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# Contents

Abstract ................................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 3
Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Theory ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
Apparatus .............................................................................................................................................. 10
Procedure.............................................................................................................................................. 12
Results ................................................................................................................................................... 14
Calculations ........................................................................................................................................... 18
Discussion.............................................................................................................................................. 27
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 28
Reference .............................................................................................................................................. 29
Appendix ............................................................................................................................................... 30
Abstract

Vortex is the rotation of fluid elements around a common center. Its concept was being used in
various types of industry such as turbine design and creating standard safety against natural
disaster. This experiment was carried out to study the relationship between the surface shape of
free and forced vortex. It also to study on the angular velocity of a rotating liquid in a cylindrical
tank. Theoretically, the angular velocity of the fluid was manipulated by adjusting the control valve
to provide different flow rate of fluid flow. The height of vortex profile was measured when it
maintained constantly at its maximum height. After carried the experiment, it can be concluded that
the height of vortex profile increased as the vortex radius decreased. This conclusion is obtained
from the result of the experiment. For forced vortex, when the angular velocity of the fluid in the
cylinder increases, the depth of each pointer at the different vortex radius will also increase due to
the formation of semi parabolic shape. Therefore, it was concluded that the height of water surface
level is relative to the lowest point of the surface of a forced vortex flow was directly proportional to
the angular velocity of a rotating liquid in a cylindrical tank and is inversely proportional to the
squared radius at which it was measured.
Introduction

In fluid dynamics a vortex is a region, in a fluid medium, in which the flow is mostly rotating on an
axis line, the vertical flow that occurs either on a straight-axis or a curved-axis. Moreover, the plurals
of vortex are vortices and vortexes. Examples of vortices occur in nature, perhaps the most common
being a tornado or a whirlpool. A tornado is formed by high winds whirling around an area of
extremely low pressure and characterized by a funnel shaped cloud. Whirlpools can occur where
tides flowing in different directions meet or at the base of waterfalls where the effect is a spiraling
or swirling of the water again producing a funnel shape.

Basically, there are two types of motion translation and rotation. The two may exist independently
or simultaneously. If now an element is represented, it may be subjected to deformation. This can
be linear or angular. If the motion of the particles is purely translational and the distortion is
symmetrical, the flow is irrotational and the vorticity. Example: Flow net application. Forced vortex is
also known as flywheel vortex. = v C r Free vortex is also known as potential vortex. = v r C.
Compound vortex combination of free and forced vortex also known as Rankine vortex. Spiral vortex
(free vortex and a radial flow). Rotation of a fluid, moving as a solid, about an axis is called forced
vortex motion. Every particle of fluid will have same angular velocity. Free vortex motion is each
particle moves in a circular path with speed varying inversely as the distance from the center = vr
constant.

This experiment is related to the free and forced vortex flow of fluid in rigid-body rotation within a
cylindrical tank. As mentioned in paragraph 1, vortex is the rotation of fluid elements around a
common center. Mostly the fluid flows in a spinning motion about an imaginary axis, straight or
curved. That motion pattern is called a vertical flow. There are two types of vortices, which are
forced and free. The fluid (or gas) circles around a center in a forced vortex, while in a free vortex,
the medium spirals towards the center.

In an industry and in a real world, the applications of the vortex flow can be seen in a various area
such as turbine design, natural phenomenon and in creating safety against natural disaster. Thus,
the findings of the experiment are very important to help the engineers to design a good turbine as
the flow of water through the runner of turbine is a good example that used the principle of forced
vortex flow. The findings also can help engineer in designing a good technology in minimizing the
effect of natural disaster such as tornado and hurricane. Furthermore, the knowledge gain from this
experiment will help students to apply the correct concept in a real situation related to vortex flow
as they already experienced it.

Generally, the apparatus for the study of the shape of "free and forced vortices" consists of a
250mm diameter cylindrical, transparent vessel 180mm depth, having two pairs of diametrically
opposed inlet tubes of 9.0mm and 12.5mm diameter. The 12.5 diameter inlet tubes which are angles
at 15° to the diameter, so that a swirling motion is imparted to the liquid entering the vessel, are
used as entry tubes for the free vortex experiment. A smooth outlet is centrally positioned in the
base of the vessel and a set of push-in orifices of 24mm, 16mm, and 8mm diameter is supplied to
reduce the outlet diameter to a suitable value. The profile of the vortex formed at the top of the
vessel is determined by a gauge, housed on a diametrically mounted bridge piece, which measures
the diameter of the vortex at various depths. This gives the co-ordinate points required to plot the
vortex profile. The forced vortex is created in the vessel described above by using as the inlet the
90mm bore tubes which are angled at 60° to the diameter. The input water from these tubes
impinges on a simple two blade paddle which acts as a stirrer / flow straightener. The water "leaves"
the vessel via the 12.5mm diameter angled tubes which are used as "entry tubes for the free vortex
experiment. The two bladed paddle rotates on a vertical shaft supported by a bushed plug, in the
hole used as the outlet for the free vortex experiment, and located at the top by a suitable hole in
the bridge piece fitting across the diameter of the vessel. This bridge piece also houses the probes
required to determine the co-ordinates of the vortex profile to be measured.

For this experiment, SOLTEQ Free and Forced Vortex (Model: FM42) has been used. This SOLTEQ
Free and Forced Vortex (model FM42) has been designed for students experiments to produce and
measure free and forced vortices. It consists of a clear acrylic cylinder where the free vortex is
generated by water discharging through an interchangeable orifice in the base of the cylinder. The
resulting profile is then measured using a combined caliper and depth scale. The forced vortex is
induced by a paddle rotated by jets of water at the cylinder base.

The profile of the forced vortex is then determined using a series of depth gauges. Velocity at any
point in the free or forced vortex may be measured using the appropriate pitot tube supplied. A
secondary flow at the base of the free vortex demonstrated by means of dye crystals (not supplied).

## Some of the important cases of forced vortexes are:

 The movement of the liquids within the impeller of a centrifugal pump when there is no flow
as, for example, when the outlet valves are closed.

 The rotation of the liquid within the confines of a stirrer in an agitated tank.

## Figure 1: shows the example of force vortex formed

Objectives
Experiment 1: Free Vortex

Theory

## Free Cylindrical Vortex

When a liquid is flowing out of a tank through a hole at the bottom of the tank, free vortex is formed
with the number of oscillations depending on the distortion that created the flow. The liquid is
moving spirally towards the center following current, energy per unit mass is assumed to be
constant when energy loss by viscosity is neglected. If, while the mass of water is rotating, the
central exit hole is plugged, the flow of water in the vertical plane ceases and the motion becomes
one of simple rotation in the horizontal plane. This is known as free cylindrical vortex.

Bernoulli’s theorem can be used because the movement is along the flow axis,

p V2
  z  cons tan t
pg 2 g
For horizontal plane, the relation becomes

p V2
  cons tan t
pg 2 g
Integration of the above relation with r gives

1 dp V dV
.  . 0
pg dr g dr (1)

Next, consider a pair of stream line being divided with distance, δr and is in same horizontal plane
and are linked by a fluid tube with wide δA. The centrifugal force of the tube is balanced by the
pressure difference between both ends, that is

V 2 dp
pg.A.r.  .r.A
gr dr
pgV 2 dp

gr dr (2)

## Combine (1) and (2) to produce

V 2 V dV
 . 0
gr g dr
dV V
 0
dr r
Integrate above relation to obtain

ln r + ln V = Constant

Vr = K (Constant)

K
V
r
In free cylinder vortex, velocity is inversely proportional to distance from spiral axis, Bernoulli’s
theorem is used to determine surface profile as follow:

V2
 z  C (Cons tan t )
2g (4)

## Substitute (3) into (4)

K2
z C
2 gr 2
K2
Cz
2 gr 2 (5)

2
That is, equation for hyperbolic curve yx = A that is symmetry to axis of rotation and is horizontal
to z = C

Free Vortex

Movement in free vortex is different with free cylindrical vortex because free vortex contains radical
velocity towards center. Equation for such situation can be generated by considering the water
passes through round segments towards is diameter, where energy passing any tube and is kept
constant until

p V2
  z  cons tan t
pg 2 g

If A and V is surface area and velocity of a particular position while A1 and V1 are surface area and
velocity at distance r from center circle,

AV = A1V1 = Constant
By taking A = Kr,

r1V 1
V
r
If z is constant,
2 2
p r1 V1
 C
pg 2 gr 2
2 2
p rV
 C  1 12
pg 2 gr (6)

Also,
2
p1 V1
 C
pg 2 g
p  p1 V1 r1 V1
2 2 2

 
pg 2 g 2 gr 2

p  p1 V1
2 1
r
 {1  12 }
pg 2g r1 (7)

Free vortex can be said as combination of cylinder vortex and radial flow. Velocity is inversely
proportional to radius in every case. Angle between flow axis and radius vector at any point is
constant and these axis from the spiral pattern.

Forced Vortex

## Increase in radial pressure is given by

dp V2
p  p 2 r
dr r
p2 r2

 dp  p  rdr
2

p1 r1

1
p2  p1  p 2 (r2  r1 )
2 2

By taking
p1  p0 when
r1  0 , and p2  p and
r2  r
p  p0 w 2 2
 r
pg 2g
Because, p/pg = h, so

2
h  h0  r2
2g
2
h  h0  r2
2g
This is a parabolic equation.

2r 2
z
2g

## Distribution of total head can be represented by equation:

2r 2
H
g
Z = surface profile

ῼ= angular velocity

r = radius

g = gravity

H = total head

2  revolution

time(sec)
Apparatus

## Free and Forced Vortex apparatus

Orifice of diameter 8mm, 12mm, 16mm, Profile measuring gauge
24mm

Pitot tube
Paddle

Assembly View

## 9 Outlet 10 Pitot tube

11 orifice 12 Paddle
Procedure

## 2. The inlet and outlet hose was set up.

3. The stand of the equipment was adjusted to reach the horizontal position.

## General Shut-down Procedures

1. The valves were closed and the pump was switched off.

2. The orifices, paddle and other accessories were removed from the cylindrical vessel.

## 1. The general start-up procedures were performed.

2. An orifice with a diameter of 24mm was placed on the base of a cylinder tank.

3. The output valve was closed and the inlet 3-way valve was adjusted to let the water flows
into the tank from two pipes with 12.5 mm diameter. The water could flow out through the
orifice.

4. The pump was switched on and the control valve on the hydraulic bench was opened slowly
until it reached the tank limit. The water level was maintained by adjusting the control valve.

5. The vortex profile was collected once the water level was stable by measuring the vortex
diameter for several planes by using the profile measuring gauge.

6. The profile measuring gauge was pushed down until the both of sharp point touch the water
surface.

7. The measured height, h (from the top of the profile measuring gauge to the bridge) and the
value of a (distance from the bridge to the surface of the water level (bottom level of the
cutout)) were measured.

8. In order to measure the velocity, pitot tube was used by sinking it into the water at the
depth of 5 mm from the water surface. The depth of the pitot tube in the water, H was
measured.

9. Step 3-8 were repeated for another two orifices with diameter 16 mm and 8 mm
respectively.

10. The coordinates of vortex profile for all diameter of orifice was plotted in a graph the
𝐾2 1
gradient of the graph was calculated by using the formula below : X = ∙
2𝑔 𝑟2

11. Graph of velocity was also plotted which was calculated from the pitot tube reading versus
the radius of the profile.
V = (2gH)0.5

## Theoretically, the velocity was calculated by using the following equation:

𝐾
𝑉=
𝑟
Experiment 2: Forced Vortex

## 1. Perform the general start-up procedures.

2. A closed pump with two pedals was placed on the base of the cylinder tank.

3. The output valve was closed and the inlet 3-way valve was adjusted to let the water
flows into the tank from two pipes with 9.0 mm diameter. The water could flow out
through another two pipes with 12.5mm diameter.

4. It was ensured that the water flow out from the tank with the siphon effect by
raising the hose to above the water level in the tank.

5. The outlet hose was filled with water before letting the water to flow into the sump
tank in the hydraulic bench

6. The angular speed of the pedals was measured by counting the number of circles in a
certain times.

7. The surface probe was pushed down until the sharp point touch the water surface.

8. The measured height, h0 (from top of the measuring gauge to bridge) was recorded.

## 9. Step 4 – 8 were repeated with different volumetric flow rate.

10. The coordinates of vortex profile for different angular velocity was plotted.

11. The calculated vortex profile was plotted in the same graph as they relate as
𝜔2
h = h0 + 2𝑔 r2
Results
Part A: Free Vortex

a. Orifice diameter = 24 mm

## Distance from bridge to water surface, a = 230mm

Pressure
Pitot tube head /
Diameter Measured
head Depth of Velocity, Radius, r 1/r2
at centre, height, h r2 (mm2)
difference, the pitot V (mm/s) (mm) (1/mm2)
D (mm) (mm)
H (mm) tube, X
(mm)

## 45 67 11 33 464.5643 22.5 1012.5 0.001975

47 68 9 32 420.2142 23.5 1104.5 0.001811
48 71 8 29 396.1818 24 1152 0.001736

## 22.5 464.5643 761.71

23.5 420.2142 729.3
24 396.1818 714.11

Table 2: Difference between actual and theoretical velocity for 24 mm orifice diameter
b. Orifice diameter = 16 mm

## Distance from bridge to water surface, a = 227mm

Pressure
Pitot tube head /
Diameter Measured
head Depth of Velocity, V Radius, r2 1/r2
at centre, height, h
difference, the pitot (mm/s) r (mm) (mm2) (1/mm2)
D (mm) (mm)
H (mm) tube, X
(mm)

## 31 70 10 33 442.9446918 15.5 480.5 0.004162331

33 73 8 30 396.1817765 16.5 544.5 0.003673095
35 74 9 29 420.2142311 17.5 612.5 0.003265306

## 15.5 442.9446918 607.17

16.5 396.1817765 570.38
17.5 420.2142311 537.78

Table 4: Difference between actual and theoretical velocity for 16 mm orifice diameter
c. Orifice diameter = 8 mm

## Distance from bridge to water surface, a = 225

Pressure
Pitot tube head /
Diameter Measured
head Depth of Velocity, Radius, r 1/r2
at centre, height, h r2 (mm2)
difference, the pitot V (mm/s) (mm) (1/mm2)
D (mm) (mm)
H (mm) tube, X
(mm)

## 24 72 8 33 396.1818 12 288 0.006944

27 74 6 31 343.1035 13.5 364.5 0.005487
28 76 6 29 343.1035 14 392 0.005102

## Radius, r (mm) Actual velocity (mm/s) Theoretical velocity (mm/s)

12 396.1818

13.5 343.1035

14 343.1035

Table 6: Difference between actual and theoretical velocity for 8 mm orifice diameter
Part B: Forced Vortex

h0 (mm)
Distance
from centre 1st 2nd 3rd
(mm)
Measured Theoretical Measured Theoretical Measured Theoretical

0 62 62 74 74 98 98

30 60 60.16 80
80.2 103 103.27
70 59 59.88 77
78.09 107 108.45
110 65 67.18 87
89.69 110 113.58
No of
revolutions 18 20 23
in 60s

Angular
velocity
(rad/s)

## LPM 2.8 2.6 2.5

Table 9: Data for forced vortex experiment obtained and calculated value
Calculations
Free vortex:

a. Orifice diameter = 24 mm
Actual velocity

i. V = (2gH)^0.5
= (2 x 9810 kg mm.s^-2 x 11 mm) ^0.5
= 464.56 mm/s

ii. V = (2gH)^0.5
= (2 x 9810 kg mm.s^-2 x 9 mm) ^0.5
= 420.21 mm/s

iii. V = (2gH)^0.5
= (2 x 9810 kg mm.s^-2 x 8 mm) ^0.5
= 396.18 mm/s

## Pressure Head, X (mm) vs 1/R^2 (1/mm^2)

34
33.5
33
Pressure Head, X (mm)

32.5
32
y = 14971x + 3.7758
31.5 R² = 0.7746
31
30.5
30
29.5
29
28.5
0.0017 0.00175 0.0018 0.00185 0.0019 0.00195 0.002
1/R^2 (1/mm^2)
From the graph,
y= 14971x – 3.7758
While equation for the graph is X = K^2 / 2gr^2
The gradient is equal to 14971 = K^2 / 2g
Equation V = K/r is used to calculate theoretical value for velocity
K^2 / 2g = 14971
K^2 / 2 (9810) = 14971
K = 17138.58 mm^2/s

A. V =K / r
= 17138.58 / 22.5
= 761.71 mm/s

B. V = K / r
= 17138.58 / 23.5
= 729.30 mm/s

C. V = K / r
= 17138.58 / 24
= 714.11 mm/s

VELOCITY VS RADIUS
800

700

600

500

400 va vs r
vt vs r
300

200

100

0
22 22.5 23 23.5 24 24.5
b. Orifice diameter = 16 mm
Actual velocity

i. V = (2gH)^0.5
= (2 x 9810 kg mm.s^-2 x 10 mm) ^0.5
= 442.94 mm/s

ii. V = (2gH)^0.5
= (2 x 9810 kg mm.s^-2 x 8 mm) ^0.5
= 396.18 mm/s

iii. V = (2gH)^0.5
= (2 x 9810 kg mm.s^-2 x 9 mm) ^0.5
= 420.21 mm/s

## Pressure Head, X (mm) vs 1/r^2 (1/mm^2)

33.5
33
y = 4514.3x + 13.963
32.5
Pressure Head, X (mm)

R² = 0.9486
32
31.5
31
30.5
30
29.5
29
28.5
28
0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004 0.0045
1/r^2 (1/mm^2)
From the graph,
y= 4514.3x – 13.963
While equation for the graph is X = K^2 / 2gr^2
The gradient is equal to 4514.3 = K^2 / 2g
Equation V = K/r is used to calculate theoretical value for velocity
K^2 / 2g = 4514.3
K^2 / 2 (9810) = 4514.3
K = 9411.19 mm^2/s

A. V =K / r
= 9411.19 / 15.5
= 607.17 mm/s

B. V = K / r
= 17138.58 / 16.5
= 570.38 mm/s

C. V = K / r
= 17138.58 / 17.5
= 537.78 mm/s

velocity vs radius
700

600

500

400
vt vs r
300 va vs r

200

100

0
15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5 18
c. Orifice diameter = 8 mm
Actual velocity

i. V= (2gH)^0.5
= (2 x 9810 kg mm.s^-2 x 8 mm) ^ 0.5
= 396.18 mm/s
ii. V = (2gH)^0.5
= (2 x 9810 kg mm.s^-2 x 6 mm) ^0.5
= 343.10 mm/s
iii. V = (2gH)^0.5
= (2 x 9810 kg mm.s^-2 x 6 mm) ^0.5
= 343.10 mm/s

## Pressure head, X (mm) vs 1/r^2 (1/mm^2)

33.5
33 y = 1950.7x + 19.599
R² = 0.8985
Pressure head, X (mm)

32.5
32
31.5
31
30.5
30
29.5
29
28.5
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008
1/r^2 (1/mm^2)
From the graph,
y= 1950.7x – 19.599
While equation for the graph is X = K^2 / 2gr^2
The gradient is equal to 1950.7= K^2 / 2g
Equation V = K/r is used to calculate theoretical value for velocity
K^2 / 2g = 1950.7
K^2 / 2 (9810) = 1950.7
K = 6186.50 mm^2/s

A. V =K / r
= 6186.50 / 12
= 515.54 mm/s

B. V = K / r
= 6186.50 / 13.5
= 458.26 mm/s

C. V = K / r
= 6186.50 / 14
= 441.89 mm/s

velocity vs radius
600

500

400

300 va vs r
vt vs r
200

100

0
11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5
Forced vortex:

## Using the data from 1st trial:

𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 18
𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 2𝜋 × = 2𝜋 × = 1.88 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠
60𝑠 60𝑠
Height from top of measuring gauge to bridge:
𝜔2 2 1.882
ℎ = ℎ0 + 𝑟 = 60 + 302 = 60.16 𝑚𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 × 1000)
𝜔2 2 1.882
ℎ = ℎ0 + 𝑟 = 59 + 702 = 59.88 𝑚𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 × 1000)
𝜔2 2 1.882
ℎ = ℎ0 + 𝑟 = 65 + 1102 = 67.18 𝑚𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 × 1000)

## h (mm) vs distance from centre (mm)

68
67
66
65
64 h vs r

63 h0 vs r
62 Linear (h vs r)
61 Linear (h0 vs r)
60
59
58
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Using the data from 2nd trial:
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 20
𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 2𝜋 × = 2𝜋 × = 2.09 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠
60𝑠 60𝑠
Height from top of measuring gauge to bridge:
𝜔2 2 2.092
ℎ = ℎ0 + 𝑟 = 80 + 302 = 80.20 𝑚𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 × 1000)
𝜔2 2 2.092
ℎ = ℎ0 + 𝑟 = 77 + 702 = 78.09 𝑚𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 × 1000)
𝜔2 2 2.092
ℎ = ℎ0 + 𝑟 = 87 + 1102 = 89.69 𝑚𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 × 1000)

## h (mm) vs distance from centre (mm)

100
90
80
70
60 h0 vs r

50 h vs r
40 Linear (h0 vs r)
30 Linear (h vs r)
20
10
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Using the data from 3rd trial:
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 23
𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 2𝜋 × = 2𝜋 × = 2.41 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠
60𝑠 60𝑠
Height from top of measuring gauge to bridge:
𝜔2 2 2.412
ℎ = ℎ0 + 𝑟 = 103 + 302 = 103.27 𝑚𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 × 1000)
𝜔2 2 2.412
ℎ = ℎ0 + 𝑟 = 107 + 702 = 108.45 𝑚𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 × 1000)
𝜔2 2 2.412
ℎ = ℎ0 + 𝑟 = 110 + 1102 = 113.58 𝑚𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 × 1000)

## h (mm) vs distance from centre (mm)

116
114
112
110
108 h0 vs r

106 h vs r
104 Linear (h0 vs r)
102 Linear (h vs r)
100
98
96
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Discussion
Conclusion
Reference
Appendix