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PART-1

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
&
ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY

“PRINCIPLES, CONCEPTS AND TERMS (TERMINOLOGY)”

FOR ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERS AND ELECTRICAL


INSTALLATION ENGINEERS

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1. INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS SI UNITS-TERMS AND CONCEPTS.
2. ELECTRICAL PRICIPLES-TERMS AND CONCEPTS.
3. ELECTONIC ENGINEERING PRICIPLES, TERMS AND CONCEPTS.
4. ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING PRINCIPLE TERMS AND
CONCEPTS.
5. ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND NETWORKS.
6. ELECTRICAL ENGINERING MATERIALS.
7. FUNDAMENTALS OF HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING.
8. SWITCH GEAR AND CONTROL GEAR.
9. SWITCHING PROTECTION AND DISTRIBTION IN LOW-VOLTAGE
NETWORKS.
10. UTILIZATION OF ELECTIRCAL ENERGY.
11. POWER ELECTRONICS.

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1. INTERNATIONAL SYTEM OF UNITS

1.1. The International System of Units (known as SI in every language) has been finally
introduced is 1960 and has been accepted almost all countries as the only legal
system of measurement.

Note: However, in USA the imperial system are still in force in certain areas of legal
system of measurement.

1.2. Three types of units are used in SI(mks) system:


 Base units
 Supplementary units, and
 Derived units.
Supplement units have been classified as being BASE UNITS or DERIVED UNITS.

1.3. TABLE -1 SI BASE UNITS:


QUANTITY QUANTITY NAME SYMBOL
SYMBOL
l or L Length Meter m
m or M Mass Kilogram kg
t or T Time Second s
i or I Electric current Ampere A
θ (Theta) Temperature Kelvin K
‘m’ Amount of mole mol
substance
‘I’ Luminous intensity candela cd

1.4. TABLE - 2 SUPPLEMENTRY UNITS:

QUANTITY QUANTITY NAME SYMBOL


SYMBOL
θ Plane angle Radian rad
α, β, γ Solid angle steradian Sr

1.5. Capital letters are normally used to represent constant quantities – if they vary, the
symbol can be made lower case, the symbol “w” indicates a value of energy which is
time varying.
1.6. Terms and concepts:
“Force”, when applied to a body, causes the body to accelerate. Force is man made
or may be existing in nature.

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“Weight” is the gravitational force exerted by the earth on a body. This is a force of
Nature.
“Energy” is the capacity to do work, when selling energy; it is measured in Kilowatt
hours. (kwh) = 3600 kilo-joule per second
“Power” is the rate of doing working.
“Efficiency” is the rate of output power to input power.

Note: Forces existing in ‘Nature’ are GRAVITATIONAL FORCE, MAGNETIC FORCES,


WIND FORCES, FORCES OF RUNNING STREAMS OF RIVER, and so on.

1.7. TABLE-3 ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES:

FORMULA or QUANTITY UNIT UNIT SYMBOL


QUANTITY
SYMBOL
f Frequency hertz HZ
F Force Newton N
E or W or H Energy, work, quantity of joule Kg(m/s)2 , Nm
heat
P Pressure or stress Pascal P=(N/m2)
Q Electric charge Coulomb C
U Electric potential Volt V , W/A or J/C or
Potential difference W.s/C
Electro motive force
C Electric capacitance Farad F , C/V or (C)/(J/C)
or C2/J or A2-s/W
or
A2-s/VA or A-s/V
R Electrical resistance Ohm Ω ,V/A
G Electrical conductance Semen S , A/V
I Magnetic flux Weber Wb, V.s
B Magnetic flux density tesla T , Wb/m2
L or M Inductance Hertz H
φ Luminance flux lumen Lm
E luminance Lux Lx, lm/m2
Ep or Potential energy, Joule Newton meter or
W W or Ep = Fd joules (kg)(m/s2)(m)
F= force acting on a body.
d=distance in the direction
of force

Ek or W W=work done Joule kg(m/s)2


Ek=kinetic energy or
W or Ek=1/2 mv2 Newton-
m=body having a mass ‘m’ meter(Nm)
moving

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v=velocity of moving body
Ek=kinetic energy gained
T or M Turning moment or torque Newton Nm
of a force F in Newton, is meter
acting at right angles to a
radius r, in meter from a
point , the turning moment
or torque about that point is
T = (F)x(γ) or Newton
meter symbol T for torque
‘M’ is reserved for the
torque of a rotating
electrical machine
P : Power Power is the rate of doing (Watt joule Js-1, W
(mechanical) work, per second)
P : Power real P=work/time, W/t
S : Power, apparent =F.(l/t)
Q : Power reactive =F.u
Power = force x velocity
Joule per second or watt
Note: 1 kilo joule (1000
joule) per second is kw
which is in usage by
electrical engineers
E or W Energy is the capacity to do joule J
work
 Energy is the power watt second Ws
multiplied by time
 When selling
electrical energy it
is measured in
kilowatt hours
rather in
joules(watt-
seconds):1kwh=100
0 watt-hours
=1000x3600 watt
seconds
=3600000J
=3600kJ
=3.6MJ(mega-
joules)
F ‘Force’ when applied to a Newton N, kg(m/s2)
body causes the body to
accelerate
W Weight is the gravitational kgf 1kg=9.81kg.m/s2

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force exerted by the earth
on a body = 9.81Newtons
Note: The weight of a body
of mass ‘m’ is
approximately ‘9.81m’
Newtons, where ‘m’ is the
X Reactance Var-ohm Var-ohm or j ohm
R Resistance ohm Ω
S Reluctance Ampere per A/Wb
weber
M (mass) Mass of the body in kg M
kilogram.
Note: weight of 1 kg mass
at sea level is 9.81 newtons
T or M Torque when applied to a Newton N-M torque
body causes the body to -meter
rotationally accelerate
P In the case of a rotating (Newton ) [(N)x(arc
electrical machine (circular distance)=γθ/s]
Power= torque x angular distance per
velocity second)
P=MW
=2ΠNrM/60
Where ‘Nr’ is measured in
revolutions per minute
Ep or W W = work done Joule N-M
Ep = potential energy (Newton – Meter
= mgh Or
m = body of mass ‘m’ Joules)
falling
h = height of fall
g = acceleration due to
gravity

Note:
The unit of force, called the Newton, is that force which when applied to a body
having a mass of one kilogram, gives it an acceleration of one meter per
second squared.
Force F=ma
F [Newtons] =m [kilogram] x a [meter per second2]

‘Force’ when applied to a body causes the body to accelerate.


‘Weight’ is the gravitational force exerted by the earth on a body

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Owing to the variation in the radius of the earth, the gravitational force on
a given mass, at sea level, is different at different latitudes. The weight of 1kg
mass at sea-level from zero degrees latitude to 90o latitude varies from 9.78 to
9.84. The weight of 1kg mass at sea level on the London area is practically
9.81N. For most purposes we can assume: For engineering calculations, the
weight of a body = 9.81m Newton, where ‘m’ is the mass of the body in
kilogram

1.8. Table-4 Some SI derived units:

S. no Quantity Quantity Description Expressed in


symbol term of other
units
1. Area A Square meter m2
2. Volume V Cubic meter m3
3.(a) Speed-linear U Meter per second m/s

3.(b) Speed-angular ω Radian per second rad/s


4.(a) Velocity-linear u Meter per second m/s

4.(b) Velocity-angular ω (omega) Radian per second m/s

5.(a) Acceleration-linear a Meter per second square m/s2

5.(b) Acceleration- α Radian per second squared rad/s2


angular
6. Density, mass Ф or d Kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3
density
7. Concentration of ‘m’ mole per cubic meter mol/m3
amount of
substance
8. Specific volume Vs Cubic meter per kilogram m3/kg
9. Luminance E Candela per square meter Cd/m2
10. Absolute viscosity Pascal second Pa-s
11. Kinematic viscosity Square meters per second m/s2

12. Moment of force M or T Newton meter N-m


13. Surface tension Newton per meter N-m
14. Heat flux density or Watt per square meter w/m2
radiance
15. Heat capacity, H Watt per square meter J/k
entropy joule per Kelvin

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17. Specific energy Joule per kilogram J/kg
18. Thermal Watt per meter Kelvin w/(m-k)
conductivity
19. Energy density Joule per cubic meter J/m3
20. Electric field E Volt per meter v/m
strength
21. Electric charge D Coulomb per cubic meter c/m3
density
22. Surface density of D Coulomb per square meter c/m2
charge, flux density
23. Permittivity ε Farad per meter F/m
24. Current density J Ampere per square meter A/m2
25. Magnetic field H Ampere per meter A/m2
strength
26. Permeability µ Henry per meter A/m
27. Molar energy Joule per mole J/mol
28. Molar entropy Joule per mole Kelvin J(mol K)
Molar heat capacity
29. Radiant intensity Watt per steradian w/s
30. Resistance R Ohm meter Ωm
31. Conductivity γ Siemens per meter s/m
gamma
32. Self inductance L
33. Mutual inductance M Henry
H = wb/ampere
34. Permeability μ H/M
35. Flux density B Tesla w/m2 T =w/m2
36. Magnetic potential F Ampere A
difference
37. Admittance or Y siemens S
Susceptance B siemens S

38. Angular velocity ω radian per second rad/s


39. Capacitance C farad F
40. Charge on quantity Q couloumb C
of electricity
41. Conductivity σ siemens per metre s/m
42. Current steady state I ampere A
r.m.s
Instantaneous value i
Maximum value Im
43. Current density I Ampere per squre metre A/m2
44. Different of V volts V
potential steady or
r.m.s value

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Instantaneous value i
Maximum value Vm
45. Magnetic flux Ф weber Wb
46. Magnetic flux ψ weber Wb
linkage
47. Magnetic field H ampere per metre A/m
strength ampere turns per metre At/m
48.(a) Inductance, self L henry H
48.(b) Impedance, mutual M henry H
49. Impedance Z ohm Ω
50. Electric flux ψ coulomb C
51. Magneto motive F Ampere A
force Ampere turns At
52. Resistivity φ Ohm/metre Ω/m
53. Volt ampere Volt ampere VA
54. Reactive volt Q var var
ampere

2. ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLES TERMS AND CONCEPTS

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A- Introduction to electric systems:

1. ‘Current’ is the rate of flow of electric charge in a circuit. The term is often used
to describe the flow of electric charge e.g. a current flowing in a circuit; this is
ambiguous but is so, common that we have to accept it.
2. A ‘source’ supplies energy to a system.
3. A ‘load’ accepts energy from a system.
4. ‘Electrical charge’ may be either positive or negative. Negative electrons are
free to move around a circuit thus transporting energy from a ‘source’ to ‘load’.
5. To maintain a current, the source must provide a driving force called the
‘electromotive force (e.m.f)’
6. The ‘potential difference’ across a load indicates in volts the energy lost per
coulomb of charge passing through the load.
7. Since the current is the rate of flow its product with the voltage gives the rate of
energy transmission i.e. the power

Current=coulomb/second = (charge/time)
Voltage=watt second/coulomb = (energy/charge)
Current x voltage=coulomb/second x joule/coulomb
=joule/second or watt
=power = (charge flow/time)
8. ‘Resistance’ is a measure of the opposition to the flow of charge through a load.
9. Ohm’s law states that the ratio of voltage to current is constant, provided other
physical factors such as temperature remain unchanged.
10. The resistance of resistors can be identified by code systems.

B-SIMPLE D.C.CIRCUITS:

11. Loads are connected in ‘series’ when the same current flow passes through each
of them.
12. Loads are connected in ‘parallel’ when the same potential difference is applied
to each of them.
13. Kirchoff’s laws state that the sum of the currents entering a junction is equal to
the sum of the currents leaving that junction and the sum of the volt drops round
any loop is equal to the sum of the e.m.fs. The equivalent delta resistance
between two terminals is the sum of two star resistances connected to those
terminals plus the product of the same two star resistances divided by the third
resistance.
14. The most common application to kirchoff’s current law is to two branches in
parallel i.e. one current in and two out(vise versa).
15. The most common application of kirchoff’s voltage low is to a single circuit
with one ‘source’ and one ‘load’.
16. Resistivity is a constant for a material relating its resistance to its length and
cross-sectional area at constant temperature.
17. ‘Resistivity’ varies with change of temperature

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18. The temperature co efficient of resistance relates the change of resistance to
change of temperature according to the initial temperature.
19. TEMPERATURE RISE CAN DAMAGE INSULATION AND HENCE IS THE
BASIS OF RATING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT.

C-NETWORK THEOREMS:

20. Most circuits problems can be solved by applying kirchoff’s law to produce
simultaneous equations; the solution of these equations is often unnecessary
difficult.
21. The superposition theorem states that we can solve a circuit problem one
‘source’ at a time, finally imposing the analyses one on another.
22. Thevenin’s theorem states that any network supplying a load can be replaced
by a constant – voltage source in series with an internal resistance.
23. Norton’s theorem states that any network supplying a load can be replaced by a
constant current source in parallel with an internal resistance.
24. The delta-star transformation permits us to replace any three loads connected
in star. The star-delta transformation permits the converse transfer permits the
converse transfer. The equivalent star resistance connected to a given terminal is
equal to the product of the two delta resistances connected to the same terminal
divided by the sum of the delta resistances.

For delta star transformation:

Rc = R1R2 ; Rb = R3R1 ; Ra = R2R3


R1+R2+R3 R1+R2+R3 R1+R2+R3

For star- delta transformation:

R1 = Rb+Rc+ RbRc ; R2 = Rc+Ra+ RcRa ; R3 = Ra+Rb+ RaRb


Ra Rb Rc

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25. The maximum –power transfer theorem states that maximum power is
dissipated by a load when its resistance is equal to the equivalent internal
resistance of the source. (For maximum power transfer R=r).

D-CAPACITANCE AND CAPACITOR:

26. Capacitance is a measure of the ability to store electric charge.


27. ‘Capacitance’ is also a measure of the ability to store energy in an electric field.
28. ‘Charging’ is the process of increasing the charge held in a capacitor.
29. ‘Discharging’ is the process of reducing the charge held in a capacitor.
30. ‘Farad’ is the capacitance of a capacitor which has a p.d of 1volt when
maintaining a charge of 1coulomb.
31. ‘Leakage current’ is the rate of movement of charge through a dielectric.
32. Permittivity is the ratio of electric flux density to electric field strength
measured in farads per meter.

E-ELECTRO MAGNETISM:

33. A ‘magnetic field’ can be described using ‘lines of flux’ such lines form closed
loops, do not cross, and when parallel, repel one another.
34. Magnetic fields have the ‘North and the South poles’ like poles repel one
another. Unlike poles attract one another.
35. A current carrying conductor lying in a magnetic field experiences a mechanical
force.
36. The relative directions of the field, force and current are given by ‘left hand
rule’. (Sometimes known as Fleming’s right hand rule).
37. An electric current can be produced by the movement of magnetic flux relative
to a coil connected as a circuit in ‘electric circuits’, induced emf can be created
by ‘electromagnetic field’. When the magnetic flux linking a circuit is varied, an
emf is induced and the same is known as ‘Faradays law’of electromagnet
induction. The magnetic flux passed through the coil is varied.

Note:
Variation of magnetic flux linking a circuit is applied in generator
machines transformer machines to induced e.m.f in electric circuits.

38. The direction of an induced e.m.f is always such that it tends to set up a current
opposing the motion or change of flux responsible for inducing that e.m.f. The
induced emf opposes the change of condition. This is known as ‘Lenz’s law’

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39. The relative directions of the magnetic field, mechanical motion of conductor
and induced emf are given by the right hand rule (some times known as
Fleming’s right hand rule).

F-SIMPLE MAGNETIC CIRCUITS:

40. A ‘magnetic flux’ is created by a magneto motive force (m.m.f).


41. The ‘magnetic field strength’ is the m.m.f gradient at any point in a field.
42. The ‘magnetic field strength’ and the ‘flux density’ at any point in a field are
related by the ‘permeability’ of the material in which the magnetic field is
created.
43. The ratio of the ‘permeability’ to that if free space is termed the relative
‘permeability’. For ferromagnetic materials the relative ‘permeability’ varies
according to the magnetic field strength.
44. The variation of flux density with magnetic field strength is illustrated by the
magnetization characteristics (or B/H curve)
45. The ‘reluctance’ of a magnetic circuit is the ratio of the magneto motive force to
the flux.

G-INDUCTANCE IN A D.C CIRCIUT:

46. How well the ‘goodness of a magnetic circuit’ is indicated by a factor


‘inductance’. The efficiency factor of a magnetic circuit is the ‘inductance or
47. The most important of the applications of ‘inductance’ is to relate the
‘efficiency of a magnetic circuit’ to the induction of an e.m.f (induced e.m.f) in
a circuit.
48. The ‘inductance’ is related to the dimensions of a coil and the ‘nature of the
ferromagnetic coil’. Inductance is a factor of goodness for a magnetic circuit.
The higher the inductance, the better the flux linkage per ampere.
49. The electric field of a capacitor stores energy and in much the same manner the
magnetic field of an inductor also stores energy. The storage of such energy
cannot be achieved instantaneously but rather the build up (of such storage) is
exponential.
50. There is charge and discharge of the ‘electric field of capacitor’ and in much the
same manner there is charge and discharge of a magnetic field of inductor’.
51. Two ‘inductor coils’ electrically not connected to each other but either one or
both carrying electric current set their magnetic fields and they can interact with
one another. This gives rise to the concept of ‘mutual inductance’.
(Two coils can interact with one another. This gives rise to the concept of
mutual inductance.)
52. ‘Self inductance’ arises when an emf is induced due to change of flux linkage
created by its associated current.
53. Whether an emf is ‘positive’ or ‘negative’ depends entirely on the assumed
direction of action. Self induced emf is assumed to act as though they are load
volt drops.

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54. The ‘inductance’ depends on the number of turns of the energizing coil, the
length and cross sectional area of the magnetic circuit and the material from
which the magnetic circuit is made.
55. Ferromagnetic cored inductors produce significantly higher inductances than
other inductors.
56. The current in an inductor cannot change instantaneously but has to rise or fall
exponentially.
57. When a magnetic field is set up by an inductor it stores energy.
58. When a magnetic field of one coil links with a second coil the coils are said to
be mutually linked and they have ‘mutual inductance’. How well they are linked
is indicated by the ‘coupling coefficient’.
59. Both self and mutual inductance influence the emf induced in coils.
60. Inductance are calculated in terms of the dimensions of its sources and hence
the related emfs.

Induced e.m.f; e = L (di/dt) (volts) = N (di/dt) volts


Self inductance L= NΦ/I (weber per ampere or henry) time constant of an
L.R circuits T = (L/R) seconds
Current rise in an LR circuit; i =I(1-e(R/L)t)
Current decay in an LR circuit I = Ie-(R/L)t
e.m.f induced y mutual inductance e = M (di/dt)volts
Reluctance of magnetic circuit (sample per weber) is given by
S= (F/Φ) = NI/ Φ = I1N1/ Φ1 = I2N2/ Φ2
Mutual inductance M= N2 Φ2/I1 = N1N2/S
Coupling coefficient of mutual inductor k =M/√L1L2
Effictivc inductance of mutual inductor L =L1+L2+2M

H. ALTERNATING VOLTAGE AND CURRENT:

61. An ‘alternating’ system is one in which the voltages and currents vary in a
repetitive manner. A cycle of variations is the sequence of change before the
repetition commences.
62. The most basic form of alternating system is based on a sinusoidal variation.
63. The very common form of ‘periodic alternating system’. Nowadays, in electric
supply system is ‘non-sinusoidal variation’ because of the harmonics generators
of non linear loads.
64. A ‘sinusoidal emf’ can be generated by rotating a rectangular coil in a uniform
magnetic field although in practical terms this would be a most in efficient
method.
65. The ‘time taken’ to complete a cycle is the ‘period’. The ‘frequency’ is the
number of cycles complete in a second.
66. The ‘Average value’ of an alternating wave form has to be taken over half a
cycle. The application of the average value is some what limited.
67. The ‘root mean square value (rms)’ of an alternating waveform can be taken
over half cycle or over a full cycle. It is the one most generally used in electrical
alternating systems. ‘r.m.s’ means square root of the mean of the square.

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‘r.m.s current’ means square ‘root’ of the ‘means’ of the square of the current =
root – mean - square (rms) value of current.
‘r.m.s’ quantity’ is also termed the ‘effective’ value of the current.
‘Effective’ value of the current.
The r.m.s for ‘effective value of an alternating current is measured in terms of
the direct current that produces the same heating effect in the same resistance.
Alternating, the average heating effect of the alternating current over half cycle
=area enclosed by i2R curve over half cycle/length of base.
68. If ‘Im’ is the maximum value of a current which varies sinusoidally, the
instantaneous value ‘i’ is represented by

i = Imsin θ
Where θ is the angle in radian from instant zero current.
Average value of current over a half cycle is 2 Im (ampere radians)/π (radians)
i.e. Im = 0.6237 Im
Hence, in general average value of a sinusoidal current or voltage is
0.623times the maximum value. Therefore r.m.s value of current or effective
values of current over one cycle is
I = Im/√2 = 0.707 Im.
Hence in general r.m.s value or effective value of sinusoidal currant or voltage
is (0.707) x (maximum value).

Note: The r.m.s value is always greater than the average except for a
rectangular wave, in which case the heating effect remain constant so that the
average and r.m.s values are the same.
69. ‘Form factor’ of a periodical wave is r.m.s value/average value.
Form factor of a sine wave is kf = 0.707x maximum value / 0.6237 x maximum
value
i.e. kf = 1.11
70. ‘Peak or crest factor’ of sine wave is (maximum value)(0.707xmaximum
value ) = √2. Therefore kp =1.414 = √2.
71. If ‘f’ is the frequency in hertz of a sinusoidal periodic wave then the
corresponding angular velocity of the rotating generator denoted by the symbol
‘ω'(omega) is
ω = 2πf radians per second.
If the time taken by the radius vector OA to rotate through an angle θ radian is
‘t’ seconds.

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Then, θ = angular velocity x time = ωt
= 2πft radians.

Hence the instantaneous value of the current is i= Im sin θ = Im sinωt


i.e. i =Im sin2πft.
72. Two alternating quantities such as voltage and current may be:
a) Both the quantities may be in same phase with each other.
b) One quantity may ‘lag’ by a certain angle of phase to other
c) One quantity may ‘lead’ by a certain angle of phase of the other.

If the instantaneous value of the current is represented by I = Im sin θ and


if the instantaneous value of the voltage is represented by V = Vm sin (θ+ Ф).

Then the current is said to ‘lag’ the voltage by an angle Ф or the voltage
is said to ‘lead’ the current by an angle Ф. The phase difference Ф between the
two alternating quantities remains constant, respective of their position.

An alternating quantity may be represented by ‘phase representation’.

Wave form

OI= phasor of current I

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OV=phasor of voltage V
Voltage leads current by an angle Ф, current lags voltage by an angle Ф

Phasor algebra or complex number algebra is used for calculations.

73. A ‘phasor’ is a line drawn to represent a sinusoidal alternating quantity. It is


drawn to scale and their angles relative to the horizontal represent its phase shift
in time.
74. ‘Phasor’ can be added and subtracted so long as they represent like quantities.
75. ‘Phasor diagram’ can be used to represent r.m.s quantities in which case they
are ‘frozen in time’. The length of phasor will, for convenience, represent the
r.m.s values
76. In practice electrical frequency can vary form 15 Hz to 300 GHz depending on
the application. In public electricity supply system 50 Hz ac supply is used
except U.S.A In U.S.A 60 Hz ac supply is used.

I-SINGLE-PHASE SERIES CIRCIUTS:

77. If a single phase series circuits is purely resistive, the current is in phase with
the voltage. If it is purely inductive, the current lags the voltage by 90o. If the
circuits purely capacitive, the current leads the voltage by 90o.
78. If a single phase series circuits contain both resistance and inductance, the
circuits lags the voltage by an angle less than 90o but the angle is greater than 0o.
79. If a single phase series circuit contain both resistance and capacitance, the
current ‘leads’ the voltage by an angle less than 90o but the angle is greater than
0o

80. If single phase series circuit contains resistance, inductance, and capacitance,
the current may ‘lead or lag or be in phase with the voltage depending on the
relative values of the inductive and capacitive reactance.
81. The ‘reactance’ of ‘inductor’ rises with frequency.
82. The ‘reactance’ of a ‘capacitor’ inversely falls with frequency.

J- SINGLE PHASE PARALLEL CIRCIUTS:

83. Single phase parallel networks are simply solved by treating each branch as a
simple single phase series circuit and then adding the branch current.
Alternatively we can manipulate branch impedances provided they are
expressed in polar form.
84. The ‘admittance’ is the inverse of the impedance. The in phase component of
the admittance is the ‘conductance’ and the quadrature component is the
‘susceptance’.

K.1.-POWER IN AC CIRCIUTS:

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85. The ‘ active power’ sometimes also referred to as the ‘real power’ is the rate of
energy conversion or dissipation taken as an average over one or more complete
cycles.
86. The ‘reactive power’ is the peak rate of energy storage in the reactive elements
of a circuit. The average rate of energy storage is zero, the energy continually
flowing into and back out from the reactive components.
87. The ‘apparent power’ is the product of the r.m.s voltage and current and is
related to the active ‘power factor’. The ‘apparent power’ is a useful means of
rating certain equipment, bearing in mind that conductor heat losses occur
whether or not the current is in phase with the voltage.

K.2.-RESONANCE IN AC CIRCUITS:

88. ‘Resonance’ occurs when the peak energies stored by the inductor and the
capacitor are equal and hence this energy can shuttle to and for between these
components without taking energy form the source. In practice the transfer in
loss and only the loss has to be made good by the source.
89. In an RLC series circuits, resonance occurs when the supply voltage and current
are in phase.
90. a. The voltages which appear across the reactive components can be many times
greater than that of the supply. The factor of magnification is called the ‘Q
factor’.
90. b. RLC series circuits accept maximum current from the source at resonance
and for that reason is called an ‘acceptor circuit’.
91. a. In a parallel RLC network, the natural resonant frequency would be the same
as for the equivalent series circuit. However, the losses caused by the resistance
have to be replaced and the resulting operational frequency is called the ‘forced
resonant frequency’ which is slightly lower.
91. b. The current in the branches can be many times greater than that form the
supply. The factor of magnification is again called to ‘Q factor’.
91.c. The lowest current from the source occurs at forced resonance hence the
network is called ‘rejecter network’.

L. COMPLEX NOTATION; PHASOR; POLAR FORM:


NETWORK THEOREMS APPLIED TO A.C.NETWORKS

92. A ‘Complex number’ is one which represents the horizontal and vertical
component of a polar number separately. The horizontal component is the real
component and the vertical component is the imaginary component.
Note: In a right angle triangle the horizontal component is the ‘real power’ and
the vertical component is the ‘reactive power’ and the hypotenuse is the
‘apparent power’.

93.a. Voltages currents and impedances can be all represented by complex numbers.

18
93. b. However, care should be taken that the complex voltages and complex
currents contain time information whereas complex impedances at merely
independent operators.
94. Complex notation is especially useful when dealing with parallel networks since
it simplifies both the addition and subtractions of the branch circuits and also
the manipulation of the impedance which is difficult if expressed in polar
notation.
95. ‘Power’ can be expressed in complex form but if we wish to obtain the power
from a voltage and current we need to use the conjugate of current, this removes
the time information which otherwise distorts the solution.
96. By the application of complex notation, any of the network theorems which
were used in dc networks can be applied to ac networks.
97. For maximum power it is necessary to match the impedance which requires
equal resistance components but equal and opposite reactance components.
98. Both who either describes electronics engineer or the power engineer use the
same ‘electrical principles’ and both deal with electricity. However such similar
individuals are different in their ways just like sheep are separated from the
goats. Nowadays there is the apparent involvement of electronic control
equipment in power system operations and vice versa. It is worth observing that
more and more power engineers are using electronic devices in their work;
equally more and more electronics engineers are controlling power system. The
divisions between electronics engineers and power engineers are therefore
becoming less distinct.

98.1. The underlying factor which affect our judgment as engineers are:

 The ‘system efficiency’ in terms of energy loss is only significant when


considering large amount of energy. Generally we can afford to lose 1% of 1W
but 1% of 1MW is costly.
 The ‘waste heat’ gives rise to temperature and thus have a say in the rating
of equipment so we consider the rate of loss and how quickly we can depose of
it.
 We have to consider the size of the system it makes a great deal of
difference whether the load is beside the source or a long way distant and how
do we judge what is a long way distant.
 The final factor is our desire for accuracy leading us to realize how seldom
we are sure of what we require by way of accuracy.
The above four underlying factors 93.1 to 93.4 affect our judgment as
engineers. The ways in which we respond to these factors vary greatly
depending on the applications and it is now time to proceed from developing
general electrical principles in their applications first in ‘electronic systems’ and
second in ‘ power system’.

99. The ‘electronic systems’ use ‘micro power’ where as ‘power system’ use ‘mega
power’.
99.a. The electronics systems have to be considered in the following contexts.

19
 The power levels are very low and therefore energy efficiency is of little
importance.
 Even with poor efficiency, the waste heat is rarely significant.
 The reduction of distance between circuit components has lead to
miniaturization.
 The outcomes of electronics circuits generally seek exceptionally high levels
of accuracy by means of components with poor tolerances.
99. b. The power systems have to have to be considered in the following contexts.

 The power levels are high and there fore energy efficiency is most
important.
 Even with high efficiency the waste heat is significant and limiting to
applications.
 The distance to a load is only occasionally significant but generally does not
feature.
 The outcomes of power systems can be quite variable, yet are achieved
using components with high tolerances.
99. c. The general electrical principles are applied to a variety of applications to the
‘electronic systems’ and the ‘power systems’.

101. ADDITIONAL TERMINOLOGY PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS

101.a. DEVIATION FROM A SINE WAVE:


A single number measure of the distortion of a sinusoidal wave due to
harmonics components.
It is equal to the ratio of the ‘absolute value of the maximum difference’ between
the ‘distorted wave’ and the ‘CREST value of the fundamental’.

101.b. DEVIATION FROM A SINE WAVE, MAXIMUM THEORITICAL:


For a non sinusoidal wave, the ratio of the arithmetic sum of the amplitude
of all harmonics in the wave to the amplitude of the fundamental.

101.c. DISTORTION FACTOR (HARMONIC FACTOR):


The ratio of the root-mean-square of the harmonic content to the root-mean-
square value of the fundamental quantity, expressed as a percent of the
fundamental.
101. d. TOTAL HORMONICS DISTORTION (THD):
The term has come into common usage to define either voltage or current
‘distortion factor’.

101. e. TOTAL DEMAND DISTORTION (TDD):


The total root-sum-square harmonic current distortion, in percent of the
‘maximum demand LOAD current’.

20
101. f. POWER FACTOR, DISPLACEMENT:
The displacement component of power factor, the ratio of the active power of
the fundamental wave, in watts, to the apparent power of the fundamental wave,
in volt amperes.

101. g. POWER FACTOR, TOTAL:


The ratio of the total power input, in WATS, to the total volt ampere input to
the converter.

Notes: (1) This definition includes the effect of harmonics component of current
and voltage , the effect of phase displacement between current and voltage,
and the exciting current of the transformer. VOLTAMPERS are the product of
rms voltage and rms current.
(2) The power factor is determined at the ‘a.c. line terminals of the converter’.

101. h. SHORT CIRCIUT RATIO:


For a semiconductor converter, the ratio of the short circuit capacity of the
bus, in MVA, at the point of converter connection to the rating of the converter,
in MW.

101. i. TELEPHONE INFLUENCE FACTOR (TF):


For a voltage or current wave in an electric supply circuit, the ratio of the
square root of the sum of the squares pf the weighted root mean square values of
all sine wave components(including alternating waves both fundamental and
harmonics) to the root mean square value (unweighted) of the entire wave.

101. j. HORMONICS:
A sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or quantity having a frequency
that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.

101. k. HORMONIC FACTOR:


The ratio of the root sum square value of al the harmonics to the root mean
square value of the fundamental.

Harmonic factor(for voltage) = √ E32+E52+E72

E1

Harmonic factor (for current) = √ I32+I52+I72


I1

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101.l. IMPEDENCE RATIO FACTOR:
The ratio of the source impedance at the point in the system under
consideration, to the equivalent total impedance from the source to the converter
circuit elements that commute simultaneously.

101. m. I-T PRODUCT:


Inductive influence expressed in terms of the product of its root-mean square
magnitude (I), in amperes, times its telephone influence factor (TIF).

101. n. KV-T PRODUCT:


Inductive influence expressed in terms of the product of its root-mean-
square magnitude, in kilovolts, times its telephone influence factor (TIF).
For other definitions, see chapter 3 of IEEE STD 519:1992.
The recommended practice in IEEE Std 519-1992 is to be used for guidance
in the design of power systems with non-linear loads. The limits set in IEE Std
519 are for steady state operations and are recommended for “WORST-CASE”
conditions. Transient conditions exceeding the limits set in IEEE Std 519 may
be encountered. IEEE Std 519 does not cover the effects of radio-frequency
interference; however, it does include electromagnetic interference with
communication systems.

The recommended practice in IEEE Std 519-1992 intends to establish goals


for the design of electrical systems that include both linear and non-linear loads.
The voltage and current waveforms that may exist throughout the power system
are described IEEE 519 and waveform distortion goals for the system designers
are established. The interface between sources and loads is described as the
point of common coupling, and observance of the design goals will minimize
interference between electrical equipment. IEEE 519 sets the quality of power
that is to be provided at the point of common coupling.

22
3. ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING FOR POWER SYSTEM
ENGINEERS AND ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
ENGINEERS TERMS AND CONCEPTS

A. ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS:

1.1. An electronic system can be made from a number of ‘subsystems’ such as


‘amplifiers’ ‘attenuators’ and ‘transducers’. It is not essential that we are aware
of the detailed construction of a subsystem; rather it is essential that we can
relate its output to its input. The approach is using subsystems to understand and
electronic system is often referred to as ‘black box’ approach. This might be
thought to refer to the units which usually are encapsulated in a black material,
but it is really emphasizing the fact that we cannot see what makes up the
contents of the unit.
2.1. Amplifier block diagram

I1 I2

23
V1 V2 load RL

Amplifier

 Voltage gain (Gv) = output signal voltage = V2 (A1)


Input signal voltage V1

 Current gain (Gi) = output signal current = I2 (A2)


Input signal current I1

 Power gain (Gp) = output signal power = V2 x I2


(A3)
Input signal power V 1 x I1

Gp = Gv x Gi (A4)

2. a. The function of an amplifier is to provide ‘gain’. Usually the gain is that either
the current or the voltage out is directly propositional to the ‘current in’ or
‘voltage in’ and is greater in magnitude.
2. b. Current or voltage gains normally result in ‘power gain’. The additional power
is taped from a source separate from that of the input current or voltage.
2. c. The input power for amplification comes from a separate power supply.
2. d. Reduction of amplifier blocks diagram and an amplifier symbol
2. e. It is necessary to provide a source of power from which is obtained the output
signal power fed to the load: the magnitude of this signal power being
controlled by the magnitude of the input signal

G
Vi Vo

3.1. Block diagram of attenuators:

24
Input port output port

The input voltage is applied to the input terminals which we call the input port
and the output voltage will be observed at the output terminals which we will
call the output port.
3. a. If the input is a voltage υi and the output is υo, the relationship between the
two can be expressed as

υo = Aυi
‘A’ is the action produced by the block box and is called the transfer function
Generally when ‘A’ is greater than unity, the system is acting as an amplifier.
However, when ‘A’ is less than unity, it is acting as an attenuator.
3. b. Attenuator does not require a separate power supply and there fore the output
power is entirely derived from the input power.
3. c. Attenuators has no separate power source and therefore cannot be power gain.
The attenuator can be thought of as ‘negative gain’.

4. System can be illustrated by means of ‘block diagram’ which should be read left
to right.

B. DATA TRANSMISSION AND SIGNALS

5. When information is transmitted electrically the relevant energies are contained


in ‘signals’.
6. Signals are either ‘analogue signals’ or ‘digital signals’.
7. ‘Analogue signals’ have continues variation in direct proportion to the
information being carried. In practice, it is difficult to maintain direct
proportionality and the consequent differences give rise to ‘distortion’.
8. ‘Digital signals’ normally come in two forms ON and OFF. The length of the
signal can be varied as in Morse code, but it is by far the most common practice
to use binary digits of equal duration. As a consequence, any distortion can be
removed since we anticipate equal digits which are either ON or OFF.
9. ‘Transmission systems’ can be normally operated only ‘over a limited range of
frequencies’. Outside these frequencies, their performance is unacceptably poor.
The range of satisfactory operators is called the ‘bandwidth’
10. ‘Modulation’ permits us to change the frequency of operation so that we can
have a number of signals being transmitted in a system at one time. Such an
operation is known as ‘frequency division multiplexing’.
11. The ‘carrier frequency’ is the change of frequency applied.
12. The ‘signal frequency’ can be added to or subtracted from the carrier frequency.
When added we obtain the ‘upper sideband’ and when substract we obtain the
‘lower sideband’. When only one sideband is used, we have ‘single sideband
transmission’.

25
13. ‘Filter’ permit the separation of one signal from a number which are all using
the same transmission system. ‘Passband filters’ permit the passage of one
signal and reject signals at all other frequencies.
14. ‘Demodulation’ is the reversal of modulation, and is the process where by the
‘carrier frequency’ is removed in order that the signal returns to its original
range of frequency operation.
15. ‘Amplifier’ does not always amplify equally either ‘at all frequency’ or at all
magnitudes’ When applying amplifier, we have to take into consideration these
practical limitations.

C. AMPLIIFIER EQUIVALENT NETWORKS

16. An ‘amplifier’ can be represented by an ‘equivalent circuit’. The creation of this


equivalent circuit can be derived from the constant voltage equivalent circuit
associated with Thevenin’s theorem or from the constant current equivalent
circuit associated with Norton’s theorem.
17. Although an equivalent circuit appears to represent a single amplifying device,
it can in fact represent the cumulative effect of many devices.
18. The ratio of ‘power out’ to ‘power in’ for any unit in a system can be expressed
in decibels (db) which are logarithmic.
19. The ‘bandwidth’ of an amplifier is often determine by the conditions in which
the ‘gain falls by 3db’ relative to the ‘mid band gain’. The limiting frequencies
are sometimes called the ‘3-db points’.
20. ‘Feedback’ is a circuit arrangement in which the output is partially applied to
the input of an amplifier. This can have the effect of reducing the gain but the
overall amplifier operation is more stable and the performance more consistent.
Alternatively feedback can be used to improve the gain but this can cause
instability.
21. Feedback can be used to improve bandwidth.

D. SEMI CONDUCTOR MATERIALS

22. All material is made from elemental atoms which comprises ‘protons’(positive)
‘neutrons’(neutral) and electrons (negative). The number of ‘protons’ equals the
number of ‘electrons’ in any atom.
23. ‘Electric current’ is caused when electrons migrate from atom to atom.
24. ‘Semiconductor materials’ commonly used in electronics are ‘silicon’ and
‘germanium’ Both form crystals with adjacent atoms sharing electrons in
covalent bonds. ‘Silicon’ and ‘germanium’ atoms have four ‘valance electrons.
25. If an atom in such a crystal of germanium or silicon is replaced by an atom with
five valance electrons, the atom is said to be a ‘donor’ pentavalent crystal of
germanium or silicon when doped with materials such as phosphorous, arsenic,
referred to as n type (negative type) semi-conductor.
26. If an atom the crystal of germanium or silicon is replaced by an atom with three
valance electrons, the atom is said to be ‘acceptor’. Crystal of germanium or

26
silicon when doped with materials such as gallium, boron or aluminum which
are trivalent is referred to as p-type (positive type semiconductor).
27. The ‘junction’ between ‘donor’ and ‘acceptor’ material create a depletion layer
because donor electrons link with the acceptor atoms.

27
In forward bias of p-n junction diode, the current in the diode is due to hole flow in
the p region and electron flow in the n region and a combination of the two in the
vicinity of the junction.

In reverse bias of p-n junction diode, in the region x there are no holes or free
electrons i.e. there are no charge carrier in this region and is known as ‘depletion
layer’. Consequently the junction behaves as an insulator.

28. The development of p-n junction gives rise to the ‘diode’ a device which readily
conduct in one direction but not in the other

E. RECTIFIERS

29. A ‘rectifier’ circuit or network is generally used to convert alternating current to


direct current.
30. A single diode can only provide ‘half wave rectification’. It is not efficient and
the ‘direct current’ can only be supplied half the time.
31. A ‘full wave rectifier’ requires at least two diodes and generally four diodes are
involved. The direct current is reasonably consistent in its unidirectional flow.
32. ‘Smoothing’ is the process of removing the worst of the output variations in the
current.
33. A ‘Zener diode’ is one which tends to have the same volt drop across it
regardless of the current passing through it. In practice there are limits to the
variation of current which it can withstand.

F.JUNTION TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

28
34. a. The bipolar junction transistor has three layers - the ‘emitter’ the ‘base’ and
the ‘collector’. It is connected to two circuits with any one layer common.
34. b. The input circuit obtains its power from the signal super imposed on a current
supplied from a power source. The output circuit is entirely provided with
power from the power source, hence the ability of the transistor to amplify. The
amplifier signal can e removed by means of a capacitor which blocks the d.c.
power source.
35. The transistor is essentially a current operated device and the equivalent circuits
are often based on ‘constant current generator’.
36. Consistent operation depends on the stability of the operating conditions. It is
common practice to make ‘supply stabilizers’ incorporating transistors.
37. Transistors are commonly used as switches.

G. FET AMPLIFIERS

38. FET means the field effect transistor. It is better known as the FET.
38. a. In bipolar transistor there is need to draw current and it is seen as a draw
back. Hence a better transistor than bipolar transistor known as FET transistor
has been produced.
39. Fields effect transistors (FETs) come in two forms-JUGFETS and IGFETS.
40. The JUGFET has three connections the ‘source’ the ‘gate’ and the ‘drain’
41. The IGFET also has a ‘substrate’ connection.
42. An advantage of the FET when compared with the ‘bipolar’ transistor is that its
input resistance is so high it is effectively an open circuit.
43. The high input resistance leads to much better operation as a switch, there being
effectively no current through it when in the OFF condition. With the increasing
dependence on digital rather than analogue signal transmission, this is a
significant advantage.
43. a. FET switching times are very high.

H. FURTHER SEMICONDUCTOR AMPLIFIERS

44. It is quite usual that a ‘single amplifier’ cannot provide the ‘gain’ which we
desire we there fore use two or more ‘cascaded amplifier’.
45. It does not matter whether the amplifier in corporate ‘junction transistors’ or
‘FETS’ both can be cascaded.
46. Amplifiers are often ‘integrated circuits’ in which all the components are
encapsulated.
47. A common integrated circuit takes the form of an ‘operational amplifier’ (op-
amp) which provide degrees of choice in there applications, e.g. the input can
either be ‘inverting’ or ‘non-inverting’.
48. Operational amplifier can be used as ‘summing amplifiers’ in which the output
voltage is the sum of the input voltages. Similarly operational amplifiers can be

29
fused as ‘differential amplifier’ in which the output signal is propositional to the
difference of two input signals.

I. DIGITAL NUMBERS

49. Digital transmission of data requires that numerical data is available in ‘binary’
form.
50. We can convert ‘decimal numbers’ to ‘binary numbers’. This quickly gives rise
to large numbers of ‘binary’ digits but these can be reduced by the ‘octal’
system.
51. We can perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division using binary
digits.
52. For best use of digital systems, it can be appropriate to apply the ‘hexadecimal
system’.

3.. TABLE:

BINARY DECIMAL HEXADECIMAL


0000 0 0
0001 1 1
0010 2 2
0011 3 3
0100 4 4
0101 5 5
0110 6 6
0111 7 7
1000 8 8
1001 9 9
1010 10 A
1011 11 B
1100 12 C
1101 13 D
1110 14 E
1111 15 F
DIGITAL SYSTEMS

53. ‘Logic gates’ operate in two conditions ON and OFF (i.e.) they are digital.
54. Logic gates can be made from ‘diode’ circuits but most incorporate ‘transistors’’
usually FETs since they can effectively operate as though they were open
circuits when in the ‘OFF’ position.
55. The basic logic gates are ‘AND’, ‘OR’, ‘NAND’ and ‘NOR’. They can be
connected in any group required but it is common practice to create circuits
which only incorporate one form of gate e.g. the NOR gate.
56. The number of gates required can often be reduced by the application of
‘combinational logic’.

30
57. A common gate arrangement is the ‘S-R bi stable’ which locates its output in
either of two conditions until it is intentionally reset.
58. A ‘group of bistable’ can be made to form a ‘register’ which is driven by a
‘clock’ i.e. its condition can only be set or reset by the application of pulses
which are applied at regular intervals.

K. INTERFACING DIGITAL AND ANALOGUE SYSTEMS

59. It is convenient to be able to change from ‘digital’ to ‘analogue’ systems and


vice versa. Digital to analogue transfer is achieved by a ‘D/A converter’ and
‘analogue to digital’ transfer by an ‘A/D converter’.
60. The ‘lowest significant bit (LSB)’ determines the step size of a D/A converter.
The ‘resolution’ is the ratio of the step size to the maximum output.
61. A ‘D/A converter’ is constructed around a ‘summing op-amp’. In practice they
are limited by the accuracy of the input resistance and the precision with which
the input supply voltage is held.
62. An A/D converter is constructed around a D/A converter comparing the ‘output
of the latter’ with the ‘input to the former’. The comparison is under taken by an
‘op-amp comparator’.

L.MICROPROCESSOR AND PROGRAMS

63. A ‘microprocessor’ is a device containing many logic circuits. It can operate at


very high speeds.
64. In order to control the processing unit we require ‘memories’ to store
‘instructions’ and ‘data’. The instructions are held in the ‘read only memory’
(ROM) and the temporary data is in the ‘random access memory’ (RAM). The
interchange of information between the ‘accumulator’ (CPU), the RAM and the
ROM is achieved by ‘buses’.
65. Information into and out from the system is transferred through ‘ports’.
66. Sequences of instructions are called ‘programs’ which may be ‘machine code’
‘assembly language’ or ‘high level language’. The use of such languages is a
study of its own.

M. CONTROL SYSTEMS

67. ‘Control system’ can be either ‘open loop’ or ‘closed loop’. An ‘open loop’
system takes no recognition of the output in the belief that the input will be
achieved. The closed loop system ‘feeds back’ information of the output to
ensure that the input intention is achieved.

31
68. The difference between the feedback signal and the input signal is referred to as
the error.
69. The device which produces the ‘feed back signal’ is called a ‘transducer’.
70. The ‘error’ is produced by the ‘comparator’ and is supplied to the ‘controller’.
In turn the controller causes a motor to cause the desired output movement.
71. ‘Control systems’ can be divided into ‘regulated’ and ‘remote’ position
controllers (r.p.c.s). Typically regulators control speed whilst r.p.c.s control
position.
72. A ‘change of the input signal’ gives rise to a period of transient change prior to
a ‘new steady state condition’ being achieved. Generally the ‘steady state
condition’ is achieved with an ‘error which is not zero’ but is ‘insufficient’ to
cause further change.
73. To reduce the ‘transient period’, ‘damping’ is introduced. This may be ‘critical
damping’, ‘over damping’ or ‘under damping’. Excessive damping can make the
system unstable.
74. The ‘settling time’ is time taken for the transient to reduce within given
tolerance limits.

N. ATTENUATORS AND FILTERS

75. ‘Four terminal networks’ are effectively as ‘simple’ or as ‘complex’ as we wish


but all we see are ‘two input terminals’ and ‘two output terminal’
76. ‘Attenuators’ are ‘passive’ and effectively load a system. For this reason
attenuators is a ‘measure’ of the ‘power losses indicated in terms of the ‘ratio of
the output power with respect to the input power’.
77. ‘Typical attenuators’ can be represented by resistors T-connected or π –
connected. They can be ‘symmetrical’ or ‘asymmetrical’.
78. ‘Filters’ take similar forms except that the resistors are replaced by ‘capacitors
and inductors’ As a consequence of their reactive nature, losses are low.
79. Depending on the connection of ‘capacitors’ and ‘inductors’ filter can be ‘high
pass’ , ‘low pass’, ‘band pass’ or ‘band stop’. Ideally these filters offer ‘zero
attenuation’ outside these limits and infinite outside these limits e.g. high pass
means zero attenuation below a given limit and infinite above.

O.FIBRE OPTICS

80. ‘Fiber optic systems’ operate at frequencies between 1010 and 1017 HZ.
81. The light passes along a fiber which is clad with a material of suitable
‘refractive index’. Refraction is observed when light passes from one material to

32
another and changes direction as a consequence. ‘Reflection’ occurs when the
light requires to deflecting by more than 90o at such a transfer.
82. Light can be ‘modulated’ by the suitable control of a ‘diode laser’ or LED.
83. ‘Optical fibers’ include ‘multiple mode’ and ‘single mode’ type.

4. ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING PRINCIPLE


TERMS AND CONCEPTS

A.MULTIPHASE SYSTEMS:

1. ‘Multiphase systems’ are best noted for their general ability to transmit ‘high
powers efficiently and also to provide powerful motor drives.
2. Most ‘multiphase systems’ operate with three phases although others operate with
‘two’, ‘six’ and even ‘twelve phases’.
3. Three phase systems often identify the phases by the colours ‘red’, ‘yellow’ and
‘blue’ although higher power systems use the numbers 1, 2, and 3.
4. ‘Three phases’ can be connected either in ‘star’ or in ‘delta’. ‘Star’ connection is
sometimes called a ‘wye’ connection, while the ‘delta’ connection is sometimes
called a ‘mesh’ connection.
5. The voltage across, and the currents in, the component of the load or source are
termed the ‘phase values’. The voltages between the supply conductors and the
currents in these supply conductors and the currents in these supply conductors
are terminal the ‘line values’.
6. In the star connection, the phase and line currents are identical.
7. In the delta connection, the phase and line voltages are identical.

33
8. In both star and delta connected systems, the line voltages are mutually displaced
by 1200.
9. The sum of the currents in the supply conductors in a three wire system is always
zero.
10. The active power can be given by measuring the active power in one phase and
multiplying by ‘3’ provided the load is balanced. However, two wattmeter’s can
be used to measure the total active power whether the loads is balanced or not.
11. Two phase systems have phase voltages displaced by 900.

B. TRANSFORMERS:

12. ‘TRANSFORMERS’ effect ‘changes of voltage’ with virtually ‘no loss of power’.
The input is called the ‘primary’ and the output is termed the ‘secondary’
13. The primary and secondary systems are ‘connected’ by ‘magnetic flux linkage’.
14. The winding terminals are so connected to their respective windings that the
primary and secondary voltages are normally in phase with one another.
15. A ‘no load current’ is required to ‘magnetize’ the core of a transformer. The ‘no-
load current’ has ‘two components’ one ‘to supply the power losses’ incurred by
the core and the other ‘to create the magnetic flux’. Normally the no load current
is almost significant in relation to the full load current caused by a secondary
load.
16. Not all the flux links the two windings although the leakage can be minimized by
placing the low voltage winding inside the high voltage winding.
17. ‘Losses’ occur in a transformer due to the ‘IR losses’ in the windings plus the
‘hysteresis’ and ‘eddy current’ losses in the core. The losses usually are
sufficiently small under full load conditions that the efficiency is in excess of 98
percent.
18. ‘Auto transformers’ have a ‘common’ primary and secondary winding.
19. ‘Current transformer’ is intended to strictly relate the primary and secondary
currents for the purpose of measurement and protection.
20. ‘Voltage transformer’ is intended to strictly relate the primary high extra high
voltages secondary low voltage for the purpose of measurement and protection.
21. CTs and VTs are called ‘instrument transformers’.
22. ‘Voltage transformers’ are also called ‘potential transformers’.
23. ‘Ratio error’ and ‘phase angle error’ are absent, in their application of VTs and
CTs.

C. INTRODUCTION TO MACHINE THEORY:

24. There are three important families of ‘doubly excited rotating machines’ as
follows

 Synchronous machines: Stator flux – alternating current


Rotor flux - direct current
 Asynchronous machines: Stator flux – alternating current
Rotor flux – alternating current.

34
 Commutator machines: Stator flux – direct current
Rotor flux – direct current

Synchronous and asynchronous machines usually have cylindrical stators while


commutator machines have salient pole stators. Most machines have cylindrical
rotors.

25. Magnetic systems try to optimize the stored energy by distorting the magnetic
core either by closing ‘air gaps’ or ‘ by aligning poles’. The former is associated
with forces of attraction and the latter with ‘forces of alignment’.
26. Few machines are based on the force of attracting principle. The most common is
the ‘relay’ or ‘contactor’.
27. Rotating machines are based on the force of alignment principle.
28. The most simple are the ‘reluctance motors’ which are ‘single excited systems’.
29. Doubly excited systems can either incorporate cylindrical rotors and stators or be
salient.
30. Doubly excited machines fall into three principal categories ‘synchronous’,
‘asynchronous’ and ‘commutator’.

D. AC SYNCRONOUS MACHINE WINDINGS

31. The ‘speed’ of a synchronous machine depends on the ‘frequency’ and the number
of ‘pole pairs’.
32. The ‘rotor’ can be salient or cylindrical and is excited by ‘direct current’.
33. The ‘stator’ has three phase windings which if excited by a three phase supply can
produce a rotating magnetic field. The direction of rotation a can be reversed by
interchanging two of the phase supplies.

E. CHARACTERISTICS OF AC SYNCRONOUS MACHINES

34. The magnetic flux in the air gap between the rotor and the stator is due to the sum
of the effects created by the rotor excitation and by the stator excitation. The
stator component is called the ‘armature reaction’.
35. The ‘rotor excitation’ varies the stator current and power factor.
36. The ‘stator reactance’ gives rise to the ‘synchronous impedance’.
 Synchronous machine can operate either as ‘motor’ or as ‘generators’.
 The change if operation is effected by variation of the excitation
current in the rotor.

F.INDUCTION MOTORS

35
37. The rotating field of the stator induces e.m.fs and hence currents in the rotor
conductors. The rotor conductors can either take the form of windings as in the
wound rotor machine or short circuited bars as in the cage rotor machine.
38. The speed of the rotor relative to the rotating field is termed the ‘slip’.
39. The torque developed varies during the accelerated period and also depends on
the ratio of the ‘rotor reactance to the rotor resistance’. The reactance also varies
during the acceleration period.
40. The torque must exceed the load torque for the machine to ‘accelerate’.
Eventually the motor torque falls to balance that of the load at which point the
speed stabilizers.
41. Three phase induction motors can be started by the star – delta method, the auto-
transformer starter and by a ‘soft stators’.
42. Induction motors can be used to ‘break’ the load a procedure called ‘plugging’.
43. One phase motors can be used for small power applications. The common the
‘split phase motor’ and the ‘shaded pole motor’.

G. DIRECT – CURRENT MACHINES

44. A dc machine normally has a ‘round rotor’ and a ‘salient pole stator’ with two,
four, six, or more poles.
45. The winding on the rotor is termed the ‘armature winding’ and as a consequence it
is common to refer to the rotor as the ‘armature’.
46. The connections to the rotor are made through carbon brushes which are held
under tension against the commutator.
47. The armature windings are either ‘lap windings’ or ‘wave windings’.
48. The e.m.f induced in the armature windings is proportional to the ‘speed of
rotation’ and to the ‘pole flux’.
49. The current in the armature winding creates a second field which results in the
‘armature reaction’.
50. The ‘process of switching’ the connections on the rotor by means of the
‘commentator’ is known as ‘commutation’.

H.DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS:

51. The methods used for connecting the ‘field and armature windings’ are divided
into the following groups:

 Separately excited machines- the field windings being connected to a


source of supply other than the armature of its own machine.

 Self excited machines which may be subdivided into:

a) Shunt wound machines- the field winding being connected across the armature
terminals.

36
b) Series wound machine – the field winding being connected in series with the
armature windings.
c) Compound – wound machines- a combination of shunt and series windings.

51. a .D.C machines can be separately excited or self excited. Separately excited
machines are often used in control systems.
51. b. Self excited machine can be ‘shunt wound’, ‘series wound’ or ‘compound
wound’.
52. D.C machines can readily act as both motors and as generators.
53. The ‘torque’ developed is proportional to the ‘pole flux’ and to the ‘armature
current’.
54. The ‘speed characteristics’ of a shunt motor is almost ‘constant’ that of a series
motor is ‘inversely proportional’ to the current. The consequence is that the shunt
motor is useful where speed control over a limited range is required whereas the
series motor gives exceptional starting torque.
55. The control of d.c motors is increasingly achieved using power electronic circuits.
A typical system would be based on a ‘thyristor chopper arrangement’

I. CONTROL SYSTEM MOTORS:

56. Both d.c and a.c motors can be used in ‘regulators’. Both depend heavily on
power electronic arrangements. These arrangements may control the field current
of a d.c motor or control the three phase supply current to an induction motor.
57. R.P.C systems (Remote position controllers system) can be effected either by
mechanisms such as a ‘Geenva cam’ or by a ‘stepping motor’.
58. Stepping (or stepper) motor is developed from the reluctance motor except that
the input usually is pulsed.
59. There are two forms of ‘stepping motor’ the variable reluctance motor and the
hybrid motor.
60. The ‘variable reluctance motor’ has a ‘rotor’ which is obviously based
on‘reluctance motor’.
61. The ‘hybrid motor’ has a ‘cylindrical rotor’ which has teeth.
62. Stepping motor can rotate through given angles of rotation or they can rotate
continuously. In the latter case the speed can be controlled.

J. MOTOR SELECTION AND EFFICIENCY

63. Motor selection requires knowledge of the required speed, power rating duty
cycles and load torque.
64. To match a motor to a load to a necessary to know the ‘torque speed
characteristic’ for the load.
65. Machines experience ‘core losses’ which include ‘hysteresis and eddy current
losses’.
66. ‘Hysteresis’ is the variation of flux density with magnetic field strength Owing to
the nature is the domain structure of the ferromagnetic material the variation

37
produces a hysteresis loop which is indicative of the energy required every cycle.
The repetition of these cycles gives rise to power losses.
67. ‘Eddy current’ losses are due to the circulating currents in the core and the effect
is reduced by core lamination.
68. ‘Machine’ ‘losses’ due to the current in the ‘windings’ and in commutator
machines, the ‘brushes’ release waste energy due to ‘contact resistance’.
69. The ‘efficiency’ of a machine can be estimated by deducting the ‘losses’ from the
‘input power’.

K. INTRODUCTION TO THE GENERALIZED THEORY OF ELECTRICAL


MACHINES

70. Electrical machines are in general, used to convert ‘mechanical energy’ into
‘electrical energy’ as in ‘electrical generators’ or ‘electrical energy’ into
‘mechanical energy’ as in ‘electrical motors’. Most electrical machines consist of
an ‘outer stationary member’ and ‘inner rotating member’. The stationary and
rotating members consist of ‘steel cores’ separated by ‘air gap’ and form a
magnetic circuit in which ‘magnetic flux’ is produced by currents flowing through
windings situated on the two members.
71. Windings are classified as ‘concentrated’, ‘phase’ and ‘commutator’.
72. The generalized approach to machine theory is based on ‘the force on a current –
carrying conductor principle’ but the analysis stems from the self and mutual
inductances of the windings.
73. The ‘mutual inductance’ varies with the ‘distortion of the core components’,
hence the torque is determined by the rate of change of ‘mutual inductance with
the angle of distortion’.

L. POWER ELECTRONICS

74. A ‘thyristor’ is an electronic device similar to a ‘transistor switch’. It has four


layers and can only be switched on it cannot be switched off.
75. Circuits can be used to switch off a ‘thyrister’ but the most simple arrangement is
to let the current fall to zero which arises when used with an a.c supply.
76. A ‘thyristor bridge’ provides a controllable a.c/d.c converter.
77. ‘Thyristor systems’ can be also provide d.c/a.c inverters. To obtain the best
possible sinusoidal output, inverters use ‘pulse width modulation’.
78. Alternative devices to the thyrister include ‘insulated gate bipolar transistors
(IGBT) and ‘gate turn off thyristers (GTO thyristers).
79. Three phase rectifier networks provide D.C. outputs with relatively little ripple.
80. If the thyristers replace the diodes in a three phase rectifier network, the result is a
‘fully controlled converter’.
81. By coupling converters and inverters a speed control system can be provided for
three phase induction motors.

38
82. Thyristor coupled back to back provide ‘soft starting’ arrangements for three
phase induction motors.

M. MEASUREMENTS - ELECTRONIC MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

83. The most common measuring instrument is based on the ‘electronic indicating
instrument’.
84. Electronic instruments make little demand on the circuit being measured and there
fore are of relatively high accuracy.
85. Most vacuum devices such as diodes are obsolete but one significant device
remains the ‘cathode ray tube’. This is incorporated into oscilloscopes.
86. ‘Oscilloscopes’ provide ‘visual displays’ of ‘voltage’ and ‘current’ waveforms.

N. ANALOGUE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

87. ‘Analogue instruments’ depend generally on a pointer making an indication by


moving across a scale.
88. The moving mechanism requires a controlling device, usually two counter wound
springs, and a clamping device, usually eddy current damping.
89. ‘Permanent magnet moving coil instruments are driven by direct current’ but by
the use of rectifier bridges they provide the basis of most cheap indicating
instruments.
90. The ranges of applications are extended by introducing ‘series resistors’
‘multipliers’ into voltmeter or ‘parallel resistors’ (shunt) into ammeters.
91. Other measuring instruments include ‘electrodynamics meter’ and ‘electrostatic
voltmeters’.
92. Reference measurements are ones of high accuracy and can be derived from
Wheatstone bridge and from ‘potentiometers’.
93. ‘Errors in measurement’ occur due to the limitations of the instrument used the
‘fallibility of the operator’ and the ‘circuit disturbance’.

39
5. ELECTRIC CIRCIUTS AND NETWORKS

5.1. Circuit variables


5.2. Circuit elements
5.3. Simple resistive circuits
5.4. Techniques of circuit analysis
5.5. The operational amplifier
5.6. Inductance, capacitance, and mutual inductance
5.7. Response of first order RL and RLC circuits
5.8. Natural and step responses of RLC circuits
5.9. Sinusoidal steady state analysis
5.10. Sinusoidal steady state power calculations
5.11. Balanced three phase circuits
5.12. Introduction to the Laplace transforms
5.13. The Laplace transform in circuit analysis
5.14. Introduction to frequency selective circuits
5.15. Active filter circuits
5.16. Fourier series
5.17. The Fourier transform

40
5.18. Two port circuits

Appendix: The solution of linear simultaneous equations

5.19. Resistive circuits


5.20. Basic circuits analysis method
5.21. Matrix methods
5.22. Inductors and capacitors
5.23. Natural response of RL and RC
5.24. Forced response of RL and RC circuits
5.25. RLC circuits
5.26. RMS values, PHASORS and POWER
5.27. STEADY STATE analysis
5.28. Three phase circuits
5.29. Laplace transforms technique
5.30. Laplace transforms application
5.31. Frequency domain analysis
5.32. Fourier analysis
5.33. Discrete system and z-transforms
5.34. Two port network
5.35. State equation
5.36. Topological analysis
5.37. Numerical methods

NETWORKS AND SYSTEMS

5.38. Basic circuits elements and waveform


5.39. Mesh and node analysis
5.40. Graph theory and network equation
5.41. Fourier series
5.42. The Laplace transforms
5.43. Application of Laplace transforms
5.44. Network theorems
5.45. Resonance
5.46. Analogue systems
5.47. Two port network
5.48. Attenuators
5.49. Conventional filters
5.50. Convolution integral
5.51. State variable analysis

41
5.52. Network function
5.53. Passive network synthesis
5.54. Feedback systems
5.55. Frequency response plots
5.56. Computer application

Appendix: Algebra of complex numbers

 OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

ELECTRICAL NETWORK THEORY


5.57. Electrical network
5.58. Loop and nodal analysis
5.59. Signal flow graph analysis
5.60. Fourier series and transform
5.61. The Laplace transform
5.62. Network analysis by transform methods
5.63. Two port networks
6. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING MATERIALS FOR
POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERS AND ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATION ENGINEERS

1. ATOMS AND AGGREGATE OF ATOMS:


1.1.Introduction
1.2.The hydrogen atom accuracy to the old and new quantum mechanics
1.3.Nomenclature pertaining to electronic states
1.4.The electron configuration of atom
1.5.The nature of the chemical bond and the classification of solids
1.6.Atomic arrangements in solids

2. THE CONDUCTION OF METALS:


2.1.Ohm’s law and the relaxation time of electrons
2.2.Relaxation time, collision time and mean free path
2.3.Electron scattering and the resulting conduction of metals
2.4.The heat developed in a current carrying conductor
2.5.The thermal conductively of metals
2.6.Super conductivity

42
3. MATERIALS FOR CONDUCTORS AND RESISTORS:
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Classification of electrical materials
3.3. Conductor materials
3.4. Properties of conductors
3.5. Super conductivity
3.6. Characteristics of good conductor material
3.7. Commonly used conductor materials
3.8.Conductor materials for overhead lines electrical and mechanical
properties
3.9. Types of conductors
3.10. Conductor material used for underground cables
3.11. Conductor material used for electrical machines
3.12. Trade names
3.13. Resistor materials
3.14. Properties and applications of important resistor materials

4. SEMICONDUCTORS:
4.1.Definition – classifying materials as semiconductors
4.2.Application of semiconductor materials
4.3.Types of semiconductors materials
4.4.Electron energy and energy band
4.5.Excitation of atoms
4.6.Energy band representation of ionization
4.7.a. The chemical bond Si and Ge and its consequences
4.7. b. Simplified Si and Ge atom
4.8. a. Distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors
4.8. b. The conductivity of intrinsic semiconductor
4.8. c. Carrier densities in ‘n’ type semiconductors
4.8. d. p-type semiconductors
4.9. Working and application of semiconductors
4.10. Temperature sensitive elements (thermistor)
4.11. Photoconductive cells
4.12. Photovoltaic cell
4.13. Resistor
4.14. a. Hall Effect and carrier density
4.14. b. Hall Effect generators
4.15. Liquid crystal display (LCD)
4.16. Light dependent resistors (LDR)

43
4.17. Strain gauges
4.18. Piezo-electric material quartz and Rochelle salt
4.19. Merits of semiconductor material used in electrical industry

5. DIELECTRIC MATERIALS
5.1.Introduction
5.2.a. Dielectric strength
5.2. b. Polarization and dielectric constant
5.2. c. The atomic interpretation of the dielectric constant of monoatomic
gases
5.2. d. Qualitative discussion on the dielectric constant of polyatomic
molecules
5.2. e. Quantitative discussion on the dielectric constant of polyatomic
molecules
5.2. f. The internal field in solids and liquids
5.2. g. The static dielectric constant of solids
5.3.Factor effecting the dielectric strength
5.4.Dielectric loss
5.5.Dissipation factor
5.6.Permittivity dielectric constant
5.7.Polarization
5.8.Charging and discharge in a dielectric
5.9.Conducting gaseous dielectrics
5.10. Conductor through liquid dielectrics
5.11. Solid dielectric
5.12. Some properties of Ferro- electric materials
5.13. Spontaneous polarization
5.14. Piezo- electricity
5.15. Application of dielectrics
5.16. Impregnated paper capacitor
5.17. Electrolytic capacitors

6. BEHAVIOUR OF DIELECTRICS IN ALTERNATING FIELDS


6.1.frequency dependence of the electronic polarizability
6.2. Ionic polarization as a function of frequency
6.3.The complex dielectric constant of non dipolar solids
6.4.Dipolar relaxation
6.5.Dielectric loss

7. INSULATING MATERIALS

44
7.1.Introduction
7.2.Properties of insulating material
7.3.Electrical properties
7.4.Visual properties
7.5.Mechanical properties
7.6.Thermal properties
7.7.Chemical properties
7.8.Classification of insulating materials
7.9.Thermal classification of insulators
7.10. Insulating materials
7.11. Fibrous insulating materials
7.12. Ceramics
7.13. Mica
7.14. Glass
7.15. Rubber
7.16. Insulating resins (plastics)
7.17. Thermoplastic resins
7.18. Thermosetting resins

8. INSULATING WAXES, VARNISHES AND COOLENTS


8.1.Types and applications of insulating variables, paints, waxes and
coolants
8.2. Testing of transformer oil as per ISI standard
8.3.Properties and application of mineral oil

9. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


9.1.Summary of concepts pertain to magnetic fields
9.2. The magnetic dipole movement of a current loop
9.3.The magnetization from a macroscopic view point
9.4.Orbital magnetic dipole moment and angular momentum of two
simple atomic molecules
9.5.Lenz’s law and induced dipole moment
9.6.Classification of magnetic materials
9.7.Diamagnetism
9.8.The origin of permanent magnetic dipoles in matter
9.9.Paramagnetic spin systems
9.10. Some properties of ferromagnetic materials
9.11. Spontaneous magnetization or the curie-Weiss law
9.12. Ferromagnetic domains and coerosive force
9.13. Anti ferromagnetic materials

45
9.14. Ferromagnetic materials

10.MAGENTIC MATERIALS
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Magnetization characteristics
10.3. Typical hystersis loops for different ferromagnetic materials
10.4. Loss of magnetism
10.5. Impurities in ferromagnetic materials
10.6. Soft and hard magnetic material
10.7. Ferrites
10.8. Permanent magnets

11.SPECIAL-PURPOSE MATERIALS AND PROCESS


11.1. Thermocouple materials
11.2. Soldering materials
11.3. Fuse materials
11.4. Contact materials
11.5. Structural materials
11.6. Refracting materials
11.7. Fluorescent or phosphorescent
11.8. Radioactive materials
11.9. Process such as galvanizing and impregnation
11.10. Processing of electronic materials

12.JUNCTION RECTIFIER AND TRANSISTORS


12.1. Minority and majority carrier densities in semiconductors
12.2. Drift currents and diffusion currents ‘I’ the Einstein relation
12.3. The continuity equation for minority carriers
12.4. Semi quantitative discussion of the n-p junction rectifier
12.5. Quantitative treatment of the n-p junction rectifier
12.6. Thickness and capacitance of the junction barrier
12.7. The n-p-n junction transistor
12.8. The p-n-p junction transmitter

46
7. PRICIPLES OF HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING FOR
POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATION ENGINEERS TERMS AND CONCEPTS

7.1. Introduction
7.1.1. Electric field stresses
7.1.2. Gas Vacuum as insulator gas breakdown
7.1.3. Liquid breakdown
7.1.4. Solid breakdown
7.1.5. Estimation and control of electric stress
7.1.6. Surge voltages their distribution and control

7.2. CONDUCTION AND BREAKDOWN IN GASES


7.2.1. Gases as insulating media
7.2.2. Ionization process
7.2.3. Townsend’s current growth equation
7.2.4. Current Growth in the presence of secondary process
7.2.5. Townsend’s criterion for breakdown
7.2.6. Experimental determination of coefficient of  and 
7.2.7. Breakdown in electromagnet gases

47
7.2.8. Time lags for breakdown
7.2.9. Streamer theory of breakdown in gases
7.2.10.Paschen’s law
7.2.11.Breakdown in non uniform field and corona discharges
7.2.12. Port breakdown phenomena and applications
7.2.13. Practical considerations in using gases for insulation purposes
7.2.14.Vacuum insulations

7.3. CONDUCTION AND BREAKDOWN IN LIQIUD DIELECRICS


7.3.1. Liquids as insulators
7.3.2. Pure Liquid and commercial liquid
7.3.3. Conduction and breakdown in pure liquids
7.3.4. Conduction and breakdown in commercial liquids

7.4. BREAKDOWN IN SOLID DIELECTRICS


7.4.1. Introduction
7.4.2. Intrinsic breakdown
7.4.3. Electromechanical breakdown
7.4.4. Thermal breakdowns
7.4.5. Breakdown of solid dielectrics in practice
7.4.6. Breakdown in composite dielectrics
7.4.7. Solid dielectrics used in practice

7.5. APPLICATIONS OF INSULATING MATERIALS


7.5.1. Introduction
7.5.2. Applications in Power Transformers
7.5.3. Applications in Rotating machines
7.5.4. Applications in circuit breakers
7.5.5. Applications in cables
7.5.6. Applications in power capacitors
7.5.7. Applications in electronic equipment

7.6. GENERATIONS OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS


7.6.1. Generations of high d.c.voltages
7.6.2. Generations of high alternating voltages
7.6.3. Generations of impulse voltages

48
7.6.4. Control of impulse voltages

7.7. MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS


7.7.1. Measurement of high direct current voltages
7.7.2. Measurement of high a.c and impulse voltages
7.7.3. Measurement of high d.c, a.c and impulse currents
7.7.4. Cathode ray oscillographs for impulse voltages and current
measurements

7.8. OVERVOLTAGES PHENONMENON AND INSULATION CO


ORDINATION
7.8.1. Natural causes for over voltages lightning phenomenon
7.8.2. Over voltages due to switching surges, system faults and other
abnormal conditions.
7.8.3. Principles of insulation co ordination on high voltage and extra
high voltage power systems.

7.9. NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF MATERIALS AND


ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
7.9.1. Introduction
7.9.2. Measurement of dc resistivity
7.9.3. Measurement of dielectric constant and loss factor
7.9.4. Partial discharge measurement

7.10. HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS


7.10.1. Testing of insulators and bushings
7.10.2. Testing of isolators and circuit breakers
7.10.3. Testing of cables
7.10.4. Testing of transformers
7.10.5. Testing of surge diverters
7.10.6. Radio interference measurements

7.11. DESIGN, PLANNING AND LAYOUT OF HIGH VOLTAGES


COBOROTORIES
7.11.1. Introduction
7.11.2. Test facilities provided in high voltage laboratories
7.11.3. Activities and studies in high voltage laboratories
7.11.4. Classification of high voltage laboratories
7.11.5. Size and rating of large size high voltage laboratories

49
7.11.6. Grounding of impulse testing laboratories

8. SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROL GEAR FOR POWER


SYSTEM ENGINEERS AND ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATION ENGINEERS

PART - I

I.8.1. FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS AND TECHNICAL TERMS

I.8.1.1UNITS of physical quantities


I.8.1.2Physical, chemical and technical values
I.8.1.3Strength of materials
I.8.1.4Geometry calculation of areas and solid bodies

I.8.2. GENERAL ELECTRO TECHNICAL FORMULAS


I.8.2.1. Electro technical symbols as per IEC
I.8.2.2. Alternating current quantities
I.8.2.3. Electrical resistance
I.8.2.4. Relationship between voltage drop, power loss and conductor
cross section
I.8.2.5. Current input of electrical machines and transformers
I.8.2.6. Attenuation constant ‘a’ of a transmission system

50
I.8.3. CALCULATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTS IN THREE
PHASE SYSTEMS

I.8.4. DIMENSIONING SWITCHGEAR INSTALLATION


I.8.4.1. Insulation rating
I.8.4.2. Dimensioning of power installation for mechanical and thermal
short circuit strengths
I.8.4.3. Dimensioning of wire and tubular conductor for static loads and
electrical surface field strength
I.8.4.4. Dimensioning for continuous current rating
I.8.4.5. Rating of power systems for earth quake safety
I.8.4.6. Minimum clearance, protective barrier clearance and width of
gang ways
I.8.4.7. Civil construction requirements (Indoor installation, outdoor
installation, installation subject to special conditions, battery
compartments, Transformer installation, fire protection, shipping
dimensions)

I.8.5. PROTECTIVE MEASURES FOR PERSONS AND


INSTALLATION
I.8.5.1. Electric shock protection in installations up to 1000volts
I.8.5.2. Protection against contact in installation above 1000volts
I.8.5.3. Earthing
I.8.5.4. Lightning protection
I.8.5.5. Electromagnetic compatibility
I.8.5.6. Partial discharge measurement
I.8.5.7. Effects of climate and corrosion protection

I.8.6. METHODS AND AIDS FOR PLANNING INSTALLATIONS


I.8.6.1. Planning of switchgear installation
I.8.6.2. Reference designations and preparation of documents
I.8.6.3. CAD/CAM methods applied to switchgear engineering
I.8.6.4. Drawings

I.8.7. LOW VOLTAGE SWITCH GEAR


I.8.7.1. Switchgear apparatus
I.8.7.2. Low voltage switchgear installations and distribution boards
I.8.7.3. Design aids
I.8.7.4. Rated voltage (690volts or 1100volts a.c)
I.8.7.5. Selected areas of application

51
I.8.8. SWITCHGEAR AND SWITCHGEAR INSTALLATION FOR
VOLTAGES UPTO AND INCLUDING 52KV (MEDIUM
VOLTAGE AS PER IEC BUT HIGH OR EXTRA- HIGH AS
PER INDIAN ELECTRICITY RULES)
I.8.8.1. Switch gear apparatus (<=52kV)
I.8.8.2. Switch gear installation (<=52kV)
I.8.8.3. Terminal connections for medium voltage installation (<=52kV)

I.8.9. HIGH CURRENT SWITCH GEAR


I.8.9.1. Generator circuit busduct (generator bus duct)

I.8.10. HIGH VOLTAGE APPARATUS


I.8.10.1. Definitions and electrical parameters for switch gear
I.8.10.2. Disconnector and earthings switches
I.8.10.3. Switch disconnectors
I.8.10.4. Circuit breakers
I.8.10.5. Instrument transformers for switchgear installations
I.8.10.6. Surge arrestors

I.8.11. HIGH VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR INSTALLATIONS


I.8.11.1. Summary and circuit configurations
I.8.11.2. SF6 gas insulator switchgear technology
I.8.11.3. Outdoor switch gear installations
I.8.11.4. Innovative HV switch gear technology
I.8.11.5. Installations for high voltage direct current (HVDC)transmission
I.8.11.6. Static var (reactive power) compensator (SVC)

I.8.12. TRANSFORMERS AND OTHER EQUIPMENT FOR


SWITCHGEAR INSTALLATIONS
I.8.12.1. Transformers
I.8.12.2. Current limiting reactors
I.8.12.3. Capacitors
I.8.12.4. Resistor devices
I.8.12.5. Rectifiers

52
I.8.13. CONDUCDTOR MATERIALS AND ACCESSORIES FOR
SWITCHGEAR INSTALLATIONS
I.8.13.1. Bus bar, standard wire conductors and insulators
I.8.13.2. Cables, wires and flexible cords
I.8.13.3. Safe working equipment in switchgear installations

I.8.14. PROTECTION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS IN SUBSTATIONS


AND POWER NETWORKS
I.8.14.1. Introduction
I.8.14.2. Protection
I.8.14.3. Control, measurement and regulations (secondary systems)
I.8.14.4. Station control with micro processor
I.8.14.5. Network control and tele control
I.8.14.6. Load management, ripple control

I.8.15. SECONDARY INSTALLATIONS


I.8.15.1. Standby power systems
I.8.15.2. High speed transfer devices
I.8.15.3. Stationary batteries and battery installations
I.8.15.4. Installations and lightning in switchgear installations
I.8.15.5. Compressed air systems in switchgear installations

I.8.16. MATERIALS AND SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS FOR


SWITCHGEAR INTALLTIONS
I.8.16.1. Iron and steel
I.8.16.2. Non ferrous metals
I.8.16.3. Insulating materials
I.8.16.4. Semi-finished products (metal sheets, slotted steel strip, server
and accessories, threads for bolts and screens, threads for
electrical engineers)

I.8.17. MISCELLANEOUS
I.8.17.1. IEC Publications for substation designs
I.8.17.2. Quality in switchgear

53
PART-II

II.8.1. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS, GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS


AND STANDARDS
II.8.1.1. Electrical components, standards and symbols
II.8.1.2. AC power conditioning systems
II.8.1.3. Environmental considerations
II.8.1.4. Load considerations
II.8.1.5. Installations and service considerations
II.8.1.6. Instruments and control transfers
II.8.1.7. Regulations feedback control and stability
II.8.1.8. Automatic control systems
II.8.1.9. Enclosures

II.8.2. SWITCHGEAR AND DISTURBUTION EQUIPMENTS AND


ACCESSORIES
II.8.2.1. Function of industrial switchgear
II.8.2.2. Batteries
II.8.2.3. Distribution panel boards and switchgear boards
II.8.2.4. Busways
II.8.2.5. AC switchgear
II.8.2.6. DC Low voltage switchgear

54
II.8.2.7. Substations

II.8.3. MOTOR AND INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS, CONTROLS,


CONTROL AND CONTROL PROTECTION DEVICES
II.8.3.1. Small specialty motor controls
II.8.3.2. Industrial systems
II.8.3.3. Motor types and characteristics
II.8.3.4. System protection and co ordination
II.8.3.5. Motor and Motor branch circuit protections
II.8.3.6. Control circuit devices
II.8.3.7. General Purpose motor starters
II.8.3.8. Controlling electronically commutated motors
II.8.3.9. Poly phase -motor control
II.8.3.10. Motor – control centers
II.8.3.11. D.C Motor control

II.8.4. SOLID STATE ELECTRONIC PROGRAMMABLE AND


MICRO PROCESSOR BASED CONTROLS, CONTROLLERS
AND LOGIC SYSTEMS

II.8.4.1. SOLID STATE ELECTRONIC CONTROLS


II.8.4.2. PLC CONTROL SYSTEMS
II.8.4.3. COMPUTER AND MICROPROCESSOR BASED CONTROL
II.8.4.4. ADJUSTABLE FREQUENCY SOLID STATE DRIVES
II.8.4.5. VARIABLE SPEED SOLID STATE DC DRIVES

55
9. SWITCHING, PROTECTION AND DISTRIBUTION IN
LOW – VOLTAGE NETWORKS WITH SELECTION
CRITERIA AND PLANNING GUIDE LINES FOR
SWITCHGEAR SWITCH BOARDS AND DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEMS

9.1. SPECIFICATIONS FOR LOW VOLTAGE DEVICES AND


SWITCH GEAR ASSEMBLIES
9.1.1. Nomenclature of the standards authorities
9.1.2. Low voltage switchgear and devices
9.1.3. Type tested and partially type tested switchgear assemblies
9.1.4. Protection of persons and material assets
9.1.5. Equipments specifications and relevant standards
9.1.6. Operating and ambient conditions

9.2. NETWORK DATA AND DUTY TYPES


9.2.1. Network data
9.2.2. Duty types

9.3. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR LOW VOLTAGE SWITCH GEAR


IN MAIN CIRCUITS
9.3.1. Network and operating conditions

56
9.3.2. Switching tasks and conditions
9.3.3. Switching frequency and service conditions
9.3.4. Protection against over current and excessive temperature rise
9.3.5. Protection against over voltages
9.3.6. Leakage current and earth fault protection
9.3.7. Application of low voltage switchgear in main circuits

9.4. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR LOW VOLTAGE SWITCH GEAR


IN AUXILLARY CIRCUITS
9.5.1. Operating voltages in auxiliary circuits
9.5.2. Operating conditions
9.5.3. Operating conditions for low voltage switchgear in auxiliary
circuits

9.5. INSTALLATION OPERATION AND MAINTAENANCE OF


LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR
9.5.1. Installation
9.5.2. Terminations
9.5.3. Operations
9.5.4. Measures to facility the checking or replacement of worn out
parts and maintenance work
9.5.5. Checking the condition of ‘contact surface’ in contact piece,
assessment criteria of condition of contact surfaces

9.6. TANSDUCING SENSORS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING


SYSTEMS
9.6.1. Selection criteria for BERO proximity switches
9.6.2. ELECTRONICALLY COMPATIBLE CONTROL AND
SIGNALLING BY LOWVOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR
9.6.3. ASSESMENT CRITERIA FOR ELECTROMECHANICAL
AND ELECTRONIC CONTROLS

9.7. TYPE TESTED SWITCHGEAR ASSEMBLIES(TTA)


9.7.1. General
9.7.2. Switchgear in standardized decision
9.7.3. Distribution board systems
9.7.4. Guidelines for project planning of low voltage switch distribution
and control boards or systems
9.7.5. Charging units for stationary and standby battery installations

57
9.7.6. Current transformers

9.8. FUNDAMENTAL CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS


9.8.1. General information
9.8.2. Direct switching of three phase induction motors
9.8.3. Starting of three phase induction motors
9.8.4. Circuits with thermistor motor protection
9.8.5. Circuits with monitor
9.8.6. Circuit with position switches
9.8.7. Terminal blocks
9.8.8. Circuits with leakages current (residual current ) protective
devices
9.8.9. Interface units
9.8.10. Auxiliary circuits incorporating time relays
9.8.11. Switching of an electrical heating system using a thermostat
and contactor combinations
9.8.12. Stand by power supply installations
9.8.13. Projects planning and engineering aids

9.9. MISCELLANEUOS
9.9.1. Fundamental equations, characteristics quantities and units of
electricity
9.9.2. Enclosure for electrical equipment to American, Canadian,
European, IEC, IS standards
9.9.3. Climatic values, influence of temperature and thermal conduction
9.9.4. Current carrying capacity and over current protection of
insulated wires, cables, and bus bars
9.9.5. Rated currents of three phase induction motors
9.9.6. Three phase power transformers
9.9.7. Tripping behavior of the line protection and switchgear
protection devices
9.9.8. Short circuit currents
9.9.9. Number of switching operations of switching devices subjects to
different periods per day –continuous duty, intermittent duty
9.9.10. International network voltages and frequencies
9.9.11. EC guidelines for low voltages equipments
9.9.12. Important specifications, standards and testing bodies

58
10. UTILIZATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY FOR
POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERS AND ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATION ENGINEERS PRINCIPLES

1. ELECTRIC DRIVES AND INDUSTRIAL, DOMESTIC,


APPLICATIONS
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Factors affecting selection of motor
1.3. Types of loads
1.4. Steady state characteristics of drives
1.5. Transient characteristics
1.6. Size of motor
1.7. Load equalization
1.8. Industrial applications - rolling mills textile mills, cement
mills, paper mills, coal mining lifts, machine tools- lathe,
grinding, drilling and milling machines, woodcutter, granite
cutter, granite polish machines, marble cutter, marble polished
machines, floor polishing machines
1.9. Lifts, hoist, cranes
1.9.1. Domestic appliances, mixer, sewing machine, washing
machines, wet grinder, water pump, hot plates, oven,
refrigerator, electric rice cooker, coffee filters
1.10. Compressor
1.11. Cooling water towers
1.12. Power plant auxiliaries

59
1.13. modern approach to speed control and D.C drives

2. ELECTRIC HEATING AND WELDING


2.1. Introduction
2.2. Classification of methods of electric heating
2.3. Requirements of a good heating materials
2.4. Design of heating element
2.5. Temperature control of resistance furnace
2.6. Electric arc furnace
2.7. Inductive heating
2.8. Electric welding
2.9. Resistance welding
2.10. Electric arc welding

3. AIR CONDITIONING AND VENTILATION


3.1. Window Air conditioner, split Air conditions of 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2
ton capacity
3.2. Centralized Air condition plant for office complexes,
Information technology parks
3.3. Heating system in hill countries

4. DATA PROCESSING INSTALLATION- COMPUTER


INSTALLATION

5. ENTERTAINMENT ELECTRONICS – TV, VCD, HOME


THEATRE

6. PERSONAL COMPUTERS, INTERNET etc. APPLICATIONS

7. ILLUMINATION ENGINEERING
7.1. Introduction
7.2. The nature of radiation
7.3. Definition
7.4. Polar curve
7.5. Laws of illumination
7.6. Luminous efficiency
7.7. Photometry
7.8. Lumen flux method of calculation
7.9. The electric lamp
7.10. Flood lighting and calculations

60
7.11. Street lighting
7.12. Design of choke and capacitor

8. ELECTRIC TRACTION
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Requirement of an ideal traction system
8.3. Supply system for electric traction
8.4. Train movement
8.5. Mechanism of train movement
8.6. The traction motors
8.7. Traction motor control
8.8. Control of single phase induction motor
8.9. Speed control of 3 phase induction motor
8.10. Multiple Unit control
8.11. Braking of electric motors
8.12. Electrolysis by circuits through earth
8.13. Current collection system
8.14. Thyristor used in traction system

9. ELECTRO CHEMICAL PLANTS – ELECTROLYSIS


(CAUSTIC SOAD, ALUMINIUM EXTRACTION, PLANTS etc.)

10.AGRICULTURAL PUMPSETS, LIFT IRRIGATION

11.FARM HOUSES, POULTRY FARMS

12.OFFICE MACHINES, XEROX, ELECTRONIC TYPE


WRITERS etc.

13.GARMENT - INDUSTRIES-(silk, cotton, wool, leather, etc.)

14.LEATHER GOODS

15.HOSIERY INDUSTRIES

61
11. POWER ELECTRONICS

11.1. Introduction
11.2. Power semiconductor diodes and circuits
11.3. Diode rectifiers
11.4. Power transistors
11.5. DC-DC converters
11.6. Pulse-width modulation inverters
11.7. Thyristors
11.8. Resonant pulse inverters
11.9. Multilevel inverters
11.10. Controlled rectifier
11.11. AC voltage controllers
11.12. Static switches
11.13. Flexible AC Transmission system
11.14. Power suppliers
11.15. DC drives
11.16. AC Drives
11.17. Gate Drive circuits
11.18. Protective devices and circuits

Appendix A: Three phase circuits


Appendix B: Magnetic Function of converters
Appendix C: Switching Function of Converters

62
Appendix D: DC Transient analysis
Appendix E: Fourier analysis

PART 2
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION ENGINEERING THEORY AND ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATION PRACTICE

 Electrical installation practice


 Electrical wiring practice
 Health and safety at work
 Electrical safety
 Statutory specifications, rules , regulations standards
relating to safety electrical safety , electrical wiring and
electrical installation
 Electrical contracts and quality assurance
 Electrical installation engineering
 Electrical installation of industrial power system
 Electrical installation of commercial building
 Electrical installation of residential building

63
 Special electrical installations (medical establishments etc.
electrical installation engineers and consultants)

64
1. ELECTRICITY AND ENVIRONMENT, ROLE OF ELECTRICITY
TODAY – (THE EFFECT OF THE INTRODUCTION OF
ELECTRICITY ) ELECTRICAL SCIENCE, THE NATURE OF
ELECTRICITY , ELECTRIC CIRCUITS , ELECTRIC CRAFT
PRINCIPLE, ELECTRICAL MACHINES ,TRANSFORMERS ,
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, INSTALLATION OF MOTORS,
ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES, STATIC OF ELECTRICAL
PLANT, ELECTRICAL SIGNALING SYSTEM , TELEPHONES,
INSTRUMENTS, MEASUREMENTS AND TESTING, TARIFFS AND
POWER FACTOR, FUNDAMENTAL TECHNOLOGICAL AND
REQUIREMENTS (1-19)

2. BASIC ELECTRONICS, ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS,


ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ASSEMBLY, ELECTRONIC TEST
EQUIPMENT, LOGIC GATES AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (20-
24)

3. PROCESS OF THE INSTALLATION , ELECTRICAL


CONTRACTOR, QUALITY ASSURANCE , CONTRACTING LAW,
ELEMENTS OF ESTIMATING – ASPECTS OF ESTIMATING
MANAGEMENT, COMMUNICATION AND INDUSTRIAL STUDIES
, ELECTRICAL CONTRACTING AND ESTIMATING, INDUSTRIAL
STUDIES AND SAFETY WORKING PRINCIPLES (30 -39)

4. MAINTENANCE OF HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK – NEED


FOR WIRING REGULATIONS– ELECTRICAL SAFETY –
HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS – MOVING LOADS (40 –
44)

5. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY - ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND


DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM – SUPPLY CONTROL AND
DISTRIBUTION ON PREMISES, SUPPLY, DISTRIBUTION AND
CONTROL, ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION,
DISTRIBUTION AND UTILIZATION ON PREMISES
INSTALLATION PLANNING AND DESIGN. (50 – 56)

6. LIGHTING AND ILLUMINATION – ELECTRIC HEATING (60 – 61)

65
7. FAULT – TRACING IN CIRCUITS AND MECHANICAL
EQUIPMENT, FAULT DIAGNOSIS EQUIPMENT - FAULT
DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR, ELECTRICAL AND MAINTENANCE,
EXTRA LOW VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT, CELLS AND BATTERIES
(70 -74)

8. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION THEORY – PROTECTION –


PROTECTION AGAINST DIRECT CONTACT, PROTECTION
AGAINST INDIRECT CONTRACT – CONTROL AND
PROTECTION FOR CONSUMER’S INSTALLATION –
PROTECTION AGAINST OVER CURRENT – PROTECTION
AGAINST EARTH LEAKAGE CURRENTS – EARTHING –
TESTING AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS – INSPECTION AND
TESTING (80 – 87)

9. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION WORK PROCEDURE – THE


MEASUREMENT, SETTING OUT AND FIXING OF EQUIPMENT –
WIRING TECHNIQUE – WIRING JOBS – CONDUCTORS AND
CABLES – CONSUMERS CIRCUITS – CONTROL AND
PROTECTION FOR THE CIRCUITS IN CONSUMER’S
INSTALLATIONS. (90 – 99)

10. INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES – WIRING SYSTEMS – WIRING


ACCESSORY – CONDUCTOR JOINTS AND TERMINALS –
WIRING SYSTEM – WIRING ACCESSORIES – INSTALLATION
METHODS – TEMPORARY INSTALLATIONS - CIRCUIT AND
WIRING DIAGRAMS (100 – 109)

11.INSTALLATION IN HAZARDOUS AREAS – ELECTRICAL WORK


SHOP TECHNOLOGY TOOLS –WORKSHOP SAFETY –
ELECTRICAL MATERIALS (CONDUCTORS) – ELECTRICAL
MATERIALS, INSULATORS, WORKSHOP MEASUREMENTS,
SOLDERING,INSTALLATION OF WIRING SYSTEM ,
INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING AND SMALL POWER CIRCUITS –
PORTABLE ELECTRICAL TOOLS – WORKSHOP PRACTICE (110
-119)

66
12. SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS TEMPORARY INSTALLATIONS ,
AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL INSTALLATION,
CAVAVANS AND SAVANA BATHS SILA, FLAMMABLE, AND
EXPLOSIVE INSTALLATION, SECURITY SYSTEM, FIRE ALARM
CIRCUIT , STAND BY SUPPLY , LIGHTNING PROTECTION,
CORROSION, HOSPITAL OPERATING THEATRE, PETROL
FILLING STATION AND GARAGES ELECTROSTATIC

SITUATIONS CATHOD PROTECTION FIRE DETECTION AND


ALARM SYSTEM – INTRUDER ALARM SYSTEM – EMERGENCY
LIGHTING INSTALLATION – NURSE CALL SYSTEM (120 – 122)

13. ELECTRICAL WIRING (130)


14. ELECTRICAL ESTIMATION AND COSTING (140)
15. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES
AND CONCEPTS (150)

16. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF INDUSTRIAL POWER


SYSTEM (160)

17. INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION AND


ELECTRICAL WIRING INDUSTRIAL (170)

18. ELECTRICAL WIRING COMMERCIAL (180)


19. ELECTRICAL WIRING RESIDENTIAL (HOUSE WIRING) (190)
20. DESIGN EXAMPLES – PRACTICE OF DESIGN – ELECTRICAL
CALCULATIONS, FORMULAE, TABLES (200)

67
1. ELECTRICITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

1.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN RELATION TO


 Conventional power stations
Thermal power – coal, diesel, gasoline, natural gas
Hydro power
Nuclear power
Biomass based cogeneration plant
Wind power
Tidal power
Geothermal power
 Cooling, water discharge, chimney discharge, ash disposal,
radioactive disposal

1.2 POWER GENERATION METHODS IN INDIA


1.1.1. Hydro electric power station
1.1.2. Thermal power station – coal based
1.1.3. Thermal power station – diesel based
1.1.4. Thermal power station – gas based
1.1.5. Wind power
1.1.6. Solar power
1.1.7. Biomass based cogeneration power plant

Reference:
 H.A. MILLER – BOOK I – CHAPTER -1
 TREVOR LINSLEY – BASIC CHAPTER 1

2. ROLE OF ELECTRICITY TODAY

THE EFFECTS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY

68
2.1. In the home
2.2. Health and welfare
2.3. Security
2.4. Leisure pursuits
2.5. Entertainment
2.6. Labor saving device
2.7. Communication
2.8. Data storage
2.9. In industries
2.10. Commercial and shopping malls
2.11. In office complex
2.12. In transport – Railway electrification and traction
2.13. In agriculture

Reference:
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER I
 H.A. MILLER – BOOK 1 – CHAPTER I

3. ELECTRICAL SCIENCE

3.1. Unit, term, symbols, abbreviations


3.2. Definition of derived SI quantities – useful electrical formulae
3.3. IEC graphical symbol for architecture and installation diagram
3.4. Other useful graphical symbols, definitions, common abbreviations
3.5. Name of the important bodies – (Standards, making bodies, testing
laboraties, certification bodies )
3.6. Basic circuit theory
3.7. Resistors
3.8. Power and energy
3.9. Alternating current theory
3.10. Magnetism
3.11. Electromagnetism
3.12. Inductance
3.13. Electrostatics
3.14. Machines
3.15. Temperature and heat
3.16. Alternating current theory
3.17. Electrostatics
3.18. Magnetism

69
3.19. Mechanics

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK I – CHAPTERS 1 AND 2
 LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 1
 LINSLEY – ADVANCED – CHAPTER 7

4. THE NATURE OF ELECTRICITY

4.1. Historical introduction


4.2. Atomic theory, atomic quantities, current flow
4.3. Heat generated
4.4. Insulators
4.5. Static electricity, electric chargers, identical charges, electrical
pressure.
4.6. The magnetic phenomena, the nature of electricity – induction –
simple generator - DC generator
4.7. The root mean square ( RMS value) of alternating voltage – effective
value of voltage
4.8. Electricity resulting from magnetism
4.9. Copper loss, iron loss, magnetic power loss
4.10. Power transmission – a brief historical back ground
4.10.1. The transmission of electricity – early development in electrical
distribution – later development – the national grid
4.10.2. Modern electrical power system – grid system – over head system
under ground high voltage system developments – cost insulation,
heat generation
4.10.3. The advantage of high voltage power transmission

4.11. Distribution of electricity from generating stations and


national/regional grid
4.11.1. Distribution of electricity to the consumer – aesthetic consideration

4.12. Consumer’s main equipment [consumer control unit(CCU)]


4.13. Graded protection device for effective discrimination
4.14. Electrical bonding to earth
4.15. Main equipotential bonding
4.16. Type of power station – control of pollution
4.17. Siting of power stations and transmission lines
4.18. Electromagnetic effect generated from transmission lines

70
Reference:
 ADVANCED ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION – ADDISON
WESLEY LONGMAN HIGHER EDUCATION
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER I
 H.A. MILLER – BOOK I – CHAPTER1

5. ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

5.1. Electrons flow – ( thee structure of materials)


5.2. Production of electrical potential (circuit flow thermal energy,
magnetic energy, chemical energy)
5.3. The electrical circuits (electromotive force, coulomb, the ampere,
measuring current , the ampere hour, potential difference, resistance
and measurement of resistance)
5.4. Ohms law
5.5. Resistivity
5.6. Series circuits
5.7. Parallel circuits
5.8. Series – parallel circuits
5.9. Electrical power
5.10. Electrical energy

Reference:
 H.A. MILLER – BOOK I – CHAPTER 9

6. ELECTRICAL CRAFT PRINCIPLE

6.1. Symbols and abbreviation


6.2. SI units
6.3. Capacitance and capacitor
6.4. Inductance and inductor
6.5. Magnetic material and iron loss
6.6. Alternating current theory
6.7. Power in alternating circuits
6.8. Rectification of alternating circuit
6.9. The transformer
6.10. Electric generator principle
6.11. Direct current principle
6.12. AC motors

71
6.13. Electrical measuring instruments
6.14. Lighting (Illumination)
6.15. Tables

Reference:
 J.F. WHITFIELD – ELECTRICAL CRAFT PRINCIPLE – VOLUME
II

7. ELECTRICAL MACHINES

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Generators
7.3. Motors
7.4. Transformers
7.5. DC motors
7.6. Three phase AC motors
7.7. Single phase motors
7.8. Motor starters
7.9. Remote control of motors
7.10. Installation of motors
7.11. Motor maintenance
7.12. Power factor correction

Reference:
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 9
 T. LINSLEY – ADVANCED – CHAPTER 8

8. TRANSFORMERS
8.1. Transformer
8.2. Transformer losses
8.3. Transformer efficiency
8.4. Transformer construction
8.5. Instrument transformer
8.5.1. Voltage transformer
8.5.2. Current transformer

Reference:
 T. LINSLEY – Advanced – CHAPTER 9

72
9. ELECTRICAL CALCULATIONS

9.1. Circuit calculations


9.2. Power in a DC circuit
9.3. Electrical charger, energy and tariffs
9.4. Percentages and efficiency
9.5. Area, space factor and volumes
9.6. Resisitvity
9.7. Material costs, discounts, and value added tax(VAT)
9.8. Heating effect
9.9. Electro magnetic effect
9.10. Alternating emf, circuit power and power factor
9.11. Transformer ratios
9.12. Mechanics
9.13. Electrostatics
9.14. Alternating current circuit calculations
9.15. Wave form and phasor representation of alternating currents and
voltages
9.16. Alternating current motors
9.17. Power factor improvement
9.18. Three phase circuit calculations
9.19. Voltmeter and ammeters
9.20. Lighting calculations
9.21. Electromagnetic induction
9.22. Practical electrical installation calculations
9.23. Mechanics
9.24. DC generators, DC motors, Alternators and Synchronous motors,
Induction generator and Induction motor
9.25. Insulator resistance
9.26. Basic circuit calculation – kirchhoff’s law
9.27. Alternating current circuit calculation – series circuits
9.28. Alternating current circuit calculation – parallel circuits
9.29. Three phase circuit calculation – star connections
9.30. Three phase circuit calculation – delta connections
9.31. Voltage drop calculations in three phase circuit
9.32. Electromagnetism (magnetizing force H, permeability µ, relative
permeability µr, permeability of vacuum µ0)
9.33. Electromagnetism – direct current having inductance and resistance in
series-energy stored - discharge resistor.

73
9.34. Direct current
9.35. Direct current motor calculations generator calculation back emf and
speed ; efficiency test ; direct method , indirect current method;
starting resistance
9.36. Transformers – emf equation, open circuit test , short circuit test and
efficiency , maximum efficiency, all day efficiency , regulation system,
short circuit conditions
9.37. Electrostatics – series arrangement of capacitors, parallel arrangement
of capacitors, multiple capacitors DC excited circuit having resistance
and capacitance in series
9.38. Utilization of electric power I - (torque, work and power, efficiency of
machines power in AC and DC circuits)
9.39. Utilization of electric power II – illumination (inverse square law,
cosine law- luminous flux, calculations using utilization and light less
factor (LLF) – spacing - height ratio
9.40. Utilization of electric power III – heating schemes

Reference:
 A.J. WATKINS & R.K. PARTON – ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
CALCULATION
Volume 1 – sixth edition
Volume 2– fifth edition
Volume 3– third edition
Conforms to BS 7671: 1992(AMENDED 1994 and 1997, formerly
The 16th edition of the IEEE regulations

10. FUNDAMENTAL TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENT

10.1. Kilowatt hour meter


10.2. Simmerstat
10.3. Types of thermostat
10.4. Thermometer
10.5. Thermo electric thermometer
10.6. Gas thermometer
10.7. Liner expansion
10.8. Principle of moments and centre of gravity
10.9. Condition for equilibrium, principle of levers, defining work done,
mass, weight and force
10.10. Efficiency of machines and waste energy

Reference:
 ADVANCED ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS – ADDISON
WESLEY LONGMAN – HIGHER EDUCATION

74
11. STATIC ELECTRICAL PLANT

11.1. Capacitors
11.2. Switchgear
11.3. Transformers
Reference:
 F.G. THOMSON - VOLUME 3 – CHAPTER 3

12. ELECTRICAL MACHINES


12.1. Electric motor types
12.2. Choice of three phase induction motor
12.3. Motor drives
12.4. Motor speed control
12.5. Braking of motor
12.6. Power systems
Reference:
 F.G. THOMSON - VOLUME 3 – CHAPTER4

13. ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES


13.1 Types of electromagnets– tractive type, solenoid type, lifting type
13.2 solenoid
13.3 electromagnets
13.4 electric bells
13.5 indicators
13.6 bell relays
13.7 bell transformers
13.8 regulation for bell circuit

Reference:
 F.G. THOMSON – VOLUME I – CHAPTER 24

14. ELECTRICAL MACHINES

14.1. Motors and control gear

75
general motor enclosures – DC motor – AC motor – three phase
motor with control gear – single phase motor – single phase
synchronous motor – installation of motor – regulation
14.2. Installation of motor – three phase induction motor, single phase
induction motor – commutation motor – DC motor – three phase
induction motor starter – DC Motor starter – installation and
maintenance

Reference:
 MAURIS LEWIS – BOOK 2 – CHAPTER 5

14.3. Direct current machines

Reference:
 T.G. FRANCIS REVISED BY R.J. COOKSLEY – CHAPTER
11

14.4. Alternating current machines

Reference:
 T.F. FRANCIS REVISED BY R.J. COOKSELY – CHAPTER 12
14.5. Electrical apparatus, transformers, capacitors – domestic appliances,
switch gear

Reference:
 F.G THOMSON – VOLUME II – CHAPTER 9
14.6. Electrical machines – DC machines - AC machine types – machine
rating - motor circuit protection, machine enclosures, maintenance
and testing - summery of regulations

Reference:
 F.G THOMSON – VOLUME II – CHAPTER 9
14.7. INDUCTORS And TRANSFORMERS

Inductor – self induction – mutual induction – transformer construction –


auto transformers – three phase transformers – installation and
maintenance – regulations

Reference:
 F.G THOMSON – VOLUME I – CHAPTER 25
14.8. CELLS
Cells – primary cells, secondary cells, alkaline cell

Reference:
 F.G THOMSON – VOLUME I – CHAPTER 23

76
14.9. Primary cells – internal resistance of the cell – different types of cell
– methods of connecting number of cells (series connection, parallel
connection and series parallel connection)
Reference:
 F.G THOMSON revised by R.J. COOKSELY – ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATION WORK – CHAPTER- 9

14.10. SECONDARY CELLS – storage battery – lead acid battery – make


up cells – charging and discharging – capacity and efficiency –
general working instructions for storage battery alkaline secondary
cells – the Nife nickel – cadmium cell – method of charging cells –
direct current main supply – motor generator set – rotary converter
set - metal rectifier

Reference:
 T.G. FRANCIS REVISED BY R.J. COOKSELY – CHAPTER
- 14

15.ELECTRICAL SIGNALLING SYSTEM

15.1. Single stroke electric bill


15.2. Trembler bell
15.3. Circular form of trembler bill
15.4. Buzzer
15.5. Bell pusher and contacts
15.6. Bell transformer
15.7. Indicators
15.8. Shutter element (electrical replacement type )
15.9. Bell relays
15.10. Burglar alarms
15.11. Mains voltage bells
15.12. Luminous signaling systems
15.13. Fire alarms- automatic fire detectors-segregation of fire alarms
circuits

Reference
 T.J.FRANCIS- revised by R.J.COOKSLEY chapter - 15

16.TELEPHONES

77
16.1. Telephones, telephone receiver, telephone transmitter - inset type
microphone, telephone circuits calling and speaking between two
points
16.2. The induction coil
16.3. Inter communication telephone systems

Reference:
 T.J.FRANCIS- revised by R.J.COOKSLEY CHAPTER - 17

17.TERIFFS AND POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

17.1. Tariff issued by Tariff Regulatory commissions - maximum demand,


power factor, power factor improvement phase advancers
-synchronous motors running over excited - capacitors
Reference:
 T.J.FRANCIS- revised by R.J.COOKSLEY- CHAPTER - 16
17.2. Tariffs
17.3. Tariffs and power factors
17.3.1. Tariff meters
17.3.2. Power factors
Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-BOOK 3- CHAPTER 15

18.INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS

18.1. Moving coil galvanometers, moving coil voltmeters, moving coil


ammeters moving iron voltmeters, moving iron ammeters,
wattmeters, dynamometers wattmeter two wattmeter method of
measuring power, the induction type wattmeter- measurement of
resistance- ammeter and voltmeter method- Wheatstone bridge

Reference
 T.J.FRANCIS- revised by R.J.COOKSLEY- CHAPTER 8

19.RESERVED FOR FUTURE

20.BASIC ELECTRONICS

20.1. Pioneers
20.2. Thermonic emission
20.3. Diode, triode, tetrode, pentode valves
20.4. Semiconductors
20.5. Crystal lattice – doping

78
20.6. Semiconductor diode – testing
20.7. Resistors - colour code for resistor
20.8. Capacitors – types of capacitors
20.9. Electromagnetic induction
20.10. Cathode ray oscilloscope
20.11. Transducer
20.12. Semiconductor device
20.13. Amplifier
20.14. Logic gates and circuits
20.15. Graphical symbols used in electronics

Reference:
 ADVANCED ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION – ADDISON
WESLEY LONGMAN HIGHER EDUCATION
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK III – CHAPTER 6

21.ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

21.1. Electronic circuit symbols


21.2. Resistors
21.3. Capacitors
21.4. Inductors and transformer
21.5. Electromagnetic relay
21.6. Over current protection
21.7. Packaging electronic components
21.8. Obtaining information and components
21.9. Basic theory of semiconductors, semiconductor devices, diode,
transistors, thyristors, triac and diac
21.10. Voltage divider
21.11. Rectification of AC
21.12. Smoothing
21.13. Stabilizing power supplies

Reference:
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION WORK –
CHAPTER 10
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK III – CHAPTER 6

22.ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ASSEMBLY

22.1. Safety precautions

79
22.2. Hand tools
22.3. Soldering iron and guns
22.4. Soldering
22.5. De Soldering
22.6. Circuit board
22.7. Wire wratting
22.8. Bread board
22.9. Inter connection methods
22.10. Fault finding

Reference:
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 11

23.ELECTRONIC TEST EQUIPMENT

23.1. Test instruments


23.2. Analogue and digital display
23.3. The multimeter
23.4. The ohm meter
23.5. The cathode ray oscilloscope
23.6. Signal generators
23.7. Power supply unit
23.8. Mains electricity
23.9. Insulation test

Reference:
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 12

24.LOGIC GATES AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

24.1. Introduction
24.2. The AND logic gate
24.3. The OR gate
24.4. The exclusive OR gate
24.5. The NOT gate
24.6. The NOR gate
24.7. Logic families
24.8. Working with logic
24.9. IEC standard symbols / BS standard / IS standard symbols

Reference:
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 13

24 TO 29 RESERVED FOR FUTURE

80
30.THE PROCESS OF THE INSTALLATION

A. THE ROLE OF MEMEBERS OF DESIGN TEAM


30.1. The client
30.2. The architect
30.3. Consultant
30.4. Quantity surveyer
30.5. Clerk of works
30.6. Design and construct

B. THE ROLE OF MEMBERS OF THE CONSTRUCTION TEAM


30.7. The main contractor
30.8. Sub contractors Nominated sub contractors
30.9. Suppliers Nominated suppliers

C. PROFESSIONAL AND CONTRACTUAL RELATIONSHIPS


30.10. Professional relationships
30.11. Contractual relationships

D. THE COMPANY STRUCTURE


30.12. Vertical structure
30.13. Horizontal structure

E. INSTALLATION TEAM
 The builder’s program
 Length of contract
 Availability of labor
 Delivery dates for certain materials
 Access to site
 Hire of plant and equipments
 Health and safety requirements

F. PLANNING THE INSTALLATION


30.14. Drawings and specifications
30.15. Circuit diagrams
30.16. Wiring diagrams
30.17. Layout drawings
30.18. Preparation of material lists
30.19. Numbered items
30.20. Measured items

Reference:

81
 H.A.MILLER – ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION PRACTICE –
BOOK2 – CHAPTER1

31.THE ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR


31.1. The construction industry
31.2. The building team
31.3. The electrical team
31.4. Designing an electrical installation
31.5. Legal contracts

Reference:
 T.LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER-2

32.QUALITY ASSURANCE
32.1. Approaches to quality
32.2. Quality control
32.3. Total Quality control
32.4. Total quality management
32.5. Indian standard quality -IS 1400 series, international standard quality ISO
9000 series
32.6. The construction industry
32.7. The building team
32.8. The electrical team
32.9. Designing an electrical installation
32.10. Legal contracts
32.11. Management system
32.12. Bar charts
32.13. Network analysis
32.14. Critical path
32.15. Float time
32.16. Activities
32.17. Dummy Activities
32.18. Event
32.19. ON-SITE COMMUNICATIONS
32.20. Drawings and diagrams
32.21. Layout drawings
32.22. As fitted drawing
32.23. Detail drawing
32.24. Schematic diagrams
32.25. Block diagrams
32.26. Wiring diagrams
32.27. Time sheets
32.28. Job sheets
32.29. Day work sheets
32.30. Reports

82
32.31. Personnel communications

Reference:
 T.LINSLRY – ADVANCED – CHAPTER-2

33. CONTRACTING LAW


33.1. Electricity supply
33.2. Electrical installation tests
33.3. Legal aspects of contracts
33.4. Forms of contract
33.5. Building form
33.6. Government contracts
33.7. Safety legislation
33.7.1. Conditions of contract for systems incorporating electronic equipment
including installation published by Electrical and allied manufacturer’s
association
33.7.2. Conditions of sale for electronic equipment including installation
33.7.3. IEEE MODEL FORM OF CONDITIONS
33.7.4. I.MECH.E.MODEL FORM OF CONDITIONS

Reference:
 F.G. THOMPSON: ELECTRICAL INSTALLTION
TECHNOLOGY- VOLUME THREE - THIRD EDITION –
CHAPTERS - 17

34.ELEMENTS OF ESTIMATING – SOME ASPECTS OF


ESTIMATING

34.1. 1.Estimating concerned with the commercial side of an electrical contracting


business as distinct from technical side
34.1. 2. Reasons for wide difference between a numbers of tenderers
a. Tenderers based on insufficient knowledge of the work tendered for
b. Bad estimating by unqualified estimators
c. Price cutting very low prices submitted for the sake of getting a contract
d. Excessive establishment and cost charges (abnormally high prices)
34.2. Measured work
34.3. Lump sum
34.4. Firm price
34.5. Fluctuation price

ASPECTS OF ESTIMATING

34.6. Materials
34.7. Tools
34.8. Transport

83
34.9. Insurance
34.10. Supervision
34.11. Labor counts
34.12. Production cost
34.13. Selling cost
34.14. Main contractors discount
34.15. Estimating labor performance

Reference:
 F.G. THOMPSON – VOLUME 3- THIRD EDITION – CHAPTER-16

35.MANAGEMENT
35.1. Overseeing and human relations
35.2. Construction site administration
35.3. Critical path networks – constructing the network

Reference:
 F.G. THOMPSON VLUME-3 – THIRD EDITION –
CHAPTER-18

36.COMMUNICATION AND INDUSTRIAL STUDIES

36.1. Purpose of bar charts


36.2. Contract documents
36.3. Contract specifications
36.4. Variations schedule of rates
36.5. Bill of quantities
36.6. Site organization
36.7. Industrial relations
36.8. Customer relations
36.9. Records
36.10. Interpretation of drawings

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK 3 – CHAPTER-2

37.ELECTRICAL CONTRACTING AND ESTIMATING

37.1. Guide to estimating by electrical contractor’s Association


37.2. Modal bill of quantities by electrical contractor’s Association

84
37.3. Model electrical specification by electrical contractor’s Association
37.4. Schedule of labor costs by electrical contractor’s Association
37.5. Estimating in relation to electrical installation contracts technical supplement
No.10 by Brooks W.H. Electrical supervisor, 1962
37.6. Introduction to estimating by Electrical supervisor seploct 1968
37.7. Profitable contracting by CONSEIL electrical review 12 Feb,1965
37.8. Contract planning by HAIGH D.B. Electrical supervisor seploct 1969
37.9. Electrical contracting and estimating by HINDLER.F.PITMAN 1969
37.10. Estimating rates for quantity surveyors, Architect and contractors by
HINDLER, Electrical supervisor April 1969
37.11. A scheduling of labor costs in the electrical contracting industry by INGLIS
J.P. Electrical contractors & retailers September 1968
37.12. Electrical contracting and management by NEIDLE.M.
BUTTERWORTH,1964
37.13. Scottish experience supports Bills of quantities SCLAR.I. electrical times 27
feb 1969
37.14. Principle of estimating as applied to Electrical Contracting by
STOTAHERS M.A Electrical supervisor December 1967
37.15. Electrical rates for quantity surveyors, architects and contractors by hundlers
F.PITMAN 1969

38.PLANNING AND ESTIMATING

38.1. Planning – project co ordination – network analysis critical path method – bar
chart – Gant chart – PERT
38.2. Electrical subcontractor – estimating – builders discount – VAT- main contractor
– types of sub contract document – condition of sub contract and specification
38.3. Fixed price, variable price
38.3.1. Programme, working hours, liquidated damages, supply of materials and
labor, insurance, site facilities, Accoustics
38.4. Existing installation, compliance with local authorities, maintenance of plant
and temporary operation
38.5. PC items provisional sums forms of warranty, day works, percentage addition to
prime cost
38.6. Variation, bills of quantities, limits of variation Asbestos
38.7. Miscellanies points – provision sum - prime cost main contractor’s discount -
bill of quantities, schedule of rates, fluctuations monthly bulletion - construction
indices

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOKS 3 - CHAPTER-5
39.INDUSTRIAL STUDIES AND SAFE WORKING PRACTICES

85
39.1. The structure of an electrical contracting form
39.2. Management and administration of the relationship between employers and
employees working in the electrical contracting industry
39.3. The grading systems
i) technicians
ii) approval electrician
iii) Electrician
iv) Apprentice
v) Skilled Labourer
vi) Labourers
39.4. Settlement of disputes conciliation machinery
39.5. Designing and electrical and electrical installation
39.6. Material requisites : from drawing to site - preparing a list- on receipt of
goods- in-house documentation
39.7. Time sheets – job sheets and day work sheets - reports
39.8. On – site security and preparation – keys – technological security
39.9. Tools – unlocked vehicles
39.9.1. On site working relationships – forming an effective working relationship
39.10. Safety and welfare in the work place
39.11. Safe practice THE HEALTH AND SAFETY LAW
39.12. Legal duties and responsibilities of an employee
39.13. The statutotry responsibilities and duties of an employer
39.14. Safety sign
39.15. Electricity at work regulations
39.16. Safety representatives and safety committees
39.17. Notification of accidents and general occurrences - regulations
39.18. A guide to the health and safety at work
39.19. Potential carrier prospects – choosing the right form- small companies, larger
companies,- carrier option, carrier avenues, contracting maintenance,
specialized electrical engineering, management, Proprietor owner of a
small business

Reference:
 ADVANCED ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS ADDISO
WESLE LONMAN – HIGHER EDUCATION

40. MAINTENANCE OF HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK

40.1. Health and safety at work

86
40.2. Employer responsibility, safe place of work, provision of safe plant and
equipment, safe system of work, the work place environment, handling,
transportation and storage equipment ; training and instruction of employees,
safe policy, public liability.
40.3. Employees responsibility, responsibility to themselves and others
 Follow the safety procedures
 Interference with articles or substances
 Measure of equipment, Reasons for accident (Human reasons and
environment reasons)
 Reducing the risk of accident

40.4. Safety regulations


40.4.1. Health and safety Act and regulation.
40.4.2. Health and safety Act and Regulation occupational health and safety
40.4.3. Electricity at work regulation the guide to electrical safety at work
40.4.4. Control of substances (hazardous to health) Regulations
40.4.5. The construction (health, safety and welfare) Regulations
40.4.6. Guide to the Factories Act and Regulations
40.4.7. The construction (general provision) Regulations
40.4.8. The construction (working place) Regulations.
40.4.9. The construction (lifting operation) Regulations.
40.4.10. The petroleum Act
40.4.11. The petroleum (motor vehicles) Regulations
40.4.12. The Wood Working machineries Regulations.
40.4.13. Electricity supply Regulations and electrical safety code Memorandum
explanatory notes on the Electricity Supply Regulations.
40.4.14. Precaution to be taken by person working in the Vicinity of under ground
electric cable and over head electric lines
40.4.15. The supervisor’s guide to the constructions Regulations the construction
Regulations hand Book Royal Society for the prevention of accident
40.4.16. Loss of prevention association of India – publication
40.4.17. Safety health and welfare booklets relating to
 Lifting and carrying
 Safety in construction work general site safety practice
 Safety in construction work scaffolding
 Dust and fumes in factory atmosphere
 Fire fighting in factories
 The use of Derrick cranes
 Industrial dermatitis – precautionary any measures
 Plant and machinery maintenance
 Safety in electrical testing
 Basic rules for safety and health at work

87
40.4.18. The Lead Paint Regulations
40.4.19. The offices, shops, and establishment Act
40.4.20. Safety booklets relating to
 timber for ladder and scaffold boards
 Troughed conveyor belts
 dust masks, breather apparatus respirators
 safe means of access

40.4.21. Electricity Board publications relating to safety of supervisory Workmen,


safety manual

Reference:
 FG. THOMSON – ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
TECHNOLGY - VOLUME III – CHAPTER 17
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 3
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK I – CHAPTER 1
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK II – CHAPTER 1

41. NEED FOR WIRING REGULATIONS


41.1. Historical review of electrical installation work and historical review of
electrical wiring regulations
41.2. Electrical safety and need for wiring regulations – statutory requirement
relating to electrical safety – IEE Wiring Regulations (BS7671 – 19992)
41.3. Method of protection
41.4. Electric shock and first aid treatment – mouth to mouth resuscitation –
Revised Holger Neilsess resuscitation – Silverster method of resuscitation –
first aid notes – how the human body can become part of an electric circuit –
action to be taken into event of an electric shock – accident work and first
aid accident reporting
41.5. Safe working procedure and observation of electrical regulation
41.6. Safely signs
41.7. Isolation of electrical supplies
41.8. Testing circuits that are no longer live
41.9. Reduced voltage tools and equipment
41.10. The need for effective earthing
41.11. Fire prevention (fire control) – condition required for combustion – method
and equipment for extinguishing fire – dangerd associated with fire fighting
– fire safety

Reference:
 F.G. THOMSON – ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
TECHNOLGY - VOLUME I – CHAPTER 2 & 3
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 3
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK I – CHAPTER 3
 FG. THOMSON – VOLUME 2- CHAPTER 1

88
42. ELECTRICAL SAFETY
Fundamental requirement for safety – IEC document – IS specification – flame
proof standard index of protection IP standards
Reference:
 FG. THOMSON – VOLUME I – CHAPTER 15
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 3
 H.A. MILLER – BOOK I – CHAPTER 3
 T. LINSLEY – ADVANCED – CHAPTER 1
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK II – CHAPTER 1
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK II – CHAPTER 1

43. HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS


43.1. Lifting and handling materials
43.2. Safe use and inspection of hand tools
43.3. The tools kit
43.4. Routine inspection of tools
43.5. Use of power tools

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK I – CHAPTER 6

44. MOVING LOAD – GAINING ACCESS


44.1. Manual lifting
44.2. Working above ground level
44.3. Simple machines
44.4. Transporting loads

` Reference:
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 4

45 TO 49 RESERVED FOR FUTURE

50. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY

89
50.1. Distribution voltage
(i) 3 phase, 3 wires, 50Hz, 11KV supply for high voltage consumer.
(ii) 3 phase, 4wire (plus ground), 50Hz, 400/230V for commercial & residential
supplies
(iii) Single phase 2 wire plus earth 50Hz, 230 V for commercial and residential
supply.

50.2. Consumers main equipment. – (consumer control unit –CCU)


50.3. Graded protective device for effective discrimination
50.4. Electrical bonding to earth
50.5. Main bonding equipotential bonding
50.6. The distribution of electricity to consumer.
50.7. The substation
50.8. Distribution of 415/230V or 400/230V supplies
50.9. The balancing of loads

System maintenance and earthing connection


50.10. The service intake position
50.11. Methods of system earthing
50.12. PME, PEN, CNE, PNB, TN-S system, TN-C system, TT system
50.13. The metering of supplies
50.14. Tariffs

Control and protection for the consumer


50.15. Switching
50.16. Protective device
50.17. Semi-enclosed rewirable fuse
50.18. Cartridge fuse
50.19. HBC fuse
50.20. Miniature circuit breaker
50.21. Residual circuit device for earth leakage protection
50.22. Combined residual circuit breaker RO CBs
50.23. Surge protective device (SPD).
50.24. Insulation monitoring devices (IMDs)
50.25. Control of supply voltage
50.26. Selection of switch gear and cables - ring and rising mains – earthing
method – switch board instruments – power factor
50.27. Electricity supply and distribution of electricity
General – substation – short circuit calculations – power cables –
voltage drop – earthing – consumer’s distribution.

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK II – CHAPTER 2

90
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK III – CHAPTER 3
 H.A. MILLER – BOOK I – CHAPTER 5
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 1

51. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS


Reference:
 FG. THOMSON – VOLUME I – CHAPTER 4
52. SUPPLIES AND SYSTEMS
52.1. Standard voltage
52.2. Variation of voltage and supply
52.3. TNCS system, TNS system, TT system
Reference:
 T.G. FRANCIS – revised – RJ COOKSLEY – Electrical
installation work – chapter3
52. SUPPLY CONTROL AND DISTRIBUTION ON PREMISES
Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON – VOLUME I – CHAPTER 5
53. SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL
Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON – VOLUME I – CHAPTER 1

54. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION


54.1. Generation
54.2. Distribution
54.3. Underground cables
54.4. Over head lines
Reference:
F.G.THOMSON – VOLUME III – CHAPTER 1
55. DISTRIBUTION AND UTILIZATION ON PREMISES
55.1. Distribution – single phase circuit – derived from an incoming three phase
and neutral supply
55.2. Rising mains
55.3. Diversity factor
55.4. Load measurement
55.5. Final circuit

91
Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON – VOLUME III – CHAPTER 2
56. INSTALLATION PLANNING AND DESIGN
56.1. Introduction
56.2. Choice of wiring system – steel conduit, plastic conduit, MICs, plastic
sheathed catenary, suspension system, under floor ducting, bus bar
truncking.

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON – VOLUME III – CHAPTER 12

57 TO 59 RESERVED FOR FUTURE

60. LIGHTING AND ILLUMINATION


60.1. Common lighting term
60.2. Illumination laws
60.3. Measurement of illumination
60.4. Space to mounting height ratio
60.5. Layout of illumination
60.6. Comparison of light sources
60.7. Control gear for lamp
60.8. Installing of luminaires
60.9. Lighting unit and definition
60.10. Light source
60.11. Light control
60.12. Lamp circuit characteristics and operation
60.13. Planning lighting scheme
60.14. Light measurement
60.15. Fluorescent lamp on DC circuit
60.16. Harmonic in fluorescent lamp circuit
60.17. Radio interference suppression
60.18. Ambient temperature of lighting fittings
60.19. The lighting roles in heating schemes
60.20. Colour rendering
60.21. Polar diagram
60.22. Illumination factor
60.23. Glare
60.24. Illumination value for building
60.25. The effect of voltage drop
60.26. Lamp economies
60.27. Lighting maintenance
60.28. Lighting regulation and codes
60.29. Lighting installation
60.30. One way switch and incandescent lighting

92
60.31. Incandescent lamp
60.32. Two way switching
60.33. Tungsten halogen lighting
60.34. Intermediate switching
60.35. Low pressure mercury vapor lamp (LPMV)
60.36. Fluorescent lighting, control gear, fluorescent lamp and control circuit
60.37. Stroboscopic effects.
60.38. High pressure discharge lamp, high pressure mercury vapor lamp, low
pressure mercury lamp
60.39. High voltage discharge lamp
60.40. Regulation governing low voltage discharge lighting
60.41. Loading and discharge circuit
60.42. Extra low voltage lighting circuit
60.43. Safe handling and disposal of lamp
60.44. Application of lamps
60.45. Maintenance of lighting installation
60.46. Alternate switching arrangement – contactor, time switch, light sensitive
switch
60.47. Lighting systems
60.47.1. Hospital lighting
60.47.2. Office lighting
60.47.3. Public lighting
60.48. Filament lamps
60.49. Arc lamp
60.50. Discharge lamp
60.51. Practical aspects of lighting – ambient temperature of lamps, effect of
voltage drops
60.52. Fault in discharge lamps
60.53. Planning lighting installation
60.54. Light measurements
60.55. Light control
Specular reflection, spread reflection, stroboscopic effect
60.56. Operation of fluorescents on DC supplies
INSTALLING OF LIGHTING
60.57.1. Light
60.57.2. Incandescent lamp
60.57.3. Tungsten halogen lamp
60.57.4. Discharge lamp
60.57.5. Low pressure mercury fluorescent lamp
60.57.6. High pressure mercury fluorescent lamp
60.57.7. Low pressure sodium vapor lamp
60.57.8. High pressure sodium vapor lamp
60.57.9. General lamp hints
60.57.10. Regulation requirements
60.57.11. High voltage installation
60.57.12. Emergency lighting

93
60.57.13. Illumination calculation
60.57.14. Laws of illumination
60.57.15. Lumens method of calculation
60.57.16. Spacing/ mounting height ratio
60.57.17. Measuring height
60.57.18. Lighting calculation
60.57.19. Useful terminology
60.57.20. Lamp letter code
60.57.21. Electric lamps (filament, discharge lamp, lamp circuit and control, lamp
rating, lamp measurement)

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS – VOLUME 2 – CHAPTER 6
 T. LINSLEY – BASIC – CHAPTER 3
 FG. THOMSON – VOLUME 2 – CHAPTER 12
 FG. THOMSON – VOLUME 3 – CHAPTER 13
 ADVANCED ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION – ADDISON WELSLEY
LONGMAN HIGHER EDUCATION – CHAPTER - 5
 MAURICE LEWIS – VOLUME 3 – CHAPTER 4
 T.G. FANCIS REVISED BY R J COOKSLEY – CHAPTER 9
 FG. THOMSON – VOLUME I – CHAPTER 15

60.58. ILLUMINATION
60.58.1. Light
60.58.2. Law of inverse square
60.58.3. Terms used in illumination – luminous intensity (symbol:I), luminous
flux, : (symbol:Φ) the lumen illumination (symbol:E), cosine law,
brightness
60.58.4. Photometry
60.58.5. Methods of denoting luminous intensity
Mean horizontal luminous intensity, mean spherical luminous intensity,
and mean hemispherical luminous intensity
60.58.6. Light meters
60.58.7. Incandescent filament lamp (tungsten filament lamp, gas filled tungsten
filament lamp)
60.58.8. Discharge lamp
60.58.9. Neon lamp
60.58.10. Voltage drop and power
60.58.11. Hot cathode discharge lamp
60.58.12. High pressure mercury vapor discharge lamp
60.58.13. Sodium vapor discharge lamp
60.58.14. Fluorescent lamp
60.58.15. Quick starting (preheating quick start, cold starting, twin tube circuit,
fluorescent lamp on direct circuit)

94
60.58.16. Stroboscopic effect of discharge lamp
60.58.17. Emergency lighting
60.58.18. The keepalite energy lighting system
60.58.19. Shades and reflectors
60.58.20. Design of lighting scheme
60.58.21. Calculation of lighting by lumens method

61. ELECTRIC HEATING METHOD


61.1. Introduction of electric heating – heating element in fire space, heaters,
toaster, flat iron, kettle, immersion heaters, hair driers, boiling plates, grill
boilers, oven element and other appliance – operating temperature of
heating elements
61.2. Direct heating
61.3. Indirect heating
61.4. Thermal storage heating (floor heating)
61.5. Water heating
61.6. Soil warming
61.7. Heating calculation
Reference:
 F.G. THOMSON – VOLUME 2 – CHAPTER11

61.8. Electric heating – heat – temperature – Quantity of heat – specific heat


capacity – transfer of heat – conduction – convection – radiation –
conversion of electricity to heat
61.9. Method of heating rooms
61.10. Types of electric heater
61.10.1. Electric fires or radiators
61.10.2. Tubular heater
61.10.3. Convector heaters
61.10.4. Panel heaters
61.10.5. Thermal storage system
61.10.6. Floor warming
61.10.7. Night storage heater
61.11. Calculation of loading required foe electric heating installation
61.12. Room heating calculation
61.13. Heat transfer coefficient
61.14. Thermal insulation
61.15. Heating water – immersion heater
61.16. Water heating system

Reference:

95
 T.G. FANCIS REVISED BY R J COOKSLEY – CHAPTER 9
Current using apparatus
61.17. Water heating
61.18. Space heating
61.19. User operated heater appliances
61.20. Motor operated appliances
61.21. Cooking apparatus
61.22. General regulation requirements

Reference:
 F.G. THOMSON – VOLUME I – CHAPTER 13

Electrical heating and ventilation

61.23. Design of heating installations


61.24. Off- peak tariffs
61.25. Heater element material
61.26. Electric space – heating : Room thermostat
61.27. Electric floor warming – directly embedded system control
61.28. Fault location in barried system
61.29. Water heating
61.30. Air conditioning
61.31. Horticultural heating
61.32. Heating outdoor surfaces
61.33. Industrial heating
61.34. Temperature measurements – thermocouples, bimetallic elemente

Reference:
 F.G. THOMSON – VOLUME III – CHAPTER 14

HEATING OF WATER BY ELECTRICITY

61.35. Types of water heater


61.35.1. non – pressure or free outlet type
61.35.2. Pressure type (central storage)
61.35.3. Immersion water heater
61.35.4. Instantaneous water heaters.
61.36. Wiring Regulations covering water heater
61.37. Electric heating calculations – (temperature, quality of heat, specific heat
capacity, calculation of heat energy, efficiency)

96
Reference:
 H.A. MILLER – BOOK2 – CHAPTER 7
COOKING AND SPACE HEATING
61.38. The installation of cooker final circuit
61.39. Control and protection of cooker circuit (simmer stat)
61.40. The application of cf diversity to cooker circuit
61.41. Heating – (heat transference, conduction, convection, radiation)
61.42. Electric heating production of heat – classification heaters- types of heater
high temperature radiant heater, low temperature storage heater, low
temperature convection heater, low temperature conduction heater
61.43. Space heating – (space heating calculation)

CALCULATION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY


61.44. Wiring regulation concerning space heating

Reference:
 H.A. MILLER – BOOK 2 – CHAPTER 8

61.45. Heating system (thermal storage heaters - water heating system)


Reference:
 MAURIS LEWIS – BOOK 3 – CHAPTER 4

62 TO 69 RESERVED FOR FUTURE


70. FAULT-TRACING IN CIRCUIT AND EQUIPMENT
70.1. Types of fault
70.2. earth faults
70.3. short circuit faults
70.4. high value series resistance faults
70.5. main faults in new wiring
70.6. faults in fluorescent-lamp circuits
70.7. faults in low-voltage circuits
70.8. appliances and apparatus

Reference
 F.G.THOMSON-VOLUME 1-CHAPTER 29

71.FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR


71.1. Symptoms of an electrical fault
71.2. Cause of faults
71.3. Fault diagrams

97
71.4. Finding the faults
71.5. Safe working procedures
71.6. Live testing
71.7. Isolation of supply
71.8. Faulty equipment: repair or replace
71.9. Test equipments used by electricians

Reference
 T.LINSLEY-ADVANCED-CHAPTER 5

72.ELETRICAL MAINTENANCE
72.1. General
72.2. Batteries
72.3. Plant in hazardous areas
72.4. Sound, bell and call system
72.5. Lighting
72.6. Installation
72.7. Portable appliances
72.8. Static plant
72.9. Rotating plant
72.10. Switch gear

Reference
 F.G.THOMSON-VOLUME 3-CHAPTER 8

73.EXTRA LOW VOLTAGE EQUIPMENTS


Reference
 F.G.THOMSON-VOLUME 2-CHAPTER 14

74.CELLS AND BATTERIES


Reference
 F.G.THOMSON-VOLUME 2-CHAPTER 15

80. ELECTRICAL INSTALATION THEORY


80.1. Properties of material
80.2. Construction of cables
80.3. Installing wiring system
80.4. Protection from excess current
80.5. Earth leakage protection
80.6. Electrical installation circuits
80.7. Light sources
80.8. Fire alarm circuits
80.9. Intruder alarm circuit
80.10. Emergency lighting
Reference –T.LINSLEY-BASIC-CHAPTER 6

98
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION THEORY

80.11. INTRODUCTION- General, transmission and distribution scenario in


India-400kv regional super grid 230kv or 220kv grid of state transmission
utilities-132kv or 110kv or 66kv sub transmission lines –direct
transformation between 132kv or 110kv and 11kv up to 100MW capacity
without intermediate 33kv sub stations-11kv distribution system with 11kv
distribution lines of over head or underground cables- 11kv/400v distribution
sub station transformer- final connection to plant, distribution boards,
commercial or domestic loads by simple underground radial feeders at
400v/230v OH line radial feeders
80.12. low voltage supply system
80.12.1. The supply earthing
80.12.2. The installation earthing
80.12.3. The earthed supply conductor
80.12.4. TNS, TNC-S, TT, TNC, IT systems of earthing

LOW VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION IN BUILDINGS


80.13 . CONSUMER CONTROL UNITS
(CCUs) for domestic consumer 60A or 100A double pole linked switch
control as incomer
-single phase + neutral + earth supply
-Three phase + neutral + earth supply
TPN consumer control units

80.14. INDUSTRIAL TYPE SWITCH GEARS (TPN CCU) AND HBC FUSE
DISTRIBUTION BOARD IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
80.15. INDUSTRIAL TYPE OR CUBICLE TYPE SWITCH BOARDS AND
HBC FUSE DISTRIBUTION BOARD OR MCCB MOTOR CONTROL
CIIRCUIT BREAKER DISTRIBUTION BOARDS LAND MCB
LIGHTING FUSE DISTRIBUTION BOARDS IN INDUSTRIAL OR
COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS AND MULTI BLOCK RESIDENTIAL
COMPLEXES
80.16. RISING MAINS IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS- BUS BAR RISING
MAINS
80.17. BUS BAR TRUNKING SYSTEMS IN INDUSTRIES- VERTICAL
TYPE BBT AND HORIZONTAL TYPE BBT
80.18. CABLE TRAY AND LADDER RACK SYSTEM
80.19. DUCTING SYSTEM OF WIRING UNDER FLOOR DUCTS
80.20. SUPPORTING AND FIXING METHODS FOR CABLING AND
EUIPMENT
Reference:
 T.LINSLEY-ADVANCED- CHAPTER 3

99
 ADVANCD ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION ADDISON WESLEY
LONGMAN HIGHER EDUCATION
 H.A.MILLER BOOK 2- CHAPTER 5
 H.A.MILLER-BOOK 2- CHAPTER 6

81. PROTECTION
81.1. Mechanical damage
81.2. Fire risk
81.3. Corrosion
81.4. under voltage
81.5. Protection enclosure for electrical apparatus
81.6. Protective relay equipments
81.7. over current
81.8. Fuses
81.9. Circuit breaker

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 2-CHAPTER 16

CIRCUIT-CONTROL DEVICES
81.10. Definitions and terminology
81.11. circuit conditions
81.12. contacts
81.13. switches and switch fuses
81.14. circuit breakers
81.15. contactors
81.16. thermostat
81.17. summerstat(energy controller)
81.18. special switches
81.19. protector
81.20. wiring regulations

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 21

82. PROTECTION AGAINST EARTH LEAKAGE CURRENTS

82.1. Electrical shock


82.2. Earthing system-protection against earth leakage current-
Earth connection-the PME system
82.3. Automatic disconnection
82.4. Additional requirements for protection
82.5. Earthing tests

100
Reference F.G.THOMSON-VOL 2-CHAPTER 7

83.PROTECTION AGAINST INDIRECT CONTACTS


83.1. Earthing-the general mass of earth
83.2. Protection against electrical shock
83.3. Equipotential bonding –the reasons for it-main equipotential –the main
eqiupotential bonding contactors-equipotential bonding zone-
equipments outside the equipotential bonding zone
83.4. Supplementary bonding - why it is required-the size of supplementary
bonding conductors
83.5. Circuit protective conductors definition and use, size of circuit
protective conductors
83.6. connecting protective conductors and earth electrodes, earth clips, earth
electrodes
83.7. Protection by automatic disconnection from the supply-earth fault loop
impedance coordination of earthing system and protective devices in
TN-S,TT,TN-C-S system
83.8. residual circuit devices

Reference:
 H.A.MILLER-BOOK 2-CHAPTER 3

84.CONTROL AND PROTECTION FOR THE CONSUMER


84.1. Consumer’s switchgear
84.2. Regulations concerning switchgear
84.3. Protection of the installation over current -over current protective devices
semi enclosed , HRC, MCBs, fusing factors discriminations

Reference:
 H.A.MILLER- BOOK-CHAPTER 4

85. PROTECTION AGAINST OVER CURRENT –over currents, short circuit


currents, protection by fuses rewirable fuses, cartridge fuses, HRC fuses, selection of
fuses, protection by circuit breakers moulded case circuit breakers, miniature circuit
breakers, discrimination, protection for cables, protection for apparatus, protection for
motor circuits, relays

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 3-CHAPTER 9

86.PROTECTION AGAINST EARTH LEAKAGE CURRENT


86.1. Introduction-statuary requirements, electric shock, lightning protection anti
static earthing, earthing practice, direct earthing, rods, strips, earth mats,

101
cable sheaths, protective multiple earthing (PME) circuit protective
conductors additional requirements(extraneous metal work, bath room, bell
and similar circuits, electrode boilers portable appliances, and protective
methods, ELV supplies, earth leakage circuit breaker residual current ELCB
earth testing, earth fault loop impedance

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 3-CHAPTER 10

EARTHING
86.2. Terms
86.3. reasons for earthing
86.4. regulations
86.5. methods of earthing
86.6. earth fault loop path
86.7. portable appliances

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER

EARTHING
86.8. General
86.9. bath rooms

Reference:
 T.G.FRANCIS revised by R.J.COOKSLEY-CHAPTER 6

87.TESTING
87.1. Continuity of ring final circuit conductors
87.2. Measurement of common earth electrode resistance
87.3. Insulation resistance
87.4. Testing voltage, testing the installation to earth, testing between conductors,
verification of polarity of single-pole switches, earth fault-loop testing,
completion certificates

Reference:
 T.G.FRANCIS-revised by R.J.COOKSLEY-CHAPTER 6

TESTING AND MEASURING INTRUMENTS


87.5. Multi range instruments
87.6. Testing instruments
87.7. Insulation resistance tester
87.8. Earth-testing instruments
87.9. Ammeters and voltmeters

102
Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 18

TESTING AND INSPECTION

87.10. Verification of polarity


87.11. Polarity test on SP switch with circuit dead
87.12. Insulation resistance tests
87.13. Insulation resistance tests of conductors to earth
87.14. Conductor-continuity tests
87.15. Earthing tests
87.16. To measure resistance of CRC
87.17. Earth leakage circuit breaker - trip test
87.18. Appliance and apparatus testing
87.19. Visual inspection
87.20. Test certificates

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 19

TESTING AND INSPECTION


87.21. Circuit conductor tests
87.22. Appliance testing
87.23. Earthing tests
87.24. Testing instruments, continuity tests, insulation resistance tester, line-
earth tester, earth tester

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 2-CHAPTER 8

INSPECTION AND TESTING

87.25. Test on electrical installation


1. Continuity of ring final circuit conductors
2. Continuity of protective conductors, including main and supplementary
equipotential bonding
3. Earth-electrode resistance
4. Insulation resistance
5. Insulation of site-built assemblies
6. Protection by electrical separation
7. Protection by barriers for enclosures provides during erection
8. Insulation of non-conducting floors and walls
9. Polarity
10. Earth fault loop and impedance
11. Operation of residual circuit devices and fault voltage operated protective
devices

103
87.1. Appliance testing
87.2. Testing in hazardous areas
87.3. Certificate
87.4. Machine testing
87.5. Direct current armature faults
87.6. Fault diagnosis
87.7. Cable fault location
87.8. Insulating oil
87.9. Safety of personel

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 3-CHAPTER 7

INSPECTION AND TESTING


87.26. Inspecting installation
87.27. Testing installation

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS-BOOK 1-CHAPTER 8

INSPECTION AND TESTING


87.28. Test requirements
87.29. The ohmmeter
87.30. Tong tester
87.31. Useful terminology

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS-BOOK 2-CHAPTER 7

INSPECTION AND TESTING OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

87.32. Inspection and testing- Requirements of Wiring Regulations - testing


of final circuit, visual inspection, continuity tests, insulation tests
Reference:
 H.A.MILLER-BOOK 1-CHAPTER8

INSPECTION AND TESTING


87.33. Inspection and testing techniques-certification and reporting

Reference:
 T.LINSLEY-BASIC- CHAPTER 7

INSPECTION AND TESTING GENERAL


87.34. Inspection and testing techniques
87.35. Certification and reporting

104
INSTRUMENTS AND TESTING
87.36. Moving coil instruments, moving iron instruments, damping,
making measurements, range extension, dynamometer wattmeter,
measurement of power in a three phase circuit energy meter, tong tester,
phase and sequence tester, inspection and testing techniques, certification
and reporting, commissioning electrical system.

Reference: T.LINSLEY – ADVANCED – CHAPTER -6

88 and 89 RESERVED FOR FUTURE

90. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION – WORK PROCEDURES

Tools and Equipment – Joining Material Making good – Protection of


Materials – Removal of Materials _ Onsite Communications

Reference:
 T.LINSLEY – chapter 5

91. THE MEASUREMENT, SETTING OUT AND FIXING OF


EQUIPMENT

91.1 Measurement and making out (bench work, essential tools for bench
work) (seriber try square, tape measure, centre punch, inside calipers,
outside calipers, odd legs calipers, steel rule, bevel and other desirable
tools)
91.2 Tools and equipment for settling out
91.3 Fixing methods
91.4 Plastic plug and wood screw
91.5 Rawl bolt fixing
91.6 Spring toggle
91.7 Gravity toggle

Reference:
 H A Miller Book 1 Chapter 4

92. WIRING AND LIGHTING BASICS


92.1 The electricity supply – general
92.2 Earthing provision
92.3 User and circuit protection – distribution equipment called consumer
control unit (CCU)
92.4 Meters and meter box
92.5 The wiring toolkit
92.6 Wiring materials

105
92.7 Lighting circuit
92.8 Socket outlet circuit
92.9 Outer power circuit
92.10Outdoor circuits

93 WIRING TECHNIQUES
93.1 Working in the flex and cable
93.2 Mounting wiring accessories

94. WIRING JOBS


94.1 Work on lighting circuit
94.2 Work on socket outlet circuit
94.3 Work on other circuits
94.4 Installing new circuits
94.5 Wiring out – of - doors
94.6 Maintenance and repairs

95 REWIRING YOUR HOUSE


95.1 Planning a rewiring
95.2 Doing the work

96 CONDUCTORS AND CABLES


96.1 Conductor material
96.2 Stranding
96.3 Insulators
96.4 PVC, VIR, insulation materials
96.5 Different types of rubber insulation
96.6 Mineral insulation
96.7 Mechanical protection
96.8 Non flammable cables
96.10Cable types
96.11Application Wiring Regulations
96.12Category 1, category 2 and category 3 circuits
96.13 Cable selection, sequence of operation
96.14Joints and joining

Reference:
 T J FRANCIS REVISED BY R J COOKSLEY CHAPTER 3

ELECTRIC CABLES AND FACTORS DETERMING THEIR CHOICE

96.15. Electrical cables- definition - conductor materials – insulation materials


96.16. Factors determining choice of cable
96.17. Selection of conductor size with example

106
Reference:
 H A MILLER – BOOK 2 – CHAPTER 2

97 CONSUMER CIRCUITS

97.1 Internal distributions


97.2 Control, distribution and over current protection of consumer’s installation
97.3 Over current protection
97.4 Overload protection
97.5 Coordination of protective devices
97.6 Earth fault current
97.7 Use of residual current
97.8 Consumer unit practice
97.9 Protective conductor
97.10 Wiring circuit for lighting
97.10.1 Two-way intermediate switching
97.10.2 Use of joint boxes
97.10.3 Water heating circuits
97.10.4 Cooler circuit
97.10.5 Application of diversity factor
97.11 Final circuit for socket outlet
97.11.1.Ring final circuits
97.12 Radial circuit
97.13 Socket outlets
97.13.1.Industrial socket outlet circuits

Reference
 T G FRANCIS REVISED BY R J COOKSLEY

98 CONTROL AND PROTECTION FOR CONSUMERS


98.1. Consumer switchgear
98.2. Regulationsconcerning switchgear
98.3. Protection of installation – over current protective devices (semi-enclosed
fuse, cartridge fuse, HBC fuse, miniature circuit breaker, fusing factor,
discriminators)

Reference:
 H A MILLER - BOOK 2 - CHAPTER 4

99 INSTALLATION OF CIRCUIT 1

107
The basic electric circuit – ohm’s law – resistance factors – ammeter and
voltmeters – resistance connections – series circuits – parallel circuits – series
parallel circuits – energy - power – voltage drop – cable selection.

INSTALLATION OF CIRCUIT 2
Principle of electromagnetic induction
Generation of alternating current – generation of direct current – power station
electricity – the transformer low voltage distribution - power factor

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS BOOK 1 CHAPTER 4&5

100 INSTALLATION TECHNIQUE AND PROCEDURES

100.1 Wiring systems – pvc insulation – pvc sheathed cable – mineral insulator martial
- sheathed MIMS cables – armored pvc insulated, pvc sheathed cable – steel
conduit and insulated conduit system – steel trunking and insulator trunking
system – bus bar trunking system – circuit protection – fuses – circuit breakers

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS – BOOK1 CHAPTER 7

101. WIRING SYSTEMS

101.1 Various systems


101.2 Base conductor
101.3 Steel conduit system
101.4 Flexible conduit
101.5 Mineral insulated metal material sheathed system
101.6 Prefabricated wiring layouts
101.7 Rising mains
101.8 Underfloor ducting

Reference
 T G FRANCIS REVISED BY R J COOKSLEY

102. WIRING ACCESSORIES

102.1 Lamp holders


102.2 Ceiling roses
102.3 Alternating current switches
102.4 Flux and socket outlets
102.5 Fuses
102.6 Rewireable fuses
102.7 Cartridge fuses

108
102.8 High breaking fuses
102.9 Distribution boards
102.10Miniature circuit breakers
102.11Main switch and fuses
102.12Consumer control unit (CCU)

Reference:
 T G FRANCIS REVISED BY R J COOKSLEY CHAPTER 5

103. CONDUCTOR AND CABLES

103.1 General
103.2 Conductors
103.3 Insulators
103.4 Special cables and conductors
103.5 Cable types
103.6 Cable installation
103.7 Conductor’s identification
103.8 Abbreviations
103.9 Old wiring systems

Reference
 F G THOMSON – VOLUME 1 CHAPTER 6

104 CONDUCTORS’ JOINTS AND TERMINATIONS


104.1 Definition of joint and termination
104.2 Basic electrical and mechanical requirement in any electric connection
104.3 Cable terminations
104.4 Joint methods – soldering, welding, clamping, bolting, riveting, crimping,
mechanical connectors
104.5 Types of joints –surface joint, Britannia joint, Behanger’s joint,
Telegraphy joint, tee-twist joint, through-married joint, tee-married joint,
through-joint with conductor fitting, tee joint with connector fitting,
mechanical connector through joint
104.6 Termination methods – punch and notched tabs, screw head connectors,
claw type terminals, spade terminals, lug terminals, soldering, line taps,
joints and termination on MICS cable, conductor identification, installation
and protection of joints, testing

Reference:
 F G THOMSON VOLUME 1 CHAPTER 7

109
105. WIRING SYSTEM –SHEATHED
105.1. TRS (tough-rubber sheathed)
105.2. PVC (polyvinyl chloride sheathed)
105.3. PCP (poly chloropropone sheathed)
105.4. LAS (lead-alloy sheathed)
105.5. HSOS (house – service overhead system)
105.6. PILC (paper insulated, lead covered)
105.7. MIMS (mineral insulated, metal sheathed)

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 8

WIRING SYSTEM-2-CONDUITS, DUCTS, TRUNKING


105.8. General
105.9. Steel conduit
105.10. Copper conduit
105.11. Aluminum conduit
105.12. Flexible conduit
105.13. Non-metallic conduit
105.14. Trunking system
105.15. Ducting system

Reference:
 F.G. THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 9

105.16. Bare conductors


105.17. Prefabricated wiring system
105.18. Catenaries system
105.19. Earth concentric system
105.20. Overhead system
Reference: F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 10

106. WIRING ACCESSORIES


106.1. Switches
106.2. Lamp holders
106.3. Ceiling roses
106.4. Sockets-outlets and plugs
106.5. Clock-connectors
106.6. Electric shaver sockets
106.7. Fused-outlets
106.8. Industrialized-building accessories

Reference:

110
 F.G.THOMSON - VOL 1 - CHAPTER 11

107. INSTALLATION MEHTODS

107.1. General Workman ship


107.2. General considerations
107.3. Conduit system (metal)
107.3.1. Installation aluminum conduit
107.3.2. Installation copper conduit
107.3.3. Installation flexible metal conduit
107.4. Conduit system (non-metallic)
107.5. Metal-sheathed wiring systems
107.6. Trunking and ducting
107.7. Cleaned wiring system
107.8. All-insulated wiring system
107.9. Catenary system
107.10. New system

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 12

108. TEMPORARY INSTALLATIONS

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL1-CHAPTER 20

109. CIRCUIT AND WIRING DIAGRAMS

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 28

110. INSTALLATION IN HAZARDOUS AREAS

110.1. Flame proof installations


110.2. Battery charging

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 6

111. TOOLS
Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 32

111
112. WORKSHOP SAFETY
Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 33

113. ELECTRICAL MATERIALS CONDUCTORS


Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 34

114. ELECTRICAL MATERIALS - INSULATORS


Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 35

115. WORKSHOP MEASUREMENTS


Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 36

116. WORKSHOP PRACTICE


Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 37

117. SOLDERING
Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 38

118. THE INSTALATION OF WIRING SYSTEM

118.1. The installation of PVC/SWA/PVC cables


118.2. The installation of PVC/PVC wiring system
118.3. The installation of mineral insulated wiring system
118.4. the installation of conduit wiring system
118.5. the installation of PVC conduit
118.6. flexible conduit

Reference:
 H.A.MILLER-BOOK 1-CHAPTER 6

119. INSTALLING LIGHTING AND SMALL POWER CIRCUITS

119.1. The installation of lighting circuits


119.2. Methods of wiring lighting
119.3. Wiring regulations concerning lighting circuit
119.4. Installation of 13A socket-outlets-radial circuit, spurs – U.K. Practice

112
119.5. Regulations concerning 13A socket outlets – U.K. Practice
Reference:
 H.A.MILLER-BOOK 1-CHAPTER 7
119.6. PORTABLE ELECTRICAL TOOLS
Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 16
119.7. WORKSHOP PRACTICE

Workshop machines, workshop safety, workshop measurements, metal


work practice

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 17

120. SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS

120.1. Electrical apparatus in hazardous areas


120.2. Precautions in hospital operation theatres
120.3. Petrol filling stations and garages
120.4. Agricultural and horizontal installations
120.5. Fire alarm system
120.6. Standby supplies
120.7. Lightning protection
120.8. Corrosion

Reference:
 MAURICE LEWIS-BOOK 3-CHAPTER 3
120.9. Temporary installations
120.10. Agricultural and horticultural
120.11.Caravans and caravan sites
120.12. flammable and explosive installations
120.13. hazardous area classification
120.14. intrinsic safety
120.15. static electrical
120.16. computer supplies
120.17. fire alarm circuits
120.18. security system

Reference:
 T.LINSLEY-ADVANCED-CHAPTER 4
120.19. Damp situations
120.20. Corrosion situations
120.21. Electrostatic situations
120.22. Temporary installations
120.23. Agricultural and horticultural installations

113
120.24. fire-alarm circuits
120.25. Caravans and caravan sites
Reference: F.G.THOMSON-VOL 3-CHAPTER 5

121. FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEMS

121.1. old system, modern system,


 wiring techniques for fire alarm
 removing the sheaths of Pirelli FP 200cable
 earthing, insulation
121.2.
 fire detector and alarm accessories
 fire detector ionization principle
 Zonding
 Heat detector:rate of rise type,
 Heat detector
 Fixed temperature type
 break-glass call point
 testing
 audio alarm
 fire alarm bell
 fire alarm siren
 electronic sounder
 IEC standards/IS standards
121.3.
 Testing fire detection system
 Final testing
 Commissioning
 Testing
 ionization type fire detector
 Heat detector test
 Commissioning agency
 Records

121.4. INTRUDER ALARM SYSTEMS


Early systems and modern systems

121.5. Principal sounder and strobe light


121.6. Passive infrared intruder detector
121.7. zones 131.8 polarization
121.8. ratio interference 131.10 ranges of detection

114
121.9. connections 131.12 -wiring techniques for
intruder alarms, Zoning, The time zone
Testing the alarm system

122. EMERGENCY LIGHTING INSTALLATION


122.1.
 Category 3 circuit in Wiring Regulations
 The Governing Regulations
 Installation requirements
 Classification of emergency lighting
 Maintenance
 Non-maintenance
 Sustained
 Central battery
 Generation
I. Volt drop over circuit protection-batteries
II. Load test

122.2. Positioning emergency lighting

 High risk areas(acid baths, conveyors, Tran stiles


 Specifications (bars or areas selling alcoholic drunks, escalators,
lifts, plant rooms, stair case, toilets, workshops
 General location cinemas and theatres, class rooms and community
areas, emergency exits, escape routers, areas adjacent to fire doors,
officers and public buildings, open areas such as restaurant,
libraries etc, shops and super stores, where a change of direction is
experienced in an escape route
122.3. Provision of supply
122.4. Testing emergency lighting
122.5. Central battery system
122.6. Health and safety
122.7. Nickel-cadmium-rechargeable batteries
122.8. Secondary cells-serving a central battery units
122.9. NURSE CALL SYSTEM

130.ELECTRICAL WIRING
130.1. Resistance and Resisitvity
130.2. Work, power and energy
130.3. Alternating current
130.4. Magnetism
130.5. Electrical measuring instruments
130.6. Wires and cables

115
130.7. Wiring accessories
130.8. Use of different type of switches
130.9. Different systems of wiring
130.10. Earthing
130.11. Testing of electrical installation
130.12. Electrical appliances
130.13. Arrangement of distribution boards etc
130.14. Faults in wiring system and their remedies
130.15. Overhead line
130.16. How to do home wiring?
130.17. Wire and joints
130.18. Cables and joints
130.19. Wiring system
130.20. Fuses and earthing
130.21. Methods of testing
130.22. Electrical lighting
130.23. Motor starter
130.24. Lighting
130.25. Electric sign circuits
130.26. Time switch circuits
130.27. Alarm and intruder circuits
130.28. Crane and lift circuits
130.29. Safety precaution

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL WIRING


130.30. Safety
130.31. Drawing
130.32. Wire types and preparation
130.33. Soldering and termination
130.34. Cable forming
130.35. Hardware
130.36. Components (active)
130.37. Components (passive)
130.38. Switches and lamps
130.39. Earthing and screening

140.ELECTRICAL ESTIMATION AND COSTING

140.0. ESTIMATED MATERIAL

Reference:
 F.G.THOMSON-VOL 1-CHAPTER 3

116
140.1. Specification of wiring materials and appliances
140.2. Earthing
140.3. Type of wiring
140.4. Domestic and costing of substations
140.5. Feeder
140.6. Estimating and costing of substation
140.7. Low tension distribution and street lighting
140.8. Service connections
140.9. Testing of installation
140.10. Illumination
140.11.Data tables
140.12. Principles of estimating and schedule rates
140.13. Electrical installation conditions and requirements
140.14. Residential building wiring
140.15. Industrial installation estimate
140.16. Substation estimation
140.17. Wiring estimates
140.18. Wiring of general hospital
140.19. Stores lighting
140.20. Question on estimate
140.21. Office lighting
140.22. Items affecting labour costs
140.23. Distribution
140.24. Various advance estimates
140.25. Electric installations

ELECTRICAL ESTIMATING AND COSTING

140.26. Conventional symbols


140.27. Wires, wire joints, terminations and wiring tools
140.28. Air circulating fans
140.29. Type of house wiring
140.30. Wiring materials
140.31. Circulating, light and fan circuits
140.32. Testing of installation
140.33. Protection against overload, short-circuit and earth fault
140.34. Illumination scheme in building and calculation
140.35. Conductor size calculations
140.36. Specifications
140.37. Diversity
140.38. Internal wiring estimates and domestic installation
140.39. Electrical installation in small industries, power circuits and
estimates
140.40. Installation estimates of service connections
140.41. Three phase four wire distribution system

117
140.42. Estimates of LT line, substation and service connections for power
loads
140.43. Underground cables, installation, estimates and street lighting
140.44. Elements of estimating
140.45. Contactor control circuits – estimates installation

150. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION ENGINEERING


PRICIPLES AND CONCEPTS

EI-A: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION ENGINEERING FOR POWER SUPPLY


AND DISTRIBUTION

150.1.1 Definition of terms


150.1.2 Recommendations for the configuration of high and low voltage electrical
installations in buildings
150.1.3 Calculation of short circuit currents in three phase systems
150.1.4 System protection
150.1.5 High voltage switchgear
150.1.6 Instrument transformers
150.1.7 High voltage switch boards
150.1.8 Centralized local control of switchboards
150.1.9 Transformers
150.1.10 Packaged transformer substation
150.1.11 Low voltage switch boards and distribution boards
150.1.12 Earthing systems
150.2 POWER CABLES
150.2.1 Wiring cables and flexible cables
150.2.2 Power cables for voltages up to 30kV
150.2.3 Protection against over currents
150.2.4 Labors saving tools and installation materials
150.3 PROTECTIVE SDEVICES FOR CONSUMER CIRCUITS
150.3.1 Line – protection fuses
150.3.2 Line – protections (miniature) circuit breakers
150.3.3 Current – operated earth leakages circuit breakers
150.3.4 Earth leakage monitors
150.4 REMOTE CONTROL SWITCHES
150.5 ELECTRICITY METERS
150.6 STAND BY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS
150.6.1 Generating sets (internal combustion)
150.6.2 Battery systems
150.6.3 Static UPS systems
150.7 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
150.8 LIGHTING ENGINEERING
150.8.1 Lighting source

118
150.8.2 Discharge lamp circuits
150.8.3 Lighting control
150.8.4 Luminaries
150.8.5 Lighting installation

EI.B. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS ENGINEETING FOR SPACE HEATING


AIR CONDITIONS AND VENTILATION

150.9 SPACE HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING AND VENTILATION


150.9.1 Space heating equipment and system components
150.9.2 Control of electric storage heaters
150.9.3 Power supplies for electric heat systems
150.9.4 Heat pumps for space heat electrical supply condition s
150.9.5 Air – conditioning equipment
150.9.6 Ventilating fans

EI.C. LIFT INSTALLATIONS

150.10 PASSENGER, GOODS AND DUAL PER PHASE LIFTS

EI.D. ELECTRICL INSTALLTIONS ENGINEERING IN LARGE BIULDIGNS


AND OUTDOORS

150.11 LARGE BUILDINGS


150.11.1 Vertical power distribution
150.11.2 Horizontal power distribution
150.11.3 Electrical installation equipment

150.12 PRE CAST BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION


150.12.1 Building methods
150.12.2 Design
150.12.3 Wiring and installation materials
150.12.4 Meter cabinets and distribution boards
150.12.5 Applications in home constructions

150.13 RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS


150.13.1 Service entries
150.13.2 Mains (rising mains)
150.13.3 Arrangement of meters and substation boards
150.13.4 Installation of wiring systems

150.14 OFFICE BUILDINGS

150.15 HOTELS

119
150.16 HOSPITALS

150.17 THEATRES AND MULTI PER PHASE

150.18 FILM AND TELEVISION STUDIOS

150.19 INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS


150.19.1 Industrial buildings
150.19.2 Exhibition halls

150.20 ILLUMINATION FOUNTAIN AND WATER DISPLAY ORGANS

150.21 STREET LIGHTNING

150.22 AIR FIELD LIGHTING

150.23 GARAGES, FILLINGS STATIONS AND SERVICING PITS


150.23.1 Garages
150.23.2 Fillings stations
150.23.3 Servicing pits

150.24 SPECIAL OPERATING AREAS LOCATE AND INSTALLATIONS

150.25 OPERATING AREAS SUBJECT TO EXPLORE HAZARDS

EI.E ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS ENGINEERING FOR SPECIAL


INSTALLATIONS AND SYSTEMS

150.26 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS


150.26.1 Planning and installation
150.26.2 Signaling and house call system
150.26.3 Visual call systems
150.26.4 Paging systems
150.26.5 Time distribution system
150.26.6 Intruder alarm system
150.26.7 Telephone systems
150.26.8 Data processing and teleprocessing
150.26.9 Tube and container conveyer systems
150.26.10 Aerial installations for radio and television reception
150.26.11 Electro acoustic systems
150.26.12 Closed circuit television
150.26.13 Wires and cables for telecommunications

120
150.27 CONTROL INFORMATION AND MONITORING SYSTEMS IN BUILDINGS
INSTALLATIONS
150.27.1 Switching, control (infrared remote – control systems)
150.27.2 Monitoring, protection
150.27.3 Combination of control, information and monitoring systems

EI.F. INSTALLTION SPECIFICATIONS STANDARDS AND SAFETY


MEASURES

150.28 STANDARDS AND SAFETY MEASURES


150.28.1 General aspects and installation specifications
150.28.2 Legal significance of IS and IEC specifications
150.28.3 Technical supply conditions and regulation issued by electricity regulatory
commissions

150.29 ELECTRICITY SAFETY REGULATIONS ISSUED BY CENTRAL


ELECTRICITY AUTHORITY UNDER ELECTRICITY ACT 2003

150.30 ELECTRICITY TARIFF CONDITIONS ISSUED BY ELECTRICITY


REGULATORY COMMISSIONS
150.31 SPECIFICATION AND GUIDE ISSUED BY CENTRAL BOARD OF
IRRIGATION AND OF POWER GOAL OF INDIA RELATING TO POWER

150.32 SPECIFICATIONS AND GUIDES ISSUED BY ELECTRICAL RESEARCH


AND DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION AND CENTRAL POWER RESEARCH
INSTITUTE(CPRI)

150.33 SPECIFICATION AND GUIDES ISSUED BY ENERGY EFFICIENCY


BUREAU MINISTRY OF POWER, GOVT OF INDIA

150.34 QUALITY CONTROL ORDER OF HOUSE HOLD ELECTRICAL


ACCESSORIES AND WIRING INSTALLATION

150.35 SAFETY REGULATIONS OF HOUSE HELD ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

150.36 PROTECTION OF FEEDERS


150.36.1 Introduction
150.36.2 Installation and dimensions of cables
150.36.2.1 Current carrying capacity methods of installations
 Installation not buried in the ground
 Installation buried into ground

150.36.3 Protection against overload


150.36.4 Protection against short circuit
150.36.5 Neutral and protective conductors

121
150.36.6 Bus bar tracking systems

150.37 PROTECTION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT


150.37.1 Protection and switching of lighting circuits
150.37.2 Protection and switching of generators
150.37.3 Protection and switching of motors
150.37.4 Protection and switching of transformers

150.38 SAFETY MEASURES


150.38.1 Protection against direct and indirect contact
150.38.2 Protection against direct contact
150.38.3 Protection against indirect contact
150.38.4 Verification of protective measuring against indirect contact
150.38.5 Protection against over voltage
150.38.6 Protection against over voltage due to lighting in low voltage system
150.39 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
150.39.1 General aspects
150.39.2 Power factor correction method
150.39.3 Circuit breakers for the protection and switching of capacitor
150.40 PROTECTION OF HUMAN BEINGS
150.40.1 General aspects : effects of current on human beings
150.40.2 Distribution systems
150.40.3 TT systems
150.40.4 TN systems
150.40.5 IT systems
150.40.6 Residual current devices (RCDS)
150.40.7 Maximum protected length for the protection of human beings
150.40.8 Surge protective devices (SPDs)
150.40.9 Over current miniature circuit breakers
150.40.10 Residual current over current miniature circuit breakers (ROMCBs)
150.40.11 Calculation of load current Ib
150.40.12 Calculation of short circuit current – Isc
150.40.13 Calculation of the protections of conductors
 Verification of the protection against the rated current or the set
current of the circuit breaker (In) shall be higher than the load current
(Ib), but lower than the current carrying capacity of the conductor Iz
Ib = /< In =/< Iz
 Verification of the protection against short circuit, the specific ‘let-
through energy’ by the circuit breakers under short circuit conditions
shall be lower than the ‘specific let through energy’ which can be with
stand by the call
ISC2 t  k2 S2
Where ISC = short circuit current
t = duration of short circuit current
S = cross sectional area of conductor
K = (thermal capability) coefficient of cables 1 insulated wires

122
 Verification of protection against indirect contacts depending on the
distribution system- TT, TN
150.40.14 Verification of the co ordination with other equipments discrimination and
back up, verification of the co- ordination with sounds disconnectors
150.40.15 Definition of the components and switch design

160. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF INDUSTRIAL


POWER SYSTEM PRINCIPLE AND CONCEPTS

INTRODUCTION:

The electric power distribution system in an ‘industrial plant’ generally costs less than ‘5
percent’ of the total plant cost, including process machinery. The plant owners may have
invested money for the best of plant facilities, the most modern prediction machine, have
an ample inventory of raw materials, good product design, highly trained and efficient
labor, and every thing else that is required to produce manufactured goods quickly and at
low cost. When electric power stops flowing in a manufacturing plant the plants
production stops. (i.e.) if electric power is not available when and where needed in the
plant then the owner’s investment in both plant and inventory is so much idle capital.
Because electric power is so important in any manufacturer process, the electric power
distribution system in the plant in the vital link that carrier the electric power from the
utility supply point to the production machine that keeps the plants production moving so
he power system engineer who designs an industrial power plant power distribution
system must rely on his technical engineering back ground and also he must exercise
considerable engineering judgment, as all phases of industrial power system engineering
cannot be expressed in numbers or solved by formulas. When decisions based on
engineering judgment are required the power system engineer should always base his
consideration on the best fact available and both on vague hypothesis or information
which does not apply to the specific problems at hard. Field report and operating
experiences must always be weighed very carefully to be sure that all the facts and all the
background are available. One of his most valuable tools is test data made under
specified controlled condition. Field data are part of the engineers ware house of facts
and certain kinds of field data are extremely valuable. The design engineer must be sure
that he knows the conditions under which the field data are obtained and that the data are
broad enough to mean something. Any field data that are used should be extensive and
represent a cross section of industry and not just a few isolated cases.

OVER-ALL PLANNING

To obtain a power distribution system which is adequate to meet the service reliability
requirements of a plant and yet which is lowest in cost require that the power system on
an over all inclusive bases. While the electrical system is installed in parts, such as

123
substation, cable, bus, switchgear, transformers etc. the system never less functions as a
complete integral unit. The best way to get an over all picture of the probable
performance of an industrial power distribution system is to make a one line diagram.
This on one small piece of paper shows the system in its power system designer a
reasonable idea of what service reliability will be and how the component of the system
will fit to get her electrically to serve the needs of the plant most effectively and
economically.

The fundamental ideas help to build safe power systems:

160 Enclose all live conductors in earthed metal

Note: Bus bar trunking systems must be metal enclosed.


‘Insulation enclosed’ bus bar trunking systems are not preferred in industrial
application however, on case of corrosive atmosphere, the alternative to
‘metal’ enclosed system, may be used.
Note: PVC sheeted arrived XLPE insulated or PVC insulated power cables of 1.1kv
grade should be used
Note: The electrical lighting heating etc. wiring should be installed strictly in accord
ad with recommended IEC ITS, practices for ‘electrical installation in
buildings.
161 Use only adequate circuit protective equipment and hazards against shock and fire
162 design the system so that working on energized conductors is not necessary
Note: Building a substation structure with a fence around it labeled “for authorized
persons only” is no safety guarantee. Authorized personnel make mistake
too. Of course, there are three which the system design engineer can
influence greatly.

ECONOMICS:
Economics is a very important part of a power system engineer. The engineer must
compare system on the bases of cost as well as other feature. In making cost comparisons
it is important to include all parts of the systems from the power source down to and
including the utilization equipment.
Always consider the cost of the completely installed system, not just the prices of its
components.

PLAN FOR LOAD GROWTH


One of the greatest mistakes made in power system engineering is planning without
allowance for future expansion. Failure to plan for the future results in extravagance,
inflexibility, and complication.

SIMPLICITY
Make system simple. Many total shutdowns have resulted from complicated systems.
Industrial operators do not get emergency switching practice every day. If they have
complicated systems, experience proves that they are a pt to make mistakes in an

124
emergency. These errors usually cause greater outages than they would with simple
systems. Simple systems are easy to understand and easy to operate during both normal
and emergency conditions. The growing difficulty of obtaining adequately trained
personnel makes a simple power system desirable.

FLEXIBLITY
Plants change manufacturing process from time to time. Process and predict alike
change as demands and styles change.
Two great contributions towards flexibility are:
1. The load center system with small substations which may be added in small units
as required and, if necessarily, moved and
2. Plug in bus way, which permits the installation of permanent power distribution
systems to which machine tools and other devices are merely plugged in where
necessarily.

SERVICE RELIABILITY
Service reliability in any plant is important. If the manufacturing process is on a
production line basis, a shutdown of any part of the line may hold up the entire plant.
High service reliability can be obtained in tow ways. One is by providing duplicate
channel to route power to any load; highest grade electric equipment available using the
best installation methods. It might be added that service reliability can be increased
through simplicity of system design.

MODERNIZATION AND EXPANSION

When plant facilities have to be expanded or modernized, the engineer is afforded and
opportunity to design the ideal electrical system existing equipment obviously cannot all
be retired at once. But as additions and replacement of equipment are made, they should
be on the basis of being integrated into the ideal plan and not merely as replacement of
equipment in the old system.

SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT
In selecting equipments, choose the best available. Use factory assembled equipment for
easier field installation and better co ordination.
Be sure equipment ratings are adequate in every respecting i.e. voltage, current,
interrupting rating etc.

Note: Much of the advantage of the high quality equipment can be lost if it is carelessly
installed and maintained.

MAINTANANCE
Maintenance is largely in the hands of operators. The system designer can aid in this
problems by designing systems that provided. Alternate power channels to permit one to
be takes out for maintenance without dropping essential loads.

125
Use draw out equipment whenever possible to enable maintenance on circuit breaker
elements to be done in a clean service shop. A spare element should be specified to
replace the one being maintained.

MAKE A RELAY COORDINATION STUDY OPERATOR AND SETTINGS OF


RELAYS SHOULD BE REGULARITY CHECHKED
MAKE A COORDINATION STUDY OF LV PROTECTIVE DEVICES

THINGS TO CHECK WHEN DESIGHNING THE POWER SYSTEM

1. What is the nature and magnitude of the load


2. where is the power coming from
3. How much will the electric power system cost
4. what voltage levels should be selected for the plant primary system and low
voltage system
5. What circuit arrangement is best switch i.e. radial, secondary selective or
secondary network
6. What size substation are most economical
7. Secondary distribution
8. Combined light and power system
9. Are voltage regularity means required
10. Short circuit protections
11. EARTHING
12. over current protection
13. Is the lighting protection adequate
14. Are circuit properly metered to tell what loads are
15. Power factor correction
16. supervisory control

THINGS TO CHECK IF POWER IS GENERATED IN THE INDUSTRIAL PLANT

17. What heat cycle should be used gas turbine or steam turbine
18. What steam pressures and temperature are best for steam generation and process
use
19. How big should the boilers and turbine be
20. What should the balance between extraction at various pressures be and what
should the condenser capacity be
21. What kind of steam turbine is most suitable to the particular process under
consideration
a) Straight condensing
b) Extraction
c) Topping
d) Extraction condensing

126
22. Co generation power plants

160.14. PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF INDUSTRIAL POWER SYTEM

160.14.1. INTRODUCTION
160.14.1.1. Purpose
160.14.1.2IEC / IEEE standards
160.14.1.3Codes and standards
160.14.1.4Safety and environmental considerations
160.14.1.5Hand books and periodicals
160.14.1.6Manufactures data catalogues
160.14.1.7Electric training institutes

160.14.2. SYSTEM PLANNING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM VOLTAGE


STANDARD AND SELECTIONS
160.14.2.1. Load survey and power system studies
160.14.2.2. Basic design considerations
160.14.2.3. System and voltage selection
160.14.2.3.1. Voltage – standard rating, allowable variation reduction of variation
calculation of drops voltage tolerance limits
1690.14.2.3.2. System voltage nomenclature
160.14.2.3.3. Voltage rating for low voltage utilization equipment
160.14.2.3.4. Phase voltage unbalance and harmonics
160.14.2.3.5. System over voltages causes and protective measures

160.14.3. FAULT CURRENT CALCULATIONS


160.14.3.1. Source of fault current
160.14.3.2Fundamentals of fault current calculating procedures simplified
calculations
160.14.3.3symmetrical components as applied to short circuit current
160.14.3.4.1. Short circuit rating of protective equipment
160.14.3.4.2. Selection of A.C short circuit protective device and circuit
equipment

160.14.4. POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL PLANTS


160.14.4.1. Introduction
160.14.4.2. Simple radial system
160.14.4.3. Secondary selective systems
160.14.4.4. Looped primary system

127
160.14.4.5. Secondary network systems
160.14.4.6. Selecting a power distribution system for an industrial plant
160.14.4.5. Load centre power systems
160.14.4.6. Primary distribution systems
160.14.4.7. Secondary distribution systems

160.14.5. EARTHING – GRAOUNDING

160.14.5.1 System grounding


160.14.5.2Equipment grounding
160.14.5.3 Static and lightening protections grounding
160.14.5.4 Connection earth
160.14.5.5 Earth mat and rise of step and touch potential during faults

160.14.6 SYSTEM PROTECTION


160.14.6.1 .System behavior and protection needs
160.14.6.2 .Principle of relaying for industrial plants
160.14.6.3 .Protective relays and their applications
160.14.6.4 .Protective devices
160.14.6.5 .Surge protective
160.14.6.6 .Co ordination & co ordinations study

160.14.7. POWER AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT


160.14.7.1 .Introduction
160.14.7.2 .Switching equipment and power circuits
160.14.7.3 .Switchgear
160.14.7.4 .Transformer
160.14.7.5 .Transformers
160.14.7.6 .Unit switch status
160.14.7.7 .Capacitors and power factor POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT
160.14.7.8 .Motor and motor controllers
160.14.7.9 .Instruments and meters

160.14.8. POWER CARRYING DEVICES


160.14.8.1. Cable
160.14.8.2. Connectors and terminations
160.14.8.3. Bus way

160.14.9. POWER DISTRIBUTION FOR COMPUTERS


160.14.9.1 .Power problems
160.14.9.2 .Computer power requirements
160.14.9.3 .Power conditions for computers
160.14.9.4 .Power distribution design considerations

128
160.14.10. POWER DISTRIBUTION AND ILLUMINATION
160.14.10.1. Distribution voltage problems
160.14.10.2. Effects of voltage variation on lamp life and its lumen out put
160.14.10.3. Operating voltage levels for illuminating systems
160.14.10.4. Plant power distribution consideration for lighting loads

160.14.11. ILLUMINATION DESIHGN PRINCIPLES


160.14.11.1. Basic consideration for illuminating design
160.14.11.2. New concepts in lighting design
160.14.11.3. Zonal cavity methods of lighting computations
160.14.11.4. Computer programs for lighting design

160.14.12. FACTORS AFFECTING INDUSTRIAL ILLUMINATION


160.14.12.1. INTRIDUCTION
160.14.12.2. FACTORS AND REMEDIES

160.14.13. SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL ILLUMINATION


160.14.13.1. Light sources
160.14.13.2. Luminaries
160.14.13.3. Types of industrial lighting systems
160.14.13.4. Special consideration

160.14.14. APPLICATIONS AND INSTALLATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL


ILLUMINATING SYSTEMS
160.14.14.1. Introduction
160.14.14.2. Machine ships
160.14.14.3. Generating stations
160.14.14.4. Control rooms
160.14.14.5. Manufacturing areas
160.14.14.6. Ware housing
160.14.14.7. Engineering officer, conference rooms

160.14.15. FLOOD LIGHTING DESIGN


160.14.15.1. Introduction
160.14.15.2. Basic flood lighting effects
160.14.15.3. Choosing the Flood light sources
160.14.15.4. Design procedures
160.14.15.5. Application guide
160.14.15.6. Example

160.14.16. ENERGY CONSERVATION ILLUMINATING SYSTEMS


160.14.16.1. Introductions
160.14.16.2. Energy – efficient light sources

129
160.14.16.3. Energy efficient ballasts
160.14.16.4. New luminaries for energy-efficient light sources
160.14.16.5. Cost analysis
160.14.16.6. Energy saving lighting techniques
160.14.16.7. Lighting and energy standards

160.14.17. LIGHTING CONTROLS


160.14.17.1. Introduction
160.14.17.2. Types of controls
160.14.17.3. On-off controls
160.14.17.4. Level controls
160.14.17.5. Energy saving statistics from different types of lighting controls
160.14.17.6. Bases for selecting lighting controls to attain optimum savings

160.14.18. MODERNIZATION AND EXPANSION OF EXISTING POWER


SYSTEM
160.14.19. CO GENERATION STEAM AND POWER GENERATION
160.14.20. 1. STAND BY DIESEL GENERATING PLANT TO FEED
ESSENTIAL LOADS
160.14.20. 2. EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATING PLANTS
160.14.21. EMERGENCY LIGHTING SYSTEM, FIRE ALARM SYSTEM,
FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM
160.14.22. LIFTS, HOISTS, ELEVATORS IN INDUSTRIAL PLANTS
160.14.23. SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL PLANTS
160.14.23.1. INDUCTION AND ARC FURNACE INSTALLATIONS STEEL
MILLS
160.14.23.2. STEEL ROLLING MILLS
160.14.23.3. CEMENT PLANTS
160.14.23.4. PAPER PLANTS
160.14.23.5. SUGAR PLANTS
160.14.23.6. PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES
160.14.23.7. CHEMICAL PLANTS, FERTILIZER PLANTS
160.14.23.8. ELECTROLYSIS PLANTS & ELECTROLYSIS PLANTS
160.14.23.9. IRON, ALUMINIUM, COPPER EXTRACTION PLANTS FROM
IRON/ALUMINIUM COPPER ORES

170. INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICAL WIRING

170.1. Introduction
170.2. Codes and standards
170.3. Industrial construction documents
170.4. Service and distribution

130
170.5. Electrical load calculations
170.6. Over current protection
170.7. Grounding
170.8. Transformers
170.9. Conductors and wiring material
170.10. Raceways, boxes and fittings
170.11. Cable tray
170.12. Wiring devices
170.13. Conductors terminations and spices
170.14. Anchors and supports
170.15. Electric motors
170.16. Motor controls heat tracing and freeze protection
170.17. Heat tracing and freeze protection
170.18. Wiring in hazardous locations
170.19. Industrial lighting

180. ELECTRICAL WIRING COMMERCIAL

180.1. Commercial buildings plans and specifications


180.2. Reading electrical working drawing
180.3. Computing the electrical load
180.4. Branch circuits
180.5. Switches and receptacles
180.6. Branch circuit installations
180.7. Motor and appliance circuit
180.8. feeders
180.9. Special systems
180.10. Working drawings – upper level
180.11. Special circuits – (owner’s circuits)
180.12. Panel board selection and installation
180.13. The electric service
180.14. Lamps for lighting
180.15. Luminaires (Fixtures)
180.16. Emergency (legally required stand by and optional standby).
power systems
180.17. Over current protections – fuses and circuit breakers
180.18. Short circuit calculations and coordination of over current protective
devices
180.19. Equipment and conductor short circuit protection
180.20. Low voltage remote control
180.21. The cooling system
180.22. Appendices – Glossary -Websites

190. ELECTRICAL WIRING RESIDENTIAL

131
190.1. General information for electrical installation
190.2. Electrical symbol and outlets
190.3. Determining the required number and location of lighting and small
appliance circuit
190.4. Conductor sizes and types, wiring methods, wire connections, voltage
drop, and neutral sizing for services
190.5. Switch control of lighting circuits Receptacle bonding and induction
heating resulting from unusual switch connections
190.6. Ground fault circuit interrupters, Arc – fault circuit interrupters
transient voltage surge suppressors and immersion detection circuit
interrupters
190.7. Luminaries (Fixtures) ballasts and lamps
190.8. Lighting branch circuit for the front bed room
190.9. Lighting branch circuit for the master bed room
190.10. Lighting branch circuit – bathrooms and hallways
190.11. Lighting branch circuit – front entry, porch
190.12. Lighting branch circuit and small appliance circuits for the kitchen
190.13. Lighting branch – circuits for the living room
190.14. Lighting branch – circuit for the study bed rooms
190.15. Dryer outlet and lighting circuit for the laundry, powder room, rear
entry hall
190.16. Lighting branch circuit for the garage
190.17. Recreation rooms
190.18. Lighting branch circuit receptacle circuit for work shop
190.19. Special purpose outlets- water pump, water heater
190.20. Special purpose outlets for range, counter – mounted cooling unit and
wall mounted oven
190.21. Special purpose outlets – food waste, disposer dish weaker
190.22. Special purpose outlets for the bathroom ceiling heat- vent lights, attic,
fan and the hydro massage tub
190.23. Special purpose outlets – electric heating air conditioning
190.24. Gas and oil control heating systems
190.25. Television, telephone, low voltage signal systems
190.26. Heat, smoke and carbon monoxide detectors, fire alarms and security
systems
190.27. Service entrance equipment
190.28. Over current protection – fuses and circuit breakers
190.29. Service entrance calculations
190.30. Swimming pools, hot tubs and hydro massage baths
190.31. Wiring for the future. Home automation system
190.32. Stand by power systems
190.33. Specification for electrical work- single family dwelling
190.34. Key terms
190.35. Web sites
190.36. Appendices

132
200. ELECTRICAL CALCULATIONS

200.1. Calculations of cross – sectional areas of circuit live conductors


200.2. Calculations of voltage drop under normal load conditions
200.3. Calculations of earth fault loop impendence
200.4. Calculations concerning protective conductors cross – sectional areas
200.5. Calculations related to short circuit conditions
200.6. combined examples of 200.1 to 200.6 in design of calculations
200.7. Fundamental design of generating systems final design and application
of generating systems
200.8. Fundamental design and final design of transmission and distribution
system
200.9. Final design and application of rotating machines
200.10. Final design and application of instrumentations
200.11. Final design and application of protection and grounding
200.12. Design control systems
200.13. Design electronic devices Application of electronic devices
200.14. Design of instrumentations application of instrument atoms
200.15. Design of digital systems
200.16. Design of communications systems
200.17. Applications of communications systems
200.18. Design of biomedical systems

201. ELECTRICAL GROUNDING

201.1. Grounding of electrical installations in buildings – statutory


requirements – definitions
201.2. Electrical theory applicable to grounding
201.3. Grounding for safety
201.4. Faults
201.5. Grounding Electrode systems
201.6. Grounding electrode conductor
201.7. Circuit and system grounding
201.8. Grounded conductor
201.9. Main bonding jumper
201.10. Equipment grounding conductor
201.11. Equipment and enclosure bonding
201.12. Equipment and enclosure grounding
201.13. Grounding circuit conductor for grounding
201.14. Ground fault protective equipment
201.15. System and circuit grounding 1kv and over
201.16. Separately derived system
201.17. Two or more building supplied by one service

133
201.18. Calculating fault current and grounding conductor withstand rating

202. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FOR PRACTICING PROFESSIONAL


ENGINEERS/ CONSULTANTS

202.1. Mathematics for practicing professional engineers


202.2. Linear circuit analysis
202.3. Wave forms, power and measurements
202.4. Time and frequency response
202.5. Power systems
202.6. Transmission lines
202.7. Rotating machines
202.8. Fundamental semiconductor circuits
202.9. Amplifier applications
202.10. Wave shaping, Logic and data conversion
202.11. Digital logic
202.12. Control systems
202.13. Illumination and the National lighting code, National electrical code
202.14. Economic analysis
202.15. Systems of Units
202.16. Management theories
202.17. Engineering licensing

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION TECHNOLOGY – I -MAURICE L. LEWIS


HUTCHINSON & CO (PUBLISHERS) LTD 17-21, CONWAY STREET,
LONDON
2. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION TECHNOLOGY –II – MAURICEL LEWIS
HUTCHNSON & CO (PUBLISHERS) LTD 17-21 CONWAY STREET
LONDON
3. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION TECHNOLOGY - MAURICE L. LEWIS
HUTCHINSON & CO (PUBLISHERS) LTD 17-21 CONWAY STREET
LONDON
4. ELECTIRCAL INSTALLATION WORK – THE LAB T.G FRANCIS Revised by
R.J.COOKSLEY Longman scientific & technical Longman group U.K Ltd
Longman house, Burnt Hill Harlow, essex, CM2020JE,England
5. ELECTIRCAL INSTALLATION AND WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY –
VOLUME – I F.G. THOMPSON Longman scientific & technical Longman group
U.K Ltd Longman house, Burnt Hill Harlow, essex, CM2020JE,England
6. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION AND WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY –
VOLUME II F.G. THOMPSON Longman scientific & technical Longman group
U.K Ltd Longman house, Burnt Hill Harlow, essex, CM2020JE,England

134
7. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION TECHNOLOGY LONGMAN SCIENTIFIC &
TECHNICAL BY F.G. THOMPSON Longman scientific & technical Longman
group U.K Ltd Longman house, Burnt Hill Harlow, essex, CM2020JE,England
8. THE WHICH BOOK OF WIRING & LIGHTING MIKE LAWRENCE BY
TECHNICAL CONSULTANT TREVOR – E.MARKS A.R.T.C.S,C ENG M.IEEE
M.INST M.C,F.INST.D ANTHONY BYERS
9. BASIC ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION WORK BY TREVOR LINSLEY
ARNOLD A MEMBER OF THE HODDER HEAD LINE GROUP 338 EUSTON
ROAD, LONDON N.W1 3 BH
10. ADVANCED ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION WORK BY TREVOR LINSLEY
ARNOLD, a member of the Hodder Headline Group 338,Euston Road, London
NW 1 3BH
11. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS PRACTICE-1 (BOOK 1) BY H.A.MILLER
12. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS PRACTICE BOOK 2 BY H.A .MILLER
13. ADVANCED ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION BY ADDISON WESLWY
LONGMAN HIGHER EDUCTION
14. ELECTRICAL CRAFT PRINCIPLES VOLUME – I J.F WHITFIELDS PETER
PEREGRINOUS LTD SOUTHGAT HOUSE, STEVENAGE HERTS, SG1HQ,
UNITED KINGDOM
15. ELECTRICAL CRAFT PRINCIPLES VOLUME-2 J.F.WHITFIELDS SERVICE
EDITOR PEREGRINUS LTD SOUTHGATE, HOUSE, STEVENAGE HERTS,
SG1HQ, UNITED KINGDOM.

135
Part 3

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING

FOR ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

ENGINEERS

136
1. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM PRINCIPLES AND
CONCEPTS
2. ELEMENTS OP POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS - PRINCIPLES
AND CONCEPTS
3. POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWITCH GEAR -
PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
4. OVERALL SUMMERY OF ELECTRICAL POWER
GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, POWER
SYSTEM STABILITY, POWER QUALITY, POWER
ELECTRONICS – PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS
5. MODERN POWER STATION, CONVENTIONAL AND
RENEWABLE ENERGY CONSERVATION
6. EHV-AC AND HVDC TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING &
TECHNOLOGY
7. SWITCH GEAR & PROTECTION
8. POWER TRANSFORMERS AND SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS
9. ELECTRICAL MACHINERY
10. EHV SUBSTATION & EQUIPMENTS
11. ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION ENGINEERING & PRACTICE
(EHVAC, HVDC, TRANSFORMERS & SF6 INSULATED
SUBSTATIONS)
12. ELECTRICAL POWER CAPACITORS
13. ACCESSORIES FOR HIGH TENSION CAPACITORS
14. POWER CAPACITORS
15. ART AND SCIENCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING
16. POWER CABLES
a) ELECTRIC CABLES
b) POWER AND COMMUNITION CABLES-THEORY AND
APPLICATION
c) RATING OF ELECTRIC POWER CABLES

17. UNDER GROUND CABLE FAULT LOCATION


18. BUS BARS
19. RESERED FOR FUTURE
(OVERHEAD LINE DESIGN, INSTALLATION, OPERATION
AND MAINTENANCE)

137
1. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM PRINCIPLES AND
CONCEPTS

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Important of electrical energy
1.2 Generation of electrical energy
1.3 Source of energy
1.4 Comparison of energy sources
1.5 Units of energy
1.6 Relationship among energy units
1.7 Efficiency- calorific value of fuels
1.8 Advantages of liquid fuels over solid fuels- Advantages of
Gaseous fuels over liquid fuels

2. GENERATING STATION
2.1 Generating station
2.2 Steam power station
2.3 Hydro electric PowerStation & constituents of hydroelectric power
plant
2.4 Diesel power station
2.5 Nuclear power station
2.6 Gas turbine power station

3. VARIABLE LOAD DURATION CURVES


3.1. Structure of electric power system
3.2. Load curves- load duration curves
3.3. Important terms and factors; units generated per annum
3.4. Typical loads
3.5. Typical demand and diversity factors
3.6. Load curves and selection of generation units
3.7. Base load and peak load on power station
3.8. Methods of meeting the load
3.9. Interconnection of grid system

138
4. ECONOMICS OF POWER GENERATION
4.1. Economics of power generation
4.2. Cost of electrical energy
4.3. Expression for cost of electrical energy
4.4. Methods of determining depreciation
4.5. Importance of high load factor

5. TARRIF
5.1 Tariff
5.2. Desirable characteristics of a tariff
5.3. Types of tariff

6. POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT


6.1. Power factor
6.2. Power triangle
6.3. Disadvantage of low power factor
6.4. Causer of low power factor
6.5. Power factor improvement
6.6. Power factor improvement equipment
6.7. Calculation of power factor correction
6.8. Importance of power factor improvement
6.9. Most economical power factor
6.10. Meeting the increased KW demand on power station

7. SUPPLY SYSTEM
7.1. Electrical supply system
7.2. Typical A.C. power supply scheme
7.3. D.C and A.C transmission
7.4. Advantages of high transmission voltage
7.5. Various system of high transmission voltage
7.6. Comparison of conductor material in overhead system
7.7. Comparison of conductor material in underground system
7.8. Comparison of various systems of transmission
7.9. Elements of transmission line
7.10. Economics of power transmission
7.11. Economic choice of conductor size
7.12. Requirements of satisfactory supply

8. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINES

139
8.1. Main components of O.H line
8.2. Conductor materials
8.3. Line supports
8.4. Insulators
8.5. Potential distribution over suspension insulator string-string
efficiency- methods of improving string efficiency- important
points
8.6. Corona-factors affecting corona - important terms- advantages
and disadvantages of corona effect
8.7. Sag in overhead lines- calculation of sag- some mechanical
principles

9. ELECTRICAL DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINES


9.1. Constants of transmission line
9.2. Resistance of transmission line
9.3. Skin effect
9.4. Flux linkage- inductance of single phase overhead line-
inductance of three phase overhead line- concept of self GMD
and mutual GMD - inductance formulae in terms of GMD
9.5. Electrical potential- capacitance of single - phase overhead line-
capacitance of three-phase overhead line

10. Performance of transmission line.


10.1. Construction of overhead transmission line- important terms
10.2. Performance of single phase short transmission lines
10.3. Three phase short transmission lines
10.4. Effect of load p.f on regulation and efficiency
10.5. Medium transmission line
10.6. End condenser method
10.7. Normal T method
10.8. Normal л method
10.9. Long transmission line
10.10. Analysis of long transmission lines
10.11. Generalized constants of a transmission line
10.12. Determination of generalized constants for transmission lines

11. UNDER GROND CABLE


11.1. Underground cable- construction of cables- insulating material
for cables –classification of cables- cables for three phases
11.2. Laying of underground cable

140
11.3. Insulation of single core cable - dielectric stress in a single core
cable
11.4. Most economical conductor size in a cable
11.5. Grading of cables
11.6. Measurement of Cc and Ce
11.7. Current carrying capacity of underground cables
11.8. Thermal resistance- thermal resistance of dielectric of single core
cable-permissible current loading
11.9. Types of cable faults
11.10. Loop tests for location of faults in underground cables- Murray
loop test- vary loop test

12. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM- GENERAL


12.1. Distribution system- classification of distribution system
12.2. A.C distribution
12.3. D.C distribution
12.4. Methods of obtaining 3 wire D.C system
12.5. Overhead versus underground system
12.6. Connection schemes of distribution system
12.7. Requirements of a distribution system
12.8. Design considerations in distribution system

13. D.C DISTRIBUTION


13.1. Types of dc distribution
13.2. D.C distribution calculation
13.3. D.C distribution fed at one end (concentrated loading)
13.4. Uniformly loaded distribution fed at one end
13.5. Distribution fed at both ends (concentrated loading)
13.6. Distribution with both concentrated and uniform loading
13.7. Ring distributor
13.8. Ring main distributors with interconnection
13.9. 3 Wire D.C system
13.10. Current distribution in 3 wire D.C system
13.11. Balancers in 3 wire D.C system
13.12. Boosters

14. A.C DISTRIBUTION


14.1. A.C distribution calculation
14.2. Methods of solving A.C distribution problem
14.3. 3-phase unbalanced loads

141
14.4. Ground detectors

15. VOLTAGE CONTROL


15.1. Importance of voltage control
15.2. Location of voltage control equipment
15.3. Methods of voltage control
15.4. Excitation control
15.5. Tune regulator
15.6. Brown- bower regulator
15.7. Tap changing transformer
15.8. Auto transformer taps changing
15.9. Booster transformer
15.10.Induction regulators
15.11. Voltage control by synchronous condenser

16. INTRODUCTION TO SWITCHGEAR


16.1. Switchgear
16.2. Essential feature of switchgear
16.3. Switchgear equipment - bus bar arrangement- switchgear
accommodation
16.4. Short circuit (short circuited circuit) faults in a power system

17. SYMMETRICAL FAULT CALCULATIONS


17.1. Symmetrical faults on 3 phase system
17.2. Limitation of fault current
17.3. Percentage reactance
17.4. Percentage reactance and base KVA
17.5. Short circuit KVA
17.6. Reactor control of short circuit current
17.7. Location of reactors
17.8. Steps for symmetrical fault calculation

18. UNSYMMETRICAL FAULT CALCULATION


18.1. Unsymmetrical faults on 3-phase system
18.2. Symmetrical components methods
18.3. Operator ‘a’-symmetrical components in terms of phase
currents
18.4. Some facts about ‘Sequence circuits’
18.5. Sequence impedance
18.6. Sequence impedance of power system circuits

142
18.7. Analysis of unsymmetrical faults
18.8. Single line-to-ground fault
18.9. Line-to-line fault
18.10.Double line-to-ground fault
18.11. Reference bus for sequence networks

19. CIRCUIT BREAKERS


19.1. Circuit breakers
19.2. Arc phenomenon
19.3. Principle of arc extinction
19.4. Methods of arc extinction
19.5. Important terms
19.6. Classification of circuit breakers
19.7. Oil circuit breaker- air blast circuit breakers (now becoming
isolator)
19.8. SF6 circuit breaker
19.9. Vacuum circuit breaker
19.10. Switchgear components
19.11. Problem of circuit interruption
19.12. Resistance switching rating
19.13. Circuit breaker

20. FUSES
20.1. High voltage and low voltage fuses- desirable characteristics of
fuse elements-fuse element materials- important terms
20.2. Types of fuses- high voltage fuses- current carrying capacity of
fuse element- difference between a fuse and circuit breaker

21. PROTECTIVE RELAYS


21.1. Fundamental requirement of protective relaying
21.2. Basic relays
21.3. Electromagnetic attraction Relays
21.4. Induction Relays
21.5. Relay timing
21.6. Important terms
21.7. Time P.S.M curve-calculation of relay operating time
21.8. Function of relay types
21.9. Induction types over current relays
21.10. Induction directional power relays
21.11. Distance or impedance relays

143
21.12.Definite distance type impedance relays
21.13.Time-distance impedance relays
21.14. Deferential relays
21.15. Current differential relays
21.16. Voltage balance differential relays
21.17. Translay system
21.18. Types of protection

22. PROTECTION OF ALTERNATORS AND TRANSFORMERS


22.1. Protection of alternator
22.2. Differential protection of alternator
22.3. Modified differential protection for alternator
22.4. Ballard earth fault protection
22.5. Stator interturn protection
22.6. Protective system for transformers
22.7. Buchholz relay
22.8. Earth fault or leakage protection
22.9. Combined leakage, and overload protection
22.10.Applying circulating current system to transformer
22.11. Circulating current scheme for transformer protection

23 PROTECTIONS OF BUS-BARS AND LINES


23.1. Bus-bar protection
23.2. Protection of lines

144
2. ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR
POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES AND
CONCEPTS

1. GENERAL BASICS
1.1. The growth of electrical power system
1.2. Energy production
1.3. Transmission and distribution
1.4. Load studies
1.5. Economic load dispatch
1.6. Fault calculation
1.7. System protection
1.8. Stability studies
1.9. The power system engineering
1.10. Additional reading

2. BASIC CONCEPT
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Single sub script notation
2.3. Double sub script
2.4. Power in single phase A.C circuit
2.5. Complex power
2.6. The power triangle
2.7. Direction of power flow
2.8. Voltage and current in Ballard
2.9. Power in balanced three-phase circuit
2.10. Per unit quantities
2.11. Changing the base of per-unit quantities

3. SERIES IMPEDANCE OF TRANSMISSION LINES


3.1. Types of conductors
3.2. Resistance
3.3. Tabulated resistance values
3.4. Definition of inductance
3.5. Inductance of a conductor due to internal flux

145
3.6. Flux linkage between two points external to an isolated conductor
3.7. Inductance of a single-phase two wire line
3.8. Flux linkage of one conductor in a group
3.9. Inductance of a composite-conductor line
3.10. The use of tables
3.11. Inductance of three-phase lines with equilateral spacing
3.12. Inductance of three-phase lines
3.13. Bundled conductor
3.14. Parallel-circuit three-phase lines
3.15. Summary of inductance calculation for three-phase lines

4. CAPACITANCE OF TRANSMISSION LINES


4.1. Electrical field of a long straight conductor
4.2. The potential difference between two points of charge
4.3. Capacitance of a two wire line
4.4. Capacitance a three phase line with equilateral spacing
4.5. Capacitance of three-phase line with unsymmetrical spacing
4.6. Effect of earth on the capacitance of three phase transmission
lines
4.7. Bundled conductors
4.8. Parallel- circuit three-phase line
4.9. Summary

5. CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RELATION ON A TRANSMISSION


LINE
5.1. Regulation of lines
5.2. The short transmission line
5.3. The medium-length line
5.4. The long transmission line
5.5. Solution of the differential equation
5.6. The long transmission line hyperbolic form of equation
5.7. The long transmission line interpretation of the equation
5.8. Power flow through transmission line
5.9. Reactive compensation of transmission line
5.10. Transmission line - transient
5.11. Transient analysis traveling wave
5.12. Transient analysis-reflection
5.13. Direct current transmission
5.14. Summary

146
6. SYSTEM MODELLING
6.1. Construction of the synchronous machine
6.2. Armature reaction in a synchronous machine
6.3. The circuit model of a synchronous machine
6.4. The effect of synchronous machine excitation
6.5. The ideal transformer
6.6. The equivalent circuit of a practical transformer
6.7. The auto transformer
6.8. Per unit impedance in single-phase transformer circuit
6.9. Three-phase transformer
6.10. Per-unit impedance of three-winding transformer
6.11. The one-line diagram
6.12. Impedance and reactance diagram
6.13. The advantage of per-unit computation
6.14. Summary

7. NETWORK CALCULATION
7.1. Equivalence of source
7.2. Node system
7.3. Network portioning
7.4. node-elimination by matrix algebra
7.5. The bus admittance and impedance matrix
7.6. Modification of an existing bus impedance matrix
7.7. Direct determination of a bus impedance matrix
7.8. Summary

8. LOAD FLOW STUDIES AND LOAD-FLOW SOLUTION AND


CONTROL.
8.1. Data for load-flow studies
8.2. The gauss-seidel method
8.3. The Newton-raphson method
8.4. Digital-computer studies of load flow
8.5. The specification of bus voltages
8.6. Information obtained in a load-flow study
8.7. Numerical results
8.8. Control of power into a network

147
8.9. Capacitor banks
8.10. Control by transformer
8.11. Summary

9. ECONOMIC OPERATION OF POWER TRANSFORMER


9.1. Distribution of load between units within a plant
9.2. Transmission loss as a function of plant generation
9.3. Distribution of load between plants
9.4. A method of computing penalty factor and loss coefficient
9.5. Automatic generation control

10. SYMMETRICAL THREE-PHASE FAULTS


10.1. Transient in R.L series circuit
10.2. Short-circuit circuits and the reaction of synchronous machines
10.3. Internal voltage of loaded machine under transient condition
10.4. The bus impedance matrix in fault calculations
10.5. A bus impedance matrix equilateral network
10.6. Selection of circuit breaker

11.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
11.1. Synthesis of unsymmetrical phases from their symmetrical
components
11.2. Operations
11.3. The symmetrical components of unsymmetrical phases
11.4. Phase-shift of symmetrical components in star-delta transformer
banks
11.5. Power in terms of symmetrical components
11.6. Unsymmetrical series impedance
11.7. Sequence impedance and sequence network
11.8. Sequence network of unloaded generators
11.9. Sequence impedance of circuit element
11.10. Positive and negative sequence network
11.11. Zero sequence networks
11.12. Conclusion
12. UNSYMMETRICAL FAULTS
12.1. Single-line-to-ground fault on an unloaded generator
12.2. Line-to-line fault on an unloaded generator
12.3. Double line-to-ground fault on an unloaded generator
12.4. Unsymmetrical faults on power system
12.5. Single-line-to-ground fault on a power system

148
12.6. Line-to-line fault on a power system
12.7. Double line-to-ground fault on a power system
12.8. Interpretation of the interconnected sequence networks
12.9. Analysis of unsymmetrical faults using bus impedance matrix
12.10.Faults through impedance
12.11. Computer calculation of fault current

13. SYSTEM PROTECTION


13.1. Attribution of protection system
13.2. Zone of protection
13.3. Transducers
13.4. Logical design of relays
13.5. Primary and back up protection
13.6. Transmission line protection
13.7. Protection of power transformer
13.8. Relays hardware
13.9. Summary

14. A. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY


14.1. The stability problem
14.2. Rotor dynamics and the swing equators
14.3. Further considerations of the swing equation
14.4. The power angle equation
14.5. Synchronizing power coefficients
14.6. Equal area criteria of stability
14.7. Further applications of the equal-area criterion
14.8. Multi machine stability studies-classical representation
14.9. Step-to-step solution of swing curve
14.10.Digital computer program for transient stability studies
14.11. . Factor affecting transient stability

14. B. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY-ELEMENTS OF STABILITY


CALCULATION
14.1. The stability problem
14.2. The swing equation
14.3. Its solution
14.4. The equal area criterion for stability
14.5. Further consideration of the two machine system
14.6. Solution of faulted three-phase networks
14.7. Typical stability studies

149
14. C. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER
AND PROTECTIVE RELAY
14.1. Fault clearing-power circuit breakers
14.2. Fault-clearing-protective relays
14.3. The influence of swinging and out of step operation upon
protective relays
14.4. Rapid reclining

14. D. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE


14.1. Synchronous machines (reactance, resistance, and time
constant, sudden three-phase short circuit, mathematical theory,
vector diagrams) application to transient stability studies
saturation
14.2. Excitation system
14.3. Dampers winding and damping
14.4. Steady-state stability

15. OPTIMAL SYSTEM OPERATION


15.1. Introduction
15.2. Optimal operation of generator of a bus bar
15.3. Optimal unit commitment (UC)
15.4. Reliability consideration
15.5. Optimal generation scheduling
15.6. Optimal scheduling of hydrothermal system
15.7. Power system security

16. AUTOMATIC GENERATION AND VOLTAGE CONTROL


16.1. Introduction
16.2. Load frequency control (single area case)
16.3. Load frequency and economic dispatch control
16.4. Two area load frequency control
16.5. Optimal (two area) load frequency control
16.6. Automatic voltage control
16.7. Load frequency control with generation ratio constraints
(GRCs)
16.8. Speed governor dead band and its effect on AGC
16.9. Digital LF controllers

150
16.10.Decentralized control
17.POWER

3. POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION AND SWITCHGEAR


FOR POWER SYSTEM (PRINCIPLES AND
CONCEPTS)

PART I - PROTECTIVE RELAYS

1. Protective relays – introduction


1.1. Need for protective systems and basic idea of relay protection
1.2. Nature and causes of faults
1.3. Types of faults
1.4. Effects (consequence) of faults
1.5. Faults statistics
1.6. Evolution of protection relays
1.7. Zones of protection
1.8. Primary and back-up protection
1.9. Essential qualities of protection
1.10. Classification of protection relays
1.11. Classification of protection scheme
1.12. Automatic Re-closing
1.13. Basic principles of operation of protective system
1.14. Circuit transformer for protection
1.15. Potential transformer
1.16. Summation transformer
1.17. Phase-sequence current segregation network
1.18. Economics consideration
1.19. Basic terminology

2. OPERATION PRINCIPLE AND RELAY CONTRUTION


2.1. Electromagnetic relays
2.2. Thermal relays
2.3. Static relays
2.4. Microprocessor based protective relays

3. BASIC PRINCIPLE AND COMPONENTS OF PROTECTION


3.1. Method of discrimination

151
3.2. Derivation of a single-phase quantity
3.3. Components of protection

4. OPERATION PRINCIPLE AND CONTRUTION FEATURES OF


RELAYS
4.1. Relay classification
4.2. Principal types of electromagnetic relays
4.3. Theory of induction relay (torque)
4.4. Relay design and construction

5. RELAY APPILICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS


5.1. Introduction
5.2. General equations of comparator
5.3. General equations of electromagnetic relays
5.4. Over current relays
5.5. Instantaneous over current relays
5.6. Application of time-current relay
5.7. Directional relays
5.8. Distance relays
5.9. Differential relays

6. FEEDER PROTECTION
6.1. Introduction
6.2. over current protection
6.3. Distance protection
6.4. Pilot protection pilot relaying scheme
6.4.1. Wire (pilot) protection
6.4.2. Carrier current protection

7. APPARATUS PROTECTION (AC MACHINES AND BUS-ZONE


PROTECTION)
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Protection of Generators
7.3. Transformer protection
7.4. Motor protection
7.5. Bus-zone protection
7.6. Frame-leakage protection

8. MICROPROCESSOR AND INTERFACING

152
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Microprocessor
8.3. Input\output devices
8.4. Semiconductor memories
8.5. Single chip microcomputer
8.6. I\O ports and programmable peripheral interface
8.7. Programmable interval timer
8.8. IC elements and circuits for interfaces
8.9. A\D converter, analog multiplexer S\H circuit

9. MICROPROCESSOR-BASED PROTECTIVE RELAY


9.1. Introduction
9.2. Over current relay
9.3. Impedance relay
9.4. Directional relay
9.5. Reactance relay
9.6. Generalized mathematical expression for distance relay
9.7. Measurement of R and X
9.8. ‘Mho’ and ‘offset mho’ relays
9.9. Quadrilateral relays
9.10. Generalized interface for distance relays
9.11. Digital relaying algorithm
9.12. Differential equations technique
9.13. Discrete Fourier transforms technique
9.14. Walsh-handmade transformer technique
9.15. Rationalized handmade transformer technique
9.16. Remark of DC offset
9.17. Microprocessor implementation of digital distance relaying
algorithm

10. STATIC RELAYS


10.1. BASIC COMPONENTS OF STATIC RELAYS
10.2. COMPARATORS
10.2.1. Amplitude comparator
10.2.2. Phase comparator
10.2.3. Coincidence type phase comparator
10.3. BASIC STATIC RELAYS USED IN PROTECTIVE SCHEMES
11. AUTO-RECLOSING
12. TESTING AND MAINTANANCE OF PROTECTION GEAR

153
PART II

SWITCH GEAR-CIRCUIT BREAKER & FUSES

13. CIRCUIT BREAKERS


13.1. Theory
13.2. Classification of circuit breaker
13.3. Conventional circuit breakers which are obsolete now
(automatic switch, oil circuit breakers, air blast circuit breakers)

14. DEVOPEMENTS AND MODERN CIRCUIT BREAKERS


14.1. Modern trends
14.2. Vacuum circuit breakers
14.3. sulphur-hexa- fluoride (Sf6) circuit breakers
14.4. D.C. circuit breakers

15. FUSES
15.1. Definition and fuse characteristics
15.2. Types of fuse
15.3. Application of HRC fuses
15.5. Discrimination

16. CIRCUIT CONSTANTS IN RELATION TO CIRCUIT BREAKERS


16.1. Introduction
16.2. Circuit breaker rating
16.3. Circuit constant and circuit conditions
16.4. Restricting voltage transient
16.5. Characteristics of restricting voltage transient
16.6. Interaction between the breaker and circuit constant
16.7. Circuit chopping
16.8. The duties of switchgear

17. TESTING OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS

154
PART III

18. POWER SYSTEM TRANSIENT & PROTECTION AGAINST


OVERVOLTAGES
18.1. Introduction-types of system transient
18.2. Causes of over voltages
18.3.1. Lightning phenomenon
18.3.2. Wave shape of voltage due to lightning
18.4.1. Over voltage due to lightning
18.4.2. Traveling waves or propagation of surges
18.5. Klydono graph and magnetic link
18.6. Protection of transmission lines against direct lightning strokes
18.7. Protection of power system apparatus against surge protection of
stations and sub-stations from direct strokes
18.9.1. INSULATION CO-ORDINATION
18.9.2. BASIC IMPULSE INSULATION LEVEL (BIL)

155
3. OVER ALL SUMMARY OF ELECTRICAL POWER
GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION,
POWER SYSTEM, POWER ELECTRONICS, POWER
QUANLITY, POWER GENERATION

PA.E FOR POWER SYTEM PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS


1. WIND POWER
2. ADVANCED ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
(a) Storage systems
(i) Flywheel storage
(ii) Compression air energy storage
(iii) Super conducting magnetic energy storage
(iv) Battery storage

(b) Fuel cells


(i) Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM)
(ii) Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
(iii) Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC)
(iv) Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)
(v) Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)

Fuel cell can convert a remarkably high proportion of the


chemical energy in a fuel to electrical energy to with the
efficiencies approaching 60%, even without co-generation, fuel
cell power plants are nearly twice as efficient as conventional
power plants unlike large steam plants; the efficiency is not a
function of the plant size for fuel cell power plants ; small-scale
fuel cell plants are just as efficient as the large one whether they
operate at full load or not. Fuel cells contribute significantly to
the clean environment; they produce dramatically fewer
emissions, and their by-product is primarily hot water and carbon
dioxide in small amounts because of their modular nature, fuel
cells can be placed at or near load centers, resulting in saving of
transmission network expansion

156
3. Photovoltaic
(a) Types of PV cells
(i)Silicon cells
(ii)Gallium arsenide cells
(iii)Copper indium (gallium) diselenide cells
(iv)Cadmium telluride cells
(b) Applications
(i) utility-interactive PV system
(ii) Stand-alone PV system

PE.B. ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION CONVENTIONAL


METHODS
4. Hydro electric power generation
5. Synchronous machinery
6. Thermal generating plants
7. Distributed utilities

PE.C.TRANSFORMER
8. Theory and principle of transformers
9. Power transformers
10. Distribution transformers
11. Under ground distribution transformer
12. Dry type transformer
13. Step-voltage regulators
14. Reactors
15. Instrument transformers
16. Transformer connections
17. LTC control and transformer paralleling
18. Loading power transformers
19. Causes and effects of transformer sound levels
20. Electrical bushing
21. Load taps changers (LTCs)
22. Insulating media (transformer)
23. Transformer testing
24. Transformer installation and maintenance
25. Problem and failure investigation
26. Power transformer equipment standards

157
27. On-line monitoring of liquid immersed transformers

PE.D. TRANSMISSION SYSTEM


28. Concept of energy transmission and distribution
29. Transmission line structures
30. Insulators and accessories
31. Transmission line parameters
32. Insulated power cables for high-voltage applications
33. Transmission line parameters
34. Sag and tension of conductor
35. Corona and noise
36. Geomagnetic disturbances and impacts upon power system
operation
37. Lightning protection
38. Reactive power compensation

PE.E SUB STATION


39. Gas insulated substations
40. Air insulated substations
41. High-voltage switching equipments
42. High-voltage power electronics substation
43. Considerations in applying automation systems to electric utility
substations
44. Substation automations
45. Oil containment
46. Community considerations
47. Animal deterrents security
48. Substation grounding
49. Grounding and lightning
50. Seismic considerations
51. Substation for protection

PE.F.DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
52. Power system loads
53. Distribution system modeling and analysis
54. Power system operation and control

PE.G. ELECTRIC POWER UTLIZATION


55. Metering pf electric power and energy

158
56. Basic electric power utilization
57. Electric power utilization: motors

PE.H. POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION


58. The per unit system
59. Symmetrical components for power system analysis
60. Power flow analysis
61. Fault analysis in power system
(PEI) power system protection
62. Transformer protection
63. The protection of synchronous generators
64. Transmission line protection
65. System protection
66. Digital relaying
67. Use of oscillograph records to analysis system performance

PE.J. POWER SYSTEM TRANSIENTS


68. Characteristics of lightning strokes
69. Over voltage causes by direct lightning strokes
70. Over voltage causes by indirect lightning strokes
71. Switching strokes
72. Very fast transients
73. Transient voltage response of coils and winding
74. Transmission system transients
75. Insulation co-coordination

PE.K .POWER SYTEM DYNAMICS AND STABILITY


76. Power system stability
77. Transient and stability
78. Small signal stability and power system oscillations
79. Voltage stability
80. Direct stability methods
81. Power system stability controls
82. Power system dynamic modeling
83. Direct analysis of wide area dynamics
84. Power system dynamic security assessment
85. Power system dynamic interaction with turbine- generators

159
PE.L. POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
86. Energy management
87. Generation control: economic dispatch and unit commitment
88. Optimal power flow
89. Security analysis

PE.M.POWER SYSTEM PLANNING (RELAIBILITY)


90. Planning
91. Short-term load and price forecasting with artificial neutral
network
92. Transmission plan evaluation
93. Power system planning
94. Power system reliability
PE.N. POWER QUALITY
95. Introduction of power quality
96. Wiring and grounding for power quality
97. Harmonics in power system
98. Voltage sags
99. Voltage fluctuations and lamp flicker in power systems
100. Power quality monitoring

PE.N. POWER ELECTRONICS


101. INTRODUTION OF POWER ELECTRONICS
101.1. Application of power electronics
101.2. Power semiconductor devices (power diodes, thysistors, and
power transistors)
101.3. Control characteristics of power devices
101.4. Characteristics and specifications of switches
101.5. Types of power electronics circuits
101.6. Design of power electronics equipments
101.7. Determining of root-mean square value of waveform
101.8. Peripheral effects
101.9. Power modules
101.10. Intelligent modules
101.11. Power electronics journals and conference
102. POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
102.1. Power semiconductor diodes and circuits
102.2. Diodes rectifiers
102.3. Controlled and uncontrolled rectifiers
103. DC-DC converters

160
104. Inverters- pulse width modulator inverter
105. Thysistors
106. Resonant pulse inverters
107. Multilevel inverters
108. AC voltage controllers
109. Static switch
110. Flexible AC transmission system
111. Power supplies
112. DC drives
113. AC drives
114. Gate drive circuits
115. Protection of devices and circuits
116. Active filters for power conditioning

161
10. EHV SUBSTATION AND EQUIPMENT
ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION ENGINEERING &
PRACTICE, EHV AC, HVDC & SF6-GTS

10.1. Substation-design and engineering


10.2. System faults- their influence on substation equipments
10.3. Bus bar and supports
10.4. Circuit breaker, air- break isolators and earthing switches
10.5. Protection of EHV substation
10.6. Protection against over voltage and insulation co-ordination
10.7. Control room
10.8. Substation earthing
10.9. Tests - commissioning and maintenance

SUBSTATION DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT


10.10. General
10.11. Bus bar arrangement and layouts
10.12. Isolating switches
10.13. VTS AND CTS
10.14. Circuit breakers
10.15. Lightning arrestors and insulation coordination
10.16. Power transformer
10.17. Control and relay panels
10.18. Shunt capacitors
10.19. Earthing
10.20. Auxiliaries
10.21. Gas insulated substation (GTS)
10.22. Tables

ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION ENGINEERING & PRACTICE


EHV-AC, HVDC, & SF6-GTS
10.23. Electrical substation
10.24. Substation equipment
10.25. Types of substation and transformer substations
10.26. Bus bar system and layouts
10.27. Principles of sub station design

162
10.28. Substation structures
10.29. Bus bar, connectors and clamps
10.30. Design of bus bars
10.31. Insulators
10.32. Insulation coordination and surge arrestors
10.33. Sub station earthing system
10.34. Firefighting system in sub station
10.35. Power cables and control cables
10.36. Auxiliary supplies and battery system
10.37. Protection, control and automaton in sub station
10.38. Power line carrier communication and telecontrol
10
.39. Sf6 gas insulated sub stations (GTS) and gas insulated cables
10.40. HVDC sub stations
10.41. Engineering aspects of EHV-AC sub stations
10.42. Project planning, insulation, communication and safety
procedure

LAYOUT OF EHV SUB STATIONS


10.43. Introduction
10.44. Bus bar system
10.45. Principle of substation layouts
10.46. Influence of local conditions
10.47. Special features of layout of under ground sub station
10.48. Components
10.49. Inspection and maintenance facilities
10.50. Laying out a substation
10.51. Survey of layouts
10.52. World survey of substation design and practice
10.53. Future trends and prospects
10.54. Conclusion
10.55. Appendices
Preparation of charts to evaluate potential loss of circuits

163
11. TRANSFORMER

11.1. Introduction
11.2. Principle of transformer
11.3. Material used in transformer
11.4. Magnetic circuit
11.5. Winding and insulation
11.6. Voltage and insulation
11.7. Electromagnetic forces in power transformer
11.8. Cooling arrangements
11.9. Design procedure
11.10. Structural design of transformer tank
11.11. Transformer auxiliaries and oil system
11.12. Manufacturing and assembly
11.13. Drying and impedance
11.14. Testing of transformers and reactor
11.15. Standards on power transformers and reactors
11.16. Loading and life of transformer
11.17. Erection and commissioning
11.18. Transformer protection
11.19. Reactors
11.20. Rectifier transformers
11.21. Converter transformer
11.22. Controlled shunt reactors
11.23. Designing and manufacturing – A ‘short circuit proof’
transformer
11.24. High voltage condenser bushing
11.25. Computerization-A tool to enhance engineering productivity
11.26. Condition, monitoring, residual life assessment and
refurbishment
11.27. Transformer: an overview

TRANSFORMER
11.28. Fundamentals of transformer

164
11.29. The magnetic circuit
11.30. General types and characteristics
11.31. Transformer inquiries and tenders
11.32. Transformer efficiencies
11.33. The effect of load factor upon the value of transformer losses
11.34. Polyphase connection
11.35. The Scott and the balance connection
11.36. The interconnected star and the open delta connection
11.37. Multiwinding transformer
11.38. Transformer tapping
11.39. Voltage variation by tap changing
11.40. Performance and type tests
11.41. Phase representation of transformer test conditions
11.42. Impulse testing of transformer
11.43. Dispatch installation and maintenance of oil immersed
transformer, including drying out on SF6
11.44. Transformer oil
11.45. Parallel operation
11.46. The minimum total loss loading
Sub station transformers operation in parallel
11.47. Neutral point earthing
11.48. The three-phase interconnected star neutral earthing transformer
and static balancers
11.49. Transient phenomena occurring in transformer
11.50. Transformer protection
11.51. Failures and their causes
11.52. Effects of sustained abnormal operation conditions
11.53. The influence of transformer - connections upon third harmonics
voltage and currents
11.54. Electromagnetic forces in transformer winding
11.55. Transformer noise appendices

165
12. ELECTRICAL POWER CAPACITORS THE
BUILDING BLOCKS: CONTRUCTION MATERIAL

12.1. Introduction
12.2. Condenser tissue paper
12.3. Polypropylene film
12.4. Aluminum foil is other material of conductor
12.5. Impregnating liquids
12.6. Metallised dielectrically (DESIGN AND
MANUFACTURING)
12.7. Construction and design of a capacitor unit
12.8. The thermal design
12.9. Manufacture of capacitors - aluminum foil type
12.10. Fabrication of capacitors some detailed considerations
12.11. Partial discharge and dielectric breakdown of capacitors

TESTIG OF CAPACITORS
12.12. Testing of shunt power capacitors general requirement, safety
and routine tests
12.13. Testing of shunt power capacitors: type tests

SPECIAL PURPUSE CAPACITORS


12.14. DC and energy storage capacitors
12.15. Series capacitors, accessories and design
12.16. Capacitors for industrial arc furnaces
12.17. Harmonics
12.18. Surge protection capacitors in r-c combination
12.19. Capacitive voltage transformers (CVT)
12.20. The future of capacitor design and manufacture

166
13. ACCESSORIES FOR HIGH TENSION CAPACITOR
BANKS

13.1. Design and testing


13.2. Switching of capacitor: switching ON
13.3. Switching of capacitor: switching OFF
13.4. Practical aspects of capacitor switching surges
13.5. Discharging of capacitor banks
13.6. Reactors: types and design factors
13.7. Reactors: design and testing of circuit limiting reactors
13.8. Arc series reactors always necessary
13.9. High voltage circuit breakers: basic theory
13.10. High voltage circuit breaker: capacitor duty,
specifications, maintenance, testing
13.11. Electric fuse for capacitors: functioning of a fuse
13.12. Electric fuse for capacitors: requirement for capacitors-
external fuses
13.13. Surge arrestors
13.14. HT switches, isolators disconnectors
13.15. Instrument transformers: general, residual voltage
transformer
13.16. Instrument transformers and circuit transformers
13.17. Instrument transformers testing and maintenance
13.18. Control and protection of HT capacitor banks
13.19. Structures for HT capacitor banks
13.20. Thyristors- switching for HT and LT

167
14. POWER CAPACITORS

14.1. Fundamental principle and application of capacitors


14.2. Types of capacitors and methods of connection
14.3. Types of correction- general
14.4. Power factor improvement of induction motors, transformers and
privately owned generating plant
14.5. Capacitors for marine, mining and welding plant application
14.6. Capacitors for electric- arc and induction furnaces
14.7. Capacitors location and installation
14.8. Control gear and protection for power capacitors
14.9. Application of power capacitors to high voltage transmission and
distribution circuits
14.10. Harmonics and harmonics filters
14.11. High voltage capacitors-special applications
14.12. Low voltage capacitors-special applications

Appendices:
1. Power capacitors - standards
2. Glossary of terms relating to power capacitors
3. Useful formulae relating to power capacitors

168
15. ART AND SCIENCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING

15.1. The philosophy of protective relaying


15.2. Fundamental relay- operating principles and characteristics
15.3. Current, voltage, directional, current (or voltage), balance,
and differential relays
15.4. Distance relays
15.5. Wire pilot relays
15.6. carrier- circuit pilot and microwave pilot relays
15.7. Current transformers
15.8. Voltage transformers
15.9. Method of analyzing, generalizing and visualizing relay
response
15.10. AC generator and motor protection
15.11. Transformer protection
15.12. Bus protection
15.13. Line protection with over current relays
15.14. Line protection with distance relays
15.15. Line protection with pilot relays
15.16. Basic relay terminology
15.17. Introduction
15.18. Protective CTs and VTs
15.19. Relay components
15.20. Single input protection relaying
15.21. Two and multi input protection relaying
15.22. Directional relaying and its applications
15.23. Distance relays
15.24. Switched are polyphase distance relays
15.25. Generator and transformer protection
15.26. Bus zone protection
15.27. Motor protection
15.28. Wire pilot relaying
15.29. Carrier pilot relaying
15.30. Digital protection by power system protection

169
16. ELECTRIC CABLES

16.1. Theory, design and principle common to all cable types


16.2. Wiring cables, flexible cables, and cables for general
industrial use
16.3. supply distribution systems and cables
16.4. Transmission system and cables
16.5. Submarine distribution and transmission

Appendices:
1. abbreviations
2. symbols used
3. conversion and multiple metric unit
4. conductor data
5. industrial cables for fixed supply
6. cables for fixed installation in building
7. cables for fixed installation (ship wiring and offshore)
8. flexible cords and cables
9. industrial cables for special application
10.mining cables
11. mineral Insulated wiring
12. paper insulated cables
13. PVC insulated distribution cables
14. XLPE insulated distribution cables
15. PVC insulated house semi cables
16. self controller oil filled cables

POWER AND COMMUNICATION CABLES (THEORY AND


APPLICATION)

16.6. CABLES: A chronological perspective


16.7. Characteristics of cables materials
16.8. Design and manufacture of extended solid- dielectric power
distribution cables
16.9. Extended solid- dielectric power transmission cables
16.10.Design and manufacture of oil-impregnated paper insulated
power distribution cables

170
16.11. Low-pressure oil-filled power transmission cables
16.12.High-pressure oil-filled pipe-type power transmission cables
16.13.Voltage breakdown and other electrical tests power cables
16.14.Dissipation factor, partial- discharge, and electrical aging
tests on power cables
16.15.Field tests and accessories for polymeric power distribution
cables
16.16.Power cables system
16.17.Cryogenic and compressed gas insulated power cables
16.18.Underwater power cables
16.19.High voltage direct current cables
16.20.Telephone cables
16.21.Undersea coaxial communication cables
16.22.Terrestrial and underwater optical fiber cables

RATING OF ELECTRIC POWER CABLES (computation for


transmission, distribution and industrial applications)

16.23.Cable construction and installation


16.24.Modes of heat transfer and energy equation
16.25.Circuit theory network - analogy for thermal modeling
16.26.Rating equation- steady state conditions

EVALUTION OF PARAMETERS
16.27.Dielectric losses
16.28.Joules losses in the conductor
16.29.Joule losses in screen, sheaths, and pipes

ADVANCED TOPICS
16.30. SPECIAL CABLE INSTALLATIONS
1. Introduction
2. Energy conservation equation
3. Cables on riser poles
4. Cables in trays
5. Cables in burried troughs

16.31. AMPACITY COMPUTATIONS USING NUMERICAL


METHODS

171
1. Introduction
2. General characteristics of numerical methods
3. The finite-element methods
4. The finite-difference methods
5. Modeling and computation issues
16.32. ECONOMIC SELECTION OF CONDUCTOR IRON-
SELECTION
1. Introduction
2. Cost of joule losses
3. Effect of charging current - dielectric losses
4. Selection of the economic conductor size
5. Parameter affecting economic selection of cables size

Appendices:
a. Different methods
b. An algorithm to calculate the coefficient of the transfer
function equation
c. Digital calculation of quantities given graphically
d. Properties of air at atmosphere pressure
e. Calculation sheets for steady state cable ratings
f. Difference between graphs and IEC 287 methods

172
17. UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT LOCATION
GENERAL

17.1. What is a fault?


17.2. The proper approach
17.3. Diagnosis and location of fault
17.4. Pin pointing
17.5. Confirmation

SKILLS AND PROCEDURES


17.6. Route tracing
17.7. Cable identification
17.8. Electrical safety

SPECIALIZED AREAS
17.9. Power cables
17.10. Telecommunication system, information and control
system
17.11. under flow and under road, pipe and soil heating system
17.12. Lighting cables- motorway, highway, road and airfield
17.13. Optical fiber cable system
17.14. Information on cables

CHOICE OF EQUIPMENT
17.15. Factors
17.16. Choice

THE FUTURE OF FAULTY LOCATION


17.17. Solution, technology and known trends
17.18. Conclusion
17.19. Further reading

173
18. BUS BARS

1. Copper bus bar


2. Aluminum bus bar
3. Current caring capacity
4. Low voltage bus bars in bus ducts and LV switchgear
assembly
5. High voltage bus bars
6. Reactance of bus bars
7. Mechanical strength of bus bars to withstand short circuit
electro dynamic forces
8. Temperature rise & testing of temperature testing
9. Modern trends

174
19. RESERVED FOR FUTURE OVER HEAD LINE
DESIGN

1. Installation
2. Operation and maintenance

175
20. TESTING, COMMISSIONING OPERATION &
MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENTS

1. Over view of sub management and sub activities


2. SI units, electrical and conversion factors, dimensional
equations
3. Sub- transient, transient and steady state, inductance,
capacitance, reactance, reluctance, impedance, ohms law
4. Sinusoidal AC supply, 3phase AC system, neutral earthing,
equipments earthing, stator earthing system
5. System voltage levels, voltage variation, and voltage control
6. Safety management
7. Frequency control, load shedding, load curves, peak load
problem, energy storage and release, demand side
management
8. Electromagnetic energy phenomena and material for
electrical equipment
9. Power quality, testing of plant and equipment
10.Energy and power plants, Renewable and conventional
11.AC transmission, HVDC transmission and neutral ground
12.Distribution system (urban, rural industrial, residential)
13.Galvanized steel structures, towers and insulators for
transmission and distribution lines
14.Substation, equipment and bus bar system(conventional,
SF6,GIS, HVI)
15.Power cables
16.Low voltage, power control cables and fiber optic cables
17.Auxiliary supply system & Ups in electrical plants
18.Primary cell, storage batteries, charging & maintenance
19.Power transformers, distribution transformers and special
transformer
20.Current transformers
21.Voltage transformers
22.Switchgear, circuit breakers, contactors, metal clad
switchgear GIS,

176
23.Capacitor unit, capacitor banks
24.Protection, control & automation of electrical plant &
equipment
25.Rotary machines
26.Degree of protection, cooling system, enclosures and rating
of industrial rotating electrical machines
27.Selection of motors
28.Installation and commissioning of induction motors and
rotating electrical machines
29.Storage, installation and checks
30.Drying out of electrical rotating machines, insulation
resistance measurement
31.Mechanical maintenance of electrical rotating machines
32.Site testing & checking
33.Servicing and maintenance of motors
34.Maintenance management of rotating machines and
electrical preventive maintenance practice (EPMP)
35.Commissioning of synchronous generators
36.Synchronous motors and synchronous condensers,
commutators AC motors
37.Testing of synchronous machines
38.Protection and automation of synchronous generator and
motors (SCADA)
39.Automatic voltage regulators & excitation system of
synchronous generators
40.3phase induction motors
41.Testing of induction motors
42.Single-phase AC motors
43.AC commutator motors and special motors
44.Power Electronics
45.AC motor drives, DC motor drives, and electronic control,
programmable logic controllers(PLC) and microprocessor
based motor control
46.Electrical transportation and traction motors
47.Pumps, fans, blowers and compressors
48.Ventilation, air conditioning and refrigerators
49.Domestic installation and home appliances
50.Electrical heating and melting furnace, electrical schemes
productivity and energy conservation
51. Arc welding

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52. Electrical system in ships
53. Electrical system in aircraft
54. Illumination engineering
55. Electrochemistry and electrometallurgy
56. ISO9000, RVQI and field quality management system
57. Digital computers and microprocessors
58. Information technology (IT), application in electrical
systems & plants
59. Maintenance of electronic equipments
60. Reliability, availability and outage

178