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,;i: . MA.

T ~ E'T'E":5'

THE

NEW MATHLEIE PROBLEM BOOK

.'il. Sallp,le Sol,tiols aid A,pe.dices

NrASSAUI 'COUNTY

IITEIRSCIH 01 LASTI C MATIHJIMrAJIIC:S 'LEAIG UlEJ

THE

NEW MATHLETE PROBLEM BOOK

with SaMple Solutions and Appendices

NASSAU COUNTY INTERSCHOLASTIC MATHEMATICS LEAGUE

1977

MEMBERS Baldwin

Berner Bethpage Calhoun

Carey

Carle Place Chaminade Clarke

Division Ave. East Meadow Elmont Memorial Farmingdale Floral Park Freeport

Garden City

Glen Cove

Gre-at Neck North Great Neck South Hempstead Herricks

Hewlett

Hicksville

Holy Trinity Island Trees

Jericho

Kennedy, Bellmore Kennedy, Plainview Lawrence

Levittown Memorial Long Beach Senior Lynbrook MacArthur

Malverne

Manhasset

Maria Regina Massapequa

Mepham

Mineola

New .Hyde Park North Shore Oceanside Oyster Bay Plainedge

Plainview-Old Bethpage

Port Washington

Roosevelt Roslyn

Sacred Heart St. Agnes

St. Dominic Seaford Sewanhaka Southside Syosset Uniondale

Valley Stream Central Valley Stream North Valley Stream South Wantagh

Westbury

West Hempstead Wheatley Woodmere

SPONSORS:

THE NEW MATHLETE PROBLEM BOOK

with

Sample Solutions and Appendices

Problems Authored and Compiled by

Mr. Harry Sitomer

The Nassau County Interscholastic Mathematics Book Committee

Nat Janoff

John L. Lufrano

John Titterton

George Lenchner

Leatrice Yelman

Robert Nelson

Jane Dubin

Joseph Holbrook

Lynn Unger

Copyright

All rights reserved

1977

Long Islend lighting

GNmmen Aircreft

Sperry

NCAMS

NCMTA

ii

PREFACE

The Nassau Ceunty Interschelastic Mathematics League(NCIML) began to. functio.n during the 1955-56 scheel year with 18 membe~s. Currently the League has 54 participating scheels and appreximately 600 student Mathletes who. take part in six centests during each scheel year.

The NCIML came into. existence primarily due to. the efferts ef Dr. Geerge Lenchner, who. medeled the League after a sister erganizatien in New Yerk City. Teday the Nassau League is prebably ene ef the mest successful and active greups ef its kind in the ceuntry. As a result ef an article which appeared in the Mathematics Teacher describing the eperatien ef the NCIML (Lenchner, February 1959) similar greups were erganized threugheut the ·natien.

In 1969, Jehn P. Titterten, Executive Secretary ef the

NCIML listed seme ef the League's centest preblems and sample selutiens in a beek entitled, Ten Years ef Preblems frem the NCIML 1960- !2§2. Altheugh the distributien ef this beek was-rIm1ted, 1ts value was immediately apparent to. students and ceaches alike. At the September 1973 Coaches' meeting o.f the NCIML, the Boek Cemmittee was fo.rmed to. preduce The New Mathlete Preblem ~ centaining the League's pro.blems and sample selutie~s fer the scheel years 1961-62

to. 1973-74. The Cemmittee gratefully acknewledges the assistance it received frem Gene Devereaux, Teny DiLuIla, and Alan Stene as reviewers o.f so.me o.f the sample selutiens. We also. wish to. thank Leenard Lufrane and Bernard Go.udreau fer their diagrams and illustratio.ns.

Last,.but certainly net least,we must reco.gnize Harry Sito.mer fer his eutstanding centributio.n to. the League as aut her and cempiler o.f all the pro.blems co.ntained herein. As yo.u will see, Mr. Sito.mer has supplied us with sparkling and challenging queries fer beth students and ceaches. With this in mind the Cemmittee dedicates this beck to. him in appreciatien ef his impo.rtant rele in the League's

success.

We strengly advise the reader to. try the preblems befere reading the so.lutio.ns er hints; and invite yeu to. submit unusual er interesting so.lutio.ns to. the Chairman o.f the Bo.ek Cemmittee at the address listed belo.w. Geed luck.

J ohn L. Lufrane

Chairman o.f Bo.ek Co.mmittee

Vice President NCIML 1974-75 Valley Stream Central High Scheel Valley Stream, New Yo.rk 11580

No.te: Decimal Netatien

The preblems here presented have been ceded in the fellewing manner:

3.4.27

~

means that the preblem appeared as the third preblem fer

the year; the time allo.tted fer it was feur minutes; and 27% ef the Mathletes co.mpeting in the preblem arrived at a cerrect so.lutio.n. If any infermatio.n is unknewn to. us, yo.u will find an asterick (*) in place o.f the number.

References

E.2 means that the theerem er principal used in the so.lutio.n can be fo.und in Appendix E sectien 2.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

he face .

Dec1mal Notat1on ••••

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

PROBLEMS I

1961-1962 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1962-1963 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1963-1964 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1964-1965 •••••••••••••••••••••••••

1965-1966 , ,

1966-1967 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1967-1968 ..••..• , •.. , ..........•.. 1968-1969 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1969-1970 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1970-1971 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1971-1972 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1972-1973 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1973-1974 •••••••••••.••••••••••••• 1974-1975 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1975-1976 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1976-1977 •••••••••••••••••••••••••

ANSWERS ••••

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

SOLUTIONS:

1961-1962 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1962-1963 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1963-1964 .............•........... 1964-1965 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1965-1966 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1966-1967 ••••••••••••• • ••••••••• • • 1967-1968 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1968-1969 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1969-1970 •••••••••• , ••••• , •••••••• 1970-1971 •••••••••••••••• , •••••••• 1971-1972 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1972-1973 ••••••••••••••• • •• • ••••••

1973-1974 · .

1974-1975 .

1975-1976 · .. · · . ·

1976-1977 •••••••••••••••••••••••••

111

Page

11 11

1 3 5 7

10 12 15 17 20 22 25 28 30 33 35 38

41

48 51 55 60

65 70 74 79 84

89 93 98

102 109 114 120

APPENDIX AI NUMBER THEORY ••• •••••• 127
APPENDIX Bs NUMBER SYSTEMS •••••••• 128
APPENDIX CI SEQUENCES ••••••••••••• 128
APPENDIX DI FUNCTIONS ••••••••••••• 129
APPENDIX EI GEOMETRY •••••••••••••• 130 1

NGIML PROBLEMS 1961 - 1962

1.5.36 In this multiplication of a 2-digit number by a I-digit number, each letter represents a different digit: (I)(DA) = DDD. What is the digit represented by I?

2.5.11 Given that (a + (1/a»2 = 3, where a is a non-zero number, find the numerical value of: a3 + 1/a3 .

3.6.45 In right triangle ABC, the legs AC and BC are 3" and 6" long respectively. The bisector of angle C intersects the hypotenuse in point D. Find the number of square inches in triangle BCD.

4.6.33 Given that 3x-4 varies directly as y+5 and inversely as the square of z-5. If y=13 and z=2; then x=lO. Find x if y=O and z=4.

5.7.06 Line segment AB is 6" long. P is to be located in a plane containing AB. The distance from P to A is not to be greater than the distance .from A to B. Also, the distance from P to B is not to be greater than the distance from B to A. The area of the region in which P may be found is an - bv3 square inches. Find the value of a+b.

6.4.37 Two unequal numbers have the same pair of digits. The sum of these numbers diminished by their difference is 106. What is the smaller number?

7.6.03 One non-zero root of ~ + 2~ = 3~ is n/33. Find n.

8.6.28 In parallelogram ABCD, E A, and AC intersects EB in G. If inches, find the number of square

Express as a binomial, the product:

is the trisection point of AD nearer the area of ABCD is 144 square inches in AEG.

012

(22 +1)(22 +1)(22 +1) ...

10.7.04 Arc AD in circle 0 is a quadrant. Square EFGH is inscribed in this quadrant with the point E on AD, F on OD, and G and H on arc AD. If the radius of the circle is 10" long, find the number of square inches in the area of the square.

11.4.52

Write as a simple fraction: 2/3 + 3/4

38R - 38U

12.6.63

81 5

99-rr

Solve for real values of x: 42x + 22x+l = 80 .

62~ - 60j

13.6.02 A semicircle is drawn on AB as diameter. Chord DC is parallel to AB with C nearer to A than B. If the length of chord DC is twice the length of chord AC and the radius of the semicircle is 5" long, find the number of inches in the length of CD, to the nearest tenth.

2

NCIML PROBLEMS 1961 - 1962

14.7.25 A grocer uses a balance which is rigged so that the distances of the fulcrum to the 2 pans are unequal. A quantity of flour is placed in the right pan balancing a I-lb. weight in the left pan.

Then a quantity of flour is placed in the left pan that balances the I-lb. weight in the right pan. The sum of both quantities of flour is 2 1/12 lb. What is the ratio of the distances from fulcrum to pans?

15.5.10 Point C is taken on line segment AB so that the length of BC is twice that of CA. Semicircles are drawn on the same side of AB with CA, CB, and AB as diameters. The number of square inches in the region bounded by the 3 semicircles is equal to the number of inches in the sum of the lengths of the 3 semicircles. Find the number of inches in AB.

16.5.35 If a 2-digit number is multiplied by the product of its .digits, a 3-digit number is formed, each digit of which is the unit digit of the original number. Find the original number.

17.4.53 Simplify to an integer: (2n+2 _ 2n + 3)/(2n + 1)

19.6.20 integral

What is the maximum number of points of intersection when 2 and 4 straight lines intersect each other?

If (x+l)2 is greater than 5x-l and less than 7x-3, find the value of x.

18.5.65 circles

20.6.26 Equilateral triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle. D is a point in minor arc BC. The length of chord BD is 3" and the length of chord DC is 5". How many inches are there in the length of AD?

21. 5.24

Find the 2 prime factors of 4,891.

22.5.19 If a, b, and c are positive numbers, find the positive square root of: (a2+ab+bc+ca) (b2+bc+ca+ab) (c2+ca+ab+bc).

i

I I I !

23.8.03 A diagonal of a regular pentagon is 2'. Find, to the nearest hundredth of a foot, the length of 1 of its sides.

24.7.004 If all letters represent real numbers and if: (4x2+9y2+z2)(a2+b2+c2) = (2ax+3by+cz)2 , then x/3a = y/q = z/r. Find q.f.i in;terms of band c.

25.6.18 Point A has coordinates (2,-3). Point B has coordinates (4,2). Find the coordinates of point C such that C is on the line AB, B is between A and C, and the length of BC is to the length of AC as 4:5.

26.4.13 Given 3 numbers. To the average of 2 of them is added the third. The 3 possible sums are 23, 27, and 34. What are the numbers?

27.7.28 Is 348_1 exactly divisible by 7? BX II? By 73? In your answer use "1" to mean "yes" and "0" to mean 'no". Your complete answer will be a 3-digit representation in which the digit at the left answers the first question, etc.

3

NCIML PROBLEMS 1961 - 1962

28.6.17 Given triangle ABC with CD the altitude on AB and 0 the center of the circumscribed circle. If the degree measure of angle A.= 82 and that of angle B = 48, find the degree measure of angle DCO.

29.6.16 Find the fractional equivalent to denominator is rational.

1

whose

3

V3 - 1

30.7.18 The number of square inches in the area of square ABCD is

8 + 413. Point E is in BC and F is in CD. AEF is an equilateral triangle. Find the number of inches in EF.

NCIML PROBLEMS 1962 - 1963

1.5.25 The product of five prime positive integers is a six digit number, each digit of which is equal to the others. Find the number.

2.6.29 In the sequence of numbers, ul' u2' u3, ... ,un' the value of un = 2un_l+a when n)l. If u2 = 5 and u5 = 33, find a.

3.6.49 Angle C of triangle ABC is also an angle of a square and one of the vertices of the square is a point of side AB. The ratio of the length of AC to the length of a side of the square·is 5:2. The ratio of the length Qf AC to the length of BC is m:2. Find m.

4'2;6.25 If ax + by = m and bx - ay = n , and a2 + b2 = 1, express x2 + y in terms of m and n.

5.5.46 The vertices of triangle ABC are located respectively at (-1,2), (3,7), (4,0). The medians of triangle ABC have point G in common. Find the coordinates of G.

6.4.09 What is the greatest integer, which when divided into 383, 527, or 815 leaves the same remainder?

7.6.05 Mr. Jones sold Mr. Smith an article at a profit of a% and later bought it back, giving Mr. Smith a profit of a%. The basis for calculating profits is the cost to the seller. Find a if the net rate of loss to Mr. Jones is 17 1/4%.

8.6.46 Each side of triangle ABC measures 24 inches. The perpendicular to side AC, at point D in AC, intersects side AB in E. The perpendicular to AB at E intersects side BC in F. The perpendicular to BC at F intersects AC at D. How many inches are there in segment AD?

9.5.48 A computing machine is set to increase one half of a number fed to it by 10. A positive number, x is fed to the machine and the result of its20perations is then fed back. The second result is found to be x. Find x.

10.5.54 ABCD is a square. Line AQ intersects side BC. Perpendiculars to AQ from B, C and D meet AQ in F, G, and E, respectively. If the length of DE ~s a and the length of BF is b, express the length of

4

NCIML PROBLEMS 1962 - 1963

(cont.)

AG in terms of a and b.

11.5.42 When a two digit positive integer is multiplied by the number which is two more than the units' digit, the product has three digits, each of which is the tens' digit of the original number. What is the original number?

12.7.12 One of the roots of x3 + ax + b = 0 is (4)1/3 + (2)1/3. If ~ and b are integers, find a.

13.6.05 In trapezoid ABCD, leg AD is perpendicular to DC and AC is perpendicular to BD at E. If the ratio of the lengths of AE and DE is 3:4 and the length of AD is 60 inches, find the number of square inches in the area of trapezoid ABCD.

14.6.64 For what values of x will the graph of y = x2 - x - 2 be below the graph of y = x + l?

15.6.18 Triangle ABC has a right angle at C; the length of AC is 3 inches and the length of BC is 4 inches. Square ABDE and t1\angle ABC have no interior points in common. The length of CD is (k) IL, where k is an integer. Find k.

16.5.03 Find the number of pairs of integers, x and y, such that x2 + y24(100. (An integer may be positive, zero, or negative.)

17.6.49 Referring to a coordinate system, the distance f~Qm (-3,-3) to the line determined by the equation 3x + 2y = -2, is kl/L, where k is an integer. Find k.

18.6.32 Each side of square ABCD is 40 miles long. Find the number of square miles within the circle which is tangent to BC and passes through A and D. Express the answer in terms of n.

19.6.77 27y.

Find real numbers, x and y, such that 3'2x = l6y and 3x =

20.6.02 The altitude of triangle ABC to BC is a feet long. Two lines parallel to BC divide the triangle into three regions that have equal area. The number of feet in the distance between the two lines is ka. Find k to the nearest hundredth.

21.5.72 Find the number20f integers between 1 and 10,000 that can be expressed in the form l3n where n is a positive integer.

22.5.61 The circumference of a circle exceeds that of a second circle by a. The radius of the first circle exceeds that of the second by ka. -rind k to the nearest hundredth.

23.6.24 A ship sails due east at the rate of 20 knots. A man on deck, headed northeast, walks at the rate of 10 knots, with respect to the ship. His rate with respect to the sea is: lOla + bJi knots. Find a-fb.

5

NCIML PROBLEMS 1962 - 1963

24.7.29 The lengths of AB and AC, sides of triangle ABC, are 12 inches each, and the len?th of BC is 8 inches. It is desired to form a second trian?le, A'B'C , such that A'B' will be three times as long as BC, and A'C will have the same length as AC. The area of ABC will exceed that of A' B I C' by kff square inches. Find k.

25.6.14 A strip of uniform width is cut from three sides of a square field, leaving a rectangle with an area that is one fourth that of the square. The width of the strip is k times the length of a side of the square. Find k to the nearest hundredth.

26.4.46 If the square of a positive number is added to the number, the sum is 145,542. What is the number?

27.7.17 The number of square inches in the area of a regular octagon is equal to the number of inches in its perimeter. The radius of the octagon measures 21m _ 2/2 inches. Find m.

28.7.60 digit.

In this subtraction, a letter represents one and only one

A ABC B C A A

C C E E

If C = E - 3, find A.

29.7.41 AOB is the quadrant of a circle whose radius is, 2a feet and whose center is O. A semicircle is drawn on OA as diameter inside the quadrant. A circle is then drawn tangent to the semicircle, to the arc of the quadrant, and to OB. Find the length of the radius of this circle in terms of a.

30.5.44 Find the coordinates of all points common to the graphs of y = x2 - 2x - 3 and (y+4)/(x-l) = -2.

NCIML PROBLEMS 1963 - 1964

1.5.28 Given that 43/30 is written as an equivalent continued frac-

tion a + 1

..... h""':'+- ....... I--

c + 1 a

where a, b, c, d are positive integers. Find

a+b+C-kl.

2.6.13 The distances from a point in the interior of an equilateral triangle to its'sides are 1, 2, and 3 feet respectively. The area of the triangle is k(3)1/2 square feet. Find k.

3.5.59

Find the value of _(_x_XX)-X if x = -2.

4.6.19 In triangle ABe, points D, E and F are taken in sides AB, BC, and CA respectively, such that each is a trisection points nearer A, Band C respectively. Segments AE, BF and CD are drawn. How manynamed triangle's are there in the diagram?

6

NCIML PROBLEMS 1963 - 1964

5.6.42 The inequalities 1(n-3<3 are true for all numbers, n, such

that a<n<b. Find b. 3n

6.5.47 The product of 99 and an integer, k, is 50x8x, where x represents a digit in the product. Find the integer k.

7.6.16 The total surface area of a cube is 125% more than that of a second cube. The volume of the second cube is x% less than that of the first cube. Find x to the nearest unit.

8.7.16 The circle inscribed in triangle ABC is tangent to Be at D.

The lengths of sides AB, BC, and CA are 5, 6, and 7 inches respectively. The length of AD is x inches. Find x.

9.5.59 Given the following definition of Ixl ber: Ixl = x if x ~ ° and Ixl = -x if x< 0. 30.

, where x is a2rea1 numSolve for x: x + Ixl =

10.6.19 Each of three circles has a radius of 15 feet and each is externally tangent to the others. Each circle is also internally tangent to a fourth circle. The area of the fourth circle is (a+b/3)~ feet. Find a.

11.5.40 In a two-dimensional coordinate system, the coordinates of the three vertices of a triangle are (0,0), (10,0), and (2,8) respectively. Find the number of points in the interior of the triangle both of whose coordinates are integers.

12.6.23 Two sides of a triangle include an obtuse angle and they are 5 and 6 inches long, respectively. The area of the triangle is 9 square inches. The length of the third side is k1/2 inches. Find k.

13.5.08 Find m.

The difference between the roots of mx2 + 5x - 6 = ° is 1.

14.4.60 The bisectors of the exterior angles at Band C of triangle ABC determine an angle of 50°. Find the number of degrees in one of the obtuse angles formed by the bisectors of angle ABC and angle ACB.

15.6.31 Starting with the smallest, arrange the following numbers in order of magnitude: (4/3)1/2, (.9)1/2, (3/2)1/3, (7/9)1/4.

16~3.71 2 Find the average of the abscissas of all the points of 4x + 9y = 36 which lie in the first and second quadrants.

17.6.04 Assume that when a)O, b)O, that ~·vCb = -v'ab. Solve for

real values of x and y: 2 1/2 2 1/2

x + y(xy) = 81, Y + x(yx) = 162.

Write each pair of roots as an ordered pair of numbers having the form (x,y).

18.5.63 The mean (sometimes called the average) of n consecutive integers, starting with n, is 31. Find n.

7

NCIML PROBLEMS 1963 - 1964

19.7.28 The area bounded by the graphs of y =J36 - x2 and y2 = 3x2 is k~square units. (The length of the side of a unit square is the unit length of the coordinate system.) Find k.

20.6.20 The bases AB and CD of trapezoid ABCD are 3 and 4 feet long, respectively. AC and BD intersect at E. The sum of the areas of triangle AEB and triangle DCE is 50 square feet. Find the number of square feet in the area of the trapezoid ABCD.

21.6.34 Find the least positive integer n, which is not a multiple of 5, such that when n is divided by 8 the remainder is 5 and when n is divided by 13 the remainder is 7.

22.7.11 The lengths of the sides of a triangle are 13, 14, and 15 inches, respectively.' The length of the radius of the circle that circumscribes the triangle is k/8 inches. Find k.

23.7.04 If a two-digit number is multiplied by 7, the digits in the product have the same sum as those in the two-digit number. How many such two-digit numbers are there? (The tens digit of a two-digit number may not be zero.)

24.5.A Find all Qrdered pairs (x~y) such that x and y represent real numbers and (y - xl)2 + (y - x - 2)Z = o.

25.7.25 The length of each of three sides of a trapezoid is k(.[5 -1) miles. One of the diagonals is 6 miles long and forms two isosceles triangles with the sides of the trapezoid. Find k.

26.4.76 A train, 100 yards long, takes 30 minutes to clear a tunnel when going at the average rate of 40 miles per hour. How many yards are there in the length of the tunnel? (1760 yards = 1 mile.)

27.6.46 The parabola determined by y = ax2 + bx + c has 2 as its yintercept, 3 as its x-intercept, and its turning point has 1 as its abscissa. Find a.

28.6.19 Point B is an interior point of line segment AC. Circles are drawn on AB and BC as diameters and one of their common external tangents intersects their common internal tangent at F. If the points of contact of the external tangent are D and E, and BD is 12", the length of BE is 10", and the length of BF is kl/2 inches, find k.

29.5236 The roots of 9x2 + 6x + a = 0 are proportional to the roots of x + x + 1 = o. Find a.

~

30.7.17 Each side of square ABCD is 30 cm. long. The midpoint of BC is F, and E is in AD such that EA = 10 cm. EB and AF intersect in G. Find the number of square cm. in triangle EFG.

NCIML PROBLEMS 1964 - 1965

1. 5.39

Missing digits in this multiplication are denoted by x:

8

NCIML PROBLEMS 1964 - 1965

(cont . ) xxx x7 3xx4 5 xxx xxxxZj:"

Find the product.

2.6.05 Find all positive integers represented by x, if x2 + x + 19 is the square of an integer.

3.7.01 In triangle ABC, the lengths of AB, AC, and BC are 13, 14, and 15 inches respectively. The median AD intersects the altitude BE in F. The number of square inches in triangle AFE is k/19. Find k.

4.5.19 Let x and y represent real numbers. How many points are there in the graph of «x-y)(y-2))2 + «x+y)(y+2))2 = O.

5.4.37 A plane and two points in the plane are given. How many regular pentagons are there in the plane which contain the given points as vertices?

6.5.74 What is the units digit of 12739 when it is expressed in decimal form?

7.5.20 (-1,-1), A, Band possible

Let the coordinates of A, Band C be (2,1), (4,-4) and respectively. Let X be a fourth point which together with C, in some order, are vertices of a parallelogram. Find the coordinates of X.

8.5.58

= 1.

Solve for x, assuming that x)O and x # 1: Log 2(2) + log4(x) x

9.5.07 Each side of an equilateral triangle is 6 inches long. A circle, having a radius of 2 inches, is moved outside the triangular region in such a way that it has exactly one point in common with the triangle at all times. Find, to the nearest tenth of a square inch, the area bounded by the path along which the center of the circle

may move.

10.4.24

Find the real values of x for which: x + 1 = 1

--,,-1-+-:-----::-1--

1 + x Find the remainder when 38 + 2'64 + 28 is divided by 26.

11.6.61

12.6.19 A, B, and C ran a mile (5280') race which A won, beating B by 30 feet and C by 90 feet. By how many feet, to the nearest hundredth, did B beat C? (Assume that the speed of each is constant)

13.6.20 Point P is outside rectangle ABCD. The distances from P

to A, Band C respectively, are 6, 3, and 4 inches. The distance from P to D is k1/2 inches. Find k.

14.5.38 A computing machine is designed to multiply whatever real number is fed into it by x and to add x to the product. The number 3 is fed into the machine, and the number reported by the machine is then fed into the machine, after which the machine reports JY.

9

NCIML PROBLEMS 1964 - 1965

(cont.)

Find x.

15.7.07 The area of triangle ABC is 60 square inches. Points D and

E trisect side AC, D being nearer A. The median to BC intersects BD in G and BE in H. Find the number of square inches in triangle BGH.

16.5.17 The units digit of a six-digit number is 2. If the units digit is moved to the left of the numeral without changing the relative order of the other digits, the new integer thus formed is onethird of the original integer. What is the original integer?

17.6.49 A man has walked three-fifths of the distance across a

bridge when he sees a train coming toward him: The speed of the train is 60 miles per hour. By running, the man can reach either end of the bridge just as the train reaches that end. Find how many miles per hour the man can run.

18.6.29 The longer base of an isosceles trapezoid is as long as one of its diagonals and the shorter base is as long as its altitude. If the shorter base is 12 inches long, how many inches are there in the longer base?

19.6.07 x5z.

Express z as a function of y if x2 + 1 = xy and x10 + 1 =

20.7.07 A circle having a radius of 4 inches is inscribed in triangle ABC touching AB at D. If DB is 6"/and AD is 8", the distance from C to the center of the circle is k1 2 inches. Find k.

21.5.30 Two candles have the same length. One is consumed uniformly in 4 hours, the other in 5 hours. If the candles are lighted at the same time, in how many minutes will one be four times as long as the other?

22.7.18 Each angle of a rectangle is trisected. The trisectors adjacent to each side intersect at points which are vertices of a rhombus. If the dimensions of the rectangle are a and 2a, the length of each side of the rhombus is a./(k _ 21.3)/3. Find k.-

23.5.29 What values assigned to a and b make x4 + 8x3 + 8x2 + ax + b the square of a trinomial?

24.5.42 Find two numbers, x and y, whose sum, product, and quotient (x/y) are equal.

25.6.02 In triangle ABC the lengths of AB, BC and CA are respectively 13, 14, and 15 inches. The altitudes of the triangle meet at Hand

AD is the altitude to BG. The ratio of the lengths of AH:HD is k:5. Find k.

26.5.01 fits are be x/7%

1

Bl measuring with a yardstick that is 122% too short, pro- 2570 of sales. Were the yardstick 10% too short profits would of sales. Find x.

27.5.78 The diagonals of a rhombus are 10 and 20 feet long. of the circle inscribed inside the rhombus is mn square feet.

The area Find m.

10

NCIML PROBLEMS 1964 - 1965

28.5.05 Chord AB of circle 0 divides the circular region into two parts. Find the ratio of the area of the larger par t to that of the smaller part, expressed as a decimal to the nearest tenth if angle

AOB is 120'. '

29.6.29 Express (a2+b2+c2)(x2+y2+z2) - (ax+by+cz) as the sum of the squares of three binomials.

30.6.08 If x2 - (c-3)x - 3c and x2 + 2cx + c2_1 have a common factor of the form x+a where a is a non-zero rational number, what are the possible values of c?

NCIML PROBLEMS 1965 - 1966

1.6.07 List the pairs of prime numbers between 100 and 200 having the property that the decimal numeral representations of the numbers in each pair have the same three distinct digits in some order.

2.6.12 The roots of x2 - 5x + 3 = 0 are rand s. Find the numerical value of (1/r3) + (1/s3).

3.6.14 The length of median AD in triangle ABC is 7 inches. lengths of sides AB and AC are 8 and 14 inches, respectively. the number of inches in side BC.

The Find

4.5.27 A man rides to work and walks back along the same route. His average rate for the round trip is one-third of his riding rate. Assuming that his walking and riding rates are uniform, how many times his walking rate is his riding rate?

5.5.34 lies in area of Find k.

Two circles are concentric. A chord of the larger circle

a tangent of the smaller. The chord is 12 inches long. The the region bounded by the two circles is kn square inches.

6.6.28 A crossword puzzle is constructed in a square that has 15 cells in a row and 15 such rows. Among the horizontal words are 12 three-letter words, 10 four-letter words, 9 five-letter words, 6 sixletter words, and finally a certain number of eleven-letter words. Among the vertical words are 8 three-letter words, 14 four-letter words, 12 five-letter words, 5 six-letter words, and a certain number of ten-letter words. How many cells are blanked out?

7.6.A For what positive integral values of p is (3p+25)/(2p-S) a positive integer?

8.6.11 In convex quadrilateral ABCD diagonals AC and BD determine right angles at E. AE and DE are each 6 inches long, and BE and' CE are each 8 inches long. The perpendicular from E to AB is extended to meet CD at F. Find the number of inches in segment DF.

3 2 ( )3

9.6.30 For all real values of x, x - 6x + 7x - 5 = a x-2 +

b(x-2)2 + c(x-2) + d. Find the numerical value of c.

11

NCIML PROBLEMS 1965 - 1966

10.6.28 I~ plotting a graph of a parabola having an equation of the form y = ax + bx + c, a student found the following values of y for uniformly spaced values of x: 462, 562, 670, 780, 894, 1012. Exactly one of these values is incorrect. What should its correct value be?

11.5.13 Consider the set of all four-digit decimal numerals, each having the same four distinct integers in some order. The sum of the numbers represented by these numerals is 193,314. What are the four digits?

12.5.06 Find x in terms of a and b if (ax)log a = (bx)log b, where each log is expressed to the same base and ab(a-b) # O.

13.6.03 A satellite moves in an elliptical orbit with the earth (a point) at a focus. The point in the orbit nearest the earth (the perigee) is 50 miles from the eartn, and the point furthest from the earht (the apogee) is 450 miles from the earth. Relative to a rectangular coordinate system in which the x-axis con2ains2the2earth, apogee, and perigee, an equation of the orbit is x /250 + y /k2 = 1.

i!, Find k.

r'

14.6.16 When the. denominator of 6/(JS+i3+I'1.) is rationalized, the resulting fraction is of the form (aJ2+ bJ3+ cJ30)/2. Find a+b+C.

15.6.40 The. shortest side of a triangle is 8 inches long. The longest side of a larger similar triangle is 27 inches long. Two sides of the smaller triangle have the same length as two sides of the larger triangle. How many inches are there in the length of the longest side of the smaller triangle?

16.5.36 As a steadily moving train passes over the junction between two rails, a click is heard. If the number of clicks counted in 15 seconds is the same as the speed of the train in miles per hour, and the lengths of rails are the same, how many feet are there in the length of one rail?

17.6.00 Find the numerical value of «a+b)(b+c)(c+a))/(abc) if (a+b-c)/c = (b+c-a)/a = (c+a-b)/b and abc # O.

18.7.08 The perimeter of a right triangle, measured in feet, is twice the area of the triangle, measured in square feet. The hypotenuse is 9 feet longer than one of the legs. Find the number of feet in the longer leg.

19.6.A The equation (c+dl3)x2 - 2x + 7 + 413 = 0 has exactly one root, given that the ratio of c/d is not a multiple of v'3. Find c+d.

20.5.53 In right triangle ABC, hypotenuse AB measures 16 inches and side AC measures 8 inches. D and E are in side AB such that CE and CD trisect angle ACB. Find the number of inches in segment DE.

21.6.02 Suppose that two different size boxes are available for packing regulation size baseballs; one holding 8 balls, the other 15. What is the largest number of balls that cannot be packed in these boxes if each box that is used is to be filled to capacity?

12

22.6.20 k/ (Zab ) .

NCIML PROBLEMS 1965 - 1966

If (V:X+l + Jx-l)/(Jx+l - JX-l) = alb, and ab # 0, the x = Express k in terms of a and b.

23.5.34 If x, y, and z represent real numbers and x2 + y2 + z2 = 8x + 4y + 6z - 29, find the numerical value of x+y2+z3.

24.6.36 The sum of the squares of the first n positive integers is k times the sum of these integers. Express n in terms of k. Note

that the sum of the squares of the first n integers is (n(n+l) (2n+l))/6.

25.8.19 If the lengths of the sides of a triangle are 1, r, r2, then r can be any real number between rl and r2. Find the numerical value of rl +r2.

26.6.12 A two digit numeral represents a prime number whether the base of the numeral system is 8, 10, or 16. Find the decimal numeral representation(s) of the number(s).

27.6.01 The area of an isosceles right triangle is (3 - 212)a2. The perimeter is ka. Find k.

28.6.01 Arc AB is a quadrant C of arc AB is a vertex of an radius OA and E in radius OB. arc AB, and OB is nk times the k to the nearest hundredth.

of a circle with center O. The midpoint equilateral triangle CDE, with D in

The area of the region bounded by OA, area of triangular region CDE. Find

29.5.51 Find the numerical value of (ae + c2)/(ce) if (a+b)/(b+C) = (c+d)/(d+e) = (e+f)/(a+f), where a+b+c+d+e+f # 0 and a # O.

30.7.21 The radii of two circles are 2 inches and 5 inches long and their centers are 25 inches apart. A common internal tangent touches one circle at A and the other at B. How many inches are there in segment AB?

NCIML PROBLEMS 1966 - 1967

1.5.35 All pages of a book are numbered by decimal numerals, all of which are formed with 858 digits. How many pages are there in the book?

2.5.02 In the equation in x, (a-x)(b-x) = c, c # 0, the roots can be found by setting each of the factors, a-x or b-x, equal to c. Express a in terms of band c.

3.6.29 The vertices of quadrilateral ABCD have respective coordinates (1,3), (3,8), (7,2) and (4,-4) in a rectangular coordinate system.

Find the number of square units in the region defined by ABCD, the

unit determined by the coordinate system. .

4.6.39 Factor over the integral domain: x4 - 9x2 + l2x - 4.

5.6.05 ABC Is an equilateral triangle. D is a point in line Be, such that B is between D and C. The distances from D to lines AC and AB, .. respectively, are 7 and 4 inches. The number of square inches in

13

(cont.)

NCIML PROBLEMS 1966 - 1967

the area of the region of triangle ABC is kl/2. Find k.

6.6.07 The missing digits in this multiplication are denoted by·x. Find- the product.

4xx

xx

19xX 3xOxx xxOxx

7.6.06 In evaluating each of the following: 1/3, 1/(3+(1/3)), 1/(3+(1/(3+(1/3)))), ... and so on, it is fouVd that successive values are closer and closer to some number .. What is that number?

8.7.07 Quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in a circle. The lengths, in feet, of sides AB, BC, CD, and DA are, respectively, 3,4,5, and 6. Find, to' the nearest tenth, the number of feet, in diagonal AC.

9.6.39 Express (7x-l)/(x2-x-6) as the sum of two rational expressions, each having a first degree polynomial as denominator and a constant polynomial as numerator.

10.6.26 The l~gs BC and AC of right triangle ABC are, respectively, 2 inches and 2v3 inches long. Square ABDE is situated in such a manner that E and C are on opposite sides of line AB. Find the length,

in inches, of segment CE, expressed in the form la+bJ3 where a and

b are integers.

11.s.A What is the smallest positive integer, excluding 2, which when divided by 3,4,5,6,7, or 8, leaves a remainder of 2?

12.6.18 Uo = 3.

_Suppose un.= 2un_l + 1, where n is a positive integer and Express ua in terms of a.

13.7.06 Isosceles trapezoid ABCD is circumscribed about a circle. Leg AD is tangent to the circle at E, and the length of ED is three times the length of AE. If the area of the circular region is divided by the area of the trapezoidal region, the quotient is nYk. Express k in the form alb, where a and b are relatively prime positive integers.

14.7.28 A dwarf, pursued by a giant, takes 8 steps, while the giant takes 3 steps; but 2 steps of the giant are as long as 11 steps of the dwarf. If the dwarf has a start of 85 of his own steps, how many steps does the giant ,take to overtake the dwarf? .

15.6.07 The lengths of sides AB and AC of triangle ABC are, respectively, 24 inches and 20 inches. The perpendicular to AB at B intersects the perpendicular to AC at C in point E. Segment BE is 7 inches long. How many inches are there in side BC?

16.6.76 If 8 men, working 8 hours a day for 8 days, can produce 8 units of work, how many units will 6 men produce, working 6 hours a day for 6 days, if all men produce at the same rate?

17.6.03

Solve for real values of x, expressing roots to the nearest

14

(cont.)

tenth:

NCIML PROBLEMS 1966 - 1967 {6x+7)1/3 - {6x_7)1/3 = 2.

18.8003 The sides AB, BC, and AC of triangle ABC are respectively, 13 miles, 15 miles, and 14 miles long. A line parallel to line BC cuts AB in D and AC in E. Find the number of miles in the distance between lines DE and BC if the sum of the lengths of segments BD and CE is the same as the length of side BC.

19.6.76 In this problem we denote the operation of finding the average (arithmetic mean) between any two numbers, a and b, by "a av b". Find the numerical value of c-a, if {a av b)av c - a av{b av CT =

6. - - --

20.6.003 In trapezoid ABCD the lengths, in kilometers, of bases AB and DC are 3 and 10 respectively. Point E is in side AD and F in side BC such that line EF is parallel to the bases and the lengths of segments AE and ED have the ratio 3:4. Find the number of kilometers in segment EF.

21.4.47 The least common multiple of two numbers is 216 and their greatest common divisor is 36, but one is not a multiple of the other. What are the two numbers?

22.6.67 Find the price, in cents, of a dozen eggs, if, by selling one more than a dozen for the price of a dozen, actually reduces the price of a dozen by 4¢.

23.6.22 In isosceles triangle ABC, point E is a trisection point of base BC, the length of segment AE is 15 centimeters, and the length

of each leg is 17 centimeters. Then the number of centimeters in base BC is 3JX. Find x.

24.7.02 Solve for integral values of x, y, and z, expressing solutions in the form (x,y ,z): zX = y2x; 2z = 2 04x;and x+y+z = 16.

25.6.14 The area of the region bounded by a regular polygon of 12 sides is 192 square inches. The number of inches in each side of the polygon is xJ2 _ J3 inches. Find x.

26.5.71 The fifth power of an integer is 4,xxx,xx1, where the XIS represent missing digits, not necessarily the same. What is the integer?

27.7.37 A1A2A3A4AsA6 is a regular hexagon. A point B1 is in line

A1 A2, with ~ between Aland B1• The perpendicular to line A1 A2 at B1 meets line A2A3 at B2• The perpendicular to line A2A3 at B2 meets A3A4 at B3• The perpendicular to line A3A4 at B3 meets A4As at B4, and so on, until the perpendicular to A6A1 meetsA1A2 at B1• How many inches are there in segment A1B1 if the length of A1A2 is one inch?

28.8.10 A three digit decimal numeral represents the square of an integer. If the digits are reversed, the new numeral, read in another numeral system, still represents 'the square of the same in~

15

NCIML PROBLEMS 1966 - 1967

(cont.) teger, and read as a decimal numeral then represents the square of another integer. What is the different base wrttten as a decimal numeral?

29.6.07 A Pythagorean primitive triplet consists of three relatively prime positive integers a, b, c, such that c2 = a2 + bZ• How many different primitive Pythagorean triplets are there with a = lOS?

30.8.00 Point E is in diagonal CA of parallelogram ABCD, and CE is one-fourth as long as CA; F is the midpoint of side BC. DE intersects side BC in G. The lengths in inches of segments FG, and AC are respectively 9, 12, 2 and JX. ~ind x.

segment Line DE, DF,

NCIML PROBLEMS 1967 - 1968

1.5.51 Said Mr. Young, "I was born in the 19th century and had my xth birthday in the year x211• Strangely enough, his great-grandfather was able to make the same statement. In what year was the greatgrandfather born?

2.7.00 Solve for real values of x and y, giving solutions in the form (x,y): (x - (l/x))(y - (l/y)) = 4

(x - (l/y))(y - (l/x)) = 25/6

3.7.04 Each side of triangle ABC is 6 inches long. Points D, E, and F are, respectively, in AB, BC, and CA, and triangle DEF is also equilateral. If the area of the triangular region DEF is half the area of the triangular region ABC, find, to the nearest .1 inch, the possible lengths of AF.

4.5.16 The difference between the square of the arithmetic mean of two numbers and the square of their geometric mean is 25. Find the difference between the arithmetic mean of their squares and the square of their arithmetic mean.

5.7.02 Point B is in AC, and the inch measures of AB and BC are 2 and 4 respectively. Squares ABDE and BCFG are drawn on the same side of AC. The circles circumscribing_these squares intersect at Band H. The inch-measure, HD + DC = (1/5)Yk. Find k.

6.6.47 Find the positive integral values of x and y such that x + 2y = 20, and 13x + 11y is a multiple of 17.

7.6.19 Find all real values of x such that J12-x - J1+x < 1.

4

8.6.02 In a right triangle, the length of the median to the hypotenuse is the mean proportional between the lengths of the legs of the triangle. The quotient of the perimeter of the triangle divided by the length of the hypotenuse is (a + Jb)/c, where a, b, and c are integers. Find a, b, and c.

9.7.05 Relative to a rectangular coordinate system, a circle has equation x2 + y2 = 4. Find one eguation for the set of all points on both tangents to the circle that ~ntersect in the point with coordinates (4,0).

16

NCIML PROBLEMS 1967 - 1968

10.7.01 The medians of a triangle are 39, 42, and 45 inches long. What is the area, in square inches, of the triangular region?

11.6.03 Relative to a space rectangular coordinate system, a sphere has the equation x2 + y2 + zZ = 9. How many points are there in the interior of the sphere all of whose coordinates are integers?

12.6.43 Express x3 + 9x2 + 22x + 13 in the form a(x+2)3 + b(x+2)2 + c(x+2) + d, where a, b, c, and d are integers.

13.6.08 ABCD is a parallelogram. Both AB and AD are longer than 1 inch. Point X is in ray AB, not more than 1/2 inch from B, and point Y is in ray AD, not more than 1/3 inch from D. If Z is a point such that AXZY is a parallelogram, what is the area of the region, to the nearest .01 square inch, in which Z may be found, given that the measure of angle A is 60.

14.9.02 In triangle ABC, D is the midpoint of AB and E is the trisection point of CB nearer B. The following inch-measures are given:

AC = 15, AE = 65/3, CD = 35/2. Find the area in square inches of the triangular region ABC.

15.5.22 The sum of the first n terms of a sequence of numbers is given by the expression n(4n - 3). Find a polynomial in r that expresses the rth term in this sequence.

16.6.51 Find the least positive integer divisible by 11 such that when it is divided by 3, 5, and 8, the respective remainders are 2, 1, and 5.

17.7.25

Solve for the real values of x: (x-3)(x-4)(x+l)(x+2) = 24.

18.8.01 Equilateral triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle. Point P is a point of the circle. The inch-measure of AB and PC are 19 and 21 respectively. The area in square inches of the region bounded by ACBP is kJ3. Find k.

19.6.19 Find the prime factors of (x + y)5 _ x5 y5, expressing the answer as the product of polynomials in x and y with rational coefficients.

20.6.06 The lengths of the sides of a right triangle, measured in inches, are relatively prime integers. The radius of the circle inscribed in the triangle is 3 inches. What are the possible inchmeasures of the hypotenuse?

21.6.35 A number n is represented by a decimal numeral that begins and ends with the digit 2, all others being O. How many zeros are there in the numeral if n is the least such number divisible by l7?

22.7.05 the form

Solve for all real values of x, y, and z, giving answers in

(x,y,z): 1.) x(x+y) + z(x-y) = 4 2.) y(y+z) + x(y-z) = -4 3.) z (a+x ) + y(z-x) = 5

23.6.11

Two circles PI and P2 are concentric. Let AB be a chord of

17

NCIML PROBLEMS 1967 - 1968

(conto) There is of PI is

24.6.22

PI that intersects P2 in C and D, such that AB = k(6D).

no instance of a chora AB such that k = 2. If the radius rl 8, what are the possibilities of radial lengths r2 of P2?

Solve for real values of x: /5 + rx - /5 - rx = (6)/../.r"'"S-+-vx-.

25.7.06 Lines a, b, and c are parallel to each other. The distance from b to a is 2 inches, the distance from a to c is 3 inches. What is the length, to the nearest .1 inch, of each side of an equilateral triangle that has one vertex on each of the three lines?

26.5.26 What is the remainder when 238 is divided by l27?

27.7.05 Two ferries start from opposite sides of a river at the same time, meeting 720 yards from one shore. After remaining in their slips for the same time, they return, this time meeting 400 yards from the other shore. How wide is the river, in yards?

28.6.30 Semi-circle P is drawn on AB as diameter. Point C is an interior point of AB. Semi-circles Rand S are drawn on AC and CB respectively on the same side of AB as P. The perpendicular to AB at C intersects P at D and CD is 8 inches long. The area of the region bounded by P, R, and S is knsquare inches. Find k.

29.6.12 In the equation (l+V2+~)(x+yJ'2-+z J/4) = 1, x, y, and z represent rational numbers. Solve for x, y, and z giving answers in the form (x,y,z).

30.3.23 The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 81:2 inches long. The length of the median to the hypotenuse is the geometric mean of the lengths of the legs. Find the area of the triangle.

NCIML PROBLEMS 1968 - 1969

1.4.41

Express as a power of 3:

2.6.04

(33)(33)2(33)3 Solve for x: 4x + 4 = l7·2x-1 •

3.7.08 Each side of a square is 12 inches long. Each vertex of a rectangle is located in a different side of the square. The area of the rectangular region is one-third that of that; square region. Find the length in inches of the shorter side of the rectangle, Give answer in the form a1b - bJa where a and b are positive integers.

4.7.32 One unit of food A has 700 calorie units, ~OOvitamin units and costs $2.00. One unit of food B has 600 calorie units, 500 vitamin units and costs $3.00. One unit of food C has 400 calorie units, 600 vitamin units and costs $4.00. How much will it cost, in dollars, if, when buying an integral amount of some of each food, I get exactly 5900 calorie units and 4800 vitamin units?

5.7.02

The circle that circumscribes triangle ABC has a radius of

18

NCIML PROBLEMS 1968 - 1969

(cont.) (1/6) k inches long. Find k if the inch-measure of AB, BC, and CA are respectively 5, 6, and JT!.

6.7.28 A decimal numeral, representing an integer that is divisible by 9, is composed of both digits 2 and three but no other digits. What is the smallest integer, greater than 4000, about which this

is true?

7.4.06 When a is divided by b, the quotient is c and the remainder is d. When c is divided by e the remainder is f. EKpress the remainder when a is divided by be. (be # 0, all letters used represent positive integers.)

8.4.21 The medians AD, BE, CF of triangle ABC meet at G. The midpoints of DG, BG, and FG are K, L, and M, respectively. What fractional part of the area of region ABC is the area of region KLM?

9.7.14 Let f(n) = «1+i5)/2)n + «1-J.5)/2)n. Express f(n+1) - f(n-1) in terms of f(n).

10.5.36 A circle, whose radius is one inch long, is rolled on the outside of a square in the plane of the square and touching the square at all times. The sides of the square are 5 inches long. Find the area, to the nearest tenth of a square inch, of the region bounded by the square and the path of the center of the circle.

11.6.38 The first and last digits of a decimal numeral are 2, all others being O. What is the smallest number about which this is true if it is greater than 2002 and is divisible by 182?

12.6.27 Solve for real values of x: log25x + log is = 1.

X

13.5.34 Given a plane and two points in it. How many non-coincident regular n-gons are there in the plane that contain the two points as

vertices? Give your answer in terms of n. .

14.6.24 Consider the set of all polynomials, p(x) = aO + a1x + a2x2+ ... + anxn, where the a's are real numbers and x is a real variable.

For which of these polynomials is it true that for all x, P(2x) = 2P(x) and P( 3) = 12.

i

i

!

1 I

15.6.22 The diagonals of parallelogram ABCD intersect at S. The midpoints of AS, BS, CS, and DS are, respectively, A', B', C', and D'. Find the areal in square inches, of the intersection of the region AB'CD' and BC DA', if the area of ABCD is 48 square inches.

16.6.01 Find the least odd positive integer that has exactly 15 divisors, including 1 and itself.

17.6.50 A can do a job in 12 days if B helps him for 7 of those days. But B takes 14 days to do the job if A helps him 7 of those days. If

A and B work at steady rates, how many days would it take A alone to

19

NCIML PROBLEMS 1968 - 1969

(cont.)

do the job?

18.7.54 ABCD is a square, with AB = a inches. Point X is any point in At and Y is any point in BD. What is the area, in terms of a, of the region that contains all the midpoints of all possible segments XY?

19.6.01 Let ABCDEF be a decimal numeral representing the number m, and DEFABCthe decimal numeral representing the number n. Find m if m:n = 4:9.

20.7.05 Two circles, one having a 12 inch radius, the other having

a 3 inch radius, are tangent externally. Find the number of square inches infue area of the region bounded by their common tangents.

2l.7.A When sx + 2y is divisible by a prime number p for certain values of x and y, where x and yare relatively prime to p, so is 7x + sy. Find' the value of p.

22.7.A The sum of the integers in a set of two or more positive consecutive odd integers is 455. What are all the possible values of the smallest integer in the set?

23.7.01 In triangle ABC, the measure of angle A is 30, the measure of angle C is 60, and AB = 12 inches. Equilateral triangles are drawn on AB, BC, and CA, all of them having no points in common with the interior of triangle ABC. The centroids of the equilateral triangle are D, E, and F respectively. The area, in square inches, of region DEF is kJ). Find k.

24.6.58 Consider the graph of 21xl + Iyl = 4, relative to a rectangular coordinate system in which the unit distance is 1 inch. How many square inches are there in the region bounded by the graph?

25.7.09 Assume, in a plane rectangular coordinate system, that the lines with dquations y = 0 and y = 2 are banks of a river and that points A and B have coordinates (0,5) and (12,-2), respectively. What is the x-coordinate of the point on the x-axis at which a bridge is to be located, perpendicular to and between the river banks, so that the direct path from A to this bridge, across the bridge, and then to B, shall have the shortest possible distance?

26.6.08 For what positive integral value of x, other than 1, is x4 + 6x3 + llx2 + 8x - 17 the square of an integer?

27.7.67 For what values of (x,y,z) will sx+2y+3z have a maximum value if (x,y,z) satisfies some three of the following conditions: 2x+y+3z=10, x = 0, y = 1, z = 2.

28.7.07 Each of two circles, having a radius 6 inches long, passes through the center of the other. The area, in square inches, of the union of the associated circular regions is a~+ bIJ, where a and b are integers. Find a+b.

29.6.05 If f(x) = alxl + blx+kl, f(-l) = 0 and f(2) = 0, b # 0, then find the value of k.

20

NCIML PROBLEMS 1968 - 1969

30.6.20 The inch measure of AB of square ABCD is 63. The region ABCD is subdivided into four rectangular regions by two lines, one parallel to AB, the other parallel to BC. If RA, RB, and RC represent tfie areas of ~he rectangular regions containing A, Band C, then RA:RB:RC = 3:4:5. F~nd RD'

NCIML. PROBLEMS 1969 - 1970

1.6.12 Express as a fraction alb, where a and b are relatively prime positive integers, the product

(1- ~)(1- ~)(1- ~) ... (1- ~)

2 3 4 21

2.7.09 In parallelogram ABCD, AB, BD and DA ar~ 14, 15, and 13 inches long respectively. The length of AC is vk inches. Find k.

3.7.02 Let p represent a prime number. Find all integral values of x and y that satisfy 1/(?+x) + 1/(p+y) = IIp. Give answers in terms of p and in the form (x,y).

4.7.15 angle B inches, of BC.

In isosceles trapezoid ABCD, AB is a base, the measure of is 450, and the area of the trapezoidal region, in square

is 72(J2 + 1); and BD bisects angle ABC. Find the inch-length

5.5.50 For real numbers that satisfy x(x-1) # 0, functions f, g, and h have rules f(x) = 1-x, g(x) = 1 - l/x, and h(x) = x/(x-1). Express as a polynomial in x, whose leading coefficient (the coefficient of the highest power of x is 1, the rule of h(g(f(x»).

6.6.25 For what positive integral values of ? and following true? Give answers in the form (p,q). a)101~p~104

b)20~q~208

c)7P - 3q is a multiple of 10.

q are all of the

7.6.06 The vertices of a parallelogram are A, B, C, D; the midpoints of its sides are E, F, G, H; and its diagonals intersect in J. How many triangles are there whose vertices are in the set of the nine named points?

8.7.04 Find all positive integral values of x and y that satisfy 5x2 - 10xy + 7y2 = 55. Give answers in the form (x,y).

9.7.01 In square ABCD, M is the midpoint of BC. The perpendicular from B to AM intersects DC in E. The perpendicular from D to AM inter-

~ts AM in F. The inch-length of AB is 4. The inch-length of EF is ~a/b.where a and b are relatively prime positive integers. Find a and b and give the answer in the form (a,b).

10.7.50

Solve for the real values of x: 12x - 11 + Ix-21 = 4.

21

NCIML PROBLEMS 1969 - 1970

11.6.46 The mean (average) of the numbers in a set of 3n numbers is 50. The set is subdivided into two disjoint sets, one containing 2n

of the numbers, the other containing the remaining n numbers. The mean of the numbers in the larger subset is twice the mean of the numbers

in the smaller. Find the mean of the numbers in the smaller subset.

12.7.13 In how many different ways can a convex hexagonal region be dissected into four triangular regions by three diagonals?

13.,6.07 Find positive integral values for x, y, and z such that x < y (32 + 42 + x2) is the square of an integer, and 32+ 42 + x2 + y2 _ z2 Give answers in the form (x,y,z).

14.6.30 ABCD is a square. Semi-circles are drawn in the interior of the square, one on each side of the square as diameter. This forms a four-leaf clover whose area is 72(11- 2) square inches. Find the inchlength of AB.

15.7.39 Given: n = «p+1)/p)P, m = «p+1)/p)p+1, and p = 10. Find the value of mn - nm. (Tha~ is, find the integral value of the given expression explicitly.)

16.7.08 How many positive integers equal to or less than 3,300 are divisible by neither 3 nor 5 nor 11?

17.7.51 Each edge of a cube is 5 inches long. Three faces of the cube having a common vertex are each subdivided into 25 congruent squares (each one inch on a side.) In each of these faces the second and fourth squares along each diagonal are chosen. Starting at the chosen squares, square tunnels are excavated through the cube, perpendicular to its face. What is the volume (in cubic inches) of the solid that is left?

18.7.22 Find the (integral) value of 12 _ 22 + 32 _ 42 + ... +1992, where the dots represent the missing squares that are added and subtracted alternately.

19.6.16 The unit length of a plane rectangular coordinate system is 1 inchA The area of the intersection of the regions determined by

x2 + y'-;' 36 and y~3 is a1"r- bJ3. Find a and b and give the answer in the form (a, b).

20.6.66 In a collection of rectangular tiles some have a width of 3 inches and a length of 5 inches. All the others have a width of 7 inches and a length of 11 inches. The number of smaller tiles is a multiple of 5. The number of inches in the sum of the widths of all tiles is 114. What is the number of inches in the sum of their lengths?

21.5.05 What is the smallest positive integral value of x at which

x2 + x + 41 is not a prime?

22.7.09 The base of an isosceles triangle is 60 feet long and each leg is 50 feet long. Circles are drawn, with the vertices of the triangle as centers, that are externally tangent to each other in pairs. Find, in feet, the radius of a fourth circle that is externally tangent

22

NCIML PROBLEMS 1969 - 1970

(conr . )

to each of the other circles.

23.6.21 The gravitational attraction between two objects, in appropriate units, is given by the expression kmM/d2 where m and M are their respective masses, d is the distance in miles between them and k is a constant. A rocket is shot from the earth to the moon. At how many miles from the moon do the earth and the moon exert equal attractions on the object? (A$ume the earth-moon distance is 230,000 miles, and the earth's mass is 81 times that of the moon, and that both earth and moon are stationary.)

24.6.00 The unit length of a plane rectangular coordinate system is 1 cm. Find the area, in square cm., of the region of the square that circumscribes the ellipse whose equation is x2/25 + y2/9 = 1. (Assume the coordinate axes contain the diagonals of the square.)

25.7.05 What is the least value (x+12+J.3)(x+I:2-J3)(x-J2+J3)(x-12-V3) can have if x represents a real number?

26.7.56 Consider the set of all 5 digit numerals, each one using all the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 in some order. Assume that they are arranged in order of numerical value starting with least value. What is the 55th numeral in this sequence?

27.6.00 Rectangle PQRS is inscribed in rectangle ABCD, with P in DA, Q in AB, R in BC, and S in CD. The inch-lengths of AB and BC are 6 and 10 respectively. If P is distinct from A and AP < 5, what are all the possible values of AP, in inches?

28.6.55 For what real number values of x will the relationship o < x2 - 4x < 5 be true?

29.6.15 Angle C of triangle ABC is an acute angle. Squares BDEC and ACFG are drawn in the exterior of the triangle. The distance between the centers of the squares is 8 inches. Find FB to the nearest tenth of an inch.

30.6.72 Find a and b in y = alx-11 + blx+11 , if the equation is satisfied by (x,y) = (2 2) and also by (x,y) = (-2,-2). Give the answer in the form (a,b~.

NCIML PROBLEMS 1970 - 1971

1.4.55 Assume that for the real numbers A, B, C in that order, subtraction is associative. What are the possible values of C?

2.6.12 face is an edge bound a

Each edge of a cube is 2 inches long. The center of each joined by line segments to the centers of those faces that have in common with it. This determines 8 triangular regions that solid. Find, in cubic inches, the volume of that solid.

3.5.A (corrected) Given: (1/x2) + (1/y2) = a~,~and xy = a (a I 0). (x+y) expressed in terms of a takes the form aP~2 + aq, where p and q are numbers. Find p and q and express, in the form (p,q).

23

NCIML PROBLEMS 1970 - 1971

4.6.14 The perimeter of an isosceles triangle is the square of the altitude to the base. W4at is the smallest possible area of this region if both altitude and the area are positive integers?

5.4.42 A = 1+x+x2; B = 1_x+x2; C = 1+x_x2; D = 1_x_x2, D ~an be expressed as (aA+bB+CC), where a, b, and c are numbers. Find the values of a, b, and c and express your answer in the form (a,b,c).

6.4.32 A man travels m miles at the rate of 2 minutes per mile, and he returns to his starting point, along the same path, at the rate of 2 miles per minute. Find the average rate in miles per minute for the entire trip. (Answer must be expressed as ~ rational number in simplest form.)

7.7.02 A strip of uniform width is cut from each side of an equilateral triangular cardboard, leaving a smaller equilateral triangular cardboard whose area is three fourths of that of the original. Find the ratio of the width of the strip to the length of the original side, expressed as a decimal fraction, correct to the nearest hundreth.

8.5.10 Let f be the function that increases a number by b, b # 0

and b the function that calls for the reciprocal of a number. For each of certain values of b the equation f(g(x)) = g(f(x)) has a unique solution. Find these values of b.

9.7.22 In a certain rectangular coordinate system whose unit distance is 1 inch, three lines have respective equations of y = 0,

y = 1, and y = 3. Find, in square inches, the area of the region of an isosceles right triangle whose right angle vertex is on the line y = 1, and whose other vertices are on the other two lines, that is, one on the line y = 0 and the other on the line y = 3. Give your answer in the form alb, where a and b are relatively prime integers.

10.4.41 Let aO=l, a1=3, and an+2=2an+1 +3an• Express the value of a5B as a power of 9.

11.5.19 There are seven three-digit numerals that represent squares of integers and are such that when each is divided by the sum of its digits, the quotient is also the square of an integer. Four of

these numerals are 100, 144, 400, 900. What are the other three?

12.7.04 Two circles meet at A and D. A line through D cuts the circles in points B andC such that D bisects BC. Find the inch measure of the radius of the smaller circle if the inch measures of AB, AD, and~C are /7, 3, Jl9 respectively. Express the answer in the form v'a7b where a and b are relatively prime integers.

13.5.36 The sum of n numbers is s. Each member of the set is decreased by 4, each resulting difference is then multiplied by 4, and finally each product is increased by 4. The sum of the final results is (as + bn). Find a and b and express your answer in the form (a,b).

14.6.01 In isosceles trapezo~BCD, AB is the longer base. The inch lengths of AC and AB are vq68 and 23 respectively, and the

24

NCIML PROBLEMS 1970 - 1971

(cont.) length of AD, DC, and CB are the same. Find, in square inches, the area of the trapezoidal region.

15.6.09 + 6x -y

Find all positive integers x and y, if any, such that xy _x2 = 11. Give your answer(s) in the form (x,y).

16.6.14 The infinite decimal x-.xOxlx2x3 ... is fOlffied as follows: take xO-3, then for n~l take the least positive remainders upon dividing xO+xl+x2+x3+ ... +xn-l by 9. Find the value of x, expressed as a fraction whose terms are relatively prime positive integers.

17.6.02 In right triangles ABC and DEF, five parts of triangle ABC are congruent to five parts of triangle DEF, but the triangles are not congruent. Find, to the nearest tenth, the ratio of the length of the hypotenuse of triangle ABC to the length of its shorter leg.

18.6.79 One candle is twice as long as another. The longer candle burns down in 4 hours, but the shorter burns down in 6 hours. They are lit at the same time. In how many hours will they (first) have the same length?

19.6.03 In triangle ABC the bisector of angle C intersects AB in D. If the measure of angle C is 1200 and the inch-measures of AC and BC are 6 and 8, find the inch-measure of CD, expressed in the form alb, where a and b are relatively prime integers.

20.7.02 Solve for x and y. «1 + J5)/2)2x + «1

«1 + J5)/2)x + «1

15)/2)2y = 2 {S)/2)y

= 1

Express the solution in the form (x,y) where x and y have the form (a + b(5)/c, with a, b, and c as integers.

21.7.11 How many integers are there between 40,001 and 50,000 that are squares or cubes, but not both?

22.6.15 Each side of an equilateral triangle is trisected, and on the middle section of each side, and equilateral triangle is drawn in the exterior of the triangle. The middle sections are then erased leaving a sixpointed star. Each side of the star is trisected and equilateral triangles are drawn in the exterior of the figure on each middle section. The middle sections are then erased. This operation is performed two more times. Find, in inches, the perimeter of the last figure if each side of the original triangle measures 3 inches. Express answer in the form alb, where a and b are relatively prime

positive integers. - -

23.6.20 In the non-terminating decimal .123450123450012345000 ... the number of zeros in each repetition increases by one. What is the digit in the l700th place?

24.7.07 In acute triangle ABC, angle A equals 45 degrees, altitude AD measures 10 inches! and BE and CF are altitudes. Find the perimeter (in inches) of triang e DEF.

NCIML PROBLEMS 1970 - 1971

25

25.7.40 Find the value of (x-3y) if x and yare real numbers and x2+y2=4x-6y-13.

26.8.24 In the equations (st)p = s 1 0 e s (ts)p = eel pit

all letters represent digits in decimal numerals. Digits are different if and only if their letters are different. Find the number represented by st.

27.6.29 The area of a circular region is doubled when its radius f is increased by n. Express to the nearest tenth, the ratio of r to n.

28.5.25 Assuming that it exists and is positive, express

V5Ys~

(where ... means: "and so on endlessly") as a decimal numeral, to the nearest tenth.

29.6.22 A one-inch line segment is mutilated in stages as follows:

In the first stage the middle third of the segment is discarded. In the second stage the middle third of each of the two remaining segments is discarded. In each succeeding stage the middle third of each rernrunlig segment is discarded. After the (n-1)the stage the sum of

the lengths of the ~lig segments is greater than .01 inch, but after the nth stage the sum of the remaining segments is less than

.01 inch. Find n. (Approximations are as follows: log 2 = .301, log 3 = .477).

30.6.05 How many times does 2 apEear as a factor in the smallest integer that is greater than (4 + 2~)6?

NCIML PROBLEMS 1971 - 1972

1.5.44 The number of dollars in a check is represented by a two-digit numeral and the number of cents by the numeral with the same digits, reversed. If the dollars numeral is interchanged with the cents nu - meEa1, the value of the check, measured in cents, is decreased by a number represented by a numeral whose units digit is 3. What was the original amount of the largest such check?

2.6.16 For what real values of a and t does the system have an infinite solution set? Give answer in the form (a,t). x = 3 + ty ,

Y = 2 + tz , z = a + tx.

3.6.17 Each 9f the medians AA' and BB' to the legs of isosceles triangle ABC fS 12 inches long. They intersect at G and the measure of angle A'GB is 60 degrees. The area of triangular region ABC, in square inches, is k root(3). Find k.

4.5.21 The number x varies directly as the square of y and inversely as the cube of z. Let xl be the value of x when (y,z) = (Y1,zl) and x2 be the value of x when (y,z) = (2Yl,2z1)' Find the ratio x1:x2 in terms of relatively prime positive 1ntegers.

5.6.08 In triangle ABC, the inch lengths o~B, CA, AB are 3, 4, 5 respectively. A circle, in the ha1fp1ane of]Jf opposite C is tangent

26

NCIML PROBLEMS 1971 - 1972

(cont.) to AlB, Cl, and ~ (extended if necessary). Find the inch length of the radius of the cird1e.

6.6.79 Three distinct positive integers are such that the sum of any two is exactly divisible by the third. The largest is 36. What are the two smaller integers?

7.6.29 Express x in terms of a and y if Y = 10ga{x + sqr{x2+1», where a :/: 1, a greater than zero.

8.7.* The bases of an isosceles trapezoid are sqr(2) and 2 sqr(2) inches long, and its diagonals are perpendicular to each other. The radius, in inches, of the circle circumscribed about the trapezoid is 6qr(k»/2. Find k.

9.7.13

Express as a fraction in lowest terms the infinite series

1 + 1/3 - 1/9 - 1/27 + 1/81 + 1/243 - 1/729 ~ ...

where two positive numbers and two negative numbers alternate as shown, and the absolute value of the ratio of consecutive terms is ~/3.

10.6.03 In a circle, with radius of 10 inches, chord AB intersects diameter CD at right angles at E so that DE is greater than EC. The midpoint of AE is F and DF intersects the circle again at G. The length of GF is k·sqr(17), where k is a rational number in lowest terms. Find k if AB is 16 inches long.

11.6.03 A triangular number Tn is defined by Tn = 1+2+3+ ..• +n. For instance, T4 = 1+2+3+4 = 10 is a triangular number. Find the two smallest triangular numbers, greater than 1, that are also squares of integers.

12.5.24 The sum of the first two terms of an infinite geometric progression is 4, and the first term is equal to the sum of all the other terms. Find the first term.

13.6.24 Each of the sides in triangle ABC is 12 sqr(3) inches long. Points D, E, and F respectively in BA, BC, CA are such that ED is perpendicular to AB, EF is perpendicular to BC and FD is perpendicular to CA. Find the perimeter, in inches, of triangle DEF.

14.5.68

Find all values of x such that Ixl + 2 = Ix-21.

15.4.63 Given circle C1 with radius 10 inches long. Of two parallel lines 8 inches apart, one passes through the center of C1. Circle

C2 is externally tangent to C1 and to each of the two lines. Find, in inches, the distance between the centers of C1 and C2.

16.5.32 contains

Each of the arithmetic sequences 1,5,9, ..•. and 2,9,16 .... 142 terms. How many terms do they have in common?

17.5.24 The first term in a geometric sequence is root(2) and the second is cube root(2). Find the tenth term, expressed as a decimal numeral to the nearest tenth.

27

NGIML PROBLEMS 1971 - 1972

18.7.29 ABCDE is a regular pentagon. AC and AD intersect BE in F and G respectively. The inch-length of AB is 10. Find the length of FG to the nearest inch.

19.5.45 Let x and y represent non-zero real numbers. For what v~lues of (x,y) does (4xy)/(2x-3y) have no value while (4x249y2_72)/(x2+y2) has the value of zero?

20.5.24 In tria~gle ABC, D is the midpoint of AC~and E is the trisection point of BD nearer B. Line CE intersects AB in F. What fractional part of AB is BF?

21.6.02 For some positive integer values of n, n8_n2 is divisible by 504. Finq the three smallest integer values of n, greater than 2, for which n8-n2 is NOT divisible by 504.

22.5.57

Solve for x ifax2 + bx + c = 0, a+b+c = 0, c=3a, and a ~ o.

23.6.05 Circle C1, inscribed in a square, has a radius 6 inches long. Circle C2 is tangent externally to C1 and to two adjacent sides of the square. (The center of C2 is in the interior of the square). Find, to the nearest hundredth of an inch, the radius of C2.

24.5.27 Assuming thatvl2Ji6J'2J16 ... (where 2 and 16 alternate) is a real number, express it as a decimal numeral.

25.6.15 Vertex A of square ABCD is on the positive y-axis of a rectangular coordinate system: vertex B is on the positive x-axis;

and vertex C has coordinates (17,5). What are the coordinates of vertex D?

26.6.* - Find the decimal numeral whose units digit is 5 that represents the smallest integer, greater than 100, having the form 72n + 2.7n + 2, where n is a positive integer.

27.5.* Let a,b,c,d,e represent distinct numbers. Which is the least if:(a+b) + la-bl = 2a; (b+C) + Ib-cl = 2b; (c+d) - Ic-dl = 2c;

(d+e) - Id-el = 2d.

28.6.* The lengths of two sides of a parallelogram that include acute angle are root(a) and root(c) units, and the related region an area of (1/2 )root (4ac-b2,) square units. Express the cosine of included angle in terms of a, b, c.

29.5.* In a blend of two kinds of grass seeds, A and B, 80% of A will germinate, 'and 90% of B will germinate, and 82% of the blend will germinate. Find, in lowest terms, the ratio of the amount of seed A to that of seed B.

an has the

30.5.* Median BD of triangle ABC is prolonged to E so that DE = (1/3)BD. If EC measures 10 inches, find the length, in inches, of the median from A.

28

NCIML PROBLEMS 1972 - 1973

1.5.11 Arrange the digits 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 in all possible orders so that the five-digit decimal numeral formed represents a number that when divided by 55 gives a reminder of zero. There are four answers.

2.6.11 Given the sequence 3/2,3/4,9/8,15/16,33/32,63/64,129/128 .•.. Express the nth term in terms of n in a single expression.

3.6.21 Given rectangle ABCD C is the midpoint of AE and the inchlength of BE and DE are root(45) and root(30) respectively. The inchlength of AC is root(k). Find k.

4.6.06 Let the roots of x2-ax+b = 0 be c and d where cd~O. Find the equation whose roots are c - (lid) and d - (l/c). Give answer in the form x2 -fiX +n = 0, where m and n are in terms of a and b.

-- -+

5.6.04 ABCD is a square. A line intersects BC, CD, AB and DA in

points E,F, G, and H, respectively. The inch-length of AB is 28/root(k). Find k, if EF, FG, GH are 2, 4, and 1 respectively.

6.4.42 Represent 1 by using only three fives and a minus sign. That is, use 5, 5, 5, -.

7.5.49 Marbles are sold in two packets of different size, one containing x marbles and the other y marbles. An order for a total of 207 marbles is to be sent in 17 packets of the first kind and 7 packets of the other. Find x and y. Give your angwer in the form (x,y).

8.6.10

Solve for all real values of x: (x2+5x+6)2 = 5x2+25x+24.

9.6.21 An isosceles trapezoid is circumscribed about a,circ1e whose radius is 3 root(3) inches. The inch-length of the longer base is 18. The area of the trapezoidal region, in square inches, is k root(3). Find k.

10.6.26 Given a right triangle ABC, with right angle at C. Squares ACDE and CBGF are drawn in the exterior of triangle ABC. EB intersects AC and AG in H and I respectively. - AG intersects CB in J. The area of region AlB is 24 square inches. Find the area, in square inches,

of region HIJC.

11.5.47 Find all numbers whose two-digit decimal representation is such that the number is three times the product of the two digits.

12.5.28 Solve for x if log x + l/(log x) = 5/2, and the base of the logarithms is 10.

13.6.11 In parallelogram ABCD, E is in AD such that the inchmeasure of AE is 8. The inch-measure of BC is 12. If AC and BE intersect in F and the line parallel to·BC through F intersects AB in G, find the inch-measure of FG.

14.6.32 The value of x + (l/x) = a1/3. Find the value of x3 + 1/x3 in terms of a.

29

NCIML PROBLEMS 1972 - 1973

15.6.37 In triangle ABC, the medians are such that (AD)2+(BE)2+(CF)2 = 48. If AB, BC, and CA represent the inch-lengths of the respective sides of the triangle, find the value of (AB)2 + (BC)2 + (CA)2. (Note:

AD, BE and CF are the medians.)

16.6.56 A has 3 pounds of apples and B has 5 pounds of apples. All of these apples are divided e.qua11y among A, B, and a third man, C, who paid 40 cents for his share. How should the 40 cents be divided between A and B?

17.5.33 The circle inscribed in right triangle ABC is tangent to the hypotenuse AB at D. The area in square iuches of the circular region is knif the lengths of AD and DB are 3 and 10 inches respectively. Find k.

18.6.35

The expression

V8 + 2ill

+ V8 - 2ill

v'8 + 2m

../8 - 2m

(where all the square roots are positive) is equal to root(k), where k is a rational number. Find k.

19.5.52 Two men 54.5 miles apart set out at the same time to meet each other. The first walks at the steady rate of 5 miles per hour. The second walks 2 miles per hour for the first hour, 2 1/2 miles per hour for the second, and so on, increasing his speed 1/2 mile per hour each hour. In how many hours will they meet?

20.5.36 The midpoints of the sides of triangle I are joined forming triangle II. The midpoints of the sides of triangle II are joined forming triangle III. In the same way the triangles in the continuing infinite sequence triangle IV, triangle V , etc. are formed. The area of triangle I is 1. Find the sum of the areas of all the triangles forming the infinite series triangle I + triangle II + triangle III + triangle IV +.... •

21.5.09 x and yare digits in the decimal numeral 384y30x and the number it represents is divisible by 36. Find all possible values of x and y, expressing your answers in the form (x,y).

22.6.24 Let f(x)=10x2-29x+10. For what real values of x does f(x + (l/x» = O?

23.5.15 Point X is in AD of square ABCD and the perpendicular to CX at C meets AB in Y. The area of the triangular region CXY is to the area of square 4region ABCD as 5:8. Find the ratio of CD:DX.

24.6.17 Find the distance, in terms of the unit length of a rectangular coordinate system, between the graphs of 3x+4y = 12 and 3x+ 4y = 24.

25.5.60 A square whose congruent squares, and a squares. The sum of the regions is kfr if n = 50.

side is 12 inches long is subdivid~d into n2 circle is inscribed in each of the smaller areas, in square inches, of all the circular

Find k.

30

NCIML PROBLEMS 1972 - 1973

26.6.12 A positive integer N whose decimal numeral representation consists only of 9's, is divisible by 19. How many 9's are there in its representation if N is the least possible number?

27.5.45 The equation 3x2-4x+k - 0 has real roots. For which value of k is the product of these roots maximum?

28.5.65 ABCD is a square whose center is E and whose side is 12 inches long. The sides EF and EH of a congruent square EFGH contain C and D respectively. Find the area, in square inches, of region CFGHDC.

29.6.07 If each of four numbers is added to the average of the other three, the respective sums are 28, 32, 40, and 44. Find the four numbers.

30.5.33 The area of a regular dodecagon region is 300 square inches. The area in square inches of the circumscribed circular region is

rrk. Find k.

NCIML PROBLEMS 1973 - 1974

1.6.52 When expressed as a decimal numeral, (3259)n - (2487)n ix an integral multiple of 10. What is the greatest positive value of n, less than 50, for which this is true?

2.5.50 Given the sequence ITo, VtQ2, MQ3, ... ,00n , find the largest value of n for which the product of the first n terms is less than 1,000,000.

3.6.14 The midpoints of the sides of triangle ABC have coordinates (-1,-2), (1,2), and (4,-1). What are the coordinates of the vertices?

4.6.57 Given xl = 1, x2 = 3, and for all n ~ 3, xn = 2·xn_1 - xn_2. Find x100.

5.5.10 If logab2 + logba2 = 5, then b can be expressed in terms of a in two distinct ways. Find them. (a and b are positive)

6.5.21 The first fifteen positive integers expressed as base twelve numerals are multiplied. How many consecutive zeros are there at the end of the product?

7.5.43 Given that f(x) = x2 + 2x + 3, and xl and x2 are such that f(x1+x2) = f(x1) + f(x2). Find the value of X1x2.

8.6.03 In triangles ABC, D is in AB such that AD:DB = 2:3, and E

is in BC such that BE:EC = 2:3. AE and DC intersect in F. Find (DF /FC) + (EF /FA) .

9.6.13 Each side of square Sl is a inches long. Trisection points of its sides are joined to form a second square S2, the vertices of S2 lying in the sides of Sl. Trisection points of sides of S2 are joined to form a third square, S3, in a similar manner. This is

31

NCIML PROBLEMS 1973 - 1974

(cont.) repeated without end. Express the sum of the areas of regions Sl' S2' S3' ... as a single expression.

10.6.16 Let m be the line with equation y =x, and P the point coordinates (2,0). Two points on m, with P, are the vertices of an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of this t~iang1e, terms of the unit length of the coordinate system, isVk. Find

with

in k.

11.6.29 Consider one solution of 3x + 5y = 842 to be one pair of values (X,yf) that satisfy the equation. How many solutions are there if both x and yare to be positive even integers?

12.5.39 What are the values of p and q if x3 - x2 + px + q is divisible by x-3 and x-2? Give your answer in the form (p,q).

13.7.46 ABCD is a parallelogram. E,is in AC such that BE intersects CD in F and AD in G. Find the inch length of BE if the inch lengths of EF and FG are 7 and 21 respectively.

14.6.29 Find the sum of the infinite progression whose nth term is (2n + 3n)/(6n), when n = 1, 2, 3, ....

15.5.33 The square of the difference between the roots of the equation x2 - 2ax + k = 0 is 36. Express k in terms of a.

16.5.27 Find, in terms of n, the sum of n consecutive odd integers starting with n(n-1) + 1.

17.6.21 Shortly after 5, the hands of a clock form an angle of 110 degrees. Within the hour this happens a second time. Find the number of minutes that elapsed between these two occurrences.

18.6.20 AB is a chord 6 inches long in a circle with center ° and radius 8 inches. As AB is rotated about 0, its trisection point describes a path. Find the ratio of the area of the region bounded by this path to that of the region of the given circle.

19.5.07 For what real values of k will x2 - (3k+1)x + 3k = 0 have rational roots?

20.6.10 Given isosceles triangle ABC with base BC. D is in BA, E is in CA and F is in AB (between D and A) such that CB = CD = ED = EF = FA. Find the measure of angle A in degrees.

21.6.10 The sum of the first 40 terms of an arithmetic progresseion is half the sum of the next 40 terms. Find the ratio of the first term to the common difference.

22.4.32 Given the equations x2 + ax + b = 0 and x2 - ax + c = O. The larger root of the second equation exceeds the larger root of the first by 3, and the smaller root of the second equation also exceeds the smaller root of the first equation by 3. Find a.

23.5.25 In isosceles triangle ABC the d~gree meas~re of th~ ver~ex angle A is 30, and the inch length of AB ~s 12. D ~s the tr~sect~on

32

NCIML PROBLEMS 1973 - 1974

(cant.) point in BC nearer B, and the parallels through D to AC and AB intersect AB and AC respectively in E and F. Find the area, in square inches, of region AEDF.

24.5.32 The expression 1 + 1/(2 + 1/(1 + 1/(2 + ... ~here 1 and 2 alternate in the continued fraction) is equal to (1 + Vk)/2. Find k.

25.5.48 In parallelogram ABCD point E is taken in AB such that AE:EB = a:(l-a). The parallel to ED through B intersects CD in F, and the parallel to BD through F intersects CB in G. Find the ratio of BG:GC in terms of a.

26.5.39 Find a four digit numeral greater than 1000 that represents a cube in base n, for all n such that n~4.

27.6.02 A watch loses 2 minutes each day. It is set right on January 1 at 9:00 AM. Exactly how many minutes should be added on January 4th when the watch reads 12 noon to obtain the correct time?

28.6.09 In isosceles triangle ABC, D is a point on le~, an~

E is in base BC such that BD = BE. The intersection of DE and AC is F. If AD = DF, find what fractional part of a right angle is

the measure of angle A.

29.6.11 Find an equation of the form x2 + px + q = 0 su~h that each of its roots is respectively 3 more than twice those of x + ax + b = O. (p and q are to be expressed in terms of a and b).

30.6.04 One of the angles made by two lines AB and CD measures 300• A point X moves along such a path that the sum of its distances to AB and CD is 6 inches. Find the area of the region bounded by that path.

33

NCIML PROBLEMS 1974 - 75

1.4.40 Find the integer between 901 and 999 that has an odd number of integral divisors. (The number itself and 1 are to be considered divisors of the number.)

2.6.04 Solve for (x, y) if x2 + y2 + x + y = 6 and xy + x + Y = -1.

3.6.05 Diameter BC of a circle is 20 inches long. point of the circle such that BD is 16 inches long. C and D meet at F. Find the inch-length of DF.

Point D is a

The tangents at

4.6.05 Three rational numbers (a, b, c) are 'such that they form a geometric progression whose sum is 7/3. The sum of their reciprocals is 21/4. Find all possible values for (a, b, c).

5.5.30 Given triangle ABC. The feet of the perpendiculars from A to the bisectors of angles Band Care D and E. Line DE intersects AC and AB in X and Y. What part of the area of region ABC is the area of region AXY? (Give answer in simplest form alb where a and bare integers. )

6.5.38 A number N, represented by a four digit decimal numeral, can be expressed as the sum of three numbers; the first of which can be represented by a two-digit decimal numeral, the second is ten times the first, and the third is ten times the second. Find the value of N if it is divisible by 73.

7.6.39 Circles Cl, C2 and C3 have collinear centers with that of C2 between those of Cl and C3. C2 passes through opposite ends of a diameter of Cl and also through opposite ends of a diameter of C3. The inch-lengths of the radii of the respective circles are 3, 5, and 4. Find the inch-length of the segment between the centers of Cl and C3.

8.5.11 Express x in terms of y if y = (Jx+l + Jx-l)/( Jx+l - Jx-l) 9.6.22 Find all values of (x, y) for which x2 - y2 - 2x + 2y = 0 anc 3x2 - 5xy + 2y2 - x + y = O.

10.6.14 In isosceles triangle ABC, D is the point in base BC such that BD:DC = 5:1. Find the sum of the inch-distances from D to line AB and from D to line AC, if the inch-lengths of AB and BC are respectively 13 and 10.

11.5.10 Let S be the set of integers 1, 2, 3, 4, ... , n. If a is any element of Sand b is any element of S, express in terms of n the sum of the products of all possible multiplications of the form a-b.

12.7.33 Nine quarts of wine are removed from a container of wine and replaced by the same amount of water. From this mixture another 9 quarts are removed and replaced by water. This new mixture then contains 12 quarts of wine. How many quarts of wine were there in the container at the beginning?

34

NCIML PROBLEMS 1974 - 75

13.7.03 In trapezoid ABCD, EF is drawn parallel bases AB and CD so that ABCD is divided into two areas are in the ratio of 7:20. That is, ABFE AB = 10 and CD = 20, find the length of EF.

to and between trapezoids whose EFCD = 7: 2 0 . If

14.7.33 f and g are linear functions such that for all x, f(g(x)) = x. Express f(x) in terms of x if f(O) = -2 and g(4) = 2.

15.7.07 In parallelogram ABCD, the inch-length of AD and AB are 2 and 4 respectively, and the measure of angle A is 30. Squares are drawn on each side of ABCD, in the exterior of the parallelogram, and their centers are joined to form a quadrilateral. Find the area, in square inches, of the quadrilateral region.

16.6.17 Let a, b, c, d be four distinct decimal digits, none of them zero, and let S be the set of all the four-digit numerals capable of being formed with these digits using each digit only once in each numeral. The average of the numbers in S is 4166.25. Find the value of a + b + C + d.

17.5.23 Solve for (x, y) if alx + a2Y = a3 and a4x + a5Y = a6' aI' a2' a3' a4' a5' a6 form an arithmetic progression, are distinct, and al "I O.

18.5.36 In triangle ABC, angle C is a right angle, and D is in AB such that CB = BD, and E is the foot of the perpendicular from D to CA. Find the inch-length of CE if the inch-lengths of AC and BC are 6 and 8 respectively.

19.5.58 Solve for x if

(3x-2)2 - (2x-3)2)/(x-l)2 = O.

20.6.09 write the equation, in the form x2 + px + q = 0, whose roots are those of x2 + 2x + 2 = 0 each increased by the reciprocal of the other.

21.6.61 The sum of two fractions, whose demonimators are 7 and 3, is 58/21, and the product of their numerators, both positive integers, is at maximum. Find the fractions.

22.5.10 Solve for (x,.Y2 where x and yare RATIONAL numbers and x ./3 - 2y J3 + 1 = 5.J3 + x - y + 6.

23.5.05 In triangle ABC, the inch-lengths of AB and BC are 6 and 8 respectively. The bisector of angle B intersects the median from A in D, and ray CD intersects AB in E. Find AE:EB.

24.7.23 A commuter was accustomed, on returning from work, to arrive at his station at 6 o'clock, where he would be met by his wife and driven home by car. His wife starts out unfailingly to arrive at the station exactly on time for his train. One day the commuter arrived at the station at 5 o'clock and started walking toward his home. On the way home he met his wife and arrived home 20 minutes earlier than usual. For how many minutes did the commuter walk?

35

NCIML PROBLEMS 1974 - 75

25.6.03 In right triangle ABC, the inch-lengths of legs AC and BC are 20 and 15 respectively, and M is the center of the inscribed circle. Let the tangent to circle M that is parallel to the hypotenuse AB intersect the legs in E and D. Find the inch-length of ED.

26.4.54 by 7.

27.5.41 that the endless,

Find all positive integers n for which 2n - 1 is divisible

If x + ../x +../ x + ~x + ... ; = 2, where the dots indicate operations consisting of a square root and an addition are then x = k - ~. Find k ,

28.5.56 ABCD is a square each of whose sides has inch-length a. With Band D as centers and radius a, quadrants are drawn inside the square meeting BD in E and F. The inch-length of EF is ak - a~. Find k.

29.6.31 Solve for (x, y) if x + IYI = 1, and y + 'xl = 1, where

lal is a when a = 0 or is positive, and lal is -a when a is negative.

-

30.7.24 AB is a quadrant of.Jr circle with center 0 and radius 12

inches long. Point C is in AB such that the measure of AC is 60 degrees. D is in 6B such that OD = CD. The area, in square inches, of the region bounded by Ac, AD and DC is k (2 Pi -.f"3). Find k ,

NCIML PROBLEMS 1975 - 76

1.6.20 A number, represented by the decimal numeral a91b, is divisible by 22. Find all such numbers. Assume a ~ o.

2.5.69 Find all values of x for which x2 - 6 = Ixl.

3.5.47 ABCD is a face of a cube whose diagonals are AG, BH, CE, DF. Point X is in the interior of face BCGF. Point X is rotated 180 degrees about each of the follpwing three axes in succession: the axis that passes through the centers of (1) ABFE and DCGH, (2) BCGF and ADHE, (3) ABCD and EFGH. In which face does X finally come to rest?

4.5.42 The square of the difference of the roots ofax2 + bx + c = 0, where a ~ 0, is equal to the square of their sum. Find c.

5.6.38 Triangle ABC is equilateral. Points X, Y, and Z are in AB, BC, and CA r e spec t.Lve Ly , such that XY _lBC, yzj_CA, and ZX_lAB. Find the ratio of the area of region XYZ to the area of region ABC.

6.6.10 The terms of a sequence are 4, 0, 4, 0 4, 0, ... where the terms alternate as indicated. Find an expression in terms of n for the sum of the first n terms.

7.5.04 Consider the set of all triangles each of which has sides whose inch-lengths are integers and whose perimeters are each less than 12 inches. If no two triangles in this set are congruent to

each other, what is the largest number of triangles the set may contain?

36

NCIML PROBLEMS 1975 - 76

8.5.18 Solve for all real values of x: 22x - 9.2x-l + 2 = o.

9.5.26 In a rectangular three dimensional coordinate system, the coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are ( ~O,o), (0, ~o) and (0,0,2). The area of the triangle expressed in the square units of the coordinate system is ~ Find k.

10.6.38 Point D is in side AC of triangle ABC, and BD intersects median AM in E. Find the ratio AD: DC if BD bisects AM.

11.5.58 A total of $1500 was distributed in x $1 prizes, y $7 prizes, z $49 prizes and w $343 prizes. Find (x,y,z,w) for which the expression (x+y+z+w) is least.

12.6.0052631578 In trapezoid ABCD, the inch-length of leg AD is 42, and AB : CD = 1 : 2. The parallel to AB through E, a point in AD", intersects Ac, BD, and BC in F, G, and H respectively such that"

EF = FG = GH. Find the inch-length of AE.

13.5.09 The polynomial expression x4 + x3 - 3x2 + x + 1 can be re-expressed as an expression of the form x2 . f(y), where y = x + (l/x). Find the polynomial expression for f(y).

14.5.08* Two parallel congruent chords of a circle are r inches apart, where r is the inch-length of the radius of the circle. The ratio

of the area of the part of the circular region between the chords to the area of the circular region itself can be expressed in the form (aPi + b J3)/(cPi), where a, band c are positive integers. Find, in simplest form, ab/c.

15.6.28 An infinite sequence of points with coordinates (xn'Yn) are generated by starting with (xO,YO) and using the formulas xn = xn-l + (~)n and y = Yn-l + (~)n, n > 1. The sum of the distance, in terms of the coordinate system unit, between successive points, is ~ Find k.

16.6.26 In a group of English, French and Russian diplomats, 80% speak English, 70% speak French and 60% speak Russian. Fifty percent speak English and French, 50% speak French and Russian, and 50% speak English and Russian. What percent of the group speak all three languages?

17.6.59 The system (ax + by = 5) has the solution (x,y) = (4,1). lcx + dy = 7J

The system (ax + by} = 9

Lcx + dyJ= 0 has the solution (x,y) = (3,-1). Find the solution for the system ax + by = 2 and cx + dy = 1.

18.5.32 Find the area, in the square units of a rectangular coordinate system, of the region bounded by the graphs of y = 0, x = 6, and

y = Ix + 31 - Ix - 31 •

19.5.58 A tank can be filled in 2 hours after the "fill" valve only is opened, and emptied in 3 hours when only the "empty" valve is

*The underlined phrase was added to the original problem.

37

NCIML PROBLEMS 1975 - 76

(cont.) opened. When the tank is empty, the "fill" valve is opened for one hour, and then the "empty" valve is also opened. In how many hours after the "empty" valve is opened will the tank be full?

20.6.13 The median AM and the altitude AH of triangle ABC trisect angle A and H is between Band M. The inch-lengths of HM and AC are respectively 3 and J1C. Find k.

21.5.12 An integral multiple of 17 is represented by a decimal numeral that consists of only l's. What is the least number of lIs needed to form the numeral?

22.5.0026 Solve for (x~y,z) if x + y + z = 5, x + y - z = 7 and (x-y) 3 + (y-z) 3 = (x-z).j.

23.7.09 AB is a diameter of a circle whose radius is 6 inches long. X is a point, other than A or B, in one of the semicircles on AB. Let Y be the foot of the perpendicular from A to the bisector of angle AXB. As X moves from A to B, Y describes a path that divides the circular region into two parts. The area, in square inches, of the smaller region is kepi - 1). Find k.

24.7.23 For what values of x does x2 - 4 [x - 11 equal zero?

25.6.05 In triangle ABC, the measure of angle B is 30 degrees and the inch-lengths of AB and BC are 8 and 12 respectively. Squares

are drawn on AB and ~ in the exterior of the triangle. Their centers are X and Y respectively. The inch-length of XY is J1C. Find k.

14A.6.03** In triangle ABC, the inch-lengths of BC and AB are 8 and 6 respectively. Median AM is perpendicular to median CN. Find the inch-length of AC, correct to the nearest tenth.

26.5.83 The decimal numeral ABC represents the number x and CBA represents the number y. Find B if x + Y = 827.

27.6.28 In triangle ABC, E is in AB and AE:EB = 3:2. Point D is in BC and BD:DC = 1:3. AD intersects CE in P. What part of the area of region ABC is that of region CPA?

28.6.63 Eight men can feet thick in 12 ways. feet long, 8 feet high the same.)

build a wall 20 feet long, 6 feet high and 4 In how many days will 24 men build one 200 and 6 feet thick? (Assume rate of progress is

29.6.33 The sum of the squares of the inch-lengths of the sides of a triangle is 36. Find the sum of the squares of the inch-lengths of the medians of that triangle.

30.7.00789 A man left his home between 6 and 7 o'clock and on returning within an hour found that the hands of the clock had exchanged positions. What was the exact time of his departure?

**This problem replaced the original problem 14.

38

NCIML PROBLEMS 1976 - 77

1.6.18 The inch-length of the radius of a sphere is an integer r. Its area (4Pi r2) is aPi square inches and its volume «4/3Pi r3) is bPi cubic inches. Both a and b are integers between 1000 and 9999. Find r.

2.5.17 Let f be a function, which for all a, b (b~ 0), is such that f(a/b) = f(a) + F(b). Find the numerical value of f(ll).

3.5.33 One of the three real roots of x·xl/x = (xx)2 is -1. What are the other two roots?

4.5.28 In triangle ABC, angle A = 30 degrees and angle B = 60 degrees. Equilateral triangle CBD is drawn in the exterior of triangle ABC.

AD intersects CB in E. Find the ratio CE:EB in the form a:b, where

a and b are relatively prime positive integers.

5.6.41 Find the area, in terms of the unit square of a rectangular coordinate system, of the region of points whose coordinates satisfy both y ~ x and I x] + I yl L 4 .

6.6.09 In a group of 250 married couples, two-thirds of the husbands who are taller than their wives are also heavier; three-quarters of the husbands who are heavier than their wives are also taller. There are 30 wives who are both heavier and taller than their husbands.

How many husbands are both heavier and taller than their wives, if no husband is equal to his wife in either height or weight?

7.5.09 In quadrilaterial ABCD, points E, FT G, H are respectively in AB, BC, CD, DA such that AE : EB = DH : HA = 2:1. F is the midpoint of BC, and CG : GD = 1:4. EG and FH intersect in K. Find the ratio HK:KF in the form a:b where a and b are relatively prime positive integers.

8.5.37 For what value of a will more than one value of (x,y,z) satisfy the set of equations 2x - 3y + 2z = 1; 3x - 2y + 3z = 4; x - 4y + z = a.

9.6.03 In trapezoid ABCD, the inch-lengths of bases AB and CD are respectively 10 and 15. The line through the intersection of AC and BD parallel to the bases meets AD in E and BC in F. Find the ratio of the area of region ABFE to the area of region EFCD in the form a:b where a and b are relatively prime positive integers.

19.5.62 Let f be the function that assigns to x the value f(x) =

x + 5x - 12. Find the values of x that are assigned to themselves.

11.6.12 Find three positive integers (a,b,c) that have no common factor, such that a2 + b2 = c2, where c is 8 more than a, and 40 < a < 70.

12.5.21 ABCD is a square. The respective midpoints of AB, BC, ~, DA are E, F, G, H. AIT, RB, CE, DF determine square S. What part of the area of the region ABCD is that of region S?

39

NCIML PROBLEMS 1976 - 77

13.6.1S Given that logS3 = x. Express log412 in the form a + bx, where a and b are rational numbers in simplest form.

14.7.23 Points E and F are trisection points of median AD of triangle ABC, with E nearer A. Rays BE and BF intersect XC in G and H respectively. AG: GH : HC = 2 : p : q. Find (p,q).

15.6.21 Two men walk along a railroad in opposite directions, each at the rate of 20 feet per second. A train rode by one in 2 seconds and the other in 3 seconds. What was the length of the train in feet?

16.5.50 Find the smallest positive integer 'that has exactly nine divisors. The integer itself and 1 are to be considered as two of those nine factors.

17.5.32 In equilaterial triangle ABC, point P is in BC and its distances to AB and AC are respectively 3 inches and 1 inch. Draw AD parallel to BC. Find the inch-distance from P to AD.

lS.6.14 Find the sum of the infinite series 1/3 + 2/9 + 3/27 + .... whose nth term is n/3n•

19.6.1S AB is a diameter of circle P with center 0, and radius OC is perpendicular to AB. Circle A, with center in AB, cuts OA- in D, OC in E, and OB in F. Find the length, in inches, of the radius of P if the inch-lengths of AC, CE, BF are respectively S, 6, 3.

20.7.27 Find the positive integral solution of (9x+6y-l) (3y-4) = 112. Give answer(s) in the form (x,y).

21.4.46 What are all the possible remainders when the square of an integer is divided by 12?

22.7.0025 Given parallelogram ABCD, in which angle A is an acute angle. The feet of the perpendiculars through D to AB and BC respectively, are E and F. Find the inch-length of EF if the inch-lengths of AD, AB, DE are respectively 13, 21, 12.

23.5.05 The nth term, an of a sequence of numbers is determined as follows: al = 1, and for all n > 1, an = 2an_l + 3. Express an

as a function of n.

24.6.63 A quadrilaterial is inscribed in a circle whose radius is 6 inches long and it is also circumscribed about a concentric circle. Find the area4, in square inches, of the quadrilateral region.

25.5.62 Find all values of (x,y,z) such that x+y = 2z; y+z = 2x; and z+x = 2y.

26.5.04 Whether I subtract 12 from x or add 73 to x, the result is the square of an integer. Find all possible values of x.

27.6.0S The sum of the inch-lengths of the three altitudes of an isosceles triangle is 136, and the ratio of the length of the base to

40

NCIML PROBLEMS 1976 - 77

(cont.) the length of a leg is 6:5. Find the area, in square inches, of the triangular region.

28.6.01 The distinct integers a, b, c, in that order, form a geometric progression whose common ratio is an integer. Find all possible (a,b,c) if a+4, b, c form an arithmetic progression.

29.8.05 The bisector of angle A of triangle ABC meets BC in D, and AD is the mean proportional between BD and DC. Find the measure of angle C if the measure of angle A is 60 and the measure of angle B is greater than the measure of angle C.

30.6.23 An errand boy is given x cents and told to spend it all on 5 cent stamps, 9 cent stamps, or a combination of both. This can be done for all x greater than 45. For how many values of x is it not possible to carry out the directions?

41
ANSWERS TO NCIML PROBLEMS
1961 - 1962
1. 9 2. 0 3. 6 4. 23
5. 42 6. 35 7. 31 8. 6
9. 2n+1 10. 40 17/24 3/2
2 - 1 11. 12.
13. 7.3 14. 4/3, 3/4 15. 18 16. 37
17. 3 18. 24 19. 3 20. 8
21. 67,73 22. (a+b ) (b+C) (c+a) 23. 1.24
24. 2b-t6c 25. (12,22) 26. 4,12,26 27. 101
28. 34 29. (1/2)(91/3 + 31/3 + 1) 30. 4
1962 - 1963
1. 111,111 2. -1 3. 3 4. 2 +n 2
m
5. (2,3) 6. 144 7. 15 8. 8
9. 4 10. a-tb 11. 37 12. -6
13. 3750 14. -1(x<3 15. 65 16. 305
17. 13 18. 6251'r 19. x=4., y=3 20. .24
21. 27 22. .16 23. 12 24. 32
25. .32 26. 381 27. 4 28. 7
29. a/2 30. (-1,0) only.
1963 - 1964
1. 10 2. 12 3. -49/16 4. 17
5. -3/8 6. 513 7. 28 8. 5
9. 5,-5 10. 525 11. 31 12. 309
13. 25,-1 14. 130 15. 1/4 (9/10)1/2, (4/3)1/2
~7/9)1/3'
3/2)
16. 0 17. (3,12) , (-),-12) 18. 21
19. 6 20. 98 21. 189 22. 65
23. 20 24. (-1,1),( 2,4 ) 25. 3
26. 35100 27. -2/3 28. 61 29. 4 42

ANSWERS TO NCIML PROBLEMS

1963 - 1964 (cont.) 30. 90

1964 - 1965 1. 54514

5. 4

8. 2

12. 60.34 16. 857142 20. 65

24. 1/2, -1 28. 4.1

1965 - 1966

2. 2,5,18 6. 3

9. 64. 2 13. 43 17. 12 21. 225 25. 11

3. 150

4. 3

7. (-3,4),(7,-2),(1,-6)

10. none

11. 23 15. 9

19. y5 _ 5y3 + 5y

23. -32, 16

27. 20

14. 3, -13/4 18. 20

22. 5

26. 1.6

222

29. (ay-bx) + (az-cx) + (bz-cy) 30. 2,4,1/2,-1/2

1. 137,173; 139,193; 179,197

4. 5 8. 5

12. l/(ab) 16. 22

20. 4

24. (3k-1) /2 28. 1.22

5. 36 9. -5

13. + 150

17.8, -1 21. 97 25. V5 29. 2

1966 - 1967

1. 322 2. b+C-1,b-c+1

4. (x-2)(x-1)(x2 + 3x - 2)

7. (-3+V13)/2 8. 5.9

10. /28+813 14. 30

11. 842 15. 20

2. 80/27 6. 35 10. 564 14. 4 18. 11

22. a2 + b2

3. 18

7. 3,5,9,35 11. 5,7,8,9

15. 18 19. 3- 23. 35 27. + 2

26. 13, 53 30. 24

3. 35.5 5. 27

6. 36,038

9. 4/(x-3) + 3/(x+2)

12. 2a+2_1 16. 27/8

13. 3/64 17. +1.2

ANSWERS TO NCIML PROBLEMS

1966 - 1967 (cont.)

18, 56/9 22. 52 25. 8 29. 4

1967 - 1968 1. 1806

3. 4.7, 1.3 7. 3<x~12 11. 93

15. 8r - 7 18. 441/4 21. 7

25. 3.1

29. (-1,1,0)

1968 - 1969 1. 39

5. 325

9. f(n)

13. n-1

17. 17

21. 11

25. 36/5 29. 0, 4

1969 - 1970 1.11/21

19. 24

23. 32 26. 21 30. 432

20. EF = 6

43

21. 72 and 108

24. (4,3,9),(0,15,1)

27. 2

28. 19,28

2. (2,3),(3~2),(-3,2),(-2,-3),(1/2,1/3),(-1/2,-1/3), (1/3,1/2),(-1/3,-1/2)

4. 25 5. 720

8. a=2, b=6, c=2 9. 3y2_(x_4)2=0 12. (1,3, -2, -3) 13..58

6. (8,6) 10. 1008 14. 210

16.341 17.0,2, 1+2J), 1-2.J)

19. (x+y)(x2~y+y2)(5xy) 20. 25, 17

22.(1,-1,2) 23. 0<r2<4 24. 16

26. 8 30. 16

2. -1, 3

6. 2,223,333 10. 23.1

14. 4x

, 18. a2/2

22. 23, 59, 87 26. 9

30. 945

2. 505

27. 1760

3. 6V2 - 216 7. bf + d 11. 2 (109 +1) 15. 16

19. 307692 23. 28

27. (3/2,1,2)

28. 16

4. $28.00 8. 1: 16 12. 5

16. 2025 20. 48 24. 16 28. 66

222

3. (p,p),(l,p ),(p ,1),(-p ,-1),

44

ANSWERS TO NCIML PROBLEMS

1969 - 1970 (cont.)

(_1,_p2) 4. 12

7. 76

10. -1/3, 7/3 14. 12

18. 19,900 22. 4

26. 32145 29. 11.3

1970 - 1971 1. 0

5. (-1,1,1) 9. 5/2

12. 7/3

16. 37/100 19. 24/7 22. 256/9 26. 28

30. 7

1971 - 1972 1. $96.69 5. 6

9. 6/5

13. 36

17. .5

20. 1/5

8. (6,5), (4,5) 11. 30

15. 0

19. (12,9) 23. 23,000 27. O<AP~ 1 30. (-1,1)

2. 4/3 6. 4/5 10. 925

5. x

6. (101,207), (102,206) , (103,205), (t04,208) .

13 . (12 , 84 , 85 )

17. 81

21. 40

25. -24

9. (52,5) 12. 14 16. 1600 20. 182 24. 68

28. -l<x<O or 4<x<5

3. (3,2)

4. 12

7 .. 04 or 4/100 8. +2 11. 225, 324, 441

13 . (4,-12) 14. 216

17. 1.6 I.E. (1+/5)/2

20. (5+VS)/10, (5-15)/10

23. 4 27. 2.4

2. (-5,1)

6. 12 and 24 10. 12/17 14. x~O

18. 4

21. 6;10;14

24. 10-12 28. 2.2

15. (2,3),(3,1),

(4,1),(7,3).

18. 3

21. 23 25. 11 29. 12

3. 48

4. 2: 1

7. (a2Y-1)/(2aY) 8. 10 11. 36 and 1225 12. 8/3

15. 14

16. 20

19. (3,2),(-3,-2)

22. 1, 3

23. 1.03

ANSWERS TO NCIML PROBLEMS

1971 --1972 (cont.)

24. 4

28. b/(2 ac)

25. (12,17) 29. 4:1

1972 - 1973

1. 28435, 23485, 48235, 43285 2

3. 15 4. x - (a -

5. 65

9. 72 13. 24/5 17. 4

6. 55-5 10. 24

14. a_3a1/3

18. 5/3

21. (0,0),(0,9),(4,5),(8,1)

24. 12/5 28. 108

1973 - 1974 1. 48

4. 199

8. 7/6

12. (-14,24)

3 16. n

20. 20 24. 3 28. 2/7

25. 36

26. 5,769,605 30. 15

27. c

2. (2n _ (_1)n)/2n (a/b»x + (b-2+t1/b» = 0

7. (6,15) 8. -4,-1, (-5+/f3)/2

11. 24, 15 15. 64

19. 6 V2 22. 2) 1/2 26. 18

12. root 10, 100

16. A gets 5¢,

B gets 35¢

20. 4/3

23. 2:1 27. 4/3

29. 6, 12, 24, 30 30~ 100

2. 5

5. a1/2,a2 9. 9a2/4

13. 14

17. 40

21. 41/2 25. (l-a)/a

3. (-4,1),(6,3),(2,-5)

6. 5 7. 3/2

10. 8/3 14. 3/2 18. 7/8 22. 3 26. 1331

11. 28 15. a2_9

19. all rational values

23. 16

27. 4500/719

29. x2 + (2a-6)x + (4b-6a+9) = 0 30. 144

46

ANSWERS TO NCIML PROBLEMS

1974 - 1975 1. 961

2. (-1,2), (-1,-3), (2,-1), (-3,-1)

3. 15/2 5. 1/4

4. (1/3,2/3,4/3) and (4/3,2/3,1/3)

6. 8103

7. 7

8. x = (y2+1)/2y 9. (x,y)

y = x

10. 120/13

11. «n+l) (n/2»2 12. 27

13. 40/3

14. f(x) = 3x - 2

15. 14

16. 15

20. x2+3x+9/2 = 0

17. (-1,2)

18. 24/5

19. -1

21. 10/7 and 4/3

22. -15,-10

23. 3:4

24. 50

25. ED = 25/6 28. 2

26. All multiples of 3

29. [(X,y)IY=l-X, O~x~l

27. 2

30. 12

1975 - 1976

1.

8910, 1914, 3916, 5918

2.

-3, 3

3. BCGF

4. 0

5. 1/3

8. [-1,2~

6.

2n + 1 - (_l)n

7. 15

9.

5

10.

1:2

11. (2,4,2,4) 12. 42/5

13. y2 + y - 5

14. 1

15. 2 16. 40

17. (1,0)

18. 27

19.

3

20.

108

21.

16

22.

(3,3,-1) , (-1,7,-1) , (7,-1,-1)

23.

18

24.

152

14A. 4.5

26. 6

27. 1/2

28. 80

29. 27

30. 37 109/143 after six

1976 - 1977

1. 18

2. 0

4. 1:2

5. 8

9. 44:81

6. 120 10. i -6,2J

7. 8:3

8. -2

11. 45,28,53

12. 1/5 16. 36

13. 1 + (3/2) x 14. (3,5)

15. 240

1976 - 1977 (cont. )
17. 4 18. 3/4 19. 12 20. (5,2)
21. {0,1,4,9} 22. 240/13 23. an = 2n+1 - 3
24. 72 25. all rea1s such that x = y = z 26. 48 and 1776
27. 1200 28. (-1,-3,-9) , (-4,-8,-16) 29. 15
30. 16 48

1. 5.36

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1961-1962

2 (36~ + 2 ( (36)r1 - 36../3»

-z;:- Co T

= 241"r - 18\13

DDD = D(lll) but 111 = 3(37) so

DDD = D(3)(37) therefore DA = 37 or 74 but there does not exist an I such that 74r = 777. Therefore

DDD = 333 and I = 9.

2.5.11

a3 + 1/a3 = (a + 1/a)(a2 - 1 t l/a~ bu t ~ 2 - 1 + 1/ a 2) = (a + 1/ a) - 3 = O. Therefore a3 + 1/a3 = 0

A

r:

3.6.45

E.

1. Area 8CD = 1/2'BC'DE

2. DE BD AC = AIr

3. BD 6

TIA = ~ (Angle bisector thm.)

or BD -6 2

AB"=O+!=~

4. Substituting into 2 DE 2

~ = ~ or DE = 2

4.6.33

3.x-4 = (k(y+5»/~z-5)2 or, k = «3x~4)(z-5) )/(y+5)

Using given information,k = 13. Therefore. 3x-4 = (13)(5).

5.7.06 AP~ 6 BP~6

B

6.4.37

(lOt + u + lOu + t ) - (lOt + u ) - ( lOu + t ) = 106.

Therefore 2t + 20u = 106

(Linear Diophantine Eq )(By A.2) t = 3 and u = 5

7. *.03

Since 1_x2 = (l+x)(l-x) observe that the substitution

A = (1+x)1/5

B = (1_x)1/5

reduces the problem to

A2 + 2B2 = 3AB

A = 2B or A = B

x = 31/33 x = 0 E) C

--------...,.,

8.6.28 I

I I

AGE simi 1ar CG B 1C--=.Iu..J... ~ _ J

AE = 1/3(b) A D

a _ AG 1

n - ~ = 4

Area of AGE = (1/2Kb/3)(h/4) = 144 --z4

9. *.06

EXamne the sequence of partial products:

k f~k)
1 1 3) - 2'£.1 2\.1
2 3 (5) = 24_1 = 222_1
3 15 (17) = 28_1 = 223-1 n n+1

A

Area = 2(area PAB + 2 area segment Note that there are n+1 factors

PA ) in the product.

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1961-1962

10.7.04

E

o

F

Let EF = s then OF = 8/12 and HF = s"2

In triangle OHF:

102 = s2/2 + 2s2; s2 = 40

11.*.52

N1

TIT = N1 X D2

"""'Nr lIT NZ

nz

12.*.63

Let 22x = y, then y2 + 2y - 80 = o and y = 8 since y>O

22x = 23, x = 1.5

13.6.02

OE = x

AE- 5-x X ABC right triangle AC2 _

(AE) (AB) x2.(5-x)(10) thus x=-5+5V-;-

140 ? • 25 tolooro...._-:----W- __ .....,;(QJ;:.:.,.

~I A

A E

o

l~x = y·Q1 or Q1 = x/y Q2·x = y.1 or Q2 = y/x

Q1Q.2 = 1

Also:

Q1-fQ2 = 2 1/12 Then

Q1 = 413 or 3/4. Thus x/y = 4/3 or 3/4.

15.5.10

A 2X C

B

1Y9x2/Z_ (~2 /2 + rr4x2 /2) = 6'frx

x=3

16.5.35

Let: t = tens digit

u = units digit

tu(10t + u ) = 100u + lOu + u t(10t + u) = 111 = 3(37)

lOt + u ='37

17.*.53

Z n +2 _ 2 n + 3 = 4 (2 n) _ 2 n + 3 = 3(2n + 1) thus (2n+2_2n+J)/(2n+l)= :3 for all n.

18.5.65

Two circles intersect at most in two points. Each line intersects the circles in four points. The second line intersects the first line; the third line intersects each of the first two; the four~h line intersects each of the first three. So 2 + 16 + 1 + 2 + 3

B

19.*.20

(x+1)2> 5x - 1 and (x+1)2 < 7x - 3 => x2 - 3x + 2> 0 and x2 - 5x + 4 < O~ (x-2) (x-1) > 0 and (x-4) (x-1) < 0 =>

(x)2 or x(l) and 1<x(4 q x=3 if x is to be an integer.

20.6.26

Ptolemy's Theorem: (E.3.3) (AD)(BC) = (BD)(AC) + (AB)(CD) AD(s) = 3s + 5s

AD = 8

21.5.24

4891 = 4900 - 9 = (70)2 _ (3)2 = (70+3) (70-3).

50

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1961-1962 26.4.13

22.*.19

Observe that:

2

a + ab + be + ca = a(a-tb) +

c(a+b) = (a+c)(a+b)

Factor other expressions similarly by grouping,then the product

is equal to 1)

(a+b)2(b+c)2(c+a)2

23.8.03

A B

Bisect «DAB then AB = AF = FD =1 then ~ABF similar ~DAB

Jl.. 2

T.:I = .l

" = -1 + -IS

24.*.004

Expand both members. The result is equivalent to":

(3ay-2bx)2 + (az~2cx)2 + (3cy-bz)2 =0

then 3ay=2bx, az=2cx, 3cy=bz or x ~ z x or z x

or :: : y_' ~ = a Oc = Ta C("t./~)

ra-zo=1)C Thus q + r = 2b + 6c

l>l4,l)~_ ...... O

25.*.18

~(1,. e.

BC/AC = 4/5. Triangles CBD and CAE are simila~. Therefore, CD/CE = BD/AE = 4/5; (x-4)/(x-2) =4/5. Solve.

1) ~ + z = 23

2) x+z + y = 27 """'T

3) yr + x = 34

By addition: 2(x+y+z) = 84 or x+y+z = 42 from (1): x+y+2z = 46

and so forth

27.7.28

36 = 1 (mod 7) ~ 348 = 1 (mod 7) ~

di'yi~ibili!y_by' I _

35 = 1 (mod 1]) =9 345 = 1 {mod l~. But 33 = 5 (mod l~. Therefore

348 = 5 (mod 11) and 348 -1 is not divisible bv 11.

- - - - _.=...,1 ._

34 = 8 ~od 73) and 32 = 9 (lI}od 73) =+ 36 = -1 €nod 73) ~ 348 = 1 \mod 73) ~ divisibility by 73.

28.6.17

y

96~-ty = 180; x+y = 84 (x+164)/2 = 90; x = 16, Y = 68 and angle Dca = 346•

29.*.16

Use identity: a3_b3 = (a_b)(a2+ab+ b2) Let given denominator be a-b;

multiply by 2 2

a + ab + b

aZ + ab + b2

51

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1961-1962 NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1962-196;

30.7.18 (cont.)

D~ __ F~ ~C

E

A

G

B

Construct 4BEG with measure 600; if EB =x, BG = xV3, EG = 2x, AG =

2x. Then 2

2 (AB)2 = (x(2+J3)) = 8-f4Y3

x = 8-f4~2 _ 4 (2-./3)

(2+13) -

X"" J~-4{i_= J6-n CB= 8-f4V3 =Jb+~

CE = CB - EB =2{2 .-.EF = 4

NCIML SOLUTIONS 1962 - 1963 1.5.25

aaa,aaa = a. ~111~11.1) =

a 111)(1001) =

a 3)(37)(7'(11)(13).

Therefore, a = 1

2.6.29

Given: u2 = 5, u5 = 33 u3 = 2 (u2) + a l = 10 + a

u4 = 2(10+a) + a = 20 + 3a

u5 = 2(20+3a) + a = 40 + 7a = 33 A

3.6.49 let ED=2x then AD=3x 0 J---oo\.

F

AADE rV AEFB _,,) 3x _ EF = 2x ........,\.

rx - n n----'

FB = 4x/3 and BC = 10x/3

AC _ 5 m

E -TOT3 = 'Z

4.6.25

l)ax. + by = m 2) b1 - ai = n

3)a +b =12 2

S~uare 1): (ax) + 2abxy + (by) =

m . 2 ( )2

Sauare 2): (bx) ~ 2abxy + ay =

nL• Add: x'l + y2 = m2 + n2

5.5.46

P

G

Q

x

If PG/PQ = 2/3, then x = x +

~~~~ ~X2-x1) e, (;~1)

x = -1 + 2/3·(7/2-(-1))

x = 2

y = 2 + 2/3·(7/2-2)

Y = 3

6.4.09

Let N be the integer, then

1) 383 = Q1N + R

2) 527 = Q2N + R

3) 815 = Q,:\N + R by subtracfion:

1) from 2): 144 = N(Q2-Q1)

2) from 3): 288 = N(Q3-Q2) 1) from 3): 432 = N(Q3-Q1)

Since Q2-Q1 is an integer>- 1, then N ~ 144 . : . maxiImlm N = 144

52

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1962-1963 .

7.6.05

Let c be the cost of article to Jones.

Jones received c(1+a/100) from Smith, and then paid Smith c(1+a/100)2. Thus net rate of loss = c(1+a/lOO)2 - c(1+a/100) =

c

17 1/4

100

Let x = 1 + a/lOO.

Then x2 - x - 69/400 = 0 (x-23/20)(x~3/20) = 0

x = 23/20 = 1 + a/100

8.6.46

A.

Let AD = CF = BE = x

Then AE = 2x; x + 2x = 24 x = 8

9.5.48

(x/2 + 10) /2 + 10 = x2. Solve it Q 10.5.54

L

.6ADE ~ ABAF

1) AF = DE =&

2) BF = AE = bAD Complete rectangle BFEL

dAEK ~ ABFH ~ l)EK = FH

2) AK = BH

(cont.)

3) BK = HC ABLK ~ ~CGH ==) GH = KL

Thus AF + FH + GH = DE + EK + KL but EK + KL = BF = b .·.AG=a+b

Note:

1) This problem can be done by similar triangles also.

2) If AG is considered to be invariant, consider the case where G = C and E = F. Then AG = AC = DE+BF = a-tb.

11.5.42

(lOt + u) (u ..... 2) = lOOt + lOt + t

= ~(111) = t(3)(37) lOt + u = 37 or 74

in the first case u + 2 = 9 and 37 X 9 = 333.

The other case fails to sattsfy the conditions.

12.7.12

(41/3+21/3)3 + a(41/3+21/3) + b = 0

~ (a-t6) (41/3+21/3) + b + 6 = 0 ~

a= -6, b= -6. 0 C

13.6.05

A

I, II, III are similar triangles. DE = 48, AB = 5/4·(36) = 45

CD = 5/3·(48) = 80 Area = AD/2(AB + CD)

Triangles and 3-4-5 AE = 36.

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1962-1963

53

2x = 16y/3 3x = 27y

By division: x

f. 2 2 (2/3) = 16/81 =

l(x,y) I x +y <100, x and y inte- x = 4, y = 3 gersl is contained in the interi-

or ot a circle of radius 10. 20.6.02

. 67 points in the first

quadrant:

~1,1-9) ~4,1-9) (7,1-7)

2,1-9) 5,1-8) (8,1-5)

3,1-9) ~,1-7) (9,1-4)

9 points on the positive

x-axis.

TOTAL= 4(67+9) + 1 (for origin)

14.6.64

x2-x-2 < x+1 ===-+ x2 -2x-3 < 0 => (x-3)(x+1)(0 ~ -1<x<3

15.6.18

E

A 3

D

c

B 3

F

. Complete right triangle CDF as shown.~ACB ~4BDF ~ BF = 3,

DF = 4 1/2 CD = «CF)2 + (DF)2)

2 '/,..

= (72 + 4 )

16.5.03

17.6.49

Distance from point (x,y) to line ax + by + c = 0:

d = la(x1) + b(Y1) + cl (a2 + b2 )1/2

in this problem:

(cont . )

d = 13(-3) + 2(-3) + 21 (32 + 22)1/2

= root(13)

18.6.32

202 + (40_r)2 80r = 2000; r

2

= r

= 25

19.6.77

A

t

a

Let area ADE = I, area DEFG = II,

area BFGC = III. 2

1/(1+11+111) = x2/a = 1/3 (I+II)/(I+II+III) = (x+ka)2/a2= 2/3 smnce x = a/root{3), 1 + k = (2/3)1/2

7J

54

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1962-1963

769+

or (1-2k)(1-k) = 1/4

k = (3 - {J)/4 = .317+

26.4.46

n(n+1) = 145 542

n L (145,542) 1/2; n+1> (145,542) 1/2

(145,542)1/2 = 381+. Since units digiE of product n(n+1) is 1, try 381 and 382.

27.7.17

21.5.72

13n2<10,000~ n2<10,000/13 = 769+(784 = 282

n<28

22.5.61

2frr1 - 2n'r2 = a

r1 - r2 = a/2n = ka k = 1/2fr

23.6.24

~

20

Law of Cosines:

R2 = 400 + 100 - 2(10)(20)cos(135) = 500 - 400(-1:2/2)

24.7.29

A'B'C' = O. The figure is a line segment with zero area. (degene-

rate triangle) 1/2

ABC = (16(8)(4)(4» ABC = 3212

A'B'C' = 0 k = 32

25.6.14

Ka.
T a

K~

Area of rectangle: (a-2ka)(a~ka) = 1/4·a2

(cont.)

A

s

OP = AP = r/root2 BP = r - r/root2

A = «APr + (PB)2)1/2

= (r2/2 + r2(1_1/root2)2)1/2 given: 2

r sin45°

2 2 = s 1/2

:.r root2 = r(2-fZ)

4 1/2

r = 4(2- /2) 1/2

root 2 = 2(4-21:2)

28.7.60

Since E~C we get 10 + C - A = E from units column. Thus, A = 7, from hundreds column, A = 2C + 1 and C = 3.

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIO~S 1962-1963

29.7.41

222

In APTQ : (PT) + (a-r) = (a+r)

then PT = 2 root(ar)

in AOPT, O~ = 2a-r

then, ~OP) 2= (OT)2 + (TP)2, or (2a-r) = r + 4ar, or 4a2 = 8ar, or r = a/2

30.5.44

2

y = x .. 2x-3

(y-14 ) / (x-1) = -2, or y = -2x-2 if x + 1

then -2x-2 = x2-2x-3 ~ x2-1 = 0 if x ~ 1. Thus, x = -1, y = 0

NCIML SOLUTIONS 1963 - 196~ 1. 5.28

43/30 = 1 + 13/30

= 1 + 1/00/13)

= 1 + 1/ (2 + 1/ (13/4) )

= 1 + 1/{2 +L~/(3 + 1/4))

55

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1963-1964

2.6.13

A

area ABC = area BDC + area ADC

+ area ADB = 1/2(3s) + 1/2(2s) + s/2

2

s root3 1. (3s+2s+s) = 3s

4 = T

s·2root3 = 12s s(s·root3-12) = 0

s = 0 (rejected) or s.root3--12 = 0 s·root3 = 12

s = 4·root3 and s2 = 48

s2root3 = k·root3 s2 = 4k

4 1 48 = 4k

k = 12

3.5.59

[2 _ <_2)-2): =

[8 - 1 J

- 4 (_2)2 =

- [! - ! r =

(7/4)2 = -49 LO

4.6.19

The number of selections of 6 points taken 3 at a time (6!/(3!3!) = 20 ) minus the "triangles '1.' AFC, ADB. BEC yields the answer 7,

the total number of n~med triangles.

5.6.42

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1963-1964 9.5.59

These two inequalities follow from the given one:

1 < n-3 I -rn

n-3 < 3 -rn T

3n< n - 3 n- 3 <. 9n

n < -3/2 or n>-3/8

Since n could be negative, then either n-3 <'9n or n-3> 9n

n <-3/8 ..• -3/2<n<-3/8

b = -3/8

6.5.47

Divisibility by 11: (5+K+x)-(0+8) = 11q. 2x~3 = 11q. Therefore,

x = 7. and (99)(513) = 50787

7 .6.16

Al _ 5 VI _ 5J5i

A2 - 4 V2 - -s

V2 = (1-X)V1 VI _ 1 V2 ---rx-

1 = 5./5 r-x --g-

-x = (8/ (5J5» - 1 X. = 1 - (8/ (5V'5» X = .28

8.7.16

A

B

o

b C

1) a + b = 7

2) a + c = 5

3) b + c = 6 (By E.6.1)

52 (4) + 72 (2) = x2 (6) + 2 (4) (6 )

If x greater than or = to 0 :

2 .

x2 +Ixl= 30

x + x - 30 = 0 (x+6) (x-5) = 0

x =-6, x = 5

if x less than 0: x2 - x = 30

x2 - x - 30 = 0 (x+5) (x-6) = 0

x = -5, x = 6

6 and -6 do not check in the original equation since 36+1611 30 and 36+1-611 30. The only solutions are x = 5 and x = -5.

10.6.19

Area of circle = n-r2 =ft(a + bv'3) Hei&ht of triangle = sVT/2 = 30V3/2 = 1513.2/3·height = 10{3

Area e r = =~2~ fr(t8v'3 + 10)2

= Tl(400 + 20013)

a = 400 b = 200

11.5.40

(2,8)

(lO"O)

NOW SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1963-l96~

57

(cont.)

Criteria:

1) y < 4x, 0 <x~ 2

2) s « -x + 10, 2( x<10

From 1), ~1,1-3) 3

2,1-7) 7 From 2), 3,1-6) 6

(4,1-5) 5, etc ...

Therefore,

3+746+5-14+3+2+1 = 31

12.6.23

Area = (1/2)(6)(h) = 9; h = 3

Therefore a = 4 (3-4-5 right 2

triangle). Therefore c2 = 102 + 3

13.5.08

Given: 1) p-q = 1; p = q+1

2) pq = -6/m; m = -6/(pq)

3) piq = -5/m; piq = 5pq/6 1) into 3) yie1d~:

2q + 1 = (5/6) (q iq)

Solve for q's, then for p's; then back into 2) yields the two values of m.

14.4.60

D

(cont.)

1) a + b + 50 = 180 a + b = 130

2) A + 2c + 2d = 180

3) 2b = A + 2d

4) 2a = A + 2c

3) and 4) 2a + 2b = 2A + 2d + 2c a+b=A+d+c Plug into 1) 130 = A + d + c Plug into 2) 50 = c + d

x = 130,

15.6.31

Let (9/10)1/2 = x (7/9)1/4 = y Consider x4 and y4

x4 = ffur y4 = ~ x4>y4 ~ x>y

Let (4/3)1/2 = w (3/2)1/3 = Z w6 = (4/3)23 = 64/27 = 2 10/27 z6 = (3/21 = 9/4 = 2 1/4 thus, w > z

y<x<z<w

16.3.71

In the first quadrant, the abscissas are all positive; in the second quadrant, they're all negative.

Due to symmetry, their sums are O.

17.6.04

{:X(x3/2 + y3/2) = 81 J.Y(y3/2 + x3/2) = 162 y1/2(81/x1/2) = 162; y = 4x continue by substitution.

18.5.63

(n+(n+1)+ ... +(n+(n-1») /n = 31 Numerator is the sum of an arithmetic sequence: therefore,

(n/2) (n+{n+(n-1») = 31n

Solving, n = 21

58

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1963-1964

19.7.28

(-f,JO)

y = + x'root(3) 2

Area-of sector = 601"fr 360

(~.I0)

22.7.11

(By E.3.5) R = abc

lfl{

(By E.5.2) Area of triangle = 84 k _ (13)~14)(15)

E" - 4 84)

k _ 65

E" - 8 k = 65

23.7.04

t+u=a+b+c

70t + 7 u = 100a + lOb + c

= .l(361i) 69t + 6u = 99a + 9 b

6 23t + 2u = 33a + 3b ~ 23t+ 2u divisible by 3 ~ t + u divisible by 3

Listing the possibilities:

= 6rr 20.6.20

Since triangles AEB and ~DE are similar, 1/11 = 9/16 = 3 /42.

I + II = 50. Therefore~ I = 18, II = 32. And 18 = (1/2)h1(3)

32 = (1/2)h2(4)

h1 = 12 and h2 = 16 21.6.34

n = 8m+5; n = 13q+7. Therefore 13q .. 8m+2 = 0, or 13q + 2 = 8m Modulo 13: 8m = 2

m = 1/4 = -12/4 = -3 = 10 .

. And , m = 13k+10. Therefore, q = 8k~ ( by substitutioB), For

k = 0, n is a multiple of 5. For k = 1, m = 23, q = 14, n = 189.

15 18

(21) (Z4) (27)

30 33 36 39 (42) 45 48

(51) (54) (57)

60 63 66 69 72 75 78

(81) (84) 87

90 93 96 99

reject enclosed numbers (21, 24, etc.) because they d~nlt satisfy the conditions of the problem.

24.5.A

Sum of two perfect squares will

be zero only if each is zeroA Therefore both y-x-2 and y_xL. must be zero. Solving for y in each case and equating the ~esu1ts yields the quadratic x - x - 2 = O. First solve for x and then find the corresponding yls.

NCIML SAY~LE SOLUTIONS 1963-1964

59

25.7.25

x

(By E.3.3) + x2
6x = 36
x2 + 6x .- 36 = 0
x = -3 + 3f5
26.4.76 Length of tunnel: x. Distance travelled during a110ted time: x + 100. Therefore,

(40)(1760)(1/2) = x + 100 Solve.

27.6.46

c = 2 is given. -b/2a = 1. Therefore, 2a = -b.

9a + 3b + 2 = 0

9a + 3(-2a) +"2 = 0

Solve.

28.6.19

~D

7E~:\

ABC

Note: 1) EF = FB = FD

2) since 1) is so, angle EBD is a right angle. (Angle inscribed in a semi-circle). Therefore,

ED2 = 244; FB = (1/2)ED

29.5.36

Given: p/q = min

p+q = -2/3; m+n = -1; ron = 1; pq = a/9.

If p/q = min, then (p+q)/q = (m+n) In; So (-2/3)/q = -lIn. q : (2/3)n = 2/(3m)

Since p/q = min, pq = mq2/n. Finally,

pq = a/9-= (m/n)(2n/3)(2/(3m» Solve for a.

30.7.17

H E

Triangles EGA and BGF are similar. Ratio of altitudes is 2/3. Therefore altitude onto AE of triangle AGE is 12. Areas:

AGE = 60; ABF = 225; REF = 75; Rectangle RFBA = 450. Therefore, FGE = 90.

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1964-1965

4.5.19

«x_y)(y_2»2 + «x+y)(y+2»2 = 0

Both terms are non ... negative ... each must be zero.

«x-y)(y-2»2 = 6 = «x+y)(y+2»2

y = x or y = 2 y = -x or y = -2

(0,0), (-2,2), (-2,-2)

60

1.5.39

Trial and error

1) c = 2

2) a = 4 or 5

3) a definitely = to 5

4) d = 9 5)66b~6

6) b = 6

7) continue.

abc d7 3ef4

5~h7 k mn4

2.6.05

x2+X+19 = (x)(x+1) + 19 is to

be a perfect square. By observation, if x+1 = 19, then (x+1)(x+1) will be a perfect square: i.e.,

x = 18. And that is the largest value of x: the difference

between any two squares gets much greater than 19 + the previous number to be squared. That is,

400 - 361 = 39"> 19 + 19. Therefore, merely search out all the squares below 182 = 324.

289 - 19 = 270 # product of two consecutive integers.

49 - 19 = 30 = (6)(5) 25 - 19 = 6 = (3)(2) Therefore, 2, 5, 18.

3.7.01

5(5, \'2.')

A (0.10) E.

G

Coordinates of Bare (5,12). Coordinates of Dare (14-«14-5)/2) ,12/2) or D(19/2,6). Since triangles AEF and AGD are similar, AEF/AGD = AE2/AG2 = 25/(361/4).

And triangle AEF = (100/361). (1/2)(19/2)(6) = 150/19

5.4.37

P1P2, P1P3, P1P4, P1P5. That is, by fixing one point P1, the other 4 vertices can be situated at the second point.

6.5.74

12739 is congruent to what,

modulo 10? Note: only significant digit is the 7.

72 = -1, mod 10

Therefore,

74 = 1 (mod 10). And

(74)9(73) = 739• Since 73 = 3 modulo 10, answer is 3.

7.5.20

D

o

If M stands for midpoint, then M(AB) = (3,-3/2)i which then says that D(7,-2).

M(BC) = (3/2,-5/2) implies D(1,-6)

61

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1964-1962 12.6.19

(cont.)

M{AC) = (1/2,0) impmies D{-3,4) 8.5.58

log 2(2) + log4{x) = 1

x

(loS22)/{21og2x) + (log~x)/log24 = 1/t21og2x) + {log2x)72 = 1

(10g?x.)2 - 2·1og2x + 1 = 0

log2x ;;; 1 = 0

9.5.07

Area of triangle = 36·root(3)/4 Three rectangles = 36

3 sectors = 3(1/3){4N)

Sum up and compute.

10.4.24

x+1 = 1/{{~+x+1)/{1+x)) = 1+.K x+Z

If x + -1, x + 2 = 1, x = -1. Therefore, none.

11.6.61

Factor, obtaining:

{34 + 24)2 = {81 + 16)2 = 972 = (-7}{-7), modulo 26; And 49 = 23, modulo 26.

R

T

If B finishes then: t = 30

SZSO/tA

the race in t minutes

= 30tA 5250

In this time C goes x feet.

t = x = xtA

S190/tA 5190

30tA/5250 = xtA/5190 3/525 = x/5190

525x = 15570

x = 29.66

B beats C by 90 - x = 60.34

13.6.20

p

o

Take P in space such that

PB is perpendicular to BC, and PB is perpendicular to AB.

(i.e. PB is perpendicular to plane ABCD) l{ = 36 + 7 = 43

14.5.38

{3x+x)x + x = 39. Continue.

62

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1964-1965

15.7.07

B

A

c

D

E

In triangle BDC, FE II BD, FE = (1/2)BD. In triangle AFE, GDU FE =9> GD = (1/2)FE and AG = GF

Let FE = x. Then BD = 2x, GD = x/2 and BG = 3x/2.

triangle BGH is similar to EFH. Thus, GH/HF = BG/EF = 3/2. Let GH = 3y and HF = 2y. Since AG = GF, AG = 5y.

Therefore area of BGH = 3y/10y· (area ABF) = (3/10)·30 = 9

16.5.17

A = original number =

105a + 104b + 103c + 102d + 10e + 2

B = new number =

105(2) + 104a + 103b + 102c + 10d +e

We know a = 3b

10b~a = 2.106_2 = 2(106-1) = 2(999999)

7b = 2(999999)

b = (2/7)(999999)

a = 6/7·(999999) = 85714?

17.6.49

Man's rate: x mph. Time is the same.

Man:(x)(t1) = 2d/5 Train: 60t1 = k

Therefore, (2d/5)/x = k/60 24d = kx

Second choice:

Man: (x)t2) = 3d/5

Train: 60(t2) = k + d Therefore, (3d/5)/x = (k+d)/60 36d = kx + dx

36d = (24d) + dx. Solve for x.

18.6.29

12.

~

X+le )(

(12+.x)2 + 122 = b2 and b = b2 = (12+.x)2. Therefore, (12+.x)2+ 144 = (12+2x)2. Solve for x.

12 + 2x

19.6.07

x10+1 = x5z; z = x5 + 1/x5 = (x+1/x)_(x4 + 1/x4 - (x2+ 1/x2) + 1) But x2+1 = xy means y = x + l/x ADd y2 = x2 + 2 + (1/x2)

yZ_2 = x2+(1/x2)

(y2_2)2 = x4 + 2 + (1/x4) Finally,

y4 _ 4y2 + 2 = x4 + 1/x4 Now substitute:

z = y(y4_4y2+2 ... (y2_2) +1) and simplify.

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1964-1962

6)

20.7.07

c

<D B

(By E. 3.4)

r2 = (s-a~-b)(s-c) s

16 = (8)f6)(x)

4~

x = 7

(By E.2.1) K = 42+72 K = 65

21.5.30

Rate A = 1/4 candle/hour Rate B = 1/5 candle/hour

(1/4)t = k1, gone. 1-k1 remains (1/5)t = k2, gone. 1-k2 remains. When will

1-k2 = 4(1-k1) /

When k2 = 4k1 - 3. And since k1/k2 = 5/4 k1 = 15/16.

t = 4(15/16~ = 15/4 hours.

22.7.18

(By E.1.1)

m = 2a·root(3)/3 and n = a·root(3) 3

~By E .6)

x = (4a2+a2-2~root(3»t3

23.5.29

4 3 2 2 2

x +8x +ax +ax+b = (x +cx+d)

= x4+c2x2+d2+2cx3+2cdx+2dx2 Equate coefficient

2c = 8 and c = 4

cL + 2d = 8 and d = -4 Zed = z and a = ~32

dL = band b = 16

24.5.42

x+y ::= xy = x/y x+y = X!y

o ::= xy = x/y x/y ::; xy/1

x = xy2

1 = y2

Y = + 1

y = ::-1

x-I = -x

2x = 1

x = 1/2

25.6.02

slope AC = -12/9 = -4/3 Line BM: y =(~/4)x Line AD: x = 5 Therefore1 H(5,15/4)

AH/HD = (~3.4)1(15/4) = k/5 Compute.

64

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1964-1965

26.5.01

Assume someone desires to purchase 40 yards of cloth at a dollar a yard. He will pay for 40 yards, but receive only 35 yards. The dishonest profit is therefore $5, or 1/7 of cost. The problem states that this dishonest profit (1/7)c plus

the honest profit (p) is equal to 1/4 of sales, where sales .. are 8/7 of costs. Therefore, (c/7)+ p =

(1/4)·(8c/7) and p = c/7.

Likewise, (c/9)+p = (x/7)(10c/9), where it is assumed p still to be taken as c/7. Therefore,

1/9 + 1/7 = (x/7)(10/9). x = 1.6

27.5.78

1) Area = (1/Z)(d1)(dZ) = 100

2) Area =Z4(1/2)(sr) = 100

3) sZ = 5 + 102 = 125

From 2) r = 50/s. Continue.

28.5.05

l20

Area of sector AOB = nrZ/3

Area of triangle AOB = r2sin(120) 2

(cant. )

Area of segment AB = r2(~/3-J3/4) Area of circle ~ segment = r2(1T-(1'1/3) + (v3/4).

Ratio should become

(srr + 3J3) / (4tr - 3/3)

29.6.29

(a2+bZ+c2) (x2+y2+zZ)_ (ax+by+cz)Z aZx2+b2x2+c2s2+aZy2+b2y2+c2y2+

Z 2' 2 2 Z 2 2 2 2 Z Z 2 a z +b z +c z -a x -b y -c z -

2axby-2bycz-Zaxcz

b2x2_2axby+aZy2 = (bx _ ay)2

Z 2 222

c y -2byczfb z = (cy bz)

a2z2_2axcz+c2x2 = {az cx)2

30.6.08

2

x - (c-3)x - 3c

(x-c ) (x+3)

and

x2 + 2cx + c2 - 1 (x+c+1) (x+c-1) Therefore:

c+1 = -c; c = -l/Z

or c+1 = or c-l =

3· c = 2

,

-c; c ~ 1/2

or

c-1 = 3· c = 4

,

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1965-1966

65

The digit in the hundred's position must be 1. Therefore it is not eligible for the other

two placeso The last digit can't be 5 or even since then one of

the pair would not be primeo That leaves 3,7,or 9 and the possible pairs are:

137,173; 179,197; 139,193.

206.12

(l/r3) + (1/s3) _ (r3+s3)/(rs)3. «r+s)(r2+2rs+s2 - 3rs»)/(rs)3 • «r+s)«r+s)2 - 3rs»/(rs)3 since r+s=5 and rs • 3, the answer follows directly.

3.6.14

A

(By E06.l)

82x + 142x • 72(2x) + (x)(x)(2x)

64x + 196x • 98x + 2x3

81 • x2 9 - x 2x • 18

Average rate • Total Distance divided by Total Timeo

wtl • 1; rt2 - 1 ;

average rate =(1/3)r

Therefore, r/3 = (1+1)/(tl+t2).

Substitute in for tl and t2 and find the required ratio.

Area of the region .1T(R2 _ r2) But R2 - r2 = 36.

Let:

x = number of 11 letter words y - number of 10 letter words b = number of blanks

llx + b • 68 lOy + b - 55 llx - lOy = 13

Since x and y are integers such that. 0 ~x~ 6 and 0'" y ~5, the only suitable values of x and yare 3 and 2 respectively. Solve for b.

7.6.*

Solving for p you should obtain:

1) p • (5(n+5»/(2n-3)

2) p(2n-3) - 5n + 25.

From 1), the obvious values for n are 1 and 2. However, n III 1 yields -30; n = 2 yields p • 35.

66

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1965-1966

As n increases without bound , it is important that we note that the sequence decreases to 5/2. If n = 3 then p = 40/3

If n = 4 then p = 9

Now consider equation 2). Let 3 ~ p = 8 and check

through equation 2). You might notice that it is only necessary to check the odd values for p. In this way, all four answers can be found.

8.6.11

Slope AB = 3/4 Slope EG = -4/3

Equation of line EG:

4x + 3y = 32

Slope DC = 4/3

Equation of line DC:

4x - 3y = 56

Therefore, 8x = 88 and

F(11,-4). Note that (11,-4)

is the midpoint of CD.

1 -6 +7 -5 / 2 +2 -8 -2

1 -4 -1 -2

+2 -4

1 -2 -2

+2

1 +0

-

Therefore:

x3-6x2+7x-5 - (x-2)2_5(x-2)-70

1006.28

Given:

462, 562, 670, 780, 894, 1012 First difference sequence: 100, 108,110, 114, 118 Second difference sequence:

8, 2, 4, 4

Therefore 108 should be 106. Which means the correct number should be 564.

There will be 24 such four digit numbers each having the same distinct digits in some ordero Each digit (a,b,c,d) will appear in each decimal position six times 0 The sum can therefore be expressed as 6666(a+b+c+d)o This yields (a+b+c+d) equal to 29 and a quick trial will give you the solution.

(By D.2.3a and D.2.1a)

1) (ax)log a = (bx)log b

2) log a(log ax) • log b(log bx)

3) log2a + (log a)(log x) = log2b + (log b)(log x)

4) log x(log a - log b) • log2b - log2g

5) log x = -log a - log b • -log ab = log(ab)-l 6) Thus x • l/ab

50 I f

'1-50

P F

A

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1965-1966

General form of the ellipse:

~ + 5 - 1

a b

2a = 500 ; a - 250

By the definition of ellipse: 21 k2 + 2002 - 50 + 450

f k2 + 2002 = 250 k2 _ 2502 _ 2002

k2 = 502(52 _ 42)

14.6.16

Rationalize.the denominator:

6 0 'Vi -(1'2 +~)

(V-S-+(Y-;-+~)) y; -(V? +V~)

• 6(YT -iT -17)

5 _ (Y-;-+ ~)2

Which reduces to:

6(0= -VI -yT) -2Vb

Continue-rationalize the denominator againo

Let the sides of the smaller triangle be B,x,y and the larger x,y,27. The proportions B/x • x/y - y/27 lead to

x2 • By, xy = (B)(27). Solve.

If d represents the length of one rail and x the speed of the train in miles per hour then an equality in feet per second can be established such as (dx)/15 - (5280x)/3600.

Solve for do

If (a+b-c)/c = (b+c-a)/a , then (a2-ac) + (ab-bc) + (ac_c2) • 0 and (a-c)(a+b+c) = O.

Therefore either a == c or a+c = -b. If a • c then the given expression reduces to B •

.Ef a+c =-b then ,

«a+b)(b+c)(c+a))/(abc) • (-c)(-a)(~b)/(abc) = -1.

lB.7.0B

~x

y

1) 2x + y + 9 • xy

2) y2. IBx + Bl

From 1) and 2) we get:

3) lBx3 + 4lx2 -lBOx = 0 or (9x-20)(2x+9) = 0

Since b2 - 4ac = 0 ,

4 - 4(c+dV-;-)(7+4V-;-) = 0 Therefore: 4 = 2Bc + 4Bd and 7d +4c - O. Solve.

20.5.53

A

B

c

,At. e,= IG::,

68

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1965-1966

AB = 16

By observation, angle B = 300 Therefore, BD = CD.

Also, CE is perpendicular to AB; therefore, EA = 4 and likewise, DE ... ~D = ~D. Therefore 16 = BD + YcBD + 4.

21.6002

Note: For any number of balls after 120 there are a sufficient number of multiples of 15 to be cast out leaving a multiple of 8.ioe. take 121 .. 7(15) + 2(8) However before 120 this does

not hold therefore the answer is 97.

Rationalize the denominator: (x+l)+(x-l)+21 x2_1 (x+l-(x-l))

or x + I x2_1 = alb

Therefore,

squaring and simplifying will lead to:

x ... (a2+b2)/2ab

x2-8x+16+y2_4y+4+z2-6z+9 = 0 (x_4)2 + (y_2)2 + (z_3)2 .. 0 The sum of three squares is zero only if each term is zeroo (x,y,z) = (4,2,3).

24.6.36

n(n+1)(2n+1) = k(n(2+l)) 6

2n + 1 6

6k = 4n + 2 6k - 2 = 4n

6k - 2 4

3k - 1 2

The sum of two sides of a triangle must be greater than the third side. Therefore:

1) r2 + r > 1

2) r2 + 1 > r

3) r + '1 > r2

Since r must be positive,

1) yields r > (-1+1fT)/2

2) yields all values of r

3) yields r c::. (1+~)/2

List the known decimal primesstarting with 11 and ending with 73. Omit those ending in 9 and translate the balance into into the other bases and eliminate.

27.6.01

x

2 x 2 2

1) x /2 = (3-~)a ; x =

(6-41'~)a2 x2 ... (ka)2/

2) x(2+~) = ka; (2+1'~)2o

Therefore, k2 ... (6+4~)(6-4~) l' k2 .. 11lr ; I k I = 2 ; k ... :!: 2 Note: both k and a can be negative.

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1965-1966

28.6eOl

o

A

o

Altitude of triangle ECD • 'YTx

Side of tri!B!le CDE = 2x. Then x + XV 3 = r;

x = -r(1-n)/2

2x • (V-;--l)r.

Area of quadrant = r2/4

Area of CDE • «4-~)r2y-;-)/4

From the given it follows that: (a+b+c+d+e+f)/(b+c+d+e+a+t) • (a+b)/(b+c) = 1

therefore:

a • c • e

Then:

ae + c2

=

a c

• - + - -

c e

ce

1 + 1 = 2

Construct OQ II AB, thus forming a rectangle ABQO.

AB=OQ=x

(By E.2)

AB - 24

70

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1966-1967

Start counting: page numbers

1 - 9

10 - 99

100 - 199

200 - 299

300 - 322

# of digits 9

180

300

300

~

Let: a-x = c; therefore x - a-c Let: b-x = c; therefore x =b-c. First substitute x = a-c into the original; this yields a - b+c-l. Then, substitute x = b-c into the original; this yields a ., b-c+l.

3.6.29

There is a special theorem: (Sipser's Theorrm II)

Area = ABS( ~ :1 :1)

2 "2

-1 121

= ABS( ~ -6 1 )

= ABS( ~ ( -1 + 72 )) = 71/2

4.6.39

x4-9x2+12x-4 =x4-(9x2-12x+4) = x4_(3x_2)2 = (x2-(3x_2))(x2+

(3x-2)) = (x2-3x+2)(x2+3x-2);

Continue. F

5.6.05

c

E.

DE = 4; DF = 7; FAC is a straight line.

1) Triangle DEB is a 30-60-90;

DB = 81'T/3

2) Triangle DCF 1s a 30-60-90;

DC = 14'VT/3

3) BC = 21',

6.6007

Strictly trial and error.

7.6.06

Let: x = 1/(3+1/(3+ •••

then x = 1/(3 +x) (ByC.l.5) Solve.

8.7.07

(By E.6) 2

cos(B) ., (9+16-x )/«2)(3)(4))

cos(D) = (36+25-x2)/(60)

But since angle B 1s the supplement of angle D, cos(B) - -cos(D). Therefore,

(24)(x2-61) = (60)(25-x2) and x2 = 247/7

9.6.39

2

(7x-l)/(x -x-6) = (7x-l)/(x-3)(x+2)

= A/(x-3) + B/(x+2) • (Ax+2A+Bx-3B)/«x-3}(x+2)) • «A+B)x + (2A-3~) )l( (x-3) (x+2)) ;

NOIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1966-1967

71

Therefore, A+B - 7, 2A-3B = -1 I

10.6026

A

C AE = AB = 4. Angle OAE = 1200•

Therefore: (By E.6)

OE2 = 12 + 16 - 2(2~)(4)(-~)

«3)(4)(5)(7)(2» + 2

12.6.18

u == o

u~ = 2 -

3; ul = 7; u2 - 15; u3 = 31; 63; etc. By observation,

1. More specifically,

2a+2 _ 1



u = a

13.7.06

A x.

3?G

Area ABeD = (~)(2x+6x)h =

(4x)(2r) = 8rx.

Area of 0 = \\r2. Therefore a/ABOD = ( 11' /8) (r/x)

Angle AOD is a right angle and OE is perpendicular to AD;

therefore, r2 = (x)(3x). Substituting in the ratio yields 11'1/ 3/64

14.7.28

Let DS = Dwarf steps

GS = Giant steps

8/3 DS per GS per time unit.

11/2 DS per GS per distance unit. If x - number of giant steps, then

(8x/3) + 85 = x(11/2)

Solving x = 30.

15.6.07

(By E.30102

E-

xV 72 + 242 = 140 + 24/ 72 + 242 - 202 (By E.2.1)

25x == 140 + 24(15) And solving x = 20

1606.76

64 man-hours • 1 unit of work. (36/64)(6) = 27/8 units of work.

72

NCIML S~~LE SOLUTIONS 1966-1967 20.6.00

17.6.03

~----

1/ 6x +? -

~

1j'-6-x---? = 2

B = 2

A

Cube both sides:

6x+7-3A2B+3AB2-(6x-7) = 8

14 - 3(AB)(A-B) = 8.

But (A-B) = 2 and (AB)(A-B) • 2 Therefore AB = 1.

Cube both sides again and you will arrive at the solution.

18.8.03

B

A

(By E.5.2)

Area of ABC :1& 84

Area ABC = ~(15)(h2) = 84

h2 = 56/5

By similar triangles:

1) x/h2 c y/14; x = 4y/5

2) (15-y)/13 c y/14; y = 70/9 Continue 0

Use the given definition and obtain:

«a+b)/2 + c)/2 - (a+«b+c)/2)/2

= 60

Solving: c-a = 24

By E.8.6

EF = 6

21.4.47

Consider the multiples of 36: 36t72,108,144,180,216. Observe: (3)(72) = 2(108)0

And 72 F k(108) for k an integer.

22.6.67

Let x = price per dozen eggs then:

x/12 = price per egg (original)

x/13 = price per egg (new) Therefore, x-4 = 12(x/13).

23.6.22

A.

E. ~

Drop the altitude from A to BCo (By E. ;;;.24-) __ ---

AF = f 172 - 9x14

EF = 1x/2

(By E.2)

152 =(1x/2)2 + CV 172 - 9X/4)2 Solving x = 32.

2407002

Zx = y2x; z = 1'2 only if x ~ 0

73

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1966-1967

2Z • 2(4x); z • 2x + 1. Taken

together, 2

x • (y- - 1)/2

Therefore, 2

x+y-+z .. 16 becomes «y- -1)/2) +

y- + y-2 .. 16. y- .. 3, -11/3

But what if x - 0; then z • 1 and y- .. 15.

o

KAOB = 192/12 • 16 ... ~2sin 30 therefore r. 8.

(By E.6)

AB2 ... 64 + 64 - 2(64)( V-;-/2)

2605071

Observe the units digit:

15 - 1; 25 - 32; 35 ... 24~; 45 • .0.4; 55 • ••• 5; etc.

Therefore the number ends in 1.

105 • 100,000; 205 • (32)(105) = 3,200,000. Answer: 21.

2707037

5, ...,._-----..-

It is a hexagon within a hexagon. x • (~)( 1 + x ); x • 1.

28.8.10

121, 144, 169, 196 121, 441, 961, 691

Since 144 .. 122, supposedly- 441 • 144 in some other base. Therefore; x2+4x+4 .. 441

where x represents the new base.

x2 + 4x - 437 = 0

(x-19)(x+23) • 0

Likewise,

x~ + 6x + 9 = 961 x + 6x - 952 • ° (x-28)(x+34) • 0

a2 = c2 _ b2 • (c+b)(c-b) a = 105; a2 .. (105)2 •

(3)(5)(7)(3)(5)(7) Therefore, (c+b)(c-b) equals the above product.

For primitive triplets, the choice

of factors would be:

(1)(105)2;(9)(35)2;(25)(21)2;(49)(15)2

'B A...._,_,.-----~

30.8.00

DE = 9 FG .. 2 DF ... 12

AC .. 1('X ~

AE/EC = 3/1. Since triangles ADE C and CGE are similar, EG • 3, DG =

12, and DGF is isosceles. GC =

(1/3)AD. GC + 2 = (~)BC = (~)AD. Therefore, 3GC ... 2GC + 4; GC .. 4.

(By E.6) and

-cos(EGC) = cos(FGD) = 1/12

EC2 .. 9+16 - 2(12)(-1/12) .. 27 EO - y~ ... 1('X/4.

Solving x .. 432.

74

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1967-1968 KABC = 913

x2 - x ~ 1800,1801, ••• ,1899 442 - 44 = 1936 - 44 = 1892 433 - 43 = 1849 - 43 .. 1806 Answer: 1806

KADF = ~ • ~ • ~ = ~ 13

since the altitude of ADF = ~

~~ = ! . ~ (6 - x)

x - 6x + 6 = 0

x = 3 ! ~ or 4.7 or 1.3

4.5.16

2

( a 2 b) _ ( v-ao )2 = 25

a2 ~ 2ab + b2 _ 100

(a - b)2 ,. 100

2.7.00

1) (x - l)(y - 1) ,. 4

x y

2) (x - l)(y - 1) = ~

y x 6

1) (x2 - 1)(y2 - 1) = 4xy

2) (xy - l)(xy - 1) = ~XY

2

2) (xy - 1) = ~XY

6(xy)2 - 37xy + 6 = 0 (6xy - l)(XY - 6) = 0 xy = 1 or 6

b

then y = 1 or 6 bx x If Y = 1

bx

then 2

(x -

Find: 2 2

a + b

2 2

.. a - 2ab

4

- ( a + b)2 2

2 2

+ b - ( 4-b) = 1~0 = 25

1 -1
x = 3 3
y = 1
~ ~
If Y = 6
-
x 1)( 1 36x2 1 -1 ~ 2

- 1) = 4x bx

A In DBC, DC ,. 1~ (By E.3.2)

(CH)(CD) - (CA) (CB)

( 6)( 4) = ( x + 1 20 )( v-2Q)

then 2
(x - 1) ( 2§. - 1) = 4x(6)
x2 x
X= 3 I -3 I 2 I -2
y= 2 -3
-2 3
3.7.04 or

x .. 1 20

HD + DC = Y 20 +~ = Y 720

5 5

6.6.47

x + 2y .. 20

x = 2 ( 10 - Y ) y 1,2,3, ••• ,9

75

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1967-1968

7.6.19

Let y - y 1 + x in:

9.7.05

y 13 -(l+x) - Y'-:-l+-x- ..c::: 1

113 - y2 L. 1 + y

13 - y2 L... 1 + 2y + y2

O ~ 2 , 6

~ Y + :t-

o ~ (y + 3 )( y - 2)

then 13( 20 - 2y ) + lly = 17k 260 = 15y + 17k

17k = 5( 52 - 3y ) then 17 divides 52 - 3y tllerefore

y = 6 , x = 8

thus

Y ~ 2 or 1/ l+x > 2 or x '? 3

since

12 - x ~ 0 or x 6 12, and l+x ~O or x ~-1

The conjunction of the three conditions on x yields :

3 L.. x ~12

8.6.02

a

Given: 1) a = m
- 13'
m
2) a+b+2m - a+V1>
2m c
~ From 1) m2 I: ab or m I: 'Vi'b also (2m)2 _ a2 + b2

4m2 I: a2 + b2

4ab .. a2 + b2

6ab = a2 + 2ab + b2 6ab = ( a + b)2

Y 6ab I: a + b I: 1/b1/ ab = mYb

now

a+b+2m - mY-;- + 2m

2m 2m

= 'Vb + 2 2

therefore:

a I: 2 , b =6 , c = 2

(4-,0)

Use the points (4,0) and(l,V-;) to write the equation •

-3y + 31/~ = V-;-x - y~ square both sides:

9y2 = 3x2 _ 24x + 48

3y2 - x2 + 8x - 16 = ° or 3y2 - (x_4)2 = °

10.7.1

Special formula: Area of a triangle formed by the medians of a triangle is 3/4 area of triangle.

Area of triangle of medians =

y 63(21)(24)(18) = (7)(33)(24) 4 (7)(33)(24) - 1008

'3

11.6.03

For the points to be in the interior of the sphere then

x2 + y2 + z2 L. 9

Each entry (x,y,z) must be 0,1 1, 12; therefore there are

53 or 125 p~ints.

EACh entry - (2,2,1) will lie on the sphere and there are 8(3) • 24 ~uch points. Also each entry

- (2,2,2) will lie outsid~ the

76

sphere and there are 23 = 8 of them.

Therefore in the interior of the sphere there are

125 - ( 24 + 8) = 93 points.

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1967-1968 1 2

K = (;, '5)

therefore AK AE CK CD AKC

12.6.43

Notice that the variable x is put into the form x+2. Therefore letting x = -2 use synthetic

division:

1 + 9 + 22 + 13 2 - 14 16

/ -2

1 + 7 + 8 3

- 2 -10

1 + 5 - 2 2

1 + 3

The new expression is:

1(x+2)3 + 3(x+2)2 - 2(x+2) -3

13.6.0:/

------~-

. -. -. '----1-_.../

i/

/

/ V~

A'----__:;..._~-----

~ B

Notice that the point Z can fall anywhere within the parallelogram ZMNO

(By E.5.5)

K of ZMNO = 1~/ 3 • .58

Area of KL = 2 BL '5 or ABC = 210

= ~

= 4

5

=84 AKC :Aim

= 13 = 14

or AK

or CK

so

= 2

'5

15.5.22

This sequence is an arithmetic sequence with a common difference of 8 (8y C.3.1)

the sum is 8r - 7

16.6.51



Let lIn = the integer lln-3a+2; Iln=5b+l; Iln=8c+5

113-2= a; 115-1= b; 118-5= c

now

Iln-2 , Iln-l , and 118-5 must

3 5

be integers

(9n-2)+{2n+l) , (n-l)+ IOn ,

3 5

{8n-8)+(3n+3)

8

2n;1, n51, ~ must be integers

the last two relationships obvious that n = 31.

lIn = 341

or

using it is thus

17.7.25 (x-3)(x-4)(x+l)(x+2) = 24 (x2-7x+12) (x2+3x+2) = 24 x4-4x3_7x2+22x = 0

x( x3-4x2-7x+22 ) = 0

by inspection x = 0 and x = 2

(By D.l.2 and Synthetic Division) 2

x -2x-ll = 0

so x = 2 ± 41-;- 2

therefore x = 0,2,1= ~

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1967-1968

77

2

1) x + xy+xz -yz.. 4

2) y2+ xy-xz +yz .. -4

3) z2_ xy+xz +yz = 5

1+2) (X+y)2.0 ; x + '1 .. ~

2+3) (z+y)2=1 ; z + y .. - 1

1+3) (x+z)2.9 ; x + z .. ! 3 Pair the first relationship with

( )5 (5 5) the other four relations taken

• x+'1 - x + '1 two at a time· this will give the

.. (x+'1)«x+'1)4_(x4_x3'1+x2y2_xy3+'14»four solution~.

.. (x+y) (x 4 +4x3'1+6x2'12 +4xy'3 +'14_ x4+x3y_x2y2+xy3_'14)

.(x+Y)(5x3y + 5x2y2 + 5xy3)

.. (x+Y)(5xy)(x2 + xy + '12)

18.8.01

C (BY E.3.3)(19)(21) .. 19x + 19'1

21 .. x + '1 (By E.6) in triangle ACP

192 .. 212 + '12 - 2(21)(y) cos 60 192 .. 212 + '12 - 21'1

361 = 441 + '12 - 21'1

'12 - 21y + 80 .. 0

'1 .. 16 or '1 = 5 and x.. 5 or x = 16

(By E.8.7) 1/(27)(~9)(~)(~)

K of ACBP SOl 2 ~ c::: c:

.. 441'VT Lr

19.6.19

20.6.06

By the conditions of the problem x and y must be greater than 6. If x = '1 then we have a 45-45-90 right triangle and a minimum hypotenuse = 2(3 + 31/~) = 15 therefore c must be greater than or equal to 15.

The possible right triangle are: x '1 c

7 24 25

8 15 17

9 12· 15 - reject 9 40 41 - reject

Therefore the only possible hypotenuses are 25 and 17.

21.6.35

Start dividing; since (6)(17) = 102, keep dividing until a remainder of 10 appears.

22.7.05

23.6.11

Since there is no limitation on where chord AB should be, let it be drawn such that it is a diameter of Pl.

AB = k(CD) k ~ 2 AB = 16

therefore 16 .. k(CD)

since k is less than 2 then CD is less than 8 and r2 is between

o and 4 exclusive.

24.6.22

6

1/ 5 +VX- - 1/ 5 -1/X = ------

1/ 5 +V x

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1967-1968

- x = 6 distance for B will be x + 400.

Thus

Y-X-· 1 + Y-2~5---x- rate for A 2x - 26 = 2 Y ~5-x

2 rate for B

x - 25x + 144 = 0 Rate A/RateB

x = 9 or x = 16

78

5 + 1x - 1 25

25.7.06

2

l

1 x2_4 + V x2_9 = 'V x2_l x2(3x2-28) = 0

x = 2'V 21 = 3.1

,

let x

(27~5(23) 2 - 1

= 27 then we have

x5f23) and by the Remainder

x-

Theorem we obtain 8.

Let the river be x yards wide and the time for the first meetingbe tlthen the distance for

A will be x - 720 and the distance for B will be 720. Thus

rate for A = x - 720/ tl

rate for B = 720/tl

Rate A/Rate B = x-720/720

Let the time for the second meeting be t2• Now the distance

for A will be x + (x-400) and the

= 2x-400/t2 = x+400/t2

= 2x-400/x+400

Solving:

x 7~80 = 2x -400

x + 400

we obtain x = 0 or 1760

A.

28.6.30

From the wording of the problem it doesn't seem to matter where point C is on AB, i.e., the area in question is invariant. So make C the center of the semicircle.

m • 8

'S m

so m = 8

Area • 321l' - 2(8'IT )

k'\\' = 16 \\"

29.6.12

Multiplying out, one gets: (x+2y+2z)+(y+x+2z) 1~+(x+y+z) ~

- 1 + 0 ~ + 0 ~

Equate corresponding coefficients:

1) x + 2y + 2z = 1

2) x + y + 2z = 0

3) x + y + z =/ .. Solve.

30.3.23 ~

0\~ ~

~

b

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1967-1968

Given: a = m

iii 1)

m2 = ab (By E.4.4)

2m = 8 12 m =4~

K - ~ ab = 16

NOIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1968-1969 1.4.41

2.6.04

4X + 4 = 17( 2x-l ) 22x _~( 2x ) + 4 = 0

( 2x _ 8)(2x - 1) • 0 '2

2x = 8 or 2x • 1 '2

x • 3 or x.-l

3.7.08

K square = 144 K rectangle ~ 48

The shorter side = ~ therefore

~(12-x)V~ = 48

x2 -12x + 24 = 0

x • 6 ± 2VT

~ = 6V~ + 2~ reject

.. 61'2 - 2'Vb

thus a - 6 and b • 2

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1968-1969 4.7.32

?9

First eliminate one of the unknowns then solve the resulting linear diophantine equation.

7A + 6B + 40 - 59

4A + 5B + 60 = 48

Eliminating the 0 term we obtain: 13A + 8B = 81

(By A.2)

A = 5, B.= 2 and C = 3 by substitution.

5.7.02 By E.).5 and E.8.?

r = abc

4K

r= (5)(6)(y=I2 )

4/(1121 13)(12Y 12)(1 132-1)(!12V 13)

r - (t4~~~~t3J2 ) = ~

6.7.28

(~y A.3.1)

2a + 2b must be an integer.

9

if a = 1, b = 3 then n = 2223 tQo small; if a = 2 and b = 3/2 reject; if a m 3 and b = 0 no good; if a = 4 and b .. 3 then n = 2,223,333

7.4.06

(By B.l)

a = bc + d and c = eq + f a = b(eq + f) + d

a = beq + bf + d

therefore the remainder is bf+d

80

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1968-1969

A

c

8.4.21

LM = ~ BF = ~ AB LK • ~ BD = ~ BC

Triangles LMK and ABC are similar (By E.5.1)

LMK = 1

ABC lb

9.7.14

fen) = (~)n + (~)n

_ (~)n+1 + (~)n+1 _

«1+t-z-)n-1 + (~)n-1)

= (.!.±f£)n+1 <kfL)n+1 _

<!.:!f2=)11-1 + (!-::f2=)n-1

) +

(l-1'-;-)n (I-1fT _ __.;.;....2 _

~ ~ 1-'V5

= (~)Il + (kfL)n = fen) 1005.36

)

The area in question is equal to the sum of the four rectangles and the four quarter circles at the corners.

K • 4(1)(5) +1\(1)2 • 20 + 3.14

= 23.1

11.6.38

Note: 182 divides 2002 2002 1001 ~ • -en

The question becomes what is the smallest number larger than 1001 that is divisible by 91. 3 Since 1001 - 1 • 1000 = 10

and 103 =-1 (mod 91)

then 109 • -l(mod 91)

and 109+1 - 0 (mod 91)

therefore 109+1 is divisible by

91 and that implies that the smallest number greater than 2002 divisible by 182 is 2( 109 + 1)

12.6.27

(By D.2.5)

10g25X + log 25 = 1

x becomes:

log x + log 5 = 1

log 25 log x2

(By D.2.3a) and clearing fractions

2(10g x)2 + 2(10g 5)2 = 4log 5log x

( log x - log 5 )2 = 0

log x - log 5 x = 5

Take an example: Pentagon

Pick one of the two points as a reference call it A. Move the pentagon around point A and allow the other point,say B, to be all the other vertices of the pentagon in turn. This gives us four differentpentagons. Note that AB is

81

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1968-1969

used twice as a side of the pentagon and twice as a diagonal. In general for an n-gon we will use AB twice as a side and·n-3 times as a diagonal. Therefore there are n-l non-coincident regular n-gons.

14.6.24

P(2x) - 2P(x) implies that the polynomial is of the first degree. So

P(x) - a1x

p(3) - a1(3) • 12

al P(x) = 4x

= 4

1506.22 ])

A

(By E.5.5) KABCD - 48

KA'B'C'D' • 12 RM - 1 RS

;

KAMD -1 (12) - 4

;

A'MD' is simi~ar to AMD so A'D' - ~ AD

(By E.5.l)

KA'MD' 1

K • 4 or KA'MD' = 1

AMD

A'B'C'D'+A'MD'+A'NB'+B'DC'+C'PD'

- 16

16.6.01

The number of divisors of a number n is equal to (kl+l)(k2+1) ••• (kn+l)

where the ki'S of these numbers

are found in the relationship

k1 k2 kn

n- PI • P2 •••• Pn ,where

the Pi's are primes. Therefore

15 = (kl+l)(k2+1) or 15 = (3)(5); kl = 2 , k2 = 4. Thus for the smallest number with 15 divisors,

2 4 14

n = Pl • P2 ' or n = Pl ;

let Pl = 5 and P2 = 3. Answer 2025

17.6.50
C 12A + 7B
7A + l4B
Solving
A .. 1/17
18.7.54 - 1 = 1

and B = 5/119

I'

Cl

The midpoints of all possible segments XY will fall within the square MNOP. Therefore the problem reduces to finding the area of square MNOP.

AC = a~

PM • ~ AC • ~ a'V7 KMNOP • (~aV~)2 = ~a2

82

19.6.01

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1968-1969 22.7.*

m == 4

ii '9

4n = 9m , let x == DEF

Y = ABC then

4(DEFABC) = 9(ABCDEF) becomes

4(1000x+y) == 9(1000y+x) 4000x+4y = 9000y+9x 3991x = 8996y

307x = 692y therefore:

m = 307,692

20.7.05

Note: This problem deals completely with (3,4,5) triples. Segme~ 00' == 12 + 3 = 15; EO=9

EOO' (9,12,15)

POB : (12,16,20)

PFG : ( 6,8,10)

P AO ' : ( 3 ,4 , 5 )

Therefore:

KpGH = ~(12)(8). 48

(By C.3.2)

455 = 5(91) == 7(65) = 13(35) Therefore let 91, 65, and 35 be the middle terms of 5,7,13 factors.

Thus the sequences are: 87,98,91,93,95 59,61,63,65,67,69,71 23,25,27,29,31,33,35,37,39,41,43, 45,47

Therefore the smallest integers

in the sequences are: 23,59,87.

23.7.01

It can be shown that triangle FDE is equilateral by using the Law of Cosines on triangles DBE and FCE. Then by E.5.6

KFED = (4~)2~ = 28V-;-

4

21.7.*

Let: 5x + 2y = ap 7x + 5y = bp

Thus:

llx = p(5a -2b) lly = p(5b -7a)

since x,y, and p are relatively prime simply equate the factors.

x = 5a - 2b

Y = 5b - 7a

Therefore p = 11

24.6.58

("2.,0)

('2.,,0)

83

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1968-1962

K c ~ ddt 28.7.06

• ~ (4)(8) = 16

25.7.09

(o,v

(0.,0)

tan 0 -.2 ; tan 9 = 2

x I2-i

By setting the tangents equal, the slopes will be the same and the di~tance traveled will be a minimum. So

.2 =

x

x •

36/5

26.6.08

Break the polynomial down thusly: x4+6x3+1lx2+6x+l +(2x-18)

• (x2+3x+l)2 + 2x -18

If 2x-18 equals zero then ,we have a perfect square. Therefore

x • 9

Substituting (0,1,2) into 5x + 2y +3z yields 8. Now use the given four con~itions to obtain values of (x,y,z) and substitute them into 5x + 2y + 3z.

Thus the maximum value will be arrived at when: 3

(x,y,z) • ( 2' 1,2)

The area of the union of the two circles here is equal to the sum of the areas less the area of the intersection. Central angle AOB =120 OP = 3, BP = 3V;-. /,lo.

Area of sector OAB = 12',

Area triangle OAB = 91-;:

Area segment "" 121l - 9V-;Intersection - 2( l21'f - 91fT) Area of Union = 481t + 18 y-;-

29.6.05

f(-l) • ai-II + bl-1 + kl = 0 a + bl k - 11 = 0

, k - 11 = -a

"

f(2) = 2a + b Ik + 21 • 0

Ik + 21 • - a

2 b

2lk-ll "" Ik+21 (By D.3.2)

21/ (k_l)2 =! (k+2)2

4(k-l)2 = (k+2)2

k • 0 , 4

30.6.20 A

R ~3-Lt.

c cr

J)-----L.---'c

Two unknowns as shown in diagram and solve.

84

NC"IML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1969-1970 5.5.50

1.6.12

(By A.5.1) Composition of functions: x(x-1) F 0

(1 - ~)(1 - ~)(1 - f;) ... (1 -~) x ~ 0 and x F 1

- (1 - ~)(1 + ~)(1 - %)(1 + ~) ••• = (~)(~)(~)(~)(~)(~)(~)(~) ••• (~)

= (~)(~) = *

2.7.09

(By E.8.3)

152 + k = 2( 169 + 196 ) k = 505

3.7.02

1 1 = 1

(p + x) +(p + y) P

p2 = xy

therefore:

2

x-I and y -p or x-p and yap or

xap2 and y=l or x __ p2 and y=-l

or x=-l and y =_p20r x--p and y=-p (REJECT: MAKES FRACTIONS MEANINGLESS)

407.15

K - 72(~ + 1)

72(~ + 1) • (~)(~)(2x ~)

Solving

x - 12

h(g(f(x»)) - x 6.6.25

101 ~p ~104

205f:q ~208

7P - 3q = 0 (mod 10)

7101 - 7(72)50 - 7(9)50 (mod 10) = 7(-1)50 "

- 7 "

7102 - 9 "

7103 - 3 "

7104 - 1 (mod 10)

3205 = 3 (mod 10)

3206 - 9 (mod 10)

3207 - 7 (mod 10)

3208 - 1 (mod 10)

(101,207); (102,206);(103,205); (104,208).

7.6.06

9C3 • ;~3 • ~! • 84

But there are 8 sets of collinear points therefore the solution is 76.

8.7.04

5x2 - 10xy + 7y2 = 55

7y2 must end in either 0 or 5. So let 1) y • 5 or 2) y = 10 Using 1) 2

5x -50x + 120 • 0

x • 6 or x... 4 Using 2) does not yield positive values for x.

Solutions: (6,5);(4,5)

85

9.7.01

J) r-_,,;~___'r--_-=2;;__---. c

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1969-1970 12.7.13

4

2.

2

M

A&.---_._----uB

G

(By E.2) AM. ~ TriangleSAMB and BMH are similar

HM=.L. AH.8 HB .. _!t_

VT VT 1fT

EC .. 2

EB .. 2'VT EH = _§_ YT

Triangles ADF and NAB are similar

AF .. 4

-

V, (By E.2)

10.7.50

alb ... 52/5

Consider all possibilities: 2x - 1 + x - 2 • 4

+

+ +

+

(By D.3.1) we obtain four equations. Solve and reject those values that do not check •

.11.6.46

81 .. 150n 82 • 2n(2M) 83• n(M)

150n • 4nM + nM 30 .. M

M .. Mean of smaller set

Since the hexagonal region is not necessarily regular, each set of triangles obtained by drawing some three diagonals constitutes a different way of dissecting

the region. Hence:

6 ways

6 ways

2 ways

13.6.07

If 32 + 42 + x2 .. n2 where x and n are elements of the set of integers then:

25 + x2 .. n2

therefore x .. 12 and n· 13 similarly:

132 + y2 .. z2 where y and z are elements of the set of integers. (By A.4.2)

Y .. 84 and z .. 85.

14.6.30

86

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1969-1970

Kclover = 72('if - 2) 17.7.51

K 1 4K.. 1 -K

cover = sem1-C1rc e square

AB = 2x

11 11 (11/10)10 mn = «ra) )

1111/1010

• (M)

11 10 (11/10)11 nm 0:: «m) )

1111/1010

- (~)

16.7.08 Let: {31 = {5) • {II' =

set of numbers divisible by 3.

set of numbers divisible by 5

set of numbers divisible by 11.

Find: ~ (\ ~ ,,~ •

By DeMorgan's Law:

{3) U l?~ V (11\

dimension 3

" 5

11

• 1100 = 660

.~

"

MINU8: dimension

" "

15 - 220 33. 100

55 0:: 60

1680

PLU8:

dimension 165. 20

1700 Therefore the complement will contain 1600 numbers.

Vcube- 125

Vs01id 0:: 125 - 12(5) + 16 = 81

18.7.22

81-82 = 1+5+9+13+ ••• +397 (By C.3.2)

81-82 .. 19,900

19.6.16

Given: K .. a1'r -b'I/T

K 0:: K - K .

sector tr1angle

K = (~)~ (36) - (~) (6YT) (3) K - 121i' - 9'VT

20.6.66

3x + 7y • 114 but x = 5k where k is a positive integer and 15k + 7y = 114

(By A.2) k. 2 and m = 12

21.5.05

x2+x+41 is not prime when x2+x+41 0:: ab where a and bare integers.

x(x+l) + 41 .. ab implies that 41 must be a factor of x(x+1) so either x = 40 or x = 41.

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1969-1970

1) x2 ~ 1 ~ + 9 •

2) Y - -x + a

1\

I \

I \

I \ /

Let x • radius of small circle 302 + (20-x)2 • (30+x)2

23. 6.21

E

f 2~() .. ooo-)( -- ...... -;x..?

Mass Moon • m Mass Earth • 81m Mass rocket • r

G.A. between E and r - 81kmr/(230,OOO_x)2

G.A.between M and r • kmr/x2

81

I: 1

7

(230,000-x)2

Solving: x • 23,000 24. 6.00

at P: 1) • 2)

~ + (aijx)2 I: 1 34x2-50ax+25a2-225 • ° since the roots will be equal by symmetry.

b2-4ac • ° and solve.

25.7.05

y I: (x2-(5+2V-;-»(x2-(5-2V-;-»

4 2

y - x -lOx + 1

which is a quadratic function in

x2• Its graph is a parabola that opens up. Find the coordinates of the turning point: -b/2a.

26. 7.56

The smallest number (first number) is 12345. There are 41 numbers starting with 1. There are 4! numbers starting with 2. That gives 48 numbers. There are 31 numbers starting with 31. That give 54 numbers. Therefore the 55th number is 32145.

27.6.00

c R

10-"'1-

p

Triangles SDP and PAQ are similar 10 - x - 6-:

y x

87

88

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1969-1970

x2 _ lOx • y2 _ 6y Complete the squares: (x-5)2 - (y_3)2 = 16

Quadratic relation whose graph is a hyperbola with center (5,3)

The question now becomes, " For what values of x, less than 5, will the curve be positive. Obtain answer from a sketch of the curve.

MN -8 Triangles

8 FE

FB FB

30.6.72

CMNand 1

= -

iT - 81{7"

- 11.3

CFB are similar.

Plug the given pOints into the equation obtaining:

2 = a + 3b

- 2 = 3a + b

28.6.55

Given:

0" x2_4x L 5 that implies:

x2 _ 4x "> 0 and x2 - 4x c: 5 x ~ 0 or x '> 4 and -1 ~ x c::.. 5

The conjuction of these conditions

is:

-1 ~ x ,0 or 4.c: x e, 5

29.6.15

Solving simultaneously we obtain (-1,1).

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1970-1921

1.4.55 4.6.14

Assume: (A-B)-C - A-(B-C)

A-B-C - A-B+C

o ::a C

89

2.6.12

The question really is what is the volume of the octahedron.

~ ~

2x + 2y =.h 2 and A = hy 2(x + y) = A2

7

2y2(x + Y) = A2

but: 2 2 2

h + Y = x

h2 = x2_y2

2(x + y) = x2 _ y2

2 = x - y x = y + 2 therefore:

Vtetrahedron= ~ Kbase(h) .. 2

-;

A = 2y1/ Y + 1

since A and y must both be posi - tive integers the smallest y must be ;.

5.6.42

Answer: 4

;

Since we have an identity, equate coefficients:

System of equations:

1) 1 + 1 -A~
-2 -2
x y
2) ry - A
Substituting into 1) we get:
1.,2 + x2 - A.."rz-
A2
x2 + y2 • A;.."rz- 1 = A+B+C -1 • A-B+C

-1 -= A+B-C

Solve.

6.4.;2

By definition:

Completing the square:

(x + y)2 _ A3y~ + 2xy _ A3~ + 2A Therefore :

p = 3 and Q = 2

Average rate is equivalent to total distance traveled divided by total elapsed time.

R1 = ~ and R2 = 2

Tl .. 2m and T2 .. m/2 Average Rate - 2m/ Tl+T2

90

7.7.02

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1970-1971

(By E.1.1)and(By E.5.1)

implies

4

2 - 'VI 4'V3

8.5.10

f(x) • x + b; g(x) ... l/x bx2 + xb2 + b cUb ~ 0 x2 + bx + 1 .. 0

for a unique solution the discriminant must equal zero.

+

so b. - 2

cos A 2 = sin4.1

x2 ... 5 KBED ... ~(x2)

10.4.41

Look for the pattern.

AO,A1,A2,···,An+2 1,3 , 9, 27, 81,

A 350 925

50 .. ..

.. 2An+1 + 3An n 243, ••• ,3 , •••

Look at the perfect squares. 100,121,169,196,225,256,289,324, 361,441.

Then consider the sum of the digits. 1,4,16,16,9,13,19,9,10,9

Then consider the qUotients.

12.7.04

(By E.6.1) CD ... DB .. 2 (By E.6)

cos ADB c ~ which implies ADB ... 60 degrees.

(By E.l.l)

'V AlB c 'V~

so

AlB III: 7/3 13.5036

Let: S .. a1+&2+&3+ ••• +&n (4(al-4)+4) + (4(a2-4)+4) + ••• + (4(an-4)+4) - AS + Bn

4(S-3n) - AS + Bn

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1970-1921

1) x2 = y2 _ a2 Similar triangles

14.6.01

468-(23-x)2 _ (23-2x)2 _ x2 Solving the resulting quadratic x = 5 or x = 59/2

then

h • 12 A = 216

15.6.09

y - x - 5 + 6

x-I

Choose positive integral values tor x that will yield integral remainders.

x=2,x=3,x-4,x=7, etc.

16.6.14

XO· 3, xl= 3,x2= 6, x3- 3, x4- %5- 3, ••• repeating decimal

1000x • 336.36;b

lOx - 3.36;b 990x - 333

x- 31

1m

17.6.02 A.

c

~ .. .! • Z y x z

2 ay = x

plug in 1)

2 2

Y -ay-a =0

y=l+'L2

2

18.6.79

91

Let 2x • length of the longer

x = length of shorter

~/hr = rate of shrinkage of long

lx/hr = "" " II short

b

t = time

2x - lxt - x - lxt

~ b

t = 3

19.6.03

KABC = ~(48)sin 120 = 121-;: 6, KACD = 3(x)sin 60 = 3~ x KCDB • 4(x)sin 60 = 4Y~ x

(1) + (2) + (3) = 24/7

F

20. 7.02

(1)

(2) (3)

1) (~ + Q)2x + 1 t:;£ 2 2
(~ - ) y.
2) (~ + t:;£) x + (~ - t:;£) y. 1
1) - 2): x+y - 1 or y • I-x
Plug into 2) and solve. 21.7.11

Tabulate: (201)2 to (223)2 (35)3 to (36)3 Toss out common numbers. Answer: 23

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1970-1971

22.6.15

Given: A = 45 degrees

AD ,. 10

Triangle DEF is called the pedal triangle of triangle ABC.

Note: The altitudes bisect the angles of the pedal triangle, but this information is not used here.

Reference: Coxeter, Introduction to Geometry, page 20.

Reflect AD about AB and AC yielding congruent segments AD" and AD' •

Note:

1) D"D' passes through E and F

2) triangle D"AD' is right

3) D"F ,. FD, ED' ,. DE

Therefore the perimeter of DEF is equal to the length of D'D"

Pn+l = 4 P
;- n
PI: 12(1) - 12
P2: 48(1) = 16
3
P3: 192(~) 64
D"3
P4: ~(~) • 2~6 25.7.40

x2 + y2 = 4x - 6y - 13

x2 _ 4x + 4 • -( y2 + 6y + 9) (x - 2)2 + (y + 3)2 ,. 0

x and yare real only when x • 2 and y 2: -3

The number of digits in a cycle

26.8.24

is:

By inspection, t must be greater than St p must be 3 or 4. If P equals 3, then st equals 37 or 28 since t3 must end with s. If

p equals 4 we get no possibilities. Check 37 and 28.

27.6.29

2R2 = (R + n)2 1.4l4R • R + n

5n + n(n+l)

2

If n ,. 50 then the number of digits is 1696 then begin the next cycle.

V"

.414 R = n
R • 1 = 2.4
- :4r4
n
A C 28.5.25

51/3• 51/9• 51/27•
• •• NOIM!, SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1970-t971 11111

; + '9 + ~ + •• ·-A ""' ~

1 - ;

therefore 5~ - 2.2

29.6.22

You should get the sequence: 2 4 8 2n-1 2n

, , ' ... '-'-

; ~ 2' 3n-1 3n

when will 2n be less than .01?

-

n

3

30.6.05

( 4 + zv-;- )6 _ 26( 2 + V-;- )6 Is (2 + v-;-)6 between an even and odd or visa versa?

Compute it. It turns out that

( 2 + y-;- )6 ""' 2701.99

Answer: 7

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1971-1972

93

Let the original number (in cents) be abba, the new number being baab. Then abba - baab - ???3. i.e. , a-b - 30 Therefore

(a,b) - (9,6),(8,5),(7,4), •••

2.6.16

By repeated substitution, x- 3+ty= 3 + t(2+tz) - 3 + t(2+t(a+tx)).

And (t3-1)X = at2+2t+3. Now the only way x could take on an infinite number of values would be

for it to be a solution of the equation O(x) = o.

t3-1 = 0 only if t = 1 and at2+2t+3 • a+2+3 = 0 only if a • -5.

3.6.17

c

6

A

(By E.4.1) AG = GB = 8

Angles GAB and GBA measure 60 degrees. Let CGC' be the median. Then GO' = 4V-;- = ilL3)CO'. Therefore CC' = 12Y-;-. ACt = 4 AB .. 8.

4.5.21

2 3 2 3

x = ky /z ; Xl ""' kyl /zl ;

x2 ""' k(2Yl)2/(2z1)3 ""' k(4Y12)/(8Z13)

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1971-1972

5.6.08

r

r

4

c 3

1) 4 + Y = r

2) 3 + x = r

3) x + y = 5

Solving: x = 3 and y = 2

6.6.79

Since (4)(9) must divide the sum of the other two, that sum must be expressible as (4)(8) + (4)(1) ; (4)(7) + (4)(2) ; (4)(6) + (4)(3) ; (4)(5) + (4)(4) OR (9)(3) + (9)(1) • The only possibility is

(4)(6) + (4)(3) since 6 must divide 9+3 and 3 must divide 9+6.

7.6.29 (By D.7)

aY .. x + V x2+l

aY - x = V x2+1 a2Y_2xaY+x2 _ x2+1

x .. (a2Y-l)/(2aY)

8.7.*

(diagram below) (By E.1.2)

Triangles AEB and DEC are isosceles right tria..ngles. Therefore AE = 2 and DE .. 1 • Since triays§e AED is a right triangle, AD D •

and the measure of angle DBA is 45 degrees. Therefore b~ E.).5 the radius of the circle is

"fO 2'

A

9.7.13

1 1 1 1 1

(1+;) _ (~+~) + (-sr~) _

1 1

(729 + 2189) + ••• or

4 4 4 4

( ; ) _ (~ ) + ( ~ ) _ ( 2187)

+ ••• An infinite geometric sum

with a - ~ and r = - ~

(By C.2.3)

S = 6/5

10.6.03

e

NCIML SAMPLE SOLUTIONS 1971-1972

95

AB - 16 ; AE - 8 ; FE - FA = 4 FB - 12 ; AO - 10 (By E.2.1) EO = 6 ; CE - 4 ; ED = 16.

(By E.2.1) FD - 41 17

(By E.3.2)

(GF)(FD) Y f~)(FB) GF = 12/

11.6.03

Tn - 1+2+3+4+ ••• +n = n(n+l)/2 (By C.302)

Set up a sieve. Let n represent all odd perfect squares, and then evaluate n+l and n-l to see if either is double a perfect square. i.e.

B n-l n+1 (n-1)/2

102 0

9 8 10 4

25 24 26 12

49 48 50 24

(n+l)/2 1

5 • 13

25

In a geometric progression, a2 = ra1 ; a1 + a2 •

a1 + ra1 = 4. Therefore, a1 - 4/(r+1).

Triangle DEF is equiangular therefore it is equilateral.

(ByE.l.l)

AF - ~ AD -= DB

AD + DB = 2DB + DB = 12 v-;DB = 4 YT

DE = 12

Perimeter - 36

14.5.68

(By D03.1) Case I: x ~ 2

x + 2 = x - 2 No Solution

Case II: 0 !: x L. 2

x + 2 - -(x - 2) x = 0

Case III: x L_ 0

-x + 2 = -ex - 2) True for all xt..O

Solution: x!: 0



15.4.63

The line J01n1ng the centers of two tangent circles must pass through the point of tangency. Since the radius of C1 is 10

and the radius of C2 is 4 the line joining the centers is 14.

therefore:

a1= r(a1+a1) a1- 2a1r

~ - r

and a1- 8/3 13.6.24

1>

c

Let:

A - 1,5,9, ••• ,an, •••

B - 2,9,16, ••• ,bn, •••

a142 = 1+4(142-1) = 565 b142 = 2+7(142-1) = 989 Now:

a3-b2-9 ; a10=b6-37 ; a17=b10=65

that is 4 times 7 = 7 times 4 = 28 Note that the subscripts form

an arithmetic sequence and since a142 comes up first work with

the subscripts ot the a's: 3+7Cn-l) ~ 142 ; n-l ~19+ ;

n f20+.