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# Variant 1

T/F
● Pg 20 Q 5
● Pg 31 Q 9
● Pg 42 Q 7- but instead of seven binary Ds its 10 binary Ds.
● Pg 42 Q 12?
● Pg 42 Q 13
● Pg 55 Q 8
● Pg 55 Q9
● Pg 67 q2 without S’e’, just S on its own
● Pg 91 q2
● Pg 92 q4
● Pg 92 q10
● Pg 177 q4
● Pg 178 q 14
● Pg

Fill in Blanks
● Pg 44 Q2
● Pg 45 q10
● Pg 45 q16
● Pg 62 q12
● Question about the two things maxwels theorem determines
● Pg 74 q9
● Pg 97 q4
● Pg 110 q12
● Pg 113 q1
● Pg 113 q 3
● Pg 114 q5
● Pg 114 q7
● Pg 124 q3
● Pg 124 q5
● Pg 136 q11
● Pg 167 q23
● Pg 181 q15
● Pg 186 q14

● Pg 52 Q 10
● Pg 77 q9 but change in G is -ve
● Pg 119 q1
● Pg119 q9
● Pg 119 q11
● Pg 143 q4!!
● Pg 174 q 2

Equations
1) Thermodynamic first law- Adiabtic, isolated and with constant volume
dQ=dU+dW
dU = differentials of internal energy,
dQ=Change of heat,
dW=Change of work
Isolated: dU=0
With constant Volume: dV=0, dU=dQ

## 2) Change in Electrochemical potential E the one with new star

dμ*= dμ0 + RTlnCi /Co + zF(φB-φA)
Dμ0=Standard Chemical Potential
R=Universal Gas law
T=Temperature
lnCi/Co = Osmotic work to concentrate one mol of solution
z = Valency
zF(φB-φA) = Electrical potential to work against electrostatic force

## 3) Fourier’s Law, Newtons law of viscocity, Fick’s Law pg 102 q 14

Fourier’s law: J = -k dT/dx k=thermcal conductivity, dT/dx=Heat gradient
Newton’s law of viscosity: J = -ηdv/dx, η=Dynamic viscosity, dv/dx=velocity gradient
Fick’s law: J = -D dc/dx D=Diffusion coefficient, dc/dx = concentration gradient

## *All have gradients = Force

*All has constant coefficient and minus sign (This is to make values of gradient into
positive)

## 4) Poiesson- Boltzmann equation

Φ=φ0*e-kx (This is from Lab p64). Φ0=surface potential, φ is potential at x distance and
1/k is thickness of double layer

5) Onsager equation
J1 = -D dc/dx X1 +L12D dc/dx (effect of flux of heat on flux of matter)
J2 = L21 dc/dx +-k dT/dx (effect of flux of matter on flux of heat)

6) Prigogine principle
Entropy production = dSi/dt = ΣXkJk > 0
X=Force, J=Flux

7) Osmotic pressure
Posm=CRT C=Concentration, R=Universal Gas constant, T=Temperature

Units
- Universal Gas Constant > J/mol.k
- Electric potential- answer was V/m
- Concentration: mol/L
- Electrochemical potential: mv

Graph
- Simple vs Facilitated diffusion pg 119 q14

## 1) Derive donnan potential from Nernst equation

Emk+ = EmCl- (Use Nernst potential equation)

## -RT/zF ln[K]a/[K]b = RT/zF ln[Cl]a/[Cl]b

*Please note the positive sign due to negative charge of Cl.
Cut all steps > [K]a[Cl]a=[K]b[Cl]b

## 2) Explain Onsager Equation

All forces and fluxes are coupled each other
Force = X, Flux=J, Coefficient = L
J1 = L11X1 + L12X2
J2 = L21X1 + L22X2

## J1 = flux of matter = -D dc/dx X1

J2 = flux of heat = -k dT/dx X2

## J1 = -D dc/dx X1 +L12D dc/dx (effect of flux of heat on flux of matter)

J2 = L21 dc/dx +-k dT/dx (effect of flux of matter on flux of heat)

## 3) Explain Prigogine principle of minimum entropy production.

Systems which are not far from thermodynamic equilibrium and which are kept in imbalance by
continuously acting forces consequently may move toward steady state.

## 4) Explain red blood cell osmosis

Hypotonic: Solution surrounding RBC has higher osmotic pressure than RBC
Hypertonic: Solution surrounding RBC has lower osmotic pressure than RBC
Isotoninc: Solution surrounding RBC has same osmotic pressure as RBC

5) Explain ficks’s law, fourier’s law and newton’s shear stress law
Fick’law J = -Ddc/dx, J=flux. D is diffusion coefficient, dc/dx=concentration gradient
Newton’s law J = -μdv/dx, J=Shear stress, μ=viscosity of fluid, dv/dx=velocity gradient

1) of Enzymatic dismutation of superoxide
2) Between lipid hydroperoxide and Cu2+
3) Demonstrating singlet oxygen production by photosesitizing agents in the presence of
oxygen
4) of Fenton
5) Showing the split of lipidperoxide under the influence of γrays
- Haber Weiss pg 188 q k)
- A and B non radical and radical movement of electrons pg 188 q m)
- Prolongation of lipid peroxide pg 188 q d)
- Lipid peroxide and Fe2+ pg 188 q c)
Variant 2
Formulas:
2. dW at constant pressure and compression: dW=-pdV
3. ATPase equation Thomas equation Pk=membrane permeability of K, [k]i=intracellular
concentration of k
R=Universal gas constant, T=Temperature, z=Valency, F=Faraday’s constant

4. zeta potential:

Units
1. Flux of matter: kg/s.m2
2. Thermodynamic probability: None
3. R: None
4. Heat transfer rate: w(watt) or J/S

## 1) Derive constant K of Shannon equation

Shannon’s equation: I = klnP. Let’s suppose head and tail probability.
P=1/2, I=1
1 = kln1/2
1 =k ln1 - ln2, ln1=0
1 = k-0.69
K=-1.443

## 2) P118 What does the diagram represent?

3) Formula:
A) Ohm’s law: V=IR
B) Nernst Equation: Em=-RT/zF lnCo/Ci
C) Work for compressed pressure W=-pdv
D) Mathmatical form of volt: V=IR
E) Helmholtz smolushowski: ζ=ημ/Є

## 5) p174 2. A membrane potential recording is given in Figure below. Identify sections

representing
resting potential, deploralization and hyperpolarization.
Resting potential: m,w
Depolarization:r,t
Hyperpolarization:l,n,q,s

## 6) Show that dH=0 for an adiabatic process at constant pressure

H=U+PV
dH=dU+Pdv+vdp, dQ=dU+dW, dU=dQ-dW
dH=dQ-pdv+pdv+vdp
dH=dQ+vdp, dp=0
dH=(dQ)p
Since this is adiabatic process, dQ=0
dH=0

## 7) Calculate DNA storage using Shannon’s equation

There are 4 base pairs. P=1/4
I=klnP
I=-1.443*ln1/4=2
Since there are 15000 molecules per DNA
15000 * 2 = 30000 bit/DNA

## 8) Explain below graphs

Left: Simple diffusion: passive diffusion down the concentration gradient. No external energy is
required.
dG<0, dS>0, spontaneous
Right: facilitated diffusion. Formula: J=Jmax*C/Km+C, saturable and specific. Passive.
Km=concentration at half of Jmax

9) Explain similarities and differences between thermodynamic equilibrium and steady state
Thermodynamic equilibrium
1) For us, it is death
2) No energy
3) Entropy production is zero
4) S=max, ds=0
5) dG=0, G=Gmin
6) Ji=0, Xi=0

1) Organisms intake and excrete. Our current living state
2) ds=0, S<Smax
3) dG=0, G>Gmin
4) Ji≠0, Xi≠0, but sum is 0.
5) Entropy production is min, but positive and max efficiency.
1) of Fenton
2) Between Superoxide and nitric oxide
4) Between lipid hydroperoxide and Fe3+
5) Of one electron reduction of oxygen to water
6) Between Superoxide and Fe3+
7) Showing that NO● could be a source of hydroxy radical

Variant 3
1) Qualitative analysis of membrane: lipids > thin paperchromatography
Review lab manual

## 1) Draw the graph and time dependent of membrane potential

Membrane potential = ion permeable only to one ion. JH+=0 at equilibrium because of repelling.
NPME(Nernst Plank molar equation) =0 > Em=-RT/zF lnC2/C1
Diffusion out from higher concentration area caused by concentration gradient is balanced by
electrical forces of diffusion in generated by electrical fields.

## Graph for diffustion potential

2) Differences and similarities of thermodynamic states and steady states.
Thermodynamic equilibrium
7) For us, it is death
8) No energy
9) Entropy production is zero
10) S=max, ds=0
11) dG=0, G=Gmin
12) Ji=0, Xi=0

6) Organisms intake and excrete. Our current living state
7) ds=0, S<Smax
8) dG=0, G>Gmin
9) Ji≠0, Xi≠0, but sum is 0.
10) Entropy production is min, but positive and max efficiency.

## 3) P158 Problem 3,4,5,6,7

3. Yes Outward.
Electrochemical driving force is Ed=Em-Eeq. Therefore, Ed=50-0 (this is from -60loglnCo/Ci). =
50mV
4. Yes Inward.
Electrochemical driving force is Ed=Em-Eeq. Therefore, Ed=50- (-60log30/600). = -28mV
5. Yes Outward.
Electrochemical driving force is Ed=Em-Eeq. Therefore, Ed= -65- (-60log50/5). = -5mV
6. Yes Outward.
Electrochemical driving force is Ed=Em-Eeq. Therefore, Ed= 65- (-60log1/0.1). = 125mV
7. Em=(-60log1/0.1)=-60mV
4) P159 Problem 2 (Hardest question in my opinion)

## a) Due to concentration difference of Cl, Cl start to diffuse from 2 to 1.

From Donnan equation, [Na]1[Cl]1=[Na]2[Cl]2
Let’s suppose the amount of molecules to be diffused as X
0.05(0.05+X)=0.1(0.1-X)
X=0.05
Therefore, [Cl]2=0.05 M
B) Because Cl diffuses from 2 to 1, it will make 2 more positive and 1 more negative.
Since electric field is established from positive to negative, electric field is established from 2 to 1.
1 will be more negative. Because [Cl]1=0.1 M and [Cl]2=0.05M, From simplified Nernst equation,
Em=-60logC1/C2 = -18mV

## 5) P142 Answer the question7

Due to concentration gradient, K start to diffuse from A to B (membrane is only permeable to K).
This makes B more positive and A more negative. As a result, electric field is established from B to
A. Because A is more negative, K in B side are attracted to A, so K starts to diffuse from B to A.

## 6) Explain open thermodynamic equilibrium

For Open thermodynamic system, matter also flows in and out
Therefore, internal energy can be rewritten as U=dQ-pdv+μdn
μdn=dU-Tds+pdv
G=U+PV-TS
dG=dU+pdv+vdp-Tds-sdt, dP and dT=0
dG=dU+pdv-Tds
μdn=(dG)t,p
μ=(dG/dn)t,p

## Also, it is Non-equilibrium thermodynamics=time dependent, irrevsersible, open system

Stationary State = nonzero forces, flows, entropy production, no time variation
> Thermodynamic Equilibrium (global and local equilibrium)
Steady State(capable of doing work, non-equilibrium process can be regulated, ordered state)

7) Formula:
A) Henderson equation: Ed=-RT/zF (μ+-μ-)/(μ+-μ-)lnC2/C1
B) 2nd law of thermodynamics for irreversible process. dSuniverse = dSsystem +
dSsurroundings >0
Or dS > dQ/T
C) 1 law of thermodynamics dQ=dU+dW
st

## D) Osmotic Pressure Posm = CRT

E) Osmotic fluid flux: J=-D dc/dx
F) Entropy for open systems: dS/dt = dSi/dt + dSe/dt
G) Helmholtz: F=U-TS
H) Resistance & conductance: R=V/I, G=1/R
I) Volume flow: V= πr4Δp/8ηl

## 8) Derive Nernst Planc molar equation

Flux for charged ions are made up of diffusion flux and electrical flux (=drift)
For diffusion flux, from fick’s law and einstein equation,
J=-D dc/dx, D=μRT
J=-μRT dc/dx

For drift,
Φ=Ep/q > qφ=Ep > dφq = dEp, Since Ep = -W = - Fdx, dφq = -Fdx
F = -q dφ/dx
Also, J=flux is difference of matter per difference of time and area,
J = dm/dt da
Multiply by dx/dx
J = dm/dt da*dx/dx, dx/dt=velocity, dm/da*dx=concentration
Therefore, J=vc
Also, mobility for non charged particle is
μ = v/F
v=μF

Therefore,
J=vc=μcF=μc-q dφ/dx
Because q = eZ
J=-μcez dφ/dx
For one mole, ezNa, eNa=Faraday constant, so
J =-μcFzdφ/dx

## As a result, J = Jdiffusion and Jdrift is

J=-μRT dc/dx-μcFzdφ/dx

## 9) Prove helmonz energy when it is isochoric and isothermal.

F=U-TS
dF=dU-Tds-sdT
dF=Tds-Pdv-Tds-sdT
df=-pdv-sdT
dv=0, dT=0
Therefore, dF=0

## 10) Show entropy increase for irreversible process

Let’s suppose there are two parts in isolated system.
T1>T2, For T1, dQ<0
dS=S2-S1, S1>S2, Therefore, S2-S1<0
dS1=-dQ/T1, dS2=dQ/T2
dS=dS1+dS2
dS=-dQ/T1+dQ/T2 = dQ (1/T2 - 1/T1)
dS= dQ(T1-T2/T1T2)
T1-T2/T1T2 > 0
dQ > 0
Therefore, dS>0

## 11) Show that entropy change can be negative

Since dS/dt = dSi/dt + dSe/dt, When dSe/dt > dSi/dt, ds/dt<0

12) SI units:
A) Enthalpy: J
B) Electrochemical potential: J/mol
C) Heat: J
D) Fdx: J
E) Electrical potential: V
F) Converstion from J > kwh, 1J=1Ws, 1kWh=1Ws*1000w*3600s=3600kJ
G) Entropy: J/K
H) Boltzman’s constant: J/K

1) in which the radical A removes an electron from the non-radical B
2) Of spontaneous dismutation of superoxide. Explain the difference between non-enzymatic
and enzymatic reaction
3) Between lipid hydroperoxide and Fe2+
4) Demonstrating the prolongation stage of lipid peroxidation
5) Of Haber Weiss

Variant 4
Equations:
Flux of matter with velocity of particle J=dm/dtdA dx/dx = vc
Gibbs Donnan equilibrium [k]A[Cl]A=[k]B[Cl]B
Conductance and Resistance g=1/R, R=V/I
Goldman Equation

## Micheal Menten J=Jmax*C/Km+C

Chemical potential interns of concentration μi=μ0+RTlnCi
Gibbs Free Energy G=U+PV-TS

SI Units
Enthalpy: J
Temperature: K
Partition Coefficient: None
Plancs Constant: JS

1 How does Na/K ATPase regulate osmotic pressure of animal cells?
By keeping Na and K concentration gradient.
If ATPase is dysfuctional >Internal Na concentration increases > Osmotically reactive > Osmotic
equilibrium is broken > Na can not get outside > Water rushes in > Cell swells and bursts

## 2 What are coupled reactions?

Endergonic reaction such as active transport requires energy produced by exergonic reaction to
occur. e.g., Glucose + Phosphate and ATP hydrolysis,

## 3 Steps of Lactose permease

1 E2 + H+ + Lactose in outside of cell
2 Conformational change from E2 to E1. Releases H+ and lactose outside
3 Lactose is first releases. H+ is released. Then, conformational change from E1 to E2.

## 4 At Em=0, Na=+60, determine the direction of flow of Na?

I need information of another Na concentration to find out the answer.
So, let’s suppose that Na inside is 60mmol, outside is 600mmol

## Ed (electrochemical force) = Em(Resting membrane potential from goldman equation) - Eeq(Nernst

potential for each ion)
So, Ed=0-(-60logln600/60)=60mV. Since Na is cation and positive. It will be outward flow.

Derive
Flux of ion n terms of its velocity
Flux of mass J = dm/dtdA * dx/dx. Since dx/dt = velocity, dm/dAdx = concentration,
J = vc

## Graph: Concentration and Transmittance (Physics lab manual)

Variant 5

T/f:
pg 18 #23, information can be calculated from Boltzmann equation (might be pg 42 #8),
pg 67 #2 changed into instead though, active transport is done downhill.
NADPH oxidative is used by phagocytic enzymes against bacteria.
Inside of the cell is hydrophilic.
Pg 106 #12. Refractory period happens after the action potential.
Oxidative phosphorylation is the most studied free-radical chain reaction.
Action potentials propagate with decrement.

## Fill in the gaps:

Pg 17 #10,
Pg 31 # 15
pg 44 #2: if P=1 this means…,
pg 44 #3,
pg 57 #7,is always positive.
Positive feedback: know the 3 variables in it (pg 167 #27).
The termination may cause the radicals to share the unpaired electron and not be a radical
anymore.
Example of a carrier ionophore.
A steady state is a stationary state with entropy production,
pg 94 #6,
pg 109 #8,
pg 135 #2.
Pg 181 #11 and 13

MCQ:
pg 34 #10,
pg 47 #4,
pg 60 #3,
pg 74 #7
Explain endergonic and exergonic coupling with examples and describe the ATP cycle (sort of like
pg 64 #1/
pg 89 #9).
Which don’t transport water: filtration, osmosis or secondary active transport (I think), pg 114 #4,
pg 168 #1

> Termination stage of lipid peroxidation p188 L

## Nitroperoxy or something like that, show it’s damaging effects

??? Damage by oxidation, Reacts with Metals to create chain reactions. Damage DNA, membrane,
lipid and causes of mutations

Equations
1 Goldman
2 Michael Menten
3 Chemical potential interms of concentration
4 Gibbs free energy

SI units
Heat: J
Force: N
Membrane thickness: μm

Derive Helmholtz
ATQ:
1 suppose 4 identical molecules are in 2 compartments show that the macromolecules are in
entropy or some other rubbish like that, I can’t understand what the question is asking. Needs

## 2 state the 3 oxidative phosphorylation processes (pg 83 #19).

Electron Transport
Generation of proton concentration gradient across inner membrane mitchondria
Synthesis of ATP

3 Describe how proteins are separated in paper electrophoresis.(Please refer to lab manual p72)
Proteins are separated by pH of buffer solution under influence of electrical field. The closer to pH
of buffer solution, the less protein will travel farther. Therefore, proteins are separated based on
pH of molecules. Higher charge and smaller size will confer greater mobility.

## 4 Pg 101 first drawing only

Simple diffustion, Facilitated diffusion, active transport
Hypotonic, Isotonic, Hypertonic

Formula:
goldmans.

## Volume flow rate driven by hydrostatic pressure. πr4Δp/8ηl

What does t0.5 show in dialysis: Timefrom the dialysis onset at which the initial solute
concentration in volume V decreases two folds
total entropy of a closed system: dS>dQ/T (I think question should ask not closed system but
isolated system)
mathematic conductance: g=1/R
What are the requirements for membrane potential.
1 membrane is selectively permeable to only one ion
2 there is concentration gradient for this ion
3 there is electrical force to balance out chemical potential

Explain the differences and similarities between Newton’s viscosity, Ficks law and Fourier’s. any
formula should be explained pg 102 #14.
Fourier’s law: J = -k dT/dx k=thermcal conductivity, dT/dx=Heat gradient
Newton’s law of viscosity: J = -ηdv/dx, η=Dynamic viscosity, dv/dx=velocity gradient
Fick’s law: J = -D dc/dx D=Diffusion coefficient, dc/dx = concentration gradient

## *All have gradients = Force

*All has constant coefficient and minus sign (This is to make values of gradient into
positive)
Field strength 136 #10
E=V/l=dφ/dx

## Plot membrane potential

Membrane potential = ion permeable only to one ion. JH+=0 at equilibrium because of repelling.
NPME(Nernst Plank molar equation) =0 > Em=-RT/zF lnC2/C1
Diffusion out from higher concentration area caused by concentration gradient is balanced by
electrical forces of diffusion in generated by electrical fields.
Variant 6
Formulas
Work: Pdv or Fdx
Molar flux: J=-μRT dc/dx - μcFx dφ/dx
Combined law of thermodynamics: dU=TdS - Pdv
Ideal gas law: nRT=PV

SI Units
Work: J
Coefficient of diffusion: m2/s
Electric potential charge: mv
Probability: none

1 Why can’t depolarization lead to generation of more action potential?
Because there is absolute refractory period which all Na+ voltage gated channels are inactivated
after action potential is iniciated.

## 2 What are conjugate fluxes? Give an example of Onsagar’s equation

All forces and fluxes are coupled each other in the systm.

## Force = X, Flux=J, Coefficient = L

J1 = L11X1 + L12X2
J2 = L21X1 + L22X2

## J1 = flux of matter = -D dc/dx X1

J2 = flux of heat = -k dT/dx X2

## J1 = -D dc/dx X1 +L12D dc/dx (effect of flux of heat on flux of matter)

J2 = L21 dc/dx +-k dT/dx (effect of flux of matter on flux of heat)

Variant 7
Fill in the blank
P17 6
P45 12

Derive
Donan potential from Nernst equation
Emk+ = EmCl- (Use Nernst potential equation)

## -RT/zF ln[K]a/[K]b = RT/zF ln[Cl]a/[Cl]b

*Please note the positive sign due to negative charge of Cl.
Cut all steps > [K]a[Cl]a=[K]b[Cl]b

Graph
Extinction and concentration (please note absorbance and extinction are same meaning)

Formula
1 Einsten’s equation: D=μRT
2 Mathmatical formula of enthalpy: H=U+PV
3 Ficks law: J=-D dc/dx
4 Facilitated diffusion: J=Jmax*C/Km+C
5 Electric force field : E=F/q
6 Entropy: dS=dQ/T
7 Hydrostatic Pressure: P = ρgh

1 State each A, B, C
(global equilibrium, local equilibrium, About one maxima, no idea. Possibly steady state?)
Both global and local equilibrium are thermodynamic equilibrium (You want to state what it
means in terms of relation with dG, dS, and entropy production. Please refer to the question about
thermodynamic equilibrium somewhere in this file).

## 2 Living cells feed on negative entropy

Water, Sun, Air, those essential elements are all high entropy (very scattered) and low free energy
(small particles have small amount of energy). Therefore, bacteria, animals, and plants take those
elements and convert (condense) into more concrete (low entropy) and rich free energy compounds
(imagine to make a chocolate from chocolate source). Those compounds are eaten by other
organisms and energy is taken out from compounds for their use. Imagine dense butter was as if
melted by consumption. Remained compounds are high entropy and low free energy and excreted
from organisms. Those are taken up again by other plant and animals and condensation of energy
process is repeated. Therefore, living organisms has mechanism to condense entropy locally and
other organisms use those rich free energy compounds for their survival.

## 3 Effects of superoxide in human body

Macrophage use it to kill bacteria. Too much production causes inflammation at human body which
will lead to chronic inflammation, mutation, and cancer.

## 4 Glucose p131 10.

Because it uses accumulated Na concentration gradient produced by Na/K ATPase to diffuse by
sysmport against concentration gradient of glucose (glucose concentration in blood is lower than
intracellular cytoplasm).

5 Peroxide p186 4
Abstract hydrogen
React with chlesterol
React with anti-oxidant
React with another peroxy radical (termination stage of lipid peroxidation)

SI units
Charge: c
Helmonz free energy: J
Information content: none
Ideal gas constant: J/mol.k

B Spontaneous dismutation of superoxide
F termination stage of lipid peroxide
H split of water by ionizing radiation
I superoxide as vasoconstrictor
P decomposition stage of lipid peroxide
Variant 8
T/F
reversible processes entropy.
For above transport, dG<0 F
Derivatives can be obtained one variable of others are kept constant. This procedure is total differentiation F
The gibbs free energy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time, approaching a max
value F
If there is no concentration gradient and the ion mobilities are same, then diffusion potential will be max. F
P179 23 and 28
P 184 6
P 185 11
Most dangerous free radical is superoxide F
Spike related question
The stronger the stimulus, the action potential generated will be greater F
P 167 23
P 164 21
P 168 31

## Fill in the blank :

P 167 20
P167 18
P150 7
p 93 20
P 95 16
P 182 23
P 81 1
P 74 5
P 72 30
P 72 26
P 71 24
P 71 21
P 46 26
P 31 10
P 18 12
blanks was atp generation process name

mcq :
about gibbs free energy as functions of.....
P 21 8
P 34 12
P35 13
P 47 3
P 49 12
P 154 11
P 155 15
P 168 2
P 185 11
P 184 6

## Derive from Electrochemical potencial to Donnans equation

dμk*+dμCl*=0

dμk*=RTln[K]A/[K]B+zF（φA-φB)
dμCl*=RTln[Cl]A/[Cl]B+zF（φA-φB)
RTln[K]A/[K]B+zF（φA-φB)+ RTln[Cl]A/[Cl]B-zF（φA-φB) (Please note sign is minus for Cl).
Cut all steps:
[K]A[Cl]A=[K]B[Cl]B

## Plot graph : t 0.5 for dialysis

Formulas
Osmotic pressure: Posm=CRT
Permeability of the membrane: P=DK/d
Criterion of coupled fluxes: dSi/dt = - 1/T dG/dt > 0
Helmholtz F=U-TS
Gibbs: G=U+PV-TS
Flux of matter: J=dm/dAdt dx/dx = vc

Units
Entropy J/K
Mobility for charged particle m2/sV
Electrical Potential: V
Osmotic Pressure: Pa

GSH p188 q
between two peroxyl radicals p188 L
the one with nitric oxide p188 u
Haber Weiss p188 k
Exergonic and endergonic reactions
Endergonic reaction requires external energy to procees. dG>0, dS<0, non-spontaneous,
Exergonic reaction produces energy. It is spontaneous. dG<0, dS>0.
Endergonic reaction needs to be coupled with exergonic reaction to proceed.
dSi/dt=X1J1+X2J2>0
dSi/dt=-1/T dG/dt > 0

## Photosensitive reactions importance both positive and negative

With photon, it can produce singlet oxygen
On the other it can be used as drug to for birth control and anti-biotics

## Explain the diagram of K that it’s on the green book

Due to concentration gradient, K start to diffuse from A to B (membrane is only permeable to K).
This makes B more positive and A more negative. As a result, electric field is established from B to
A. Because A is more negative, K in B side are attracted to A, so K starts to diffuse from B to A.

## Lactose Permease Steps

1 E2 + H+ + Lactose in outside of cell
2 Conformational change from E2 to E1. Releases H+ and lactose outside
3 Lactose is first releases. H+ is released. Then, conformational change from E1 to E2.

## Cupper induced superoxide production in erythrocytes

Please refer to Lab manual page from 120 to 134
Variant 9

True or False
1 p14:1
2 p42:7 (but 7 was changed to 2)
3 p42:9 (but syntactic was changed to semantic)
4 Cistae is in nucleus
5 p91:1
6 Ionophores discharge via concentration gradient
7 p179:22
8 Macrophage transform into monocyte
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

## Fill in the blank

1 p17:6
2 p31:17
3 p30:1
4 p44:3
5 p70:3
6 p72:25
7 p73:3 (Though it is MCQ, it was fill in the blank)
8 p82:12
9 p180:6
10

MCQs
1 p21:9
2 p21:10
3 p22:14
4 p35:14
5 p63:13
6 p68:12 (asking what mobility is)
7 p100:14
8
9
10

Formula
1 Partition Coefficient k=Cme/Ce=Cmi/Ci
2 Show Diffusion coefficient is proportional to Temperature. Name the equation Einstein’s equation
D=μRT
3 Dissipative function dSi/dt=-1/T dG/dt > 0
4 Electrical potential φ=Ep/q
5 Transportation rate and velocity and flux J=dm/dtdA dx/dx = vc
6 Flux of electrodiffusion for any ion J=-μRT dc/dx - μcFx dφ/dx
7 Criterion for coupling of fluxes dSi/dt=-1/T dG/dt > 0

Units
1 Heat J
2 Electric Potential V
3 Mobility for charged particle m 2/sV
4 Nuclear Pore Å
5 Probability None

Graph
Draw graph of global and local equilibrium (please exclude B). A is global equilibrium. C and D are
local equilibrium
Derivation
Derive Henderson’s equation and conditions to observe diffusion potential
When J+=J-, diffusion potential reaches its equilibrium and max.
From Nernst Planc molar flux equation,
J=-μ(+)RT dc/dx-μ(+)cFzdφ/dx = μ(-)RT dc/dx+μ(-)cFzdφ/dx (Please note it becomes positive here
due to negative ion)
Cut all steps
> Ed (diffusion potential)=-RT/zF (μ+-μ-)/(μ+-μ-)lnC2/C1
Conditions 1 different mobility, 2 different concentration, 3 non-selective membrane

Calculation
P158:5
Yes Outward.
Electrochemical driving force is Ed=Em-Eeq. Therefore, Ed= -65- (-60log50/5). = -5mV

1 State Ca ATPase step by step
E1 binds to sCa2+ and then ATP and E1-ATP-2Ca2+ complex
ATP is hydrolyzed and ADP + E1～P-2Ca2+
High energy is used to pump out 2Ca2+ to outside of cell. E1 changes conformation to E2
P on E2-P is hydrolyzed and released. E2 changes to E1.

## 2 State Zeta potential

Zeta potential is the potential difference existing between the surface of a solid particle immersed
in a conducting liquid (e.g. water) and the bulk of the liquid. it's the potential in the interface
double layer at the slipping plane. Zeta potential cannot be directly measured. It is calculated from
theoretical models or estimated experimentally, often based on electrophoretic mobility.

## 3 State differences among triplet oxygen, superoxide, and singlet oxygen

Though triplet oxygen has unpaired electron, it is stable because their spin is parallel. Spin is
repulsive against attack. Very low reactivity. For singlet and superoxide, spin is anti-parallel, so
there is no spin restriction and can attack double bond of PUFAs.

## 4 State All or nothing principle of action potential

All substhreshlod stimulus can not initiate action potential. Only subsprathreshold stimulus can
cause action potential. For those suprathreshold stimulus, no matter what their sizes are, the size
of action potential is constant.