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Data Analysis/Results Example

Table 1, table 2, graph 1, and graph 2 all show the results of a study
conducted to measure saliva production in drops of drool per minute among
five different breeds of dogs. In addition to the drops of drool, data was
collected for average weight in pounds for each dog. Table 1 shows the
results of 10 trials for each breed of dog.

Table 1: The Effect of Dog Breed on Drops of Drool per Minute

St.
Great Dane Chihuahua Bernard Golden Retriever Toy poodle
3 0 5 4 1
3 1 6 3 2
3 0 8 3 1
2 1 7 4 1
4 0 8 3 1
3 0 8 4 1
2 1 8 4 2
3 1 7 4 1
3 1 6 3 1
4 1 8 4 2

The best value was calculated for each dog breed by taking the average of
the ten trials. The averages are shown below in Table 2.

Table 2: The Effect of Dog Breed on Average Drops of Drool per Minute

Average Saliva Production


Dog Breed (drops of drool per minute)
Great Dane 3
Chihuahua 0.6
St. Bernard 7.1
Golden Retriever 3.6
Toy Poodle 1.3

On average, the St. Bernard produced the most saliva at 7.1 drops of drool
per minute, while the Chihuahua produced the least saliva at 0.6 drops of
drool per minute. The Golden Retriever and Great Dane were fairly close in
averages, at 3.6 and 3 drops of drool per minute respectively. The Toy
Poodle produced 1.3 drops of drool per minute on average, just above the
Chihuahua. Graph 1 shows the averages for each dog breed.

Last updated 11/23/10 by Megan Wahl 1


Graph 1: : The Effect of Dog Breed on Average Drops of Drool per Minute
Saliva Production by Breed

10

6
Great Dane
Chihuaha
5 St. Bernard
Golden Retriever
Toy Poodle
4

drops
3 of drool per minute

0
Average Saliva Production
breed of dog

Variations among the trials created some uncertainty, as observed in the


error bars above. Table 3 shows the standard deviation by breed for drops of
drool per minute.

Table 3: The Effect of Dog Breed on Average Drops of Drool per Minute
Average and Standard Deviation
(Measured by drops of drool per minute)
St.
Great Dane Chihuahua Bernard Golden Retriever Toy poodle
Average 3 0.6 7.1 3.6 1.3
Standard
Deviation 1 0.5 1.5 0.5 0.5

When compared using error bars to note uncertainty, it is clear that the St.
Bernard has the greatest amount of saliva production of between 5.6 and 8.6
drops of drool per minute. The second saliva producer is a tie between the
Golden Retriever, at between 3.1 and 4.1 drops of drool per minute and the
Great Dane, at 2 to 4 drops of drool per minute. The true value ranges
overlap between 4 and 4.1 drops of drool per minute, which is a small

Last updated 11/23/10 by Megan Wahl 2


amount, but still makes it difficult to conclude which is the greater saliva
producer. Third place in saliva production is the Toy Poodle, at 0.8 to 1.8
drops of drool per minute, and the Chihuahua, at 0.1-1.1 drops of drool per
minute. Both the Toy Poodle and the Chihuahua overlap between 0.8 and
1.1 drops of drool per minute. It is also important to consider the
relationship between the average weight in pounds and the amount of saliva
produced by each breed. In Table 4 and Graph 2 below, the relationship
between weight and saliva production is shown.

Table 4: The Effect of Dog Breed on Drops of Drool per Minute Average
Drops of Drool per Minute and Average Weight in Pounds for Each Dog
Breed
Average Saliva
Production (drops of Average
Dog Breed drool per minute) weight (lbs)
Great Dane 3 108
Chihuahua 0.6 6
St. Bernard 7.1 122
Golden Retriever 3.6 78
Toy Poodle 1.3 8

Graph 2: The Effect of Dog Breed on Average Drops of Drool per Minute
Average Weight by Dog Breed

140

120

100

80

Average weight

60
weight in pounds

40

20

0
Great Dane Chihuaha St. Bernard Golden Retriever Toy Poodle
Dog Breed

Last updated 11/23/10 by Megan Wahl 3


Factoring in the average weight in pounds helps to explain the relationship
between body size and saliva production. The dog breed with the greatest
body weight is also the St. Bernard, which is 14 pounds heavier than any
other breed.
It was observed that dogs are not willing subjects for this type of
experiment, and it was difficult to collect the drool. Much of the drool ended
up on the scientists measuring the data.
It was predicted that the larger breeds of dogs produce more saliva.
Based on the data collected in this experiment, the hypothesis was supported
by the data. The St. Bernard had both the greatest body weight, at 122
pounds, and also the most saliva production at 5.6 to 8.6 drops of drool per
minute. The St. Bernard was more than 3 drops of drool per minute greater
than the next largest size dog, the Golden Retriever, and more than 6 drops
of drool greater than the smallest breed of dog.

Last updated 11/23/10 by Megan Wahl 4