.5595 kPa g

Applying energy equation from the discharge point of the pump (2) to the water surface

level of the reservoir(B) we’ll have,

Z2 + t

+ = ZB + t

+ + HL2 – B

Where: = 0 kPag(the water source is exposed to the atmosphere

V2 =VB (equal pipe diameter)

Z2 = 0 ( used as the datum or reference line)

Therefore: = ZB + HL2-B

P2 = (ZB – HL2-B ) Υw = (75 m-0.45 m) (9.81 kN/m3) = 731.3355 kPag

5. A pump discharges 150 litres per second of water to a height of 75 m. If the efficiency is 75%

and the speed of the pump is 1800 rpm, what is the torque in N-m to which the driveshaft is

subjected?

Solution:

Figure: 150t

75m

Let ;

ep = pump efficiency

P= hl

= = 9.81(0.150) (75)/(0.75) =147.15 kW, Thus;

r ll

147.15 = hl

= hl

;

T= 0.781 kN-m = 781 N-m

Problem Solving:

1. A centrifugal pump delivers 227 m3/hr of water from a source 4 meters below the pump

centre line to a pressure tank whose pressure is 2.8 kg/cm2. Friction loss estimates are 2

meters in the suction line and 1 metre in the discharge line. The diameter of the suction pipe is

250 mm and the discharge pipe is 200 mm. Find:

a) The water horsepower

b) The kW rating of the driving motor if the pump efficiency is 70%

(Ans. a. 29 hp, b. 31 kW )

2. A pump is to deliver 80 galloons/min of water 600C with discharge pressure of 1000 kPag.

Suction pressure indicates 50 mmHg vacuum. The diameter of suction and discharge pipes are

5 inches and 4 inches, respectively. If the pump has an efficiency of 70%. Determine the brake

horsepower of the pump. (Ans. 9.732 hp)

3. An acceptance test was conducted on a centrifugal pump having a suction pipe 25.4 cm in

diameter and a discharge pipe 12.7 cm in diameter. Flow was 186 m3/hr of clear cold water.

Pressure at suction was 114.3 mmHg vac and discharge pressure was 107 kPag at a point 91

cm above the point where the suction pressure was measured. Input to the pump was 15 hp.

a) Determine the pump efficiency

b) If the pump runs at 1750 rpm, what net flow, head, and brake hp would be developed and

required if the pump speed were increased to 3500 rpm? Assume constant efficiency.

( Ans. a. 64.4%, b. 372 m3/hr, 56.8 m, 120 hp)

4. A motor driven pump draws water from an open reservoir A and lifts to an open reservoir B.

Suction and discharge pipes are 150 mm pipe and 100 mm inside diameter respectively. The

loss of head in the suction line is 3 times the velocity head in the 150 mm pipe and the loss of

head in the discharge line is 20 times the velocity head in the 100 mm pipeline.. Water level at

reservoir A is at elevation 6 meters and that of reservoir B at elevation 75 m. Pump centre line

is at elevation 2 m. Overall efficiency of the system is 73%. Discharge is 10 litres/sec.

Determine the following;

a. Power input of the motor

b. Reading in kPa of the pressure gauges installed just at the outlet and inlet of the pump.

(Ans. a. 9.51 kW, b. Po =732.34 kPag, Pi = 38.76 kPag )

5. A boiler feed pump receives 40 litres per second at 1800C. It operates against a total head of

900 meters with an efficiency of 60%. Determine:

a. The enthalpy leaving the pump in kJ/kg

b. Power output of the driving motor in kW

c. Discharge pressure in kPa if suction pressure of 4 MPa

(Ans. a. 773.57 kJ/kg, b. 523.3 kW, c. 11,850.3 kPa)

6. A plant has installed a single suction centrifugal pump with a discharge of 68 m3/hr under 60 m

head and running at 1200 rpm. It is proposed to install another pump with double suction but

of the same type to operate at 30 m head and deliver 90 m3/hr

a. Determine the speed of the proposed pump.

b. What must be the impeller diameter of the proposed pump if the diameter of the existing

pump is 150 mm?

(Ans. a. 877 rpm, b. 145 mm )

7. A 40 m3/hr pump delivers water to a pressure tank. At the start, the gage reads 138 kPa until it

reads 276 kPa and then the pump will shut off. The volume of the tank is 160 litres. At 276 kPa

the water occupied 2/3 of the tank volume.

a) Determine the volume of water that can be taken out until the gage reads 138 kPa.

b) If 1 m3/hr of water is constantly used, in how many minutes from 138 kPa will the pump

run until the gage reads 276 kPa? Ans. a) 30.75 litres, b) 0. min.

8. A pump with a 400 mm diameter suction pipe and 350 mm diameter discharge pipe is to

deliver 20,000 litres per minute of 15.60C water. Calculate the pump head in metres if suction

gage is 7.5 cm below the pump centreline and reads 127 mmHg vacuum and the discharge

gage is 45 cm above the pump centre line and reads 75 kPa. Ans. H=10.14 m

9. Water from an open reservoir A at 8m elevation is drawn by a motor driven pump to an open

reservoir B at 70 m elevation. The inside diameter of the suction pipe is 200 mm and 150 mm

for the discharge pipe. The suction line has a loss of head 3 times that of the velocity head in

the in the 200 mm pipe. The discharge line has a loss of head 20 times that of the head in the

discharge pipeline. The pump centreline is at 4 m. Overall efficiency of the system is 78% For a

discharge rate of 10 li/s, find the power input to the motor and the pressure gages reading

installed just at the outlet and inlet of the pump in kPag. Ans. P input = 7.825 kW, Ps= 39.14

kPa, Pd= 650.80 kPa

10. The rate of flow of water in a pump installation is 60.6 kg/s. The intake static gage is 1.22 m

below the pump centreline and reads 68.95 kPa gage;the discharge static gage is 0.61 m below

the pump centre line and reads 344.75 kPagage. The gages are located close to the pump as

much as possible. The area of the intake and discharge pipes are; 0.093 m2 and 0.069 m2

respectively. The pump efficiency is 74%. Take density of water equals 1000 kg/m3. What is the

hydraulic power in kW. Ans. P=17.09 kW

11. A pump delivers 20 cfm of water having a density of 62 lb/ft3. The suction and discharge gage

reads 5 in.Hg vacuum and 30 psi respectively. The discharge gage is 5 ft above the suction gage.

If pump efficiency is 70%, what is the motor power? Ans. P=4.31 hp

12. In a test of a centrifugal pump driven by an electric motor, the suction pipe is 10 in. in

diameter and its gage indicates a partial vacuum of 2.5 ft of water. The discharge pipe is 5 in.

in diameter, is 2 ft. higher than the suction gage and shows pressure of 50 ft of water. If the

pump is discharging 1.6 ft3/s and the electrical power input is 12 kW, what pump efficiency is

indicated assuming motor efficiency of 85%. Ans. 74.04%

13. Oil is being pumped from a truck to a tank 10 ft higher than the truck through a 2 in.

galvanized pipeline 100 ft long. If the pressure of the discharge side of the pump is 15 psi, at

what rate in gpm is oil flowing through the pipe?. The oil has an specific gravity of 0.92 at the

temperature in the pipe. Ans. 542.44 gal/min

14. A centrifugal pump delivers 80 litres per second of water on test suction gage reads 10mmHg

vacuum and 1.2 m below pump centreline. Power input is 70 kW. Find the total dynamic head

in metres. Use np (pump efficiency) = 74%. Ans. H=66m

1. Specific Speed –is the speed at geometrically similar impeller of a pump would run to

discharge 1 gpm at 1 foot head. Specific speed of centrifugal pump impeller is the rotative

speed at which a geometrically similar impeller would run if it were of such size as to raise

75 kg of water per second against one metre head.

Ns = ; rpm, in English System

Where;

Ns = specific speed in rpm

N= rotational speed, in rpm

Q= discharge, in gpm

H= head, in feet

lilr

Ns = rpm, in Metric system

Where:

N= pump shaft speed in rpm

H , or TDH =head in metre per stage

Q = is the discharge in litres/min

Note; For double suction pumps Q is divided by two and for multi-stage pumps, H is

divided by the number of stages. In Figure1.13 shows the relationship of pump efficiency,

specific speed, geometry of pump and capacity. As the specific speed of the pump

increases, the ratio of impeller outer diameter, D1, to the impeller centre diameter, D2 ,

decreases. The ratio becomes 1.0 for a propeller type impeller.

The observation from the Figure that low specific speed can be designated as” low

capacity”, that means the head is developed mainly through centrifugal force and less of

axial force. Also high specific speed can be designated as” high capacity”, which indicates

that head is developed mainly through axial force and less of centrifugal force.

By using Figure 1.14 Pump specific speed when N=3500 rpm, H=120 ft and Q=1200 gpm,

the Ns =3350 rpm. It is important to note that specific speed is always calculated at the

Best Efficiency Point (BEP) of the pump at maximum impeller diameter.

Example Problem; A double suction, single stage centrifugal pump delivers 4000 gpm of water from a well

where the water level varies from 2.5 metres from high tide to low tide. The pump centre line is measured to

be 3 m above the water level at high tide. The pump discharges the water to an open surface condenser

located 4.5 m above the pump centreline. The head loss due to friction in the suction and discharge pipe is 1 m

and 2.5 m, respectively. The pump is directly coupled in a motor with 1800 rpm. Determine:

b) Total discharge head, m

c) Pump specific speed

d) Impeller diameter in mm

Solution:

FIGURE;

Solving for pump specific speed

i

Ns = , where, H=13.5 m ( rh

= 44.28 ft

lll t h

r ll h

Ns = =4689.5567 rpm, Using Figure 1.13, the specific speed suggests a mixed flow type of

a i

impeller.

tth h

V= hl

= hl

V= t = i rh r ii h =16.2748 m/s

Substituting:

har ll h

16.2748 m/s = hl

D= 0.1727 m = 172.6810 mm

Example 02]

Calculate the impeller diameter of the centrifugal pump that requires 15 m head to deliver water if pump

speed is 1500 rpm.

Solution

V= h

V= t = i r ri = 17.15 m/s

Thus;

D= 0.21843 m = 218.43 mm

Pump performance curves are graphical representation of the characteristic curve of a certain pump

model which shows the pump capacity ,(gpm), impeller diameter (inches), total dynamic head, (feet) brake

horsepower input (bhp) and pump efficiency in percent. A typical pump performance curve is shown

below: The highest point on the efficiency curve is the (Best efficiency Point)

FIGURE:

Example;

Solution ; From Figure, bhp = 7bhp; head =130 ft, best efficiency is at 160 gpm

Pumps are designed to operate continuously for long period of time. To achieve this, the pump utilizes the

fluid that it is pumping for its lubrication and cooling. Damage in the pump may occur when circulation of

liquid stops for long period of time while the pump is operating.

Damage can also occur when the pressure at any point inside the pump drops below the vapour pressure

corresponding to the temperature of the liquid. Because at this condition, the liquid will vaporize and

eventually forms vapour bubbles as it enters the inlet of the pump. This vapour bubbles then collapse or

implodes at the surface of the impeller creating tremendous physical shock to the edges of the impeller.

This process of vapour formation is cavitation. Another undesirable result of cavitation is adverse noise

accompanied by heavy vibrations.

Since cavitation occurs mainly at the inlet of the pump, we can consequently say that it is related to the

pump suction head conditions. Net positive Suction Head, NPSH, is an index where the pump may operate

without cavitation. NPSH is the difference between actual suction pressure and saturation vapour pressure

of the liquid.

1.0) NPSHr

2.0) NPSHa

NPSHr for a particular pump is experimentally determined and provided by the manufacturer and is a

function of pump design. NPSHa is determined by plant engineer during the design and proposed

installation of the pump and is a function of the system where the pump will operate. To avoid cavitation,

it is necessary that NPSHa is equal or greater than NPSHr.

1.0)Decrease the suction lift by changing the plant layout and raising the source on which the pump draws

water

2.0)Reduce the suction head by using pumps with larger capacity but operating it in partial loads or speeds.

Cavitation- is defined as the formation of cavities of water vapour in the suction side of a pump due to low

suction pressure.

Causes of Cavitation

2.0)Low atmospheric pressure

3.0)High liquid temperature

4.0)High velocity

5.0)Rough surface and edges

6.0)Sharp bends

1.0)Drop in capacity and efficiency

2.0)Noise and vibration

3.0)Corrosion and pitting

r

a.) r

=

r

b.) r

= ; where; D= impeller diameter

r hr rh

Pump affinity laws are rules that express the relationship of pump capacity head, and bhp when the

speed or impeller diameter is changed. Assuming that the efficiency is the same for both conditions.

a) Constant impeller diameter, variable speed

r

= r

r

= r 2

r

= r 3

P= Power

b) Constant speed, variable impeller diameter

h h hr 3

r

= hr ; r

= [hr 2 r

= h

]

h

=h x

r r r

2. H is directly proportional to N2

h

=( 2

xah

r r r

i t 䗸 䂱 t t t t D

3 5

3 h

=( (h )5

r r r

t brt h䂱 th tt 䂱

Example Problem:

1.0) A pump delivers 500 gpm against a total head of 200 ft and operating at 1770 rpm. Changes have

increased the total head to 375 ft. At what rpm should the pump be operated to achieve the new head

at the same efficiency.

Solution:

=[ 2

;

ss aas 2

ac

= [ ; N2 = 2423.67 rpm

2.0) It is desired to deliver 5 gpm at a head of 640 ft in a single stage pump having a specific speed not to

exceed 40. If the speed not to exceed 1352 rpm, how many stages are required?

Solution:

r i i

Ns = = l h l ; n= 2 stages

ܛ ܑ܉

3.0)The power output is 30 hp to a centrifugal pump that is discharging 900 gpm and which operates at 1800

rpm against a head H= 120 ft, 220V, 3 phase, 60 hertz. If this pump is modified to operate 1200 rpm,

assuming its efficiency remains constant, determine its discharge in gpm, the theoretical head it imparts to

the liquid and the power input to the pump.

Solution:

r

= r

ll r ll

= r ll

] ; Q2 = 600 gpm. t䂱 t t alibl 亿 䗸 2

r

= [ r 2

r l r ll 2

= [rll

= 53.33 ft

li ri ܛ r ܛ, P2

= [ 3

s ss 3

= [ ss

P2 = 8.89 hp

Problem Solving:

1.0)A pump operating at 1750 rpm delivering 500 gpm against a total head of 150 ft. Changes in the piping

system have increased the total head to 360 ft. At what rpm should the pump be operated to achieve

this new head at the same efficiency? Ans. 2711.09 rpm

2.0)A DC driven pump running at 100 rpm delivers 30 litres per second of water at 400C against a total

pumping head of 27 m with a pump efficiency of 60%. Barometer pressure is 758 mmHg. What pump

speed and capacity, would result if pump rpm were increase to produce a pumping head of 36 m

assuming no change in efficiency. Ans, 115.47 rpm, 34.64 L/s

3.0)A centrifugal pump discharge 20 L/s against a head of 17 m when the speed is 1500 rpm. The diameter

of the impeller was 30 cm and the brake horsepower was 6.0. A geometrically similar pump 40 cm in

diameter is to run at 1750 rpm, Assuming equal efficiencies, what brake horsepower is required? Ans.

Bhp = 40.14 bhp

4.0)A two stage centrifugal pump delivers 15,000 kg/hr of 1100C water against 76 m head at 3500 rpm.

What is the specific speed of the pump? Ans. Ns = 780.39 rpm

5.0)A pump running at 1000 rpm delivers water against a head of 300 m. If the pump speed will increased

to 1500 rpm, what is the change in head? Ans. ΔH= 375 m

6.0)A test on a centrifugal pump operating at 1150 rpm showed a total head of 37.6 ft at a capacity of 800

gpm. Estimate the total head and capacity if the pump were operated at 1750 rpm. Assume normal

operation at point of maximum efficiency in each case. Ans. H2 = 87.07 ft. , Q2 =1217.4 gpm

7.0)A double- suction centrifugal pump delivers 3 m3/s of water at a head of 15 m and running at 1200 rpm.

Calculate the specific speed of the pump. Ans. Ns = 9958.56 rpm

8.0)Determine the performance of a centrifugal pump with initial flow of 150 gpm, at an initial head of 120

ft, and initial power input of 5 bhp. The impeller diameter is changed from 9.5 inches to 8.0 inches. Ans.

Q2 = 126.3158 gpm; H2 =85.0970 ft. ; BHP2 =2.9859 bhp

9.0)Determine the performance of a centrifugal pump with initial flow of 150 gpm, at an initial head of 120

ft, initial power input of 5 bhp. The speed is changed from1700 rpm to 3000 rpm. Ans. Q2 =264.7059

gpm, H2 = 373.7024 ft, BHP2 = 27.4781 bhp

10.0) A centrifugal pump operating at 1150 rpm showed a total head of 40 ft at a capacity of 600

gpm. The impeller diameter is 10.5 in. Estimate the total head and capacity of a geometrically similar

pump at 1150 rpm with an impeller diameter of 10 inches. Ans. H2= 36.28 ft, Q2 =518.3 gpm

11.0) A double suction, single stage, centrifugal pump delivers 900 m3/hr of sea water(S.G. =1.03)

from a source where the water level varies 2 m from high tide to low tide level. The pump centreline is

located 2.6 m above the surface at high tide level. The pump discharges into a surface condenser, 3 m

above the pump centreline. Loss of head due to friction in the suction pipe is 0.80 m and that in the

discharge side is 3 m. Pump is directly coupled to a 11750 rpm, 460 Volts, 3 phase, 60 hertz motor.

Calculate the specific speed of pump in rpm Ans. Ns = 5149.20 rpm . Ns =5149.20 rpm.

Formula:

NPSHa= hp( + or -) hSL -hV - HL

Where:

Hp = absolute pressure head on the surface of the liquid source in meters. This will be the atmospheric

pressure corresponding to its altitude when the liquid surface is open.

HLS = the height of the liquid surface from the pump centreline , designated as positive when suction

head and negative when suction lift, in meters.

HV = head corresponding to the vapour pressure of the liquid at liquid temperature, can be determined

using steam tables, in meters

HL= head loss due to friction and turbulence, in meters.

Example Problems:

1.0) Determine the NPSH available with following water conditions: Water from a well with a

temperature 270C at sea level, with head loss of 0.45m and a suction lift of 3 m.

Solution;

Figure;

NPSHa = hp + or – hSL –hv - HL

From Steam tables: specific volume of water at 270C is; vf = 1.0035 x 10-3m3/kg and the specific

weight is ;ɤ = 9.7758 kN/m3

Since the water source is open to the atmosphere, hp=101.325 kPa

rlri i ܽ

Hp = ɤ = i⿏⿏i ܽ

= 10.3649 m

tih

The vapour pressure of water at 270C is 3.567 kPa

iih⿏ ܽ

Hv = ɤ = ܽ = 0.3649 m

i⿏⿏i

tih

HL = 0.45 m

Thus;

NPSHa= (10.3649-3-0.3649-0.45) = 6.55 m

2.0)A closed tank contains liquefied butane gas whose specific gravity is 0.60. The tank pressure is 1.6

MPa gage which is also the equilibrium vapour pressure of butane at the pumping temperature.

Suction line losses is 1.5 m of gas and the static elevation gain is 4 m. What is the net positive suction

head available (NPSH)?

Solution:

Use (+) for static elevation gain

ւ

NPSH = i ra i

+ S – Hf

= 0 + 4 -1.5 = 2.5 m available

Problem Solving:

1.0)A condensate pump draws water from a condenser which maintains a pressure head of 724

mmHg vacuum. The friction losses at the piping system between the pump and the condenser

is measured to be 1.5 m. Determine the minimum height of water in the condenser that needs

to be maintained if the NPSH r for the pump is 3.5 m. Ans. hLS = 4.7 m.

2.0)A condensate pump at sea level take water from a surface condenser where the vacuum is 15

in.Hg. The friction and turbulence in the piping in the condenser hot well and the pump

suction flange is assumed to be 6.5 ft. If the condensate pump to be installed has a required

head of 9 ft, what would be the minimum height of water level in the hot well that must be

maintained above the centreline of the pump to avoid cavitation? Ans. S= 15.5 ft= hLS

3.0)A dearator heater supplies 150 l/min of dearated feed water into a booster pump at 115 0C

pumping temperature. The heater pressure is maintained at 100 kPag by bled steam. Pump

centreline is located 1 m above the floor level. Suction line losses is 0.60 m. Determine the

minimum height of water level in the heater that must be maintained above the centreline of

the pump to avoid cavitation, if the pump to be installed has a required suction head of 5.8 m.

Ans. S= 3.25 m

Pumps in Parallel ( to increase discharge at the same head)

FIGURE:

PUMPS in SERIES

(to increase head with same discharge}

FIGURE

PUMP SELECTION

The following are important items to consider in selecting a pump.

1.0)The desired flow rate

2.0)The suction lift available (NPSHa)

3.0)The total dynamic head in which the pump will operate, TDH

4.0)Nature of liquid handled

5.0)Suction conditions

6.0)Type of drive, motor or engine

7.0)Type of service, continuous or intermittent

8.0)Number of units

9.0)Climate conditions

RECIPROCATING PUMP

Reciprocating Pump is a positive displacement Pump wherein the pumping action is accomplished by

forward and backward movement of a piston or plunger inside a cylinder usually provided with valves.

A POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing (displacing) that

trapped volume into the discharge pipe.

Some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the

discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of

the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume is constant through each cycle of operation. They are also

called constant flow machines. A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the

discharge side of the pump, because it has no shutoff head like centrifugal pump. A positive displacement

pump operating against a closed discharge valve continues to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge

line increases until the line bursts, the pump is severely damaged, or both. A relief or safety valve on the

discharge side of the positive displacement pump is necessary.

Piston types are used for low pressures, light duty or intermittent service. Less expensive than plunger design

but cannot handled gritty liquids.

Plunger types are used for high pressure, heavy duty or continuous service. Suitable for gritty and foreign

material service and more expensive than the piston design.

FIGURE:

1. Direct acting steam pump__ This type has a steam cylinder and a common piston rod. As there is no

lap, the steam is admitted throughout the length of the stroke, hence the pressure volume diagram of

the steam end is a rectangle. Consequently the water end flow diagram will also be a rectangle. With

the discharge flow constant throughout the length of the stroke and going down to zero value at the

instant or reverse at the end of each stroke

2. Cam and flywheel Reciprocating Pump_ this type is driven by cross compound or triple expansion

steam engines.

3. Power driven Pump_ this type receives its forward and backward motion of the piston and plunger by

means of a crank and connecting rod.

Note: Reciprocating pump can be single acting or double acting, simplex, duplex, triplex depending on the

number of water cylinder on the machine. Most built in double acting.

Pump Material

The pump material can be Stainless Steel (SS 316 or SS 3040, CAST IRON ETC. It depends on the

specification of the pump. In water industry and for pharma applications SS 316 is normally used, as

stainless steel gives better results at high temperatures.

1. An air chamber- is a metal box installed in the discharge side of the pump in which air is maintained to

cushion the flow of the water from the discharge of the pump as that the final flow will be more or less

continuous.

2. Air pressure valve- this should be installed on the discharge side between the pump and any other

valve.

3. Foot valve and strainer—This should be installed at the end of suction pipe. Foot valve should be of a

size at least equal to the size of the suction pipe.. The area of the strainer should be at least 3 times

the area of the suction pipe in order to minimize head loss at this point.

1. Piston displacement

If piston rod neglected

Vd= 2( ) D2LN

If piston rod considered

Vd= D2LN + (D2-d2 ) LN; where; d = diameter of piston rod

2. Q = AV

3. Slip = Vd- Q

䗸ւ

% Slip =[ 䗸

] x 100

4. Volumetric efficiency = 䗸

= ηv = 1 + c – c( r)

Example Problem

A 25 x 15 x 25 cm direct- acting duplex pump with 4 cm piston rods makes 35 double stroke per cylinder per

minute and delivers 510 litres per minute of 380C water against a total head of 140 metres. The steam is

supplied to the steam end at a pressure of 1034 kPa gage and exhaust to the atmosphere. Amount of steam

supplied is 1725 kg/hr @ 0.98 quality. Barometric reading of 752 mm Hg. Assume that the piston makes full

stroke; find:

b. Pump slip

c. Water power delivered

d. Pump overall efficiency

Solution:

Figure:

Where;

L= 25 cm = 0.25 m

䂱 hl h

N= 35 x 2 = 70 h t

x = 4200 cycles/hr

D= 15 cm = 0.15 m

d = 4 cm = 0-.04 m

Vol. efficiency = x 100%

䗸

h h

Vd = 35.79 = 0.5965h

liirl

Vol. efficiency = lii hi

= 0.85498 x 100% = 85.498%

H= 140 m

tt 䂱 t t t

et = t 䂱 䗸 h 䗸

=h a rւ

r h rlri i ܽ

P1= 1034 kPa + 752mmHg(⿏hl hh i) ( r h

) = 1134.2258 kPa

rrii

et = li ⿏ rh⿏ a ⿏ i rh ւ r⿏i⿏i

= 1.043%

Rotary pump- is a positive displacement pump consisting of a fixed casing containing gears, cams, screws,

vanes, plungers or similar elements actuated by rotation of the drive shaft.

1) Cam and piston pump- type of rotary pump consist an eccentrically bored cam rotated by a shaft

concentric cylindrically bored casing, with an aburment or follower so arranged that with each rotation

of the driveshaft a positive quantity of liquid is displaced from the space between the cam and the

pump casing.

2) Screw pump—is a type of rotary pump consists of two or three screw motors so arranged that as the

rotors turn liquid fills the shape between the screw threads and is displaced axially as the rotor threads

mesh.

3) Vane pump- a type of rotary pump consist of one rotor in a casing machined eccentrically to the drive

shaft. The rotor is fitted with a series of vanes, blades or buckets which follow the bore of the casing

thereby displacing the liquid with each revolution of the driveshaft.

4) Gear pump- type of rotary pump, consists two or more gears, operating closely fitted casing so

arranged that when the gear teeth unmesh on one side liquid fills the space between the gear teeth

and is carried around in the tooth space to the opposite side and displaced as the teeth mesh again.

1. Shallow well pump—(ordinary centrifugal pump for suction lift up to 25 ft)

2. Deep well Pump___ (centrifugal pump with injector for suction lift up to 120 ft)

3. Turbine pump (multi stage pump, for suction lift up to 300 ft)

4. Submersible pump (multi stage pump driven by submersible motor)

Deep well Pumps may divided into:

1. Plunger or reciprocating

2. Turbine

3. Ejector –centrifugal type

4. Air lifts

Plunger types-a ball valve, plunger and check valves are used in this pump. In operation only the

plunger moves. When the plunger is raised a vacuum is created below it, a water flows through the

check valve in the plunger to be lifted on the next upward stroke of the plunger.

Turbine type Pumps- These pumps represents the application of vertical centrifugal pump to dep

well service and are built for heads up to 305 metres and capacities up to26295 litres/min.

Ejector centrifugal pump- type of deep well pump used for small capacities combines a single stage

centrifugal pump at the top of the well and an ejector o jet located down in the water This is best

suited when the lifts is 7.6 m or over and capacities up to 190 liters/min net discharge

Air lifts- another method of pumping wells is by air lift with compressed air being admitted to the

well to lift water to the surface.

CHAPTER 3

COMPRESSORS

Compressors are machines that are used to transfer another gasses from one location to another at a

higher differential pressure ranges. There are various types of compressors and they are classified in two major

categories: (1) dynamic or also known as continuous flow or turbo compressor and (2) positive displacement or

intermittent compressor.

Dynamic or continuous flow are types of compressor in which the flow of gas is accelerated thru high

speed rotating element, converting velocity head into pressure head. Continuous flow includes centrifugal and

axial flow compressors.

Positive displacement or intermittent flow type compressor, however, are those units that confine gas

in a closed space, reducing its volume and discharging it at a higher pressure. Intermittent flow includes

reciprocating, screw, and root types of compressors.

b) Reciprocating compressor element: single acting or double acting

c) Cylinder arrangement: vertical, horizontal, V-type

d) Cooling system: water cooled, air cooled

e) Mounting condition: portable, stationary

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Reciprocating compressors are positive displacement, intermittent flow machines that are capable of

delivering air from a pressure of 35 psig up to 250 psig. They are widely used in industrial applications because

of their overall efficiency, wide range of capacity simplicity of use and compactness.

Some of the disadvantages of reciprocating compressors are the excessive vibrations due to the forces

exhibited by the reciprocating movement of the piston. This requires strong machine foundation and higher

maintenance cost compared with other types of compressor. Figure 3.1 shows a typical reciprocating

compressor with its parts.

Generally, low capacity compressor are air-cooled and they have air fins cast around the cylinder to dissipate

heat. On the other hand, liquid-cooled compressors have cooling fins and water jackets cast around the

cylinder to circulate water.

Reciprocating compressors needs lubrication to reduce wear, provide cooling and to act as a sealant

between moving parts. Lubricant is distributed thru a splash system crank and connecting rods with oil in the

crankcase.

piston and non-metallic piston rings without oil in the crankcase. They

have higher maintenance cost because valves and piston rings wear faster than in lubricated reciprocating

compressor.

Single-acting Reciprocating Compressor

The cylinders of reciprocating compressors can be classified as single-acting and double –acting.

Single-acting compressors as shown in Figure 3.3, compresses gas in one side of the piston only. They

are commonly air cooled and widely used for small capacity applications.

Compression stroke starts at point 1. As the compressor compress the air from point 1 to 2, the

suction valves immediately closed, shutting off the suction line of the cylinder. At point 2, the discharge valves

opens and compressed air is pushed out of the cylinder into the discharge line of the cylinder.

The discharge stroke is completed at point 3. At this point, the piston returns to point 4, where the

pressure drops and closing the discharge valve. The clearance between the end of the cylinder and the top

dead center (TDC) is known as the “clearance volume”.

The piston expands from point 3 to 4. And the intake stroke occurs from point 4 to 1, which is also

known as the “compressor capacity”. The complete cycle is shown in the P-v diagram in figure 3.3.

Piston Speed, v

Piston speed is measured as the total distance travel by the piston multiplied by the angular

speed.

N

v L hl

L = length of stroke, m

N = compressor angular speed, rpm

Volume Displacement, VD

VD Vr V

N

VD AL hl

D LN

VD π hl

Noi of cylinder Noi of piston action

L = stroke, m

N = compressor angular speed, rpm

No. of piston action = 1 for single-acting; 2 for double-acting

Double-acting compressors as shown in the figure 3.4, compresses gas in both sides of the piston. For

the same motor speed, double-acting compressors deliver twice of that single-acting compressors. They are

water-cooled and mostly used in large capacity applications.

The P-v diagram of a double-acting reciprocating compressor is shown in Figure 3.5. The cycle occurs at

the opposite side of the piston.

COMPRESSOR FUNDAMENTALS

Compressor Work, Wc

a) Work for Polytropic Compression

nւr

nPr Vr P n

Wc ւr

nւr Pr

kւr

kPr Vr P k

Wc ւr

kւr Pr

P

Wc Pr Vr ln

Pr

Note: Pressure must be in absolute values

Compressor Capacity, V1’

Compressor capacity is the actual volume of air drawn in by the compressor as measured at the intake

pressure and temperature.

Vr Vr ւ V

ma RTr

Vr Pr

Rair = 0.287 KJ/kg-K for air

PVT Relationship

rւ

rւ

n = k = 1.4 = isentropic compression

n = 1 =isothermal compression

Volumetric Efficiency, ƞv

Volumetric efficiency describes how efficient air is being drawn into the cylinder of the air-

compressor. It is the ratio of the amount of air drawn into the cylinder of the air-compressor. It is the

ratio of the amount of air drawn in divided by the volume displacement or the maximum possible

amount of air can be drawn in.

actual volume

ƞv volume displacement

rll

Vr Vr ւV

ƞv VD

rll VD

rll

And; V1 = V3 + VD = cVD + VD

Where: c = percent clearance ranges 3% to 10%

nւr

V nւr P n

V P

; P3 = P2, P4 = P1

r r

P n P n

V V Pr

cVD P

r

Substituting;

r

P n

Vr cVD VD ւcVD P

ƞv VD

rll

VD

r

rll

Therefore;

Vr

ƞv VD

rll

r

P n

ƞv r cւc Pr

rll

It is evident that as the clearance becomes smaller, the volumetric efficiency increases.

Compressor Efficiency

The compressor efficiency is the ratio of the compressor power output over the brake power input to

the compressor. Consider the compressor shown in Figure 3.6:

FIGURE 3.6: The compressor as the system

Wc

ƞc BP

rll

Example:

A single-acting reciprocating air compressor with a clearance of 5% receives air at 100 kPa and 30°C

and is delivered at 450 kPa. The bore and stroke are 350 mm and 390 mm, respectively when operating at

1000 rpm. Determine:

a) Volume displacement, in m3/s

b) Volumetric efficiency, in percent

c) Compressor capacity, in m3/s

d) Compressor work, in kW

e) Compressor efficiency, in percent, if the brake power input to the compressor is 120 kW.

f) Temperature of air at the discharge, in °C

Assume no pressure drop in the intake and discharge port of compressor and take the compression

and expansion process to be PV1.3 = C.

D LN

VD π Noi of cylinder Noi of piston action

hl

li il m rlll rpm

VD π li lm hl

r r

siǤ c

ܑ

r

P n

ƞv r cւc Pr

rll

r

il kPa ri

ƞv r lili ւ lili rll kPa

rll

ƞi i s

Vr

ƞv VD

rll

Vr

li rl m

lih i

s

sicca

ܑ

nւr

nPr Vr P n

Wc Pr

ւr

nւr

m ri ւr

ri rll kPa liii⿏ il kPa

s ri

Wc ri ւr rll kPa

ւr

ssi

Solving for the compressor efficiency,

Wc

ƞc BP

rll

rllir r kW

ƞc r l kW

rll

ƞ i

Solving for the temperature of air at the discharge, in °C

rւ

r

i ւ

cs ܉ i

s a ss ܉

T i⿏ lr K

ccia

Example:

A double acting compressor with a volume displacement of 0.432 m3/s, delivers air at 725 kPa at a rate

of 0.188 m3/s. The inlet condition of air 100 kPa and 30°C and the angular speed of the compressor is 200 rpm.

For a compression and expansion process given by PV1.3 = C, determine:

a) The percent clearance of the compressor

b) The bore and stroke, in meters, assuming that the stroke is equal with the bore and the

volume displacement of the crank end and head end are the same.

Solving for the percent clearance of the compressor;

m

Vr lir

ƞv VD

rll m

s

rll

li

s

ƞv ii

Then;

r

P n

ƞv r cւc Pr

rll

r

⿏ i kPa ri

li i r cւc rll kPa

cia

Solving for the bore and stroke, in mm;

D

VD π LN Noi of cylinder Noi of piston action

m D ll rpm

li s

π D hl

r

si c

si c

Actual Compressor Cycle

An increase in area occurs in actual compressor cycle because of the fluid losses thru the inlet and

discharge ports of the compressor which cause pressure drops in the cycle. Other contributors to the pressure

drop in the compressor are the friction losses and fluid slippage past the piston rings, intake and discharge

valve. A larger area covered by the cycle in the P-v diagram, as shown in Figure 3.7, means larger horsepower

input required to the compressor.

Example:

A single acting reciprocating compressor receives air at 100 kPa and 30°C and delivered at 700 kPa. The

clearance volume is taken to be 10% and the compression and expansion process to have a polytropic

exponent of 1.3. The compressor piston displacement is 450 cm3 and operating at a speed of 850 rpm.

Determine the mass of air compressed, in kg/hr and the required compressor power, in kilowatts when the

pressure drop at the suction and discharge port are 10 kPa and 15 kPa, respectively.

Pr Vr ma RTr

Pr Vr

ma RTr

r

Vr P n

ƞv VD

r cւc Pr

N ilrpm

VD AL hl ii rlւ m hl

m

VD hi ⿏i rlւ s

Substituting to solve for the actual volume of air taken in by the compressor, V1;

r

Vr ⿏ri kPa ri

r lirl ւ lirl

hi ⿏i rlւ s

m lkPa

Vr

i ⿏

m hll s

rlւ s r hr

m

r i hr

ma

m

lkPa r i

hr

kJ

li ⿏ l ⿏ K

kgւK

kg

ma r i l⿏ hr

The mass taken in by the compressor was reduced by 10% because of the pressure drop at the suction

and discharge port of the compressor.

Solving for the compressor power required, in kW

nւr

nPr Vr P n

Wc ւr

nւr Pr

m ri ւr

ri lkPa i ⿏ rlւ ⿏ri kPa

s ri

Wc ri ւr lkPa

ւr

si Ǥ

In general, single compressors are generally used for pressures from 35 to 100 psig, and a two-stage

compressor are used from 100 to 250 psig.

Multi-stage Reciprocating Compressor

Two-stage compressor

In multistage compressor, the gas is delivered by the low pressure cylinder at intercooler pressure to

succeeding stages. In this way, the low pressure cylinder determines the volumetric efficiency of the whole

machine because whatever the low pressure cylinder passes to the succeeding stages must be discharged.

Figure 3.8 shows the P-v diagram of a two-stage compressor.

By using multistage compressor, the power input to the compressor is lessen, the gas discharge temperature

and pressure differential are decreased. Intermediate pressure, PHX, for two-stage compressor can be

theoretically approximated by:

PHX Pr P

P4 = pressure at the second stage discharge

The compressor work for two-stage, WCrւ is given by;

nւr

nPr Vr PHX n

WC rւ nւr Pr

ւr

QHX ma Cp Tr ւ THX

Three-stage compressor

Figure 3.9 shows the P-v diagram of a three-stage compressor.

For two stage compressor, intermediate pressure, PHX and PHY, can be theoretically approximated by:

PHX Pr Ph

PHY Pr Ph

P6 = pressure at the third stage discharge

nւr

nPr Vr PHX n

WC rւ ւ Pr

ւr

nւr

PHX PHY Ph

Pr PHX PHY

Example:

A single acting, two stage, reciprocating compressor receives air at 100 kPa and air capacity of 0.05 m3

per second and delivered at 400 kPa. The clearance volume is taken to be 8%. The compression and expansion

process is isentropic with compressor mean piston speed of 150 m/min. Assuming that each piston has the

same amount of stroke, no pressure drops at each suction and discharge ports of the compressor and perfect

intercooling, determine:

a) The piston diameter, in cm

b) The total power required, in kW

c) The heat loss at the intercooler, in kW

a) Solving for the diameter of the piston at the first stage, d1;

π

VDr ALN dr LN

Piston speed: V = 2 LN

ril m

hl s

LN

m

LN ri i s

r

Vr PHX k

ƞi VDr

r cւc Pr

PHX ll kPa

Solving for the volume displacement of the first stage, VD1;

r

Vr ll kPa ri

ƞi VDr

r lil ւ lil rll kPa

li ⿏ i ⿏

Vr

ƞi VDr

m

lili

li ⿏ s

VDr

m

VDr l li ⿏l s

Substituting;

π

VDr dr LN

m π m

lili ⿏l s

dr ri i s

rll cm

dr li rm rm

i a

Solving for the diameter of the piston at the second stage, d2;

π

VD ALN d LN

Solving for the volume displacement of the second stage, VD2; and knowing that the volumetric

efficiency is equal at the first stage and the second stage of compressor;

V

ƞi VD

At the suction of the first stage: Pr Vr mRTr

At the suction of the second stage: P V mRT

Therefore;

P V Pr Vr

m

ll kPa V rll kPa lili

s

m

V lil i s

V

ƞi VD

m

lil i s

li ⿏ VD

m

VD lil h i

s

Substituting;

m π m

lil h i d ri i

s s

rll cm

d lirh m rm

Ǥi

In summary:

i a

Ǥi

b) Solving for the total power required, WC rւ

kւr

kPr Vr PHX k

WC rւ ւr

kւr Pr

m

ri rll kPa lili ri ւr

s ll kPa ri

WC rւ ւr

ri ւ r rll kPa

ւ aiǤǤcc

From the intercooler:

QHX ma CP Tr ւ THX

For THX;

kւr

THX PHX k

Tr Pr

ri ւr

THX ll kPa ri

Tr rll kPa

THX ri r lTr

For ma;

Pr Vr ma RTr

m kJ

rll kPa lili s

ma li ⿏ kgւK Tr

r⿏i rh

ma Tr

Substituting;

r⿏i rh kJ

QHX Tr

rillh Tr ւ ri r lTr

kgւK

t

ւ i s ܑ

Example:

A reciprocating compressor receives air at 100 kPa and 0.20 m3 of air per second and delivered at 1000

kPa. Assumimg conditions are ideal, and the compression and expansion has a polytropic exponent of 1.3,

determine the savings in compressor work kW, due to (a) two staging and (b) three staging.

1. Solving for the work required by the compressor for single stage, WC1;

nւr

nPr Vr P n

WCr ւr

nւr Pr

m ri ւr

ri rll kPa li l rlll kPa

s ri

WCr ri ւr rll kPa

ւr

Ǥsiaac

Solving for the work required by the compressor for two stage, WC rւ ;

nւr

nPr Vr PHX n

WC rւ Pr

ւr

nւr

m ri ւr

ri rll kPa li l rhi ⿏ kPa

s ri

WC rւ ri ւr rll kPa

ւr

WC rւ i i⿏ l kW

Work savings = (60.7754 – 52.7490) kW

Work savings = 8.0264 kW

2. Solving for the work required by the compressor for three stage,

WC rւ ւ ;

nւr

nPr Vr PHX n

WC rւ ւ

ւr

nւr Pr

m ri ւr

ri rll kPa li l rii i kPa

s ri

WC rւ ւ ri ւr rll kPa

ւr

WC rւ ւ ili r kW

Work savings = (60.7754 – 50.3818) kW

Work savings = 10.3936 kW

We can say that by having multiple compressor stages decreases the required work of

the compressor, thus, increasing the power savings, in kW.

General Formula for Multi-stages Compressor,(“m” number of stages)

The compressor work, WC m is given by;

nւr

mnPr Vr PHX n

WC m nւr Pr

ւr

m mւr P

PHX Pr F

PF= final or discharge pressure

COMPRESSOR SELECTION

The following are important items to consider in selecting a compressor:

The desired capacity, V1’

The required discharge pressure

The foundation required

The characteristics of gas to be handled

Type of control required

Other things to be considered in the selection are the space requirements, availability of

intercooler cooling water, maintenance costs, power source and economics.

Reciprocating compressors are generally driven by a belt. Similar with belt driven fans, one

advantage is that the belts tend to slip that reduce load in the motor during start up. But on the other

hand, maintenance cost could be high in belt driven compressors because belts are designed to break

to some degree of usage.

COMPRESSOR INSTALLATION

The following are some of the guidelines and precautions in installing a compressor. It is also

important to consult the compressor manufacturer for additional recommendation and further

information regarding the compressor to be used. These outlines are similar with the other fluid

machineries installation described in previous chapters.

It is necessary to have a good foundation for the compressor unit in order to stabilize

the vibration that occurs during its operation.

Inlet filter should be installed in the suction of the compressor to protect the unit

from dust, foreign object, moisture and corrosive elements present that may damage

the compressor.

To reduce friction and turbulence, all compressed air piping system lines should be

short and straight as possible, with minimum elbows, valves and fittings.

One of the challenges in maintaining compressed air piping system is the collection of

water in the pipelines. A suitable water drain or collector should be available at each

point in the line

Install the compressor in a secure location and at the same time, available for

inspection and maintenance.

Silencers may be used if noise level is a primary consideration

Air Receivers

It is necessary for all reciprocating compressor to have an air receiver to eliminate the

pulsation of air delivered. It is also used to store compressed air, and to condense some of its

moisture content by cooling it down.

Air receiver size, VT can be theoretically calculated from;

Vr Pr

VT

P

Air receiver size depends on the capacity of the compressor, pipeline network and

pressure drop, air consumption of the plant and switching cycle per unit-time of the

compressor operation.

PROBLEM SET:

1. An air compressor delivers air at a flow rate of 0.25 m3/s with initial pressure of 100 and

discharge pressure of 680 kPa. Determine the power of the compressor. (Ans. 63.8)

2. A double acting compressor with 225 mm x 380 mm cylinder runs at 480 rpm with a clearance

of 8%, compressor air 7 times its initial pressure. Compute the compressor capacity in cubic

feet per minute. (Ans. 388.3 ft2/min)

3. A single stage compressor with initial pressure of 100 kPa and discharge pressure of 850 kPa

has a suction volume of 0.3 m3/s. Determine the percent decrease in power due to two

staging if the compressor process is PV1.33 = C. (Ans. 13.2%)

4. An air compressor takes air at 98 kPa at a rate of 0.4 m3/s and delivers it at a pressure of 620

kPa. If the power input to the compressor is 135 kW, find the heat loss in the compressor.

(Ans. 39.8 kW)

psi. If the suction volume is 110 ft3/min, determine the horsepower capacity of the motor

needed to drive the compressor if the compressor efficiency is 80%. (Ans. 183.9 hp)

6. A two stage compressor has a suction volume of 720 m3/hr at 100 kPa and 26°C, the

discharge is 700 kPa, determine the heat rejected at the intercooler. (Ans. 22.5 kW)

7. An air compressor has a suction volume of 720 m3/s and discharges to 650 kPa. If the power

input to the compressor is 120 kW, find the heat loss in the compressor. (Ans. 5.3 kW)

8. A two stage compressor takes air at 98 kPa and 24°C with a volume flow rate of 0.122 m3/s

and discharges to 680 kPa. What is the amount of heat rejected at the intercooler? (Ans. 13.4

kW)

9. The piston speed of an air compressor is 155 m/min and the displacement volume is 0.25

m3/s. Find the diameter of the compressor cylinder. (Ans. 504.6 mm)

10. Determine the volume displacement of a double acting compressor that has cylinder

dimension of 52 cm x 65 cm and runs at 660 rpm. (Ans. 3.04 m3/s)

11. An air compressor has suction condition of 98 kPa, 28°C and 0.22 m3/s. If the surrounding air

100 kPa and 23°C, calculate the free air capacity in m3/s. (Ans. 0.212 m3/s)

12. An air compressor has a suction volume of 0.35 m3/s at 28°C and 101.325 kPa and discharges

to 680 kPa. Determine the amount of power saved by the compressor in two staging? (Ans.

14.3 kW)

13. The initial condition of air is 100 kPa and 24°C and compressed to 550 kPa. The bore and

stroke are 365 mm and 380 mm, respectively. If the percent clearance is 8% and runs at 320

rpm, determine the mass flow rate of air at the suction, (Ans. 0.20 kg/s)

14. A 15 hp motor is used to drive an air compressor. The compressor efficiency is 75% and the

air is available at 29%. Find the mass of air needed if the pressure compresses to 7 times

initial pressure. (Ans. 2.23 kg/min)

15. The discharge pressure of an air compressor is 6 times the suction pressure. If the volume

flow at the suction is 0.6 m3/s, find the power required by the compressor operating at PV1.33

= C with a suction pressure of 100 kPa. (Ans. 135.4 kW)

CHAPTER 2

Fans and Blowers

Fans and blowers are machines that move air or gases under moderate pressures. They are significant

and important component in all industrial plant specifically if there is a need in supplying, circulating and

removing air in a space in order to provide comfort and safety. They are also utilized for heating, ventilating,

air conditioning and pollution control needs for industrial plants.

FIGURE 2.1

Industrial Fans (Picture

courtesy of Pollrich DLK

Fan Factories)

Although fans

and blowers,

including compressors (to be

discussed in the next chapter) performs a similar function of adding energy

and moving gasses, they all differ in terms of their pressure ranges.

Generally, fans works at low pressures from 1 psig, while blowers (also known as turbo-blowers) works

up to 35 psig and compressors starts at 35 psig.

TYPE OF FANS

Two general types of fans are Centrifugal Fans and Axial Fans

1. Centrifugal Fans

Centrifugal fans moves air radially thru the impellers. Air drawn at the center of a

revolving wheel, connected to a rotating shaft, and then enters the spaces of the wheel

blades.

The air is then thrown out perpendicularly to the impeller’s axis of rotation at high velocity

and static pressure. They are widely used in comfort applications because it’s quite, efficient

and operates at relative high pressure heads.

Centrifugal are classified in terms of wheel blades: (1) Forward- curved, (2)

backward curved and (3) radial

2. Axial Fans

Axial fans moves air in a helical-type flow pattern that is parallel thru the

impeller. This type of fan moves large amount of fluid and develops small pressure

heads. They are widely used in applications where noise levels are of secondary.

Axial fans are classified as: (1) Propeller, (2) tubeaxial and (3) vaneaxial

Forward-Curved Fan

A forward-curved fan or also known as “squirrel cage fan” is generally used for high-volume air flow

applications and low to medium static pressures applications. Widely used in heating and ventilating work

because of its quite operation, fan should be operated at relatively clean air because contaminants might clog

its blades.

A typical performance curve of forward-curved fan is shown in Figure 2.3. As we can observe, the

horsepower is at minimum value at no delivery and the highest efficiency occurs when the fan is operating at

35-45% of free delivery capacity. Furthermore, the behaviour of the horsepower input curve increases as the

air delivered increases, while the static pressure decreases. Forward-curved fan is “overloading fan” because

the motor may overload when the static pressure is below its design value.

Curve and Blade Profile

An example of this is, let’s say, a fan is designed to operate at 40% of free delivery capacity and at 95%

static pressure. The motor installed for this fan to operate properly is say, with maximum capacity of 4 bhp and

is operating at 3.5 bhp.

If fir instance, the fan access door is removed, the static pressure or the system resistance will drop,

say at 30% and at the same time the free air delivered will increase to 80%, at this point the motor must

operate at a higher rate, say a 5 bhp, which is greater than the power capacity of the installed motor, in this

case the motor will stop on overload.

Backward-Curved Fan

Backward-curved fan or also known as “limit loading fan” because of the backward profile of its blade

and is widely used for high-static pressure applications. This type of fan is more efficient than forward-curved

with efficiency between 50-70% of free delivery capacity, and is quieter than any other types of fan.

A typical performance curve of a backward-curve fan is shown in Figure 2.4. It has a minimum

horsepower at no delivery. The horsepower curve gradually increases at the range of maximum efficiency and

then gradually decreases.

Backward-inclined and airfoil blade fan are modifications of backward-curve fan. Airfoil blade fan has a

high efficiency because of its aerodynamic blade profile which allows smooth flow of air thru its blades.

FIGURE 2.4:

Backward-Curved Blade

Performance Curve and

Blade Profiles and

Modifications

Radial Fan

Radial

(straight) fans are

widely used in waste

collection systems

that require high velocities and high pressure heads. This type of fan is preferred for

high dust loading in gasses because of its self-cleaning wheel design and well

suited for high temperature applications.

A typical performance curve of a backward-curve fan is shown in Figure 2.5. The horsepower input

curve increases as the air delivered increases, while the static pressure decreases. This fan is an overloading

fan and the least efficient of all centrifugal fans.

`

Propeller Fan

Propeller fans consist of two or more blades and are widely used for general ventilation systems in

which require large volume of air at low pressure heads. It is used ad exhaust system for indoor applications

and for air-cooled condensers and cooling towers for outdoor applications.

Propeller fans are relatively noisy because of the turbulence created when air is discharged in a

circular or helical pattern. This type of fan has a simple ring enclosure for its housing and no ducting system is

required. A propeller fan operates generally at 0 to 1 inch of water gage or less.

A typical performance curve of a backward-curve fan is shown in Figure 2.7. The horsepower decreases

as the percent of free delivery increases and the lowest at maximum percent of free delivery. Horsepower also

decreases as the static pressure decreases. The highest efficiency of propeller fans occur when it is delivering

50%-70% free delivery capacity.

Tubeaxial Fan

Tubeaxial fans are axial fans that are fabricated in a tubular casing. They are widely used in ducted

ventilating applications that require medium pressure heads and where air flow pattern in downstream of the

fan are not of primary consideration, such as in fume exhaust system, drying ovens and paint spray bottles.

The blades of tubeaxial fans are similar to propeller fans, except that it usually has 4 to 8 blades and is

designed for heavy duty applications.

Typical performance curve of axial fans are presented in Figure 2.9. The efficiency and static pressure

curve patterns of tubeaxial fans has a significant improvement compared with propeller fans.

Vaneaxial Fan

Vaneaxial fans are tubeaxial fans with guide vanes. They operate in medium to high pressure heads

and are widely used when good stream air distribution is needed.

The general advantages of axial fans are in terms of its simplicity and its installation, small space

requirements and economy. They are widely used in applications where high volume of air is needed against a

low pressure heads and noise is not a primary consideration.

FAN FUNDAMENTALS

Air Power, AP

Air power is the energy added by the impeller of the fan to air or gasses to move it against a particular

pressure.

Air power is referred to as “total air power” when total pressure head, HT is used, and as “static air

power”, when static pressure head, hs is used in the equation.

AP Qγa HT

go ma go

γa ρa

gc va gc

go

AP ma gc

HT

1 hp = 0.746 kW

Q = v = volume flow rate, m3/s or ft3/sec

γa specific weight of air

For air at standard condition @ 21°C and 101.325 kPa:

SI units: 0.0118 kN/m3

Eng units: 0.075 lbf/ft3

kg

ma mass flow rate of air s

or lbm sec

fan meters of air or feet of air

APstatic Qγa hs

ga

APstatic ma gc

hs

hs static pressure head of the fan meters of air or feet of air

Total fan head, the total amount of work needed by the fan (usually measured in meter or feet) per

specific weight of air flowing through the fan.

It is the sum of the velocity head and static pressure head.

hw(Water Gage, WG)

velocity and

static pressure AIR FLOW

AIR FLOW

head

[Ein = Eout]

PE1 + KE1 + Wf1 + U1 + AP = PE2 + KE2 + Wf2 + U2

AP = (PE2 – PE1) + (KE2 – KE1) + (Wf2 – Wf1) + (U2 – U1)

If we assume that the temperature and elevation from the suction and

discharge of the pump are almost equal, t1 ≈ t2 and z1 ≈ z2, then we can say

that the change in internal energy and potential energy are negligible, ∆U ≈

0 and ∆PE ≈ 0

rma

AP v ւ vr Va P ւ Pr

gc

g

Multiplying both sides of the equations by m cg

a

gc r v ւvr P ւPr

ma g

AP go

+ ma go

va gc

Therefore:

r v ւvr P ւPr

HT go γa

Or;

HT hv hs

Velocity Head, hv

Velocity head is the energy possessed by air because of its velocity. This has a significant effect

in fan performance and must be considered in the calculation.

Velocity head is given by the equation:

r v ւvr

hv

go

Static pressure head is the energy required to overcome resistance. Static pressure head

becomes irrelevant when the fan operates against no resistance (e.g. no ducting systems or dampers) and

when the fan outlet velocity is high.

To determine the capacity of the fan to be installed, it is necessary to know the resistance

characteristics of the system. A fan operating in a system with narrow ducting systems, multiple short elbows,

bends and twists will require more power to overcome system resistance, compared with a fan operating with

a larger ducting system and minimum elbows, bends and twists.

Static pressure head is given by the equation:

P ւPr γw hw

hs γa γa

Therefore, we can say that static pressure head is also equivalent to:

γw

hs hw

γa

ρ

Or; hs hw ρw

a

Where:

ρw density of water

For water at standard condition

SI units: 1000 kg/m3

Eng units: 62.4 lbm/ft3

Ρa density of air

For air standard condition @ 21°C and 101.325 kPa

SI units: 1.2 kg/m3

Eng units: 0.075 lbm/ft3

Example:

Air enters a fan at an initial velocity of 7 m/s and a static vacuum pressure head of 22.5 mm of

water. The air is delivered at a velocity of 12 m/s and a static pressure head of 81 mm of water. The

fan has a capacity of 9.5 m3/s and is coupled to a 15 kW motor. Determine the total air power if the

density of air is 1.2 kg/m3.

Solving for the total air power, AP;

AP Qγa HT

Solving for the total pressure head;

Ht = hv - hs

m

r v ւvr r r ւ⿏

hv go h

s

i r ⿏ hr m of air

i rms

P ւPr

hs γa

kN

P γw hw i r lil rm li⿏ hr kPa

m

kN

Pr γw hwr i r m

ւ lil im ւ li l⿏ i kPa

m

ga kg i r kN

γa ρa gc

ril m

s

kgւm lilrr⿏⿏ m

rlll

kNւs

li⿏ hr li l⿏ i kPa

hs kN hi i m of air

lilrr⿏⿏

m

HT i l hil m of air

HT li m of air

Substituting HT, to solve for AP;

m kN

AP Qγa HT ii s

lilrr⿏⿏ m

ril r m

si a

Example:

Air is flowing with an initial and final velocity of 1.2 m/s and 8.3 m/s, respectively, against a

static pressure of 2.25 cm water gage. The duct diameter is 1.5 cm and the condition of air is at 99.5

kPa and 30°C. Determine the total pressure in which the fan must operate (a) in meters of air and (b) in

centimeters of water.

HT hv hs

ms

r v ւvr r i ւri

hv go

m

s

i ⿏ m of air

i r

s

ρ

hs hw ρw

a

m P ii kPa kg

ρa v RT KJ rir m

li ⿏kgւK l ⿏ K

kg

rlll

hs lil im m

kg r ihh m of air

rir

m

HT i ⿏ r ihh m of air

i s ܉

(b) Solving for the total pressure in centimeters of water

HT hv hs

kg

rir

hv i ⿏ m of air m

kg i i rlւ m of water

rlll

m

hv li i cm of water

Hs i i cm of water

iǤ ܛ܉

Fan Efficiency

The fan efficiency is the ratio of the air power output of the fan over the brake power input to

the fan. It shows how effective the fan in converting brake power input into air power. Consider the fan shown

in Figure 2.12:

There are two ways on how manufacturer’s describes the fan efficiency: the (1.) fan total or

the mechanical efficiency and (2.) fan static efficiency.

The fan efficiency is known as “Fan total efficiency,” if total air power is used, and as “Fan

static efficiency,” if static air power I used.

Fan total efficiency:

AP Qγa HT

ƞF BP

rll BP

rll

APstatic Qγa hs

ƞFstatic BP

rll BP

rll

Example:

Determine the brake horse power required for a fan with a static efficiency of 50% and

delivers air at 1200 cfm. The static pressure developed is 2.5 inches of water. Air is at 60°F and

barometric pressure of 30 inches mercury.

APstatic

ƞFstatic BHP

rll

APstatic Qγa hs

γ

Specific weight of air, hs hw γw

a

r ll ft lbf ii

APstatic Qγwhw hl sec

h i ft

ft r

lbf ւft rhp

APstatic hl sec lbf ւft li ⿏ ⿏ hp

iil sec

Therefore;

li ⿏ ⿏ hp

liil BHP

BHP li ii hp

Example:

A fan with a capacity of 1.5 m3/s draws air at a static pressure of 3.0 cm of water through a

duct. The air drawn is measured at 27°C and 760 mmHg. If the inlet and outlet duct is 320 mm and 280

mm, respectively, determine the fan static efficiency when the total fan efficiency is 80%.

Solving for fan static efficiency,

APstatic

ƞFstatic BP

rll

γ

APstatic Qγahs and hs hw γw, hence;

a

m kN

APstatic Qγwhw rii i rm lil m

s

APstatic li ri kW

Solving for the brake power input, BP, from total fan efficiency;

AP

ȠF BP

rll

AP Qγa HT

HT hv hs

r v ւvr

hv go

Solving for the velocity of air at the inlet and exit ducts, using;

Q Ar vr

m li lm

rii s

vr

vr r ihirl m s

Q A v

m li lm

rii s

v

v i hli m s

m

r i hli ւr ihirl

hv m

s

r iirhi m of air

i r

s

γ

hs hw γw

a

m P rlri i kPa kg

ρa v RT kJ rir⿏h m

li ⿏ ⿏ ⿏ K

kgւK

m

go kg i r kN

γa ρa rir⿏h s

lilrri

gc m rlll kgւm m

kNւs

kN

i r

hs lil m m

kN iiil h m of air

lilrri

m

The total fan pressure head; HT

HT r iirhi iiil h m of air

HT ilr r m of air

For total air power, AP;

m kN

AP rii s

lilrri m

ilr r m

AP lihi r kW

Substituting to the total fan efficiency, to solve for the brake power input, BP;

lihi r kW

lil BP

rll

BP li h kW

Then for the fan static efficiency;

li ri kW

ƞFstatic li h kW

rll

ƞ ܑܛ܉ܛ

c iǤa

Fan specific speed is a dimensionless parameter used to describe the applications of different

types of fans. It is defined as the revolution per minute at which a given geometrically similar impeller

of a fan would operate if reduced proportionally in size so as to deliver a rated capacity of 1 cubic feet

per minute against a differential head of 1-foot of air under standard conditions.

N Q

Ns

hs

Q = capacity of the fan, cfm

hs = fan static pressure head, ft. of air

N = impeller speed, in revolution per minute

FAN TYPE AND SPECIFIC SPEED

Figure shows the specific speed of centrifugal and axial fans based in speed, fan capacity and static

pressure. It shows that forward-curved fans generally operate at low speeds while propeller fans operate at

high speeds to attain its peak efficiencies.

FIGURE 2.13: Specific speed ranges (ref. Handbook of Air conditioning System Design Carrier Air Conditioning Design Company)

Fan affinity laws are rules that express the relationship of fan capacity, head (either static or total),

BHP input and air density when one of each parameter is changed. In applying the following equations, we

consider that the efficiency is the same for both conditions.

Variation in speed Variation in density Variation in density

N1 ≠ N2;ρ1 = ρ2 N1 = N2;ρ1 ≠ ρ2 N1 ≠ N2;ρ1 ≠ ρ2

Capacity Qr Nr Q1 = Q2 Qr Nr

Q N Q N

Head hr Nr hr ρr hr ρr Nr

h N h ρ h ρ N

BHP N BHP ρ BHP ρ N

h = Total head (static or total), in feet

BHP = Brake horsepower, in hp

N = Fan speed, rpm

Subscript 1 refers to initial condition and subscript 2

refers to the new condition.

Example:

Determine the performance of a fan with a static pressure head of 6.20 cm of water, speed of 410 rpm

and initial power input of 3 kW. The capacity is changed from 5.5 m3/sec to 8.6 m3/sec.

In this example problem, fan capacity (which is a function of motor speed) is changed while

maintaining a constant air density;

Qr Nr

Q N

m

iii rl rpm

s

ih

m N

s

N2 = 641.0909 rpm

hr Nr

h N

hi cm of water rl rpm

H hr il l rpm

h2 = 15.1587 cm of water

BPr Nr

BP N

kW rl rpm

BP hr il l rpm

BP2 = 11.4691 kW

Example:

A fan delivering air through a ducting system that has a capacity of 100m3/s, static pressure head of 30

cm of water, speed of 420 rpm and initial power output of 600 kW. Determine the performance of the fan if

the air is to be delivered at 85°C and a barometric pressure 734 mmHg.

In this example problem, the fan speed and capacity remains constant while the air density is changed

because of the increase in temperature from standard air temperature of 21°C to 85°C.

Q1 = Q2

Q1 = 100 m3/s

hr ρr

h ρ

kg

ρr ri m

at standard condition of 101.325 kPa and 21°C.

rlri i kPa

m P ⿏ mmHg

⿏hl mmHg

ρ v RT KJ

li ⿏ i ⿏ K

KgւK

kg

ρ li i m

kg

l cm of water ri

m

h kg

li i

m

h2 = 23.81 cm of water

BPr ρr

BP ρ

kg

hll kW ri

m

BP kg

li i

m

BP2 = 476.20 kW

Example:

A fan has a capacity of 80 m3/s, static pressure head of 22 cm of water, speed of 380 rpm and initial

power input of 400 kW. Determine the performance of the fan when the air is to be delivered at 70°C and at

the speed of 410 rpm.

In this example problem, the fan speed and air density is changed.

Qr Nr

Q N

m

l s l rpm

Q rl rpm

Q2 = 86.3158 m3/s

hr Nr

h N

kg

ρr ri m

at standard condition of 101.325 kPa and 21°C.

m P rlri i kPa

ρ v RT KJ

li ⿏ ⿏l ⿏ K

KgւK

kg

ρ ril m

kg

cm of water ri l rpm

m

h kg rl rpm

ril

m

h2 = 21.9677 cm of water

BPr ρr Nr

BP ρ N

kg

ll ri l rpm

m

BP kg rl rpm

ril

m

BP2 = 430.9447 kW

FAN SELECTION

The following are important items to consider in selecting a fan:

The desired flow rate, Q

The static pressure head, hs

The characteristic of air to be handled (e.g. dust concentration)

Operating temperature

The prevailing noise level of the space to be served

Other things to be considered in the selection are the space requirements, maintenance costs, space

requirements, power source and economics.

Fans can be directly coupled to a motor or driven by a belt. One advantage of belt driven fans is that

the belts tend to slip that reduce load in the motor during start up. Maintenance cost could be high in belt

driven fans because belts are designed to break to some degree of usage.

Sometimes it is necessary to vary the flow rate of air to balance the flow rate of air delivered in the

system. This can be accomplished by varying the speed of the motor. Or, if the fan is belt driven, a change in

the drive pulley can also be made. Another method is by installing dampers in the duct system, which

increases the static pressure of the fan.

FAN INSTALLATION

The following are some of the guidelines and precautions in installing a fan. It is also important to

consult the fan manufacturer for additional recommendations and further information regarding the fan to be

used. These outline are similar with the outline given for pump installation. The only difference is the type of

fluid they handle and the Net Positive Suction Head, NPSH considerations are critical for pump installation.

To reduce friction and turbulence, all ducting lines should be short and straight as possible,

with minimum elbows, valves and fittings.

Elbows in ductings should have small radius.

Both the suction and discharge lines should be supported independently to protect the casing

from strains that may cause distortion to the fan. Flexible ducting system can also be used to

isolate the vibration of the fan.

Install the fan away from heat source if the fan takes air from the atmosphere so that the air

will be cooler.

The suction of the fan should be protected from dust, foreign object, moisture and corrosive

elements present that may damage the fan.

Silencers may be used if the noise level is primary consideration.

The inlet damper positioning should be checked regularly to satisfy the closed and fully open

condition of the fan. Install the fan in a secure inspection and maintenance.

Similar with pumps, fans can also be installed in series and or in parallel operation.

Fans in Series

Fans in series are done by staging multiple fans as shown in Figure 2.14. The total pressure is

increased at a given capacity as shown in the performance curve.

Fans in Parallel

Fans in parallel are the result of installing multiple fan side by side as shown in Figure 2.15. The

capacity is doubled while maintaining the total pressure.

FIGURE 2.15: Fans installed in parallel

PROBLEM SET:

1. The power output of a fan is 120 kW with efficiency of 80%. Determine the horsepower output

required by the motor to drive the fan. (Ans. 201 hp)

2. The static head of a fan is measured to be 160 mm of water gage at an air velocity of 25 m/s. Find

the air power at an air condition of 28°C and 98 kPa with a volume flow rate of 5 m3/s. (Ans. 9.6

kW)

3. Determine the horsepower required for a fan delivering 35 ft/sec of air through a 2.3 ft x 3.5 ft

duct with a total pressure of 3.5 in water gage. Take density of air to be 0.075 lb/ft3. (Ans. 9.3 hp)

4. A fan operating at a standard air condition registered a total static head of 230 mm of water gage.

If the static efficiency is 65% and the fan efficiency is 80% determined the velocity of air if the

volume of air delivered is 6 m3/s. (Let the velocity head to be 35% of the static head). (Ans. 34.6

m/s)

5. A fan initially operating at a speed of 380 rpm at an air temperature of 26°C. If the speed is

increased to 460 rpm with 55°C, determine the new head in mm of water gage for an initial head

190 mm of water gauge. (Ans. 253.8 mm)

6. What is the horsepower required for a fan to deliver 230 ft3/sec of air through a 2.5 ft x 4.5 ft duct

under a total pressure of 4.2-in water gage? (Ans. 0.35 hp)

7. The rating of a fan is 610 m3/min when running at 360 rpm and requires 8 kW motor to drive it. If

the fan speed is increased to 620 rpm and the air handled becomes 60°C instead of 30°C,

determine the power in kW. (Ans. 37.1 kW)

8. A fan has a static head of 110 m at a pressure of 1.5 kg/cm2 and 75°F. If the air velocity is 18 m/s,

determine the total equivalent head in mm of water gage. (Ans. 145.61 mmWG)

HYDRAULIC TURBINES

Fluid machines are those machines which are used to convert mechanical energy into fluid energy

or vice versa. Machines that coverts fluid energy into mechanical energy are known as turbines.

Machines that converts mechanical energy into fluid energy are known as pumps.

Water turbines. Turbines are devices to convert energy of water into mechanical energy which can

be used for running electricity generators.

1) Reaction turbines

2) Impulse turbines

In reaction turbines, pressure head of water is converted into velocity head as water flows through

the turbine. Reaction turbines run full of water and hence the turbine maybe entirely submerged below the

tail race or may discharged into the atmosphere. It may also discharge into a suction or draught tube when

placed 9.14 m above the foot of fall. In these turbines water must enter over the whole circumference.

In impulse turbine, the energy of water is converted into velocity before entering the wheel at

atmospheric pressure and this will not permit the turbine tube to be flooded. The water is passed through

nozzle or guide vanes for converting all its energy into velocity. Impulse turbine must be placed at the foot and

above the tail race. Hence these turbines can be inspected easily. The water maybe entered over entire

circumference or part of the circumference.

If H is the head at which water is available and leaves the turbine at velocity V1, then the energy

available from turbine or energy of water absorbed by turbine will be;

H= r

t

However, the impulse turbine, this energy H will first be converted into velocity or kinetic energy at velocity V.

Both reaction and impulse turbines can be further classified depending upon direction of flow. The flow is axial

in axial flow turbines and radial and radial flow turbines. Mixed flow turbines are also in used. The radial flow

turbine may have flow from centre to circumference or vice-versa.

a) Kaplan turbine/Propeller type, reaction turbine suitable for very low heads.

b) Francis turbine. A reaction turbine suitable for medium heads.

c) Pelton wheel. An axial flow impulse turbine for high heads

d) Turgo wheel. An impulse turbine suitable for medium heads.

In an inward radial flow turbine fixed guide blades surround the revolving blades externally whereas in an

outward flow turbine the ring of moving blades surrounds the fixed guide blades The water leaves through the

centre in latter case while it enters the turbine though centre in former. In outward flow turbine the relative

velocity of water is increased and hence quantity of water passing through the turbine is increased. This

tendency would not exists in inward flow turbines. In fact, this case may increase the speed of the wheel will

tend to decrease the flow through the wheel and reduce power.

In axial flow turbine, the guide blade and rotating blade rings are mounted side by side and water flows from

guide blades into moving blades parallel to the axis of turbine. For this reason the turbines are called parallel

flow.

1.0)Impulse turbine also known as Tangential wheel or Pelton wheel It is a Pressureless Turbine

__ a turbine that utilizes kinetic energy of high velocity jet which acts upon a small part of the circumference at

an instant.

__ Suited for very high heads plants (150 m and above) and low volume of water

__ No exact value for critical head, hence heads are given in range

__Higher efficiencies are associated with turbines having two or more runners.

__ a turbine which develops power from the combined action of pressure and velocity of water that

completely fills the runner and the water passages

__Movement of water for reaction turbines can be radial for Francis type and axial for Propeller/Kaplan type

__Reaction turbine has draft tube which keeps the turbine up to 5m( 15 ft) above the tail water

__Reaction turbine conversion efficiency is usually higher than that of Impulse turbine

Up to 70 ft Propeller type

B. Propeller and Kaplan type Reaction turbine for very low head

Propeller has fixed blade. A type of reaction turbine with reduced number of fixed blades. The flow is

axial. Suited for low head plant and has usual conversion efficiency of 80%

Kaplan type has adjustable blades. The flow is inward flow axial. Suited for low headed and large

volum e of water and usual conversion efficiency of more or less than 93%.

1. Gross head, hg---- is the difference between water and tail water elevations .

hg= hhw - htw

where: hhw =headwater elevation

htw = tail water elevation

2. Friction head loss,hf

Friction head loss- is the head lost by the flow in a stream or conduit due to frictional disturbances

set up by the moving fluid and its containing conduit and by intermolecular friction.

Using Darcy equation

t

hf= th

Using Morse equation

t

hf = th

where: hf= friction head in meter

f = coefficient of friction

L = total length in m

g = 9.81 m/s2

D= inside diameter in m

Note: Friction head loss is usually expressed as a percentage of the gross head

3. Net head or Effective head is the difference between the gross head and the friction head loss

H = hg-hf

4. Penstock efficiency is the ratio of the net head to the gross head

ep = t

5. Volume flow rate of water, Q –it is the product of the velocity and the cross-sectional area.

Q=AV

6. Water Power- is the power generated from an elevated water supply by the use of hydraulic

turbines

7. Turbine efficiency—is the ratio of turbine power output to the water power output

t ݎ t

et = t

= , and Pt = ɤQhet

8. Electrical or generator efficiency is the ratio of the generator output to the turbine power output

i t tt t t

eG = t ݎtt t = ; Pgen =Ptegen = ɤQhetegen

r l

9. Generator Speed, N = , where: N= angular frequency, rpm

F= frequency (usually 60 hertz), P = no. of poles,(even number)

10. Head of impulse turbine

h =ɤ + t

’ meters of water

11. Head of reaction turbine

ւ

H= ɤ + Z + t

12. Peripheral coefficient

It is a ratio of the peripheral velocity(Vp) to the velocity of the jet (Vj)

h

= where: D= diameter of the runner

t

N= angular speed, h= net head

13. Specific speed-is a number used to predict the performance of the hydraulic turbines

a) In English units

Ns= i , where: N= angular speed in rpm, h= net head in feet

b) In SI Units

li h ܽ

Ns= i

14. Hydraulic efficiency is the ratio of the utilized head to the net head

Eh =

A. Wheel- commonly known as runner, it is along with the vanes on its periphery, rotates under the

action of water gliding on the vanes comes from the gliding apparatus.

B. Guiding Apparatus (or mechanism), which guides the water to the vanes of runner.

C. In addition, there will be a source of supply from which water will come through a pipe line ( known as

penstock) to the guiding mechanism also, there will be a tailrace in which the water, after gliding over

the moving blades of the runner and passing out of runner, will ultimately fall from the turbine.

B. Radially outward flow turbine

C. Axial flow turbine or parallel flow

D. Mixed flow turbine

A turbine, whether Impulse or Reaction may have one of the following settings

A. Vertical setting, B. Horizontal setting C. Above the tai race D. Below the tail race

A turbine is said to be vertical or with vertical setting when its shaft is vertical and its runner is

horizontal, this arrangement gives better efficiency due to the reduced losses. This setting is usually

used for reaction turbines, it may also used for pelton wheel having more than two nozzles.The vertical

setting is said to be used for low heads.

A turbine is said to be horizontal or with horizontal setting when its shaft is horizontal and its runner is

vertical. This setting is usually for Pelton wheel with one or two nozzles.

HEADS at Inlet and Outlet of Runner of Reaction Turbine

H= + t

, meters of water; Similarly, if V1 and P1 are respectively the velocity and intensity of pressure

at the outlet of runner, the total head at outlet runner,

H1 = r

+ t

meters of water; where: h= total head at inlet, in m; V= absolute velocity with which water

from guide passages, enters the inlet of the runner, m/s; P= intensity of pressure at the inlet of the

runner in kg/m2. Applying modified Bernoullis’ Theorem to the outlet of the horizontal runner.

H= h1+ total losses between inlet and outlet of the runner

= h1 + friction loss(hydraulic loss) in runner + head used due to the work done by water on runner. If

hf be the loss of head in guide passages and Z be the elevation of inlet above the tail race, he total

head H on turbine

H= hf + + t

+Z

Efficiency and horsepower of reaction turbine

The efficiency of a turbine may be

a) Hydraulic efficiency, ɳh

b) Mechanical efficiency,ɳm

c) Overall efficiency, ɳo

䗸 t䂱 tt t 䗸 䂱 䗸ݎ t t

Hydraulic efficiency = 䗸 t䂱 t

=

⿏i

Where; ⿏i

= horsepower of water on available water horsepower

ܽtւh

75=1 metric horsepower, ւ

t ܽ tݎ 䗸 th t t ݎ

Mechanical efficiency= t ܽ 䗸t t t

= 䗸 䂱 䗸ݎ t t ݎ

t t ݎ

Overall efficiency, ɳ0 =ɳm x ɳh = t t t ݎ

=

Hydraaulic Turbines (Performance)

1) Specific Speed of turbine- speed of an imaginary or specific turbine( which is a small model of

the original turbine) which develops one SHP when working under a net head of one meter.

Discharge of turbine, Q= Area of flow times velocity of flow.= πDbVf; taking the turbine to be a

reaction turbine , but;

h ahl

U= tangential velocity = hl ; D= ; D∞ , Speed ratio= of a turbine is a certain constant,

t

U= constant ( t : Constant =Cv= coefficient of velocity of nozzle

For a turbine, b =fD; therefore b∞

Ns= i

Ns2= i

hr r h

=

r

hr = h

r r

= ,

r

r r

i = i

r

r r

t ; Under two conditions; Ns = i = i

A reaction turbine develops 500 BHP. Flow through the turbine is 50 cfs. Water enters at 20 fps

with a 100 ft pressure head. The elevation of the turbine above the tail water level is 10 ft. Find the

effective head.

Solution:

ւ

h= ɤ +z + t

a l ւal

= 100 + 10 + a i

h= 116.2 ft

Example #02

A proposed scheme has an available head of 480 m and the 3 single jet pelton wheels to be

installed are required to run at 330 rpm. Assuming an over-all efficiency of 85%, determine the

total quantity of water required per second. Assume that the specific speed of Pelton is 18.

Solution:

H= 480 m N= 330 rpm, ɳ0 =85%, Ns = 18

From Formula: Ns= i ;

a ri i r a l ri i

= = l

= 122.54

= 15018.28093 hp

䂱䂱 = t

rilr i l

i tt rr

= li i

= 17,668.56 HP

ɤ

= ⿏i

a⿏i r⿏hh iih a⿏i

= ɤ

= rllla l

= 2.76 m3/sec, For single jet Pelton wheel

2.76(3)= 8.28 m3/sec

Example #03

Determine the specific speed of a pelton wheel of which the basis design criteria are as follows:

Coefficient of velocity of nozzle, Cv= 0.98, runner velocity = 0.46 x jet velocity,

䂱t 䗸 r

t 䗸 h

=hh = rl

Overall efficiency = 82%

hh

Solution; for runner , tangential velocity, U= hl eq. 1

Where: Dmean= effective runner diameter,m

N= speed of the runner, rpm

U= tangential velocity, m/s

For water jet, absolute velocity or jet velocity= V= Cv t ----eq.2

Where Cv =coefficient of velocity of nozzle

H= net head of turbine,m

V= jet velocity m/s, But runner velocity, U=0.46 x V----eq.3

Substituting eq.1 and eq.2 to eq.3

hh

hl

= 0.46 x Cv t Cv= 0.98 (given)

hh

hl

= 0.46 x 0.98 i r

ir i

hh

⿏i

䂱䂱 ɳ 0= t

=

= mass of striking water, kg/s

ɳl ɳl

⿏i

= ⿏i

䗸

= x Cv t

li rlll 䗸 li i r

SHP ⿏i

H

SHP= 37.275dc x H

2 3/4

SHP1/2 = [ 37.275 dc2 x H3/2]1/2

= 6.1 dc H3/4

From Formula

Ns= i ; N= speed of the runner

ir ia

hir 䗸

Ns= hh

i

r

ir i hir 䗸 䗸 r

Ns= i ; but hh = rl

hh

ir i hir

Ns= i

rl

Ns= 23.26 rpm