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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Саратовский социально-экономический институт (филиал)


ФГБОУ ВПО «Российский экономический университет им.
Г.В. Плеханова»

Кафедра переводоведения и межкультурной коммуникации

Уфимцева О.А., Харитонова В.Ю.

ПЕРЕВОД В СФЕРЕ
МЕЖГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ

Учебное пособие для


студентов специальности
45.05.01 «Перевод и переводоведение»
Саратов
2015
УДК 81`25
ББК 81.07
У88

Уфимцева О.А., Харитонова В.Ю.


У88 Перевод в сфере межгосударственных отношений: учебное
пособие для студентов специальности 45.05.01 «Перевод и
переводоведение». – Саратов, 2015. – 172 с.
ISBN 978-4345-0328-0

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов,


обучающихся по специальности «Перевод и переводоведение», а также
для студентов, получающих дополнительную квалификацию
переводчика в сфере профессиональной коммуникации.
Пособие включает в себя девять разделов, содержащих 20 уроков,
которые охватывают собой тексты на политическую тематику,
международные документы обязательного характера (договоры,
соглашения, конвенции) и международные документы по итогам
международных конференций и переговоров (декларации,
коммюнике, протоколы, меморандумы). Пособие содержит материалы
о международных стандартах построения, специальной
терминологии, языковых штампах, клише и выражениях,
общепринятых сокращениях.
Учебное пособие ставит своей целью знакомство с основными
особенностями перевода в сфере межгосударственного общения,
овладение основными понятиями дипломатического перевода,
изучение закономерностей этики перевода в межгосударственной
сфере.

Рецензенты:
кандидат филологических наук, доцент Н.П. Тимофеева,
кандидат филологических наук, доцент Е.В. Волгина

Рекомендует к печати редакционно-издательский совет ССЭИ


РЭУ им. Г.В. Плеханова 02.06.2015 г.

2
УДК 81`25
ББК 81.07

ISBN 978-4345-0328-0 © О.А. Уфимцева,


В.Ю. Харитонова, 2015
© ССЭИ (филиал) РЭУ
им. Г.В. Плеханова, 2015

UNIT 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF INTER-


GOVERNMENTAL COMMUNUCATION

TEXT 1.

1. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на особенности


перевода иностранных вкраплений.

Diplomacy: origin, goals, use

Diplomacy is the established method of international discourse or


the art of managing international relations, chiefly by negotiation.
Historically, it meant the conduct of official relations between sovereign
states, usually bilateral. In the 20th century, however, diplomacy
expanded to cover summit meetings and other international
conferences, public and parliamentary diplomacy, the international
activities of supranational and subnational entities, unofficial
diplomacy by nongovernmental elements, and the work of international
civil servants.

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The term derives via French from the ancient Greek diploma,
composed of diplo, meaning «folded in two», and the suffix -ma, «an
object». The folded document conferred a privilege – often a permit to
travel – and the term came to denote documents whereby princes
granted such favours. Later it applied to all solemn documents issued
by chancelleries, especially those containing agreements between
sovereigns. Diplomacy became identified with international relations,
and the direct tie to documents lapsed (except in diplomatics, the
science of authenticating old official documents). In the 18th century,
the French term diplomate («diplomat» or «diplomatist») became
current for a person authorized to negotiate on behalf of a state.
Diplomacy is often confused with foreign policy; the terms are
related but not synonymous. Diplomacy is the chief instrument of
foreign policy, which is set by political leaders, though diplomats may
advise them. Foreign policy prescribes goals, strategies toward their
accomplishment, and the broader tactics to be used. Diplomacy carries
out the policy, using whatever tactics seem appropriate within the
prescribed guidelines. Its primary tool is negotiation, mainly by
accredited envoys (from the French envoye, «one who is sent»), though
political leaders also negotiate. Foreign policy is generally publicly
enunciated; most diplomacy is secret, though its results are usually
made public.
The political leaders, traditionally of sovereign states, who devise
foreign policy pursue the national interest (or what they perceive to be
the national interest), adjusting the policy to external conditions.
Primary responsibility for devising policy may lie with the head of state
or government, a cabinet or a nominally nongovernmental collective
leadership, the staff of the country's leader, or a minister who presides
over the foreign ministry, directs policy execution, supervises the
ministry's officials, and instructs the diplomats abroad. A foreign
minister has some latitude in making decisions within a general policy;
whether he is the final authority or must refer issues elsewhere
depends not only on the nature of the questions but also on the political
structure and circumstances as well as the locus of power within the
country and its leadership.

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The goal of diplomacy is to further the state's interests, which are
dictated by geography, history, and economics. Safeguarding its
independence, security, and integrity – territorial, political, and
economic – comes first. Preserving wide freedom of action to the state
is nearly as important. Beyond that, diplomacy seeks maximum national
advantage without using force and preferably without causing
resentment.
Diplomacy is an alternative to war to achieve a nation's goals. Its
weapon is words, and it often, but not always, seeks to preserve peace.
It usually, but not invariably, negotiates to achieve agreements and
resolve issues between or among states. Diplomacy may employ
coercive threats; its range, flexibility, and effectiveness are linked in
part to the relative power of the state or states using it. Diplomacy seeks
to strengthen the state, gaining advantages and allies while neutralizing
its opponents.
Thus, it tries to create goodwill toward the state it represents.
2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим
выражениям:
двусторонние отношения
предоставлять привилегию
канцелярия (посольства)
уполномочивать, давать право
(дипломатический) представитель
преследовать национальные интересы
министерство иностранных дел
свобода в принятии решений главный
рычаг власти территориальная
целостность прямая угроза союзник

3. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
diplomatics
international civil servant
on behalf of
accomplishment to
preside over policy
execution

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to further the state's interests
to safeguard to cause
resentment to resolve issues
between states

4. Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим


словосочетаниям:

1) international activities a) получить преимущество


2) foreign policy b) главная ответственность
3) to devise policy c) корректировать политику
4) to adjust the policy d) международная деятельность
5) to carry out policy e) устанавливать подлинность
6) to gain advantage f) внешняя политика
7) primary responsibility g) разрабатывать политику
8) to authenticate h) проводить политику
5. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,
расположенным в левой колонке:

1) to adjust a) to follow
2) invariably b) to verify
3) to strengthen c) to try to do
4) to enunciate d) constantly
5) to supervise e) to adapt
6) to authenticate f) to reinforce
7) to pursue g) to realize
8) to prescribe h) to declare
9) to perceive i) to control
10) to seek to do j) to advise

6. Переведите письменно на английский язык следующие


предложения. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
1. Вы не встретите никаких помех с нашей стороны при
исполнении выбранной политики.

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2. Франция и Германия подписали двустороннее
соглашение о предотвращении контрабанды наркотиков.
3. При демократическом устройстве главный рычаг власти
принадлежит народу.
4. Перед Европейским сообществом стоит задача
разработать курс внешней политики и политики безопасности.
5. Он твердо решил любой ценой проводить свою
политику.
6. Документы были признаны подлинными.
7. Компанию обвинили в том, что она не обеспечила
защиту для своих работников от опасных химикатов.
8. По всем меркам достижения последнего года
превосходны.
9. Мы не имеем права выдать Вам визу.
10. Полиция даже не попыталась решить эти проблемы.

7. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания:


relation n 1. обыкн. pl отношения; ~ s among states отношения
между государствами; mutually advantageous development of ~ s
взаимовыгодное развитие отношений; radical improvement in ~ s
коренное улучшение/оздоровление отношений; deterioration
in/of ~ s ухудшение отношений; to build ~ s on a long-term basis
строить отношения на долговременной основе; to conduce to ~ s
способствовать развитию отношений; to maintain ~ s
поддерживать отношения; to determine political ~ s among
nations определять международные политические отношения; to
expand ~ s расширять отношения; to cement ~ s укреплять
отношения; to enjoy/have good ~ s иметь хорошие отношения; to
further good ~ s способствовать/содействовать развитию
хороших отношений; to mar ~ s портить/омрачать отношения; to
strain ~ s сделать отношения напряженными; to exacerbate ~ s
обострять отношения; to damage/to harm/to poison/to upset ~ s
нанести ущерб отношениям; to threaten a rupture of ~ s угрожать
разрывом отношений; to disrupt ~ s порвать отношения; 2.
отношение; зависимость; связь; соотношение; bilateral ~ s
двусторонние отношения; consular ~ s консульские отношения;

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diplomatic ~ s дипломатические отношения; full diplomatic ~ s
дипломатические отношения в полном объеме; establishment of
diplomatic ~ s установление дипломатических отношений; formal
initiation of diplomatic ~ s формальное установление
дипломатических отношений; breaking off/rupture of
diplomatic/consular ~ s разрыв дипломатических/консульских
отношений; to normalize diplomatic ~ s нормализовать
дипломатические отношения; to suspend diplomatic ~ s
приостановить дипломатические отношения good neighborly ~ s
добрососедские отношения
international ~ s международные отношения; restructuring of
international ~ s перестройка международных отношений;
simulation of international ~ s моделирование/имитация
международных отношений; to shape the climate of international
~ s определять климат международных отношений interstate ~ s
межгосударственные отношения; multilateral ~ s
многосторонние отношения; power ~ s соотношение сил (на
рынке); press ~ s связь с прессой; ~ s of mutual trust отношения
взаимного доверия entity n 1. бытие. 2. нечто объективно, реально
существующее.
3. сущность, существо. 4. юр. субъект (права и т.п.) class entity
классовая сущность; collective entities коллективные
образования; international ~ субъект международных
отношений; juridical ~ юридическое лицо; political ~
политическая реальность/сущность; private ~ частное
юридическое лицо; separate legal ~ самостоятельное
юридическое лицо
envoy n 1. дипломатический представитель. 2. посланец. 3.
представитель, уполномоченный, доверенное лицо diplomatic
envoy дипломатический представитель; envoy
ceremonial представитель, посылаемый для выполнения
протокольных функций; Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary чрезвычайный посланник и полномочный
министр (сокращённо: посланник); ~ political политический
представитель; foreign ~ иностранный представитель; temporary
~ временный представитель; ~ of good will посланец доброй воли

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8. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие
словосочетания: межгосударственные отношения – juridical
entity – определять
климат международных отношений – diplomatic envoy –
иностранный представитель – relations of mutual trust –
самостоятельное юридическое лицо – multilateral relations –
чрезвычайный посланник и полномочный министр – international
entity – обострять отношения – взаимовыгодное развитие
отношений – private entity – посланец доброй воли – simulation of
international relations – коллективные образования – deterioration
in relations – разрыв дипломатических/консульских отношений –
envoy ceremonial – способствовать развитию отношений – to mar
relations – определять международные политические отношения
– temporary envoy – добрососедские отношения – to suspend
diplomatic relations – двусторонние отношения – to upset relations
– консульские отношения – to threaten a rupture of relations –
сделать отношения напряженными – to build relations on a long-
term basis – укреплять отношения

9. Переведите устно с листа следующие предложения.


Обратите особое внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания.
1. Diplomats hoped the meetings would build mutual trust and he
sent Evans as his personal envoy to discuss ways to mend relations
between the two countries.
2. A number of problems marred the smooth running of this event.
3. The meetings helped to cement Anglo-American relations and
displayed their readiness to co-operate with the new US envoy.
4. The consequent political scandal was exacerbated by attempts to
conceal the fact that senior White House officials had approved the
burglary.
5. Greece has established full diplomatic relations with Israel.
6. Church and empire were fused in a single entity.
7. That election was marred by massive cheating.
8. He questioned the government's commitment to peace and called
on it to make a gesture of good will.

9
9. Violence marred a number of New Year celebrations.
10. The incidents have not yet caused a major rupture in the
political ties between countries.
11. A UN official said aid programs will be suspended until
there's adequate protection for relief convoys.
12. Mr. Powell-Taylor says that depopulation exacerbates the
problem.
13. Once trust and confidence has been ruptured it can be
difficult to regain.
14. The interests of minorities will have to be safeguarded under
a new constitution.
15. The recent deterioration has been caused by an apparently
endless recession.
16. To attract investors, Panama has adjusted its tax and labour
laws.
17. Nothing would conduce more to the unity of the nation.
18. But the problems of inflation and unemployment still cause a
lot of resentment.
19. Reckless grants of land have aroused some ill-feeling that
will poison further talk of a common foreign policy.
20. The Minister may have exceeded the powers conferred on
him by Parliament.

10. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.


1. What changes did the concept of diplomacy undergo through
centuries?
2. What’s the origin of the word diplomacy? Has diplomacy
preserved any direct tie to documents?
3. What is the correlation between diplomacy and foreign policy?
4. What does a foreign minister’s latitude in making decisions
depend on?
5. What goal of diplomacy is considered to be primary?
11. Переведите письменно со словарем следующий
отрывок. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.

10
Роль дипломатии как инструмента внешней политики
государства всегда была исключительно велика. Деятельность
дипломатов в значительной степени влияла на судьбы государств.
Слово «дипломат» происходит от древнегреческого слова
«диплома». Буквально оно означало «удваиваю» (от способа,
которым они складывались). В Древней Греции послы,
направлявшиеся на переговоры, получали инструкции,
подтверждающие их полномочия. Последние предъявлялись
должностному лицу города, ведавшему дипломатическими
делами. Они представляли собой дощечки, сложенные вместе, и
назывались «диплома».
Историки XVI в. уверяли, что первыми дипломатами были
ангелы, так как они исполняли обязанности послов между небом
и землей. Эту точку зрения не могут разделять современные
историки.
На самом деле дипломатия появилась с возникновением
племен, первого обмена товарами, первыми проблемами,
связанными с территориями для охоты, земледелия, рыболовства
и их границами. Там, где появились первые группы людей,
возникли и проблемы взаимоотношений между ними,
разгорались споры, даже конфликты. Изначально они
разрешались силой, но очень быстро люди пришли к выводу о том,
что часто разногласия выгоднее разрешать не силой и
сражениями, а договоренностью, тем более что урегулирование
споров по принципу «кто силен, тот и прав» приводило не к
урегулированию, а к ожесточению и новым, более глубоким
конфликтам.
Споры возникали часто и внутри одного племени, семьи, и
люди постепенно научились их разрешать не оружием, а словом
старейшего, который играл роль своеобразного дипломата.
Однако это была «примитивная дипломатия», так называемая
дипломатия здравого смысла. Она в значительной степени
диктовалась вынужденным стремлением избежать племенных
войн, исход которых – победу или поражение – далеко не всегда
можно было предугадать.

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TEXT 2.

1. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на особенности


перевода имен собственных.

Diplomacy in ancient times

The late medieval view that the first diplomats were angels,
messengers from heaven to earth, is perhaps fanciful, but diplomacy
predates recorded history. Early tribes negotiated about marriages,
trade, and hunting. Early societies had some attributes of states, and the
first international law arose from intertribal relations. War was
uncommon, but defensive alliances existed. Messengers and envoys
were accredited, sacred, and inviolable; they usually carried some
emblem, such as a message stick, and were received with elaborate
ceremonial. Women were often sent as envoys because of their
mysterious sanctity and their use of natural wiles to prevail. As peace
negotiations were most important, women were assigned this task.
Knowledge of the diplomacy of early peoples depends on sparse
evidence. The most consistent evidence of early diplomacy has been
found among eastern Mediterranean peoples. Records of treaties
between Mesopotamian city-states date from 2850 BC. Thereafter,
Akkadian (Babylonian) became the first diplomatic language, serving as
the international tongue of the Middle East until it was replaced by
Aramaic. The oldest treaties of which full texts survive, from about 1280
BC, were between Ramses II of Egypt and Hittite leaders. There is much
evidence of Assyrian diplomacy in the 7th century and of the relations
of Jewish tribes, found chiefly in the Bible, with each other and other
peoples.
But the tradition leading to the present world system of
international relations began in ancient Greece. Greek diplomacy took
many forms. Heralds were the first diplomats and were protected by
the gods with an immunity that other envoys lacked. Their protector
was Hermes, messenger of the gods, who became associated with all

12
diplomacy. The herald of Zeus, he was noted for persuasiveness and
eloquence but also for knavery, shiftiness, and dishonesty, imparting to
diplomacy a reputation that its practitioners are still trying to live
down.
Because they were inviolable, heralds were the favoured channels of
contact in wartime. They preceded envoys to arrange a safe passage.
Heralds traveled alone, envoys in a small group, so that each could
watch the others to ensure loyalty. Envoys were at least 50 years old
and politically prominent. As they were to sway foreign assemblies,
they were chosen for their oratorical skills.
The Greeks developed archives, a diplomatic vocabulary, principles
of international conduct, elements of international law, and many other
devices used today. Their missions included attachés that were immune
in their official correspondence and personal property. Truces,
neutrality, commercial conventions, conferences, treaties, and alliances
became the norm. The 4th century saw eight Greco-Persian congresses
in 25 years; at these even the smallest states had the right to be heard.
In short, there existed an international system of multilateral
diplomacy.
Rome inherited what the Greeks devised. As it expanded, it
negotiated, often with conquered areas, to which it granted partial
selfgovernment by treaty. One Roman contribution to diplomacy was
the creation of sophisticated archives staffed by trained archivists.
Paleographic techniques were developed to decipher and authenticate
ancient documents. Other archivists specialized in diplomatic
precedents and procedures, which became formalized. For centuries
these activities were the major preoccupation of diplomacy.

2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
оборонительный/военный
союз неприкосновенный
международный договор
убедительность красноречие
плутовство
уклончивость; непостоянство
искупить, загладить

13
привилегированный
перемирие

3. Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим


словосочетаниям и выучите их наизусть: attributes of states to
assign the task use of natural wiles mysterious sanctity herald
politically prominent to impart a reputation multilateral diplomacy
partial self-government

4. Напишите все возможные производные от следующих


слов:
attribute
defensive
accredited
sacred
persuasiveness
eloquence
inherit

5. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,


расположенным в левой колонке:

1) eloquent a) evasiveness
2) to predate b) swindle
3) to sway c) to confer
4) knavery d) to precede
5) to impart e) scanty
6) shiftiness f) expressive
7) sparse g) to influence

6. Переведите письменно, используя данные слова,


следующие предложения. Обсудите различные варианты
перевода: to breach to be submitted to sth to ratify genuine to appoint
monetary to expire supervisory authority to maintain to sway:
а) более 60 стран должны ратифицировать конвенцию по де-
нежным вопросам;

14
б) 27 стран принимают участие в многосторонних переговорах;
в) правительство еще не назначило дипломатического пред-
ставителя в этот район;
г) королева сохраняла политический нейтралитет на протя-
жении своего правления;
д) они возобновили войну, как только срок действия переми-
рия истек;
е) документы признаны подлинными и должны быть пред-
ставлены на рассмотрение в орган надзора;
ж) эта практика нарушает конвенцию об урегулировании по-
граничных вопросов;
з) его речь оказала влияние на избирателей и доказала, что он
действительно обладал даром красноречия.

7. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания:


convention n 1. конвенция, договор, соглашение; to accede to a
~ присоединяться к конвенции; to adhere to a ~ придерживаться
соглашения; to put a ~ into effect вводить конвенцию в силу; to
ratify a ~ ратифицировать конвенцию; to secede/withdraw from a
~ выходить из конвенции; to work out a ~ выработать соглашение;
to denounce a ~ отказаться от участия в конвенции; to disregard a
~ не считаться с конвенцией/не выполнять конвенцию; to enter
into a ~ заключать конвенцию; to implement the provisions of a ~
выполнять положения конвенции; application of a ~ применение
конвенции; execution of a ~ выполнение/соблюдение конвенции;
infringement/violation of a ~ несоблюдение/нарушение
конвенции; ~ on adjustments of frontiers конвенция об
урегулировании пограничных вопросов; article of ~ статья
конвенции; consular ~ консульская конвенция; economic ~
соглашение по экономическим вопросам; international ~
международная конвенция; general international ~ обычная
международная конвенция; particular international ~
специальная международная конвенция; monetary ~ конвенция
по денежным вопросам; multilateral ~ многосторонняя
конвенция. 2. собрание, съезд. 3. ист. конвент

15
inviolability n незыблемость, нерушимость;
неприкосновенность; to benefit from/to enjoy ~ пользоваться
неприкосновенностью; to be entitled to ~ иметь право на
неприкосновенность; to lose privileges of ~ терять право на
неприкосновенность; ~ extends to… неприкосновенность
распространяется на...; ~ of borders нерушимость границ; ~ of the
person неприкосновенность личности; ~ of envoys
неприкосновенность дипломатических представителей; ~ of
premises неприкосновенность помещений дипломатических
представительств inviolable a незыблемый, нерушимый;
неприкосновенный ~ law незыблемый закон; ~ oath/vow
нерушимая клятва negotiation n часто pl переговоры; обсуждение
условий; веде-
ние переговоров; by (means of) ~ s путем переговоров; turning
point in the ~ s решающий момент в переговорах; content, timing
and outcome of ~ s содержание, сроки и результаты переговоров;
~ s between the armed forces of belligerents переговоры между
вооруженными силами воюющих сторон; ~ s between the
conflicting parties переговоры между спорящими сторонами;
effect of ~ s результаты переговоров; to carry on/to conduct/to
hold/to pursue ~ s вести/проводить переговоры; to break off ~ s
прекратить переговоры; to defer ~ s отложить переговоры; to drag
out/to hold up ~ s затянуть переговоры; to resume ~ s
возобновлять переговоры; to achieve a breakthrough in ~ s
сдвинуть переговоры с мертвой точки; to suspend ~ s временно
прервать переговоры; to urge ~ s настаивать на проведении
переговоров; to lead ~ s into a blind alley завести переговоры в
тупик arduous ~ s тяжелые/трудные переговоры; bilateral ~ s
двусторонние переговоры; contract ~ s обсуждение условий
контракта; disarmament ~ s переговоры по разоружению; full-
scale ~ s полномасштабные переговоры; intricate ~ s сложные
переговоры; multilateral ~ s многосторонние переговоры; stalled
~ s переговоры, зашедшие в тупик; tripartite ~ s трехсторонние
переговоры

16
8. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие
словосочетания:
неприкосновенность дипломатических представителей –
fullscale negotiations – вводить конвенцию в силу – inviolability of
premises – консульская конвенция – to pursue negotiations – не
выполнять конвенцию – to suspend negotiations – незыблемый
закон – inviolability of borders – соблюдение конвенции –
disarmament negotiations – трудные переговоры – to enjoy
inviolability – переговоры, зашедшие в тупик – inviolable vow –
сдвинуть переговоры с мертвой точки – monetary convention –
сложные переговоры – to be entitled to inviolability – трехсторонние
переговоры – to hold up negotiations – настаивать на проведении
переговоров – general international convention – переговоры между
вооруженными силами воюющих сторон – inviolable oath –
присоединяться к конвенции – content, timing and outcome of
negotiations – несоблюдение конвенции – article of convention –
решающий момент в переговорах – to adhere to a convention – to
implement the provisions of a convention

9. Переведите устно с листа следующие предложения.


Обратите особое внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания.
1. The next government will play an energetic role in seeking
multilateral nuclear disarmament.
2. After 10 years of negotiation, the Senate has ratified the strategic
arms reduction treaty.
3. The country appears to be violating several articles of the
convention. The outcome depends on conditions as well as how events
unfold.
4. He was confirmed as the new EC peace envoy two months before
the deterioration of the international situation.
5. Many want to abandon the multilateral trade talks in Geneva. The
first round of multilateral trade talks has lurched between hope and
despair.
6. Parliament has passed a motion recognising the inviolability of the
country's current border with Poland.
7. A full-scale debate is under way on what ails the industry.

17
8. The goal would be to increase political stability in the region and
accelerate the pace of nuclear disarmament.
9. The game had a single inviolable rule: obstacles were to be
overcome, not circumvented.
10. Such an enterprise would be in the highest degree arduous
and hazardous.
11. Tripartite meeting between Government ministers, trades
union leaders and industrialists was held in belligerent manner.
12. He remained a conciliator among conflicting parties.
13. Mr Stricker is in close touch with the Foreign Ministry and
the Chancellery.
14. Commitments have been made with very little intention of
carrying them out.
15. Federal Trade Commission is the US government agency
established to promote free and fair competition in interstate
commerce and to prevent unfair methods of competition.

10. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.


1. What were the earliest attributes of states traced in the history?
Who were the first accredited envoys?
2. What was the first diplomatic language?
3. What characteristics were imparted to diplomats due to their
protector?
4. Who was assigned to carry out diplomatic tasks in ancient Greece?
In what way did the Greeks contribute to establish multilateral
diplomacy?
5. How did the Romans determine the major preoccupation of
diplomacy?
6. What personal and professional skills, in your opinion, are
indispensable for a successful diplomatic career?
7. Comment on the quotation: The chief distinction of a diplomat is
that he can say no in such a way that it sounds like yes. (L. Pearson)
8. Can you think of some examples when the word diplomacy
acquires negative connotations?

18
11. Переведите письменно со словарем следующий
отрывок. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
Дипломатия Греции, Рима и затем Византии оказала большое
влияние на мировую дипломатию в целом. Дипломатии Греции
известна своим демократическим, открытым, публичным
характером, нередко, однако, связанным с обманом.
Традиции обмана и коварства в дипломатии перешли от греков
к римлянам. Рим был «сверхдержавой», и его дипломатия взяла на
вооружение использование силы против более слабого
противника, метод разжигания раздоров между соседями.
Принцип «разделяй и властвуй» стал ее основным. Обман в
дипломатии стал нормой, а выгода во что бы то ни стало –
главным кредо. При этом даже внешне положительные начинания
Рима использовались им в корыстных целях. Разработка им
важнейших постулатов международного права, в том числе таких,
как pacta sunt servanda («договоры должны соблюдаться»), была
направлена на усиление могущества Рима и ослабление его
партнеров, так как договоры, заключенные римской
дипломатией, были выгодны Риму, ослабляли и без того слабых
его партнеров.
Византия взяла много отрицательного из опыта греческой и
римской дипломатии и передала в наследство Венеции хитрость,
обман, использование силы против слабого партнера. Плохую
славу дипломатии добавил и Никколо Макиавелли, политик,
который не брезговал никакими, даже самыми низкими,
приемами, нередко отступая от принципа «договоры должны
соблюдаться».
Взгляды Н. Макиавелли оказали значительное влияние на
дипломатов западных стран, которые, часто не признаваясь в
этом, упорно следовали его советам. Позднее откровенный обман
и подкуп исчезли из дипломатической практики, что
свидетельствовало о зрелости дипломатии и в значительной
степени было присуще классической французской школе
дипломатии, которая начала складываться в XVII – XVIII вв. и
получила потом распространение по всему миру.

19
Французская дипломатия основывалась на твердом убеждении
в том, что дипломатия не должна делаться подпольно, как это
часто делалось раньше, в особенности в Средние века.
Дипломатия должна основываться на доверии: коварство
выступает лишь доказательством незначительности ума и
показывает, что дипломат не может добиться успеха честными и
разумными методами.

UNIT 2. HISTORY OF DIPLOMACY

TEXT 3.

1. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на особенности


перевода географических названий.

Diplomacy in the middle ages

When the Western Roman Empire fell, its eastern half continued
another thousand years as the Byzantine Empire. Its court at
Constantinople, to which the papacy sent envoys from the mid-5th
century, had a department for foreign affairs and a bureau to deal with
foreign envoys.
Byzantium had the first professional diplomats. They had
instructions and were enjoined to be polite, to entertain as lavishly as
funds permitted, and to sell Byzantine wares to lower their costs and
further trade. From the 12th century they were expected to gather
information about conditions in the host states. As Byzantine strength
waned, these reports enabled the emperors to play states off against

20
each other. Thus began the traditions of diplomats as reporters and of
using a skillful and subtle diplomacy to compensate in part for a lack of
real power.
As Byzantium crumbled, the West revived. Indeed, in its period of
greatest weakness, the Roman Catholic Church conducted an active
diplomacy, especially at Constantinople and in its 13th-century struggle
against the Holy Roman emperors.
As trade revived and horizons widened, greater flexibility was
needed for negotiations at a distance; thus, the concept of a procurator
with plena potens, or full powers was applied to diplomacy. This
plenipotentiary could negotiate and conclude an agreement, though
could not represent his principal ceremonially. Procurators, who had a
diplomatic power of attorney, were common in the 12th century.
Thereafter, their discretionary authority was restricted.
At the end of the 12th century the term ambassador appeared,
initially in Italy. Derived from the Medieval Latin ambactiare («to go on
a mission»), it described various envoys, not always agents of
sovereigns, and had letters of credence, which a procurator did not
need, but an ambassador could not commit his principal unless granted
plenipotentiary authority.
The Crusades and the trade revival increased contact with the East.
Its location had afforded Venice early ties with Constantinople; thus it
absorbed the Byzantine diplomatic system. From Byzantium, Venice
learned to give envoys written instructions, a practice otherwise
unknown in the West, and to establish a systematic archive. Later, as
the Crusades and trade increased its wealth and power, Venice
developed an extensive diplomacy on the Byzantine model. Venetian
diplomacy was copied by other Italian city-states and later by France
and Spain.

2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
папство, папский престол
иностранный
представитель
предписывать идти на
убыль, ослабевать
21
возрождать; возобновлять
полномочия
полномочный представитель адвокат
неограниченные полномочия
посол первоначально
верительные грамоты
крестовые походы

3. Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим


словосочетаниям:
1) discretionary power; а) тонкая дипломатия;
2) host state; б) оказывать щедрый прием;
3) subtle diplomacy; в) оживление торговли;
4) to entertain lavishly; г) дискреционное полномочие; 5)
trade revival; д) государство пребывания.

4. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть: to play states off against
each other to grant plenipotentiary authority to compensate for a lack
of real power to represent one's principal to restrict the authority to
revive trade
to absorb the diplomatic system

5. Переведите письменно на английский язык следующие


предложения. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
1. Когда Исландия признала Литву независимым государством,
Советский Союз отозвал своего посла в знак протеста.
2. Дипломатический представитель ООН был направлен для
обсуждения с правительством проблемы беженцев.
3. Любую сделку нужно организовывать при помощи
контрактов и поверенных (в делах).
4. Послы и полномочные представители низко склонились при
появлении императора с императрицей.
5. Он принял на себя полномочия над операциями за рубежом.

6. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания:

22
ambassador n 1. посол. 2. посланец, вестник. 3. посредник,
представитель; ~ at large посол по особым поручениям; ~ to a
country посол в какой-л. стране; A. Extraordinary and
Plenipotentiary чрезвычайный и полномочный посол; good will ~
посланец доброй воли; ordinary ~ постоянный посол; United
Nations A. постоянный представитель (государства) при ООН; ~ of
peace посланец мира discretion n 1. свобода действий; право
свободно решать, вы-
бирать; полномочия; усмотрение at (smb.'s) ~ по (чьему-л.)
усмотрению; на (чье-л.) усмотрение 2. юр. дискреционное право;
усмотрение; at/within the ~ по усмотрению суда; осуществлять
дискреционное право/дискреционную власть; 3. благоразумие,
осмотрительность, осторожность; large ~ широкие полномочия;
pricing ~ свобода ценообразования diplomacy n 1. дипломатия;
instruments of ~ дипломатические средства; to influence ~ влиять
на ход дипломатических переговоров; 2. дипломатичность, такт;
to deal with the situation with great ~ очень дипломатично
справиться со сложившейся ситуацией; behind-the-scene ~
кулуарная/закулисная дипломатия; deterrence ~ дипломатия
сдерживания/устрашения; low-key ~ «тихая» дипломатия
(дипломатические шаги, не освещаемые СМИ); patient ~
дипломатия выдержки; peace-making ~ миротворческая
дипломатия; short-sighted ~ недальновидная дипломатия; shuttle
~ челночная дипломатия (ведение переговоров между
противоборствующими сторонами при помощи посредника);
turtle-pace ~ пассивная дипломатия

7. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие


словосочетания: миротворческая дипломатия – at (smb.'s)
discretion – посол по
особым поручениям – behind-the-scene diplomacy – широкие
полномочия – good will ambassador – чрезвычайный и
полномочный посол – shuttle diplomacy – постоянный посол – to
influence diplomacy – пассивная дипломатия – pricing discretion –
постоянный представитель (государства) при ООН – patient
diplomacy – посол в какой-л. стране – low-key diplomacy – посланец

23
доброй воли – short-sighted diplomacy – дипломатия сдерживания
– instruments of diplomacy – недальновидная дипломатия –
ambassador of peace – to deal with the situation with great diplomacy
– закулисная дипломатия – Ambassador Extraordinary and
Plenipotentiary

8. Переведите устно с листа следующие предложения.


Обратите особое внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания.
1. Britain's new ambassador to Lebanon has presented his
credentials to the President.
2. Their economy crumbled under the weight of United Nations
sanctions. There were no nonsensical promises about reviving the
economy.
3. She became Her Britannic Majesty's new ambassador
plenipotentiary to the Republic of Lebanon.
4. Trade talks are discussions on the arrangements for international
trade. These may be conducted bilaterally between countries, by
limited groups of countries, or on a world scale. Bilateral talks are
common, in efforts to resolve minor disputes.
5. Edwin H. Conger was envoy extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary.
6. Certain information is restricted to government officials.
7. He served as an ambassador at large in the Reagan Administration.
8. The ambassador called the report deceitful and misleading.

9. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.


1. What promoted the appearance of the first professional
diplomats? How was the range of their duties being gradually
expanded?
2. What diplomatic function did a procurator perform? What extra
powers a procurator with plena potens was conferred with?
3. When did the term ambassador appear? What differentiated an
ambassador from procurators and other envoys?
4. What underlies Italian and French diplomatic system?

24
10. Переведите письменно со словарем следующий
отрывок. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
При византийском дворе всегда можно было видеть пеструю
толпу посольств со всех концов Европы, Азии, Африки в
разнообразных национальных костюмах, слышать все языки
мира. Ведомство иностранных дел, которое находилось под
управлением первого министра, обладало огромным штатом,
выработало сложный порядок приема послов, рассчитанный на
то, чтобы поразить их воображение и в самом выгодном свете
представить мощь Византии. Прием послов был призван лишить
их возможности видеть или слышать слишком много, разузнавать
слабые стороны империи.
Послами, как правило, были люди высокого ранга.
Дипломатические поручения открывали путь к самым высоким
почестям. Посол должен был представить верительную грамоту.
Сохранились тексты таких грамот. Обычно они были
переполнены многоречивыми, цветистыми и льстивыми
формулами, сообщали имя посла и очень кратко говорили о целях
посольства, ссылаясь на то, что у посла имеется соответствующая
инструкция для ведения переговоров.
Византийским послам предписывались определенные правила
поведения в чужих странах. Посол должен был проявлять
приветливость, щедрость, хвалить все, что увидит при чужом
дворе, но так, чтобы это не было в укор византийским порядкам.
Ему предписывалось не вмешиваться во внутренние дела чужих
государств. Последнее предписание, впрочем, не соблюдалось.
Византийские послы вели тайные интриги при чужих дворах,
конечно – с ведома своего правительства. Заключенный послами
договор считался действительным лишь после его ратификации
императором.

TEXT 4.

1. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на особенности


перевода слов иностранного происхождения

25
Diplomacy in modern times

Advances in communication and transportation in the 19th and 20th


centuries changed the conduct of diplomacy. Ambassadors
communicated more frequently with political leaders in the capital, and
politicians themselves took an increasingly active role in diplomatic
negotiations. In the late 20th century summitry and other international
conferences brought further involvement from politicians in the
diplomatic process.
Diplomatic venues multiplied as well. The League of Nations and its
successor, the United Nations (UN), were the most prominent
international platforms, but bodies such as the European Communities,
the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the
Organization of African Unity also received envoys from interested
states.
The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, adopted in 1961 by
the UN Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities,
recognized types of diplomatic agents and the agreed protocols from
which they operate. It specified three classes of heads of missions:
1) ambassadors (or in case of the Vatican – nuncios);
2) envoys, ministers (or – internuncios);
3) charges d'affaires. The first two are accredited to heads of
state, the third to ministers of foreign affairs. These representatives,
along with members of their staffs and the consular corps, constitute
a country's Foreign Service. Their primary functions include
representing the sending state in the host state, protecting the
interests of the sending state, negotiating on its behalf, gathering
information on conditions and developments in the host country,
and promoting friendly relations between the two countries.
Emissaries of the first two classes are usually titled «extraordinary
and plenipotentiary». Special full powers are issued to enable an envoy
to sign a treaty. Precedence within each class is fixed by the date of
presentation of credentials; otherwise there is no real distinction
among them. The senior ambassador by length of service is doyen,
convening and speaking for the local diplomatic corps as needed.

26
The entire body of diplomats accredited to and resident at a court or
capital is called the diplomatic corps. Apart from the heads of missions
the diplomatic corps includes also the diplomatic personnel headed by
them, i.e. counsellors, minister-counsellors, first, second, third
secretaries and attachés, and those persons who enjoy diplomatic
status: trade representatives and their deputies, military, air force, and
naval attachés and their assistants appointed to diplomatic posts
(usually a counsellor or attaché), various kinds of experts on economic
relations, culture and agriculture, etc. The diplomatic corps includes
also family members of the above-mentioned officials.
All heads of mission receive the same privileges and immunities,
many of which their aides also enjoy. Diplomatic immunity probably
began when prehistoric peoples first realized that eating the envoy was
not conducive to agreement. Thus, diplomatic agents and their families
are inviolable, not subject to arrest or worse, even in wartime. Their
homes are also inviolable, and they are largely outside the criminal and
civil law in the host state – even as a witness – though many missions
waive some exemptions, especially for parking tickets. In the host state,
the foreign envoy is free of taxes and military obligations. His personal
baggage and household effects are not inspected by the host state or
third states crossed in transit, in which he also has immunity.
The physical property of the mission enjoys immunities and
privileges as well. The flag and emblem of the sending state may be
displayed on the chancellery and on the residence and vehicles of the
head of mission. The mission's archives and official correspondence are
inviolable even if relations are severed or war is declared; it is entitled
to secure communication with its government and its other missions.
The diplomatic bag and couriers are inviolable; wireless facilities are
either afforded or installed at the mission with the host state's consent.
The head of mission's residence and the chancellery (usually now
called the embassy) are extraterritorial. The legal fiction is maintained
that these premises are part of the sending state's territory, not that of
the host state; even local fire fighters cannot enter «foreign territory»
without consent. For this reason, political opponents of harsh regimes
seek asylum in embassies and legations. Although widely practiced, the

27
right of political asylum is not fully established in international law
except in Latin America.

2. Соотнесите названия следующих международных


организаций с их функциями. Переведите устно на русский
язык названия и функции следующих организаций:
● The League of Nations;
● The United Nations;
● The European Communities;
●The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; ●
The Organization of African Unity.

Multinational organization established to coordinate


the petroleum policies of its members and to provide
the member states with technical and economic aid.
The headquarters initially in Geneva were moved to
Vienna in 1965. Policy is formulated at conferences of
delegates from member countries, which meet at least
twice a year. Conference decisions are made on the
principle of unanimity
Organization for international cooperation
embodying the principles of collective security,
arbitration of international disputes, reduction of
armaments, and

open diplomacy. Discredited by its failure to prevent


Japanese expansion in Manchuria and China, Italy's
conquest of Ethiopia, and Hitler's repudiation of the
Versailles treaty, the organization ceased its activities
during World War II. In 1946 it was replaced by the
United Nations, which inherited many of its purposes
and methods

28
Formerly (until Nov. 1, 1993) European Economic
Community, byname Common Market economic
association of European countries that was
established to promote European economic unity. It
was established in the wake of World War II to
promote the lasting reconciliation of France and
Germany, to develop the economies of the member
states into one large common market, and to try to
develop a political union of the states of Western
Europe capable of alleviating their fears of war with
each other. It is now the principal organization within
the European Union
It is the second multi-purpose international
organization established in the 20th century aimed at
maintaining international peace and security,
developing friendly relations among nations based on
respect for the principles of equal rights and self-
determination of peoples; achieving worldwide
cooperation to solve international economic, social,
cultural, and humanitarian problems; respecting and
promoting human rights; and serving as a centre
where nations can coordinate their actions and
activities toward these various ends
Intergovernmental organization, established May 25,
1963, to promote unity and solidarity of African
states, to eliminate all forms of colonialism from
Africa, and to promote international cooperation. Its
activities include diplomacy (especially in support of
African liberation movements), mediation of
boundary conflicts and interstate civil wars, research
in economics and communications, and other affairs
3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим
выражениям:
дипломатия, основанная на встречах на высшем уровне
преемник поверенный в делах аккредитующее

29
государство чрезвычайный и полномочный
государство пребывания консульский корпус
поддерживать дружественные отношения
верительные грамоты эмиссар, агент
дуайен, старшина дипломатического корпуса
дипломатический корпус советник
посольства
дипломатическая неприкосновенность
искать убежище дипломатическая
неприкосновенность
дипломатическая миссия, представительство

4. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
diplomatic intercourse
nuncio [nʌnsioʊ]
internuncio to be
accredited to Foreign
Service emissary on
behalf of envoy
to enjoy diplomatic status
to be appointed to
inviolable to be subject to
chancellery
to be entitled to do sth

5. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,


расположенным в левой колонке:
1) venue; a) seniority;
2) conducive; b) conducive make up; form;
3) waive; c) diplomatic body;
4) sever; d) gather, summon;
5) diplomatic corps; e) a meeting place;
6) consent; f) assistant;
7) constitute; g) favourable;
8) precedence; h) refrain from;
9) aide; i) permission;

30
10) convene; j) separate, split.

6. Напишите все возможные производные от


следующих слов: successor to recognize distinction obligation
prominent to multiply
conduct

7. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания:


body n 1. орган, учреждение; общество; ассоциация, корпора-
ция; ~ accountable to sb. орган, подотчетный кому-л. 2. главная,
основная часть (чего-л.). 3. группа людей. 4. юридическое лицо. 5.
свод (законов, правил) administrative ~
административный/управленческий орган; advisory ~
консультативный орган; appropriate ~ надлежащий орган;
central state ~ s центральные органы государственной власти;
diplomatic ~ дипломатический корпус; executive ~
исполнительная власть, исполнительный орган; expert ~
комиссия/комитет экспертов; governing ~ руководящий орган,
административный совет; intergovernmental ~
межправительственный орган; international ~ международная
организация; judicial ~ судебный орган; legislative ~
законодательный орган; negotiating ~ комиссия для ведения
переговоров; policy-making ~ орган по формированию
политической линии; public ~ государственный, общественный
орган; standing ~ постоянный орган; subordinate ~ подчиненный
орган; subsidiary ~ вспомогательный орган; subversive ~
подрывной орган; superior ~ высший орган; ~ of the draft
convention основная часть проекта конвенции; ~ of electors
избиратели; ~ of evidence совокупность доказательств; ~ of the
hall часть зала, отведенная для делегатов (в ООН); ~ of laws свод
законов; совокупность правовых норм; ~ of state authority орган
государственной власти immunity n 1. неприкосновенность,
иммунитет; ~ s granted to
diplomats предоставляемые дипломатам иммунитеты;
entitlement to the ~ s право на иммунитеты; privileges and ~ s of
the country of residence привилегии и иммунитеты в стране

31
пребывания; indication of ~ s and privileges перечень
иммунитетов и привилегий; duration of ~ s and privileges срок
действия привилегий и иммунитетов; violation of ~ нарушение
иммунитета; waiver of ~ отказ от иммунитета; withdrawal of ~
лишение иммунитета; without prejudice to ~ без ущерба для
иммунитета; to affect ~ s затрагивать иммунитеты; to claim
privileges and ~ s претендовать на привилегии и иммунитеты; to
grant ~ s to diplomats предоставлять иммунитеты дипломатам; to
enjoy privileges and ~ s пользоваться привилегиями и
иммунитетами; to plead one's ~ ссылаться на свой иммунитет
2. освобождение (от налога, платежа и т.п.); льгота,
привилегия; ~ from taxes освобождение от налогов, налоговый
иммунитет; ~ from prosecution иммунитет от судебного
преследования; administrative ~ иммунитет от
административной ответственности; civil ~ иммунитет от
гражданской ответственности; consular ~ консульский
иммунитет; diplomatic ~ дипломатический иммунитет,
дипломатическая неприкосновенность; fiscal ~ финансовый
иммунитет; judicial ~ юридическая неприкосновенность;
personal ~ личный иммунитет; неприкосновенность личности; ~
of a deputy неприкосновенность депутата summit n совещание
или встреча на высшем уровне; to cloud a ~ омрачать совещание в
верхах; to sabotage a ~ саботировать совещание в верхах;
extraordinary ~ чрезвычайное/внеочередное совещание в верхах;
forthcoming ~ предстоящая встреча на высшем уровне; ill-timed ~
совещание в верхах, назначенное на неудачное время; low-key ~
рабочая встреча на высшем уровне; open-ended ~ совещание на
высшем уровне, сроки окончания которого не указаны;
preliminary ~ предварительная встреча в верхах; ~
conference/meeting конференция/совещание на высшем уровне;
~ talks переговоры на высшем уровне; in the run-up to the ~ в
преддверии встречи на высшем уровне; outcome of the
~ результат встречи на высшем уровне
8. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие
словосочетания: предоставляемые дипломатам иммунитеты –
body accountable

32
to sb. – рабочая встреча на высшем уровне – civil immunity –
исполнительная власть – preliminary summit – юридическая
неприкосновенность – to plead one's immunity – в преддверии
встречи на высшем уровне – to claim privileges and immunities –
саботировать совещание в верхах – privileges and immunities of the
country of residence – вспомогательный орган – ill-timed summit –
лишение иммунитета – subversive body – внеочередное совещание
в верхах – indication of immunities and privileges – результат
встречи на высшем уровне – fiscal immunity – омрачать совещание
в верхах – advisory body – пользоваться привилегиями и
иммунитетами – without prejudice to immunity – срок действия
привилегий и иммунитетов – policy-making body – освобождение
от налогов – open-ended summit – совещание на высшем уровне –
negotiating body – избиратели – forthcoming summit – основная
часть проекта конвенции – to grant immunities to diplomats –
законодательный орган – standing body – переговоры на высшем
уровне – waiver of immunity – подчиненный орган – expert body –
дипломатическая неприкосновенность – body of laws – нарушение
иммунитета

9. Переведите устно с листа следующие предложения.


Обратите особое внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания.
1. A diplomat is called plenipotentiary when invested with the full
power of independent action on behalf of their government, typically in
a foreign country.
2. He is accredited to the United Nations.
3. Ties were broken in 1949 when the papal nuncio was refused
entry into Belgium.
4. Mr. Stricker is in close touch with the Foreign Ministry and the
Chancellery.
5. The advances in communications altered the nature of
information processing.
6. He was appointed to control the company's marketing strategy.
7. Parliament has passed a motion recognizing the inviolability of the
country's current border with Poland.
8. Volunteers constitute more than 95% of the center's work force.

33
9. His resignation set loose a flood of rumors as to who his successor
would be.
10. A close aide to the Prime Minister repeated that Israel would
never accept it.
11. Employees are normally entitled to severance pay.
12. Foreign Service is the division of the US State Department
staffed by diplomatic and consular personnel.
13. The appointed hour of the ceremony was drawing nearer.
14. Innocent civilians are being arrested and subjected to
inhumane treatment.
15. On Thanksgiving the American Legation was bedecked with
flags.
16. The rebels were given immunity from prosecution.

10. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.


1. What changes did the conduct of diplomacy undergo in course of
time?
2. What diplomatic venues are envoys generally received at?
3. What diplomatic titles are identified in the article? Use these
diplomatic titles to complete the diagram below.

Diplomatic titles

4. Find out what powers are attached to the following diplomatic


titles:
ambassador extraordinary;
ambassador plenipotentiary;
ambassador-at-large.
5. Comment on the following: «An ambassador is an honest man sent
to lie abroad for the good of his country» (Henry Wotton).

34
11. Переведите письменно со словарем следующий
отрывок. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
Личная неприкосновенность посла с давних времен считалась
его неотъемлемым правом. Так, священные законы Древней
Индии запрещали под страхом смерти поднимать руку на посла:
считалось, что в силу своей миссии (от которой зависит мир и
война) он пользуется божественным покровительством.
Дипломатические привилегии и иммунитеты призваны
обеспечить эффективное выполнение государственных задач,
поэтому дипломат обладает личной неприкосновенностью: его
нельзя арестовать или задержать; его транспортное средство и
жилище неприкосновенны; он освобожден от всех местных
налогов и пошлин; багаж, находящийся при нем, не может быть
досмотрен; дипломат имеет право приобретать отдельные виды
товаров без торговой наценки и иных налогов, заложенных в цену
товара.
Привилегии и иммунитет дипломата распространяются на
членов его семьи. К ним относятся его жена и
несовершеннолетние дети. Предоставляя дипломату такие
привилегии, принимающее государство вправе ожидать, что он не
будет злоупотреблять своим положением и будет уважать законы,
традиции и обычаи этого государства, избегая вмешательства в
его внутренние дела. Если же дипломат поступает иначе, его
объявляют персоной нон грата и предлагают в разумный срок
покинуть пределы страны. В случае неподчинения дипломат
полностью теряет свой статус.
Известны случаи нарушения дипломатических привилегий, в
особенности – дипломатического иммунитета. В декабре 1718 г.
испанский посол в Париже Селламаре был арестован по
обвинению в заговоре против регента герцога Филиппа
Орлеанского. Во дворце посла был произведен обыск. Регент
обратился ко всем послам и резидентам, а также к высшему
духовенству, парламенту и губернаторам с объяснением причин,
побудивших его арестовать испанского посла. Селламаре со своей
стороны обратился с циркулярным письмом к послам и

35
резидентам при французском дворе, убеждая их вступиться за
него ввиду того, что арест посла является нарушением
международного права. Дипломатический корпус воздержался от
вмешательства, считая, что участие в заговоре влечет за собой
утрату дипломатических привилегий. Селламаре был освобожден
из заключения и доставлен к испанской границе только после
приезда французского посла герцога Сент-Эньяна из Испании и
объявления герцогом Орлеанским войны Испании.

36
UNIT 3. THE LANGUAGE OF DIPLOMACY

TEXT 5.

1. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на особенности


перевода метафоры.

Diplomatic language

The expression «diplomatic language» is used to denote three


different things. In its first sense it signifies the actual language
(whether it is Latin, French, or English) which is employed by diplomats
in their converse or correspondence with each other. In its second sense
it means those technical phrases which, in the course of centuries, have
become part of ordinary diplomatic vocabulary. And in its third, and
most common, sense it is used to describe that guarded understatement
which enables diplomats and ministers to say sharp things to each other
without becoming provocative or impolite.
An old and funny catchphrase says that one should use many
languages to be properly understood: speaking to God – Latin; to the
military – German; to the merchants – Greek and Arabic; to the
musicians – Italian; to one's cook – Chinese; to the sailors and engineers
– English; to the artists – Russian; to friends – Spanish; to enemies –
Dutch or Hungarian; to one's girl-friend – French; to one's wife –
Japanese...
Documents exchanged between countries in the past were written
in Latin. In the 18th century French had become the generally accepted

37
diplomatic language, so much so that even diplomatic notes addressed
to the British Foreign Office by the Legation of the USA were written in
that language. The 20th century saw a gradual emergence of
English as a second and later even dominant diplomatic language. At the
same time, a growing number of countries insisted on the use of their
own language in diplomatic correspondence and joint diplomatic
documents. As a result the United Nations admitted to five languages at
its inception (Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish), to which
Arabic has later been added by informal agreement. In the European
Union, all languages of the members are currently in use and their
number is bound to grow as new members will be admitted.
«Diplomacy,» as it was once said, «is the application of intelligence
and tact to the conduct of official relations between the governments of
independent states.» The need of intelligence is self-evident, but the
equally vital need of tact is often disregarded. It is this latter need which
has led diplomats to adopt a set of conventionalized phrases used in
place of the hard coins of ordinary human converse. These phrases,
affable though they may appear, are of frequent occurrence.
Thus, if a politician or a diplomat informs another government that
his own government «cannot remain indifferent to» some international
controversy, he is clearly understood to imply that the controversy is
one in which his government will certainly intervene. If in his
communication or speech he uses such phrases as «His Majesty's
Government view with concern» or «view with grave concern» then it
is evident to all that the matter is one in which the British Government
intend to adopt a strong line. By cautious gradations such as these a
politician is enabled, without using threatening language, to convey a
serious warning to a foreign government. If these warnings pass
unheeded he can raise his voice while still remaining courteous and
conciliatory. If he says, «In such an event His Majesty's Government
would feel bound carefully to reconsider their position», he is implying
that friendship is about to turn into hostility.
If he warns a foreign government that certain action on their part
will be regarded «as an unfriendly act», that government will interpret
his words as implying a threat of war. If he says that «he must decline
to be responsible for the consequences», it means that he is about to

38
provoke an incident which will lead to war. And if he demands, even in
terms of exquisite politeness, a reply before «six o'clock on the evening
of the 25th», then his communication is rightly regarded as an
ultimatum.
The advantage of this conversational form of communication is that
it maintains an atmosphere of calm, while enabling politicians to convey
serious warnings to each other which will not be misunderstood. The
disadvantage is that the public and sometimes even the politicians
themselves are not acquainted with the actual value of the expressions
used. On the one hand, an ignorant or incautious use of one of these
phrases may give to a given situation a gravity which it does not
possess. On the other hand, when a really serious crisis arises, the
public is apt to assume from the mildness of the language used that the
crisis cannot be as grave as «the alarmists» had given them to suppose.
Still the advantages of using diplomatic language far outweigh any
disadvantages that the system may possess.

2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
передать категорическое предупреждение
остаться незамеченным/не принятым во
внимание обходительный, учтивый
глубокая/серьезная озабоченность
пересматривать, обдумывать заново
международный спор/разногласия быть
вынужденным подразумеваемая угроза насущная
потребность угроза войны
неофициальное согласие

3. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
guarded understatement
to enable diplomatic note
international
controversy gradual
emergence

39
the need of tact is often disregarded the
hard coins of ordinary human converse be
of frequent occurrence to maintain an
atmosphere of calm to adopt a strong line
to remain courteous and conciliatory
a threat of war ignorant
use
the advantages of sth outweigh any disadvantages

4. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,


расположенным в левой колонке:
1) denote; a) use;
2) employ; b) interfere;
3) converse; c) showing no concern;
4) guarded; d) amiable;
5) emergence; e) enmity;
6) affable; f) obvious;
7) intervene; g) appearance;
8) evident; h) discourse;
9) hostility; i) signify; 10) indifferent; j) cautious.

5. Напишите все возможные производные от следующих


слов: controversy frequent to intervene occurrence indifferent to
imply threatening to intend cautious hostility to acquaint
ignorant

6. Переведите письменно, используя данные слова,


следующие предложения. Обсудите различные
варианты перевода.
issue officials toughest
take sth off the boil bring to the surface stock in trade

1. Примирительная позиция, которую заняли обе стороны,


привела к смягчению конфликта.
2. Это не утверждается открыто, но, видимо, подразумевается.

40
3. В среду вечером ООН предъявила свой самый жесткий
ультиматум, потребовав немедленного вывода войск из города.
4. Это высветило гораздо более глубокие противоречия.
5. Он попытался пустить в ход политику примирения и
неопределенности, что было его шаблонной уловкой.
6. Сотрудники посольства США отказались сообщить, когда она
будет доставлена на родину.

7. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания:


controversy n 1. спор, дискуссия; полемика; to engage in/to en-
ter into ~ вступить в дискуссию/полемику; to be wrapped in ~
углубиться в полемику; to diffuse the ~ over an issue снять остроту
полемики по какому-л. вопросу; to suspend ~ временно
прекратить/отложить обсуждение/спор; border ~ пограничный
спор policy n 1. спор, дискуссия; полемика; for reasons of ~ по
политическим соображениям; critical issues of ~ злободневные
политические проблемы; to carry on/to conduct/to follow/to
pursue a ~ проводить политику; to approve/to endorse a ~
одобрить политику; to abandon/to drop the ~ отказаться от
(проводимой) политики; to form/to shape the ~ определить
политическую линию/политический курс; to justify/to validate
one’s ~ оправдывать свою политику; to reject a ~ отвергать
политику. 2. линия поведения; курс, стратегия; adjustment ~
политика корректирования/приспособления; agreed ~
согласованная политика; appeasement ~ политика
умиротворения; audacious ~ дерзкая/безрассудная политика;
belligerent ~ воинственная политика; brink-of-war ~ политика
балансирования на грани войны; carrot and stick ~ политика
«кнута и пряника»; conciliatory ~ примиренческая политика;
consistent ~ последовательная политика; domestic ~ внутренняя
политика; expectant ~ выжидательная политика; flip and flop ~
непоследовательная политика; foreign ~ внешняя политика;
forward-looking ~ дальновидная политика; give-and-take ~
политика взаимных уступок; laissezfaire ~ политика
(государственного) невмешательства (в экономику); long-run ~
долгосрочная политика

41
8. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие
словосочетания: определить политический курс – to be wrapped
in controversy –
политика (государственного) невмешательства – belligerent policy
– to enter into controversy – оправдывать свою политику – to reject
a policy – дальновидная политика – to carry on policy – полемика –
carrot and stick policy – согласованная политика – to diffuse the
controversy over an issue – политика умиротворения – border
controversy – внутренняя политика – flip and flop policy – временно
прекратить обсуждение – conciliatory policy – выжидательная
политика – to engage in controversy – политика взаимных уступок
– to abandon the policy – по политическим соображениям –
audacious policy – critical issues of policy – политика
балансирования на грани войны – adjustment policy – внешняя
политика – long-run policy – одобрить политику

9. Переведите устно с листа следующие предложения.


Обратите особое внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания.
1. The policy of international appeasement must of course be
pressed forward.
2. Security laws passed to tackle terrorism caused controversy.
3. The mood at the meeting was belligerent.
4. Congress also wants to use a carrot and stick approach to force
both sides to negotiate an end to the war.
5. The authorities have abandoned any attempt to distribute food in
an orderly fashion.
6. The issue of nuclear policy figured prominently in the talks.
7. Soldiers had temporarily closed the border between the two
countries.
8. Legislation to that effect created fierce controversy both in
Parliament and outside.
9. The scheme's investors, fearful of bankruptcy, decided to abandon
the project.
10. The President's speech was hailed as a conciliatory gesture
toward business.

42
11. Many of the papers focus their attention on the controversy
surrounding statements reportedly made by the Foreign Secretary.
12. The British government is expected to reject the idea of state
subsidy for a new high speed railway.

10. Переведите письменно со словарем следующий


отрывок. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
Как для воинов основным орудием их деятельности является
оружие, так для дипломатов – слово. И если в Древней Греции
главным для дипломатии было устное слово, в последнее время
письменное слово становится более важным.
Дипломатическая деятельность сродни литературной,
писательской. В России многие писатели и публицисты
занимались дипломатической деятельностью, некоторые из них
были послами. А.С. Пушкин принадлежал к министерству
иностранных дел, сотрудничал в архивном управлении, роль
которого в МИД была в то время значительной, так как там
готовились проекты внешнеполитических документов, договоров
и соглашений.
Знаменитый русский поэт Ф.И. Тютчев 22 года провел на
службе в загранпредставительствах России, а затем служил в МИД.
Д.И. Фонвизин был помощником министра Екатерины II и
известного дипломата Н.И. Панина и ведал перепиской МИД с
российскими представителями при европейских дворах.
Выдающимся российским дипломатом первой четверти XIX в.
был российский посол в Персии, автор знаменитой комедии «Горе
от ума» А.С. Грибоедов. Российским послом в Мадриде был
известный русский писатель И.М. Муравьев-Апостол, отец
братьевдекабристов. Лицейский друг А.С. Пушкина, который еще
тогда, в лицее, предсказал ему блестящую славу, министр
иностранных дел России (1856 – 1882) А.М. Горчаков не был
писателем, но блестяще владел словом, сам писал ноты и
циркуляры послам, которые были образцом русского языка.
Среди иностранных дипломатов также немало всемирно
известных писателей. Французский драматург Бомарше не только
снискал себе славу блестящими комедиями, но и являлся

43
руководителем французской дипломатической миссии в США.
Сервантес состоял в миссии папского легата. Известный
итальянский писатель и поэт Боккаччо работал послом
Флорентийской республики во многих городах Италии и послом у
папы в Риме, его речи при вручении верительных грамот всегда
имели огромный успех. Флоренция может гордиться такими
послами-писателями, как Данте и Петрарка. Английский писатель
Д. Свифт принимал активное участие в дипломатической
деятельности и вел кампанию за заключение Утрехтского мира
(1713).

В.И. Попов

11. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.


1. What versatile aspects does the expression «diplomatic language»
denote?
2. What languages were the diplomatic documents written in?
3. What diplomatic languages did the United Nations finally admit?
4. What aspect plays a vital role in the notion of diplomacy but often
disregarded?
5. How do the diplomats manage to get round the hard coins of
ordinary human converse?
6. Can you give some examples of courteous diplomatic discourse
containing hidden implications?
7. What advantages and disadvantages of using diplomatic language
may arise?

TEXT 6.

1. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на особенности


перевода модальных глаголов.

The best language for diplomatic purpose

44
It has frequently been argued that one language or another is more
suitable for diplomacy as it is clearer, more flexible, more expressive, or
more eloquent. However the mere fact that historically such a role has
been taken in turns by so many languages (Akkadian, Greek «koin`e»,
Latin, French, English, Arabic, Turkish, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian,
Italian) proves that linguistic or semantic reasons are not decisive. On
the contrary, as Croatian Ambassador to Hungary Dr Stanko Nick points
out, the dominant role of one language or another in diplomacy has
resulted from the political, strategic, economic, cultural or other
domination of one power or another in international relations.
French was widely used in international diplomacy for two main
reasons: first, because France used to be a huge political power. It was
commonly used in the whole of Europe from the 18th century, with the
reign of Louis XIV. Later, Napoleon «helped» the language spread even
further. The use of French in international treaties started declining
with the emergence of the USA after the First World War; in fact, the
Treaty of Versailles was written both in English and in French.
The second main reason is that it is the language of clarity and
precision: it uses a lot more determiners, adverbs, conjunctions and the
like to link parts of sentences together and clarify their relationships.
This links very well with the «expansion» phenomenon in translation
from English to French, with the French translation being on average
15% longer than the source text. Conversely, English is more likely to
create ambiguity and its concision can be seen as bluntness, which once
was described as «the enemy of polite discourse». Nowadays, despite
the French language losing much of its prestige, the English diplomatic
vocabulary is still haunted by a few «French ghosts», e.g. regime, coup,
etiquette, rapprochement that stay in use only because they don't have
equivalents in English.
This leads to speculations about diplomatic language in the current
turbulent international climate. The question arises if this «blunt»
aspect of the English language might explain, in part, why George Bush,
who clearly likes his language straight and simple, often failed to
impress European and Arab audiences. He pushed the concision of
English to its extreme limit, which, regardless of what he had to say, can
be off-putting at best, and irritating and condescending at worst, like

45
when he once said: «First, people in Iraq must understand that I view
those practices as abhorrent. They must also understand that what took
place in that prison does not represent America that I know».
This modal must is terribly harsh and definite (almost an order)
within the context of a man apologizing for his soldiers torturing Iraqis.
Of course, one might say that this was his style, and that he would be
just as blunt if he was a French speaker, but the «efficiency» of the
English language might mean that George Bush often sounded more
tactless and simplistic than he perhaps intended.

2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
убедительный, выразительный
международный договор
ясность и четкость наоборот
неопределенность, неясность
краткость, лаконичность
государственный переворот
возобновление дружественных отношений (между государ-
ствами) неспокойная международная
обстановка прояснять устранять
многозначность в лучшем/ худшем
случае
обескураживающий

3. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть: semantic reasons are not
decisive to clarify the relationships
the «expansion» phenomenon in translation
concision can be seen as bluntness
turbulent international climate this leads to
speculations about
to push the concision of English to its extreme limit
to be haunted by a few «French ghosts»
regardless of sth
to view practices as abhorrent

46
4. Напишите все возможные производные от слов:
eloquent
decisive
precision
to clarify
ambiguit
y blunt to
intend
5. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,
расположенным в левой колонке:
1) conversely; a) brusque;
2) concision; b) repulsive;
3) speculation; c) decrease;
4) blunt; d) brevity;
5) decline; e) thought;
6) discourse; f) on the contrary; 7) abhorrent; g) conversation.

6. Переведите устно с листа следующие предложения.


Обратите особое внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания.
1. They had to change some of the wording in the document to
resolve ambiguity.
2. I hate the way he is condescending to his staff.
3. The position of all shareholders will be clarified next month
when the administrators finalize their proposals.
4. Any lack of precision in the contract could give rise to a
dispute.
5. The two sides involved in the conflict seemed to be drawing
closer to a rapprochement.
6. The high turnout was an eloquent affirmation of the
importance that the voters attached to the election.
7. The election campaign has now entered its final, decisive
phase.
8. The stigma of being a bankrupt is likely to haunt him for the
rest of his life.
9. The first signs of economic decline became visible.
10. Racial discrimination is abhorrent to my council and our
staff.

47
7. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.
1. What determines the primary role of language in diplomacy?
2. What promoted a wide use of French in international diplomacy?
How long did French play the dominant role in international relations?
3. What linguistic aspects appeared to be decisive in keeping priority
of the French language?
4. What tendency does the author trace in the English language?
5. How did George Bush employ the «efficiency» of the English
language and what effect did it occasionally produce on his audience?
6. «Politics are almost as exciting as war and quite as dangerous. In
war you can only be killed once, but in politics – many times». Do you
share W. Churchill's opinion? What impact has this hazardous side of
politics on the personality?

8. Переведите на русский язык следующие высказывания.


Обсудите варианты перевода.
 These, then, are the qualities of my ideal diplomatist. Truth,
accuracy, calm, patience, good temper, modesty and loyalty. They are
also the qualities of an ideal diplomacy. But, the reader may object, you
have forgotten intelligence, knowledge, discernment, prudence,
hospitality, charm, industry, courage and even tact. I have not forgotten
them. I have taken them for granted. (Harold George Nicolson
Diplomacy).
 The essence of diplomacy is communication. It is the means
whereby sovereign states – notional persons – communicate with other
states through their human representatives. Being notional they, like all
such entities, can do so in no other way. And as virtually no state finds
it practical or desirable either to live like a hermit or to engage
externally in nothing but unannounced and undiscussed war, there is a
universal imperative on states to engage in diplomacy. (Lorna Lloyd
Diplomacy with a Difference).
 As in the game of billiards, the balls are constantly producing
effects from mere chance, which the most skillful player could neither
execute nor foresee, but which, when they do happen, serve mainly to
teach him how much he has still to learn; so it is in the most profound

48
and complicated game of politics and diplomacy. In both cases, we can
only regulate our play by what we have seen, rather than by what we
have hoped; and by what we have experienced, rather than by what we
have expected. (Charles Caleb Colton Lacon: Or, Many Things in Few
Words).

9. Перед вами интервью, которое взял журналист газеты


«Взгляд» у доктора филологических наук, профессора М.
Кронгауза. Переведите письменно со словарем следующий
отрывок. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
Может показаться, что в политическом языке в нашей стране
преобладает хаос, но доктор филологических наук, профессор,
директор Института лингвистики РГГУ Максим Кронгауз
предпочитает слово «поиск». Россия ищет новый политический
язык.
М. К.: Политики ищут какой-то свой язык, пытаются
формировать его – прежде всего для разговора с избирателями.
Можно сказать, что сегодня в речи политиков присутствуют как
советские клише, так и фразы и речевое поведение, которое явно
находится под влиянием английского языка и поведения
американских политиков. Поиск речевого образа действительно
идет довольно активно. И, конечно, на речь политиков влияет
речь первых лиц.
ВЗГЛЯД: Но так было всегда?
М. К.: Конечно. Хрущев, например, влиял в свое время на
чиновников даже на фонетическом уровне – они копировали
знаменитое хрущевское произношение суффикса «изм» как
«изьм» («социализьм», «коммунизьм»). Брежневскую манеру саму
по себе не копировали, но идея полностью перейти на чтение
докладов относится к брежневскому времени. Брежнев внес
тотальное чтение по бумажке. Это максимальная ритуализация
речи. Важен был факт произнесения речи, а не смысл.
ВЗГЛЯД: Как изменился политический язык с развалом Союза?
М. К.: Он изменился с приходом Горбачева, потому что тот
попытался говорить без бумажки. Выяснилось, что это очень
трудно. Речь Горбачева довольно косноязычна. Но опять же какие-

49
то элементы его речи стали копировать. Он ввел в обиход
некоторые слова, «консенсус» например. Его «нАчать» тоже
копировалось. Ну а современные политики ведут себя совершенно
поразному. Здесь можно говорить о речевых портретах
отдельного человека, потому что в речи проявляется
индивидуальность.
ВЗГЛЯД: Сегодня у нас в качестве образца выступает президент
и премьер?
М. К.: Путин задал некий образец не столько языка, сколько
речевого поведения. Эти знаменитые – их иногда называют
путинизмами – резкие снижения речи. Когда на фоне абсолютно
грамотной, правильной речи вдруг возникают вставки типа
«мочить в сортире» – иногда грубости просто, иногда сленг или
просторечные выражения. Путин умеет использовать крепкие
выражения на фоне грамотной речи.
У Медведева, очевидно, другой психологический тип, более
интеллигентный. Когда он выступает перед молодыми людьми
или специалистами в области высоких технологий, его речь
совершенно другая, но, как правило, в публичных речах он тоже
старается использовать этот прием снижения, «кошмарить
бизнес» например.
ВЗГЛЯД: На ум сразу, конечно, приходит Владимир
Жириновский. Он и не слишком грамотен, и использует
жаргонизмы, но какой накал...
М. К.: Жириновский – один из лучших ораторов, безусловно.
Хотя его речь действительно не слишком грамотна, зато она
сверхэмоциональна, и это не только компенсирует, но и делает его
речь увлекательной. Для него важнее эмоциональная
составляющая, чем грамматическая. И хотя он не занимает
высших постов, его речь тоже пытаются копировать.
Путинский образец сегодня самый, пожалуй, главный в
попытке копирования. На втором месте – скандально-крикливая
манера Жириновского. Жириновский в одной речи может
произнести противоречащие друг другу фразы, но его это не
смущает, у него хорошая интеллектуальная и речевая реакция.

50
ВЗГЛЯД: Если вернуться чуть в прошлое, нужно вспомнить о
Черномырдине. От него исходило ощущение нелепости...
М. К.: Черномырдин – абсолютный уникум. При кажущемся
косноязычии он порождал глубокие афоризмы. Его высказывания
даже получили особые названия – черномырдинки. Самые
главные его фразы вроде «хотели, как лучше, а получилось, как
всегда» знают все, но у него есть много основанных вроде бы на
парадоксах фраз, которые в действительности отражают
интересную и глубокую мысль. Тоже из известных – про кризис:
«Сроду в России такого не было, и вот опять». Очень характерная
фраза. Вроде бы бессмыслица, но запоминается, потому что все так
и думали. Это образец речи политика, который проговаривает
потаенное. При этом это очень смешно.
ВЗГЛЯД: Все эти оговорки, нелепости, неожиданные обороты, с
одной стороны, дают повод для глумления, с другой – наращивают
популярность политика. В каких случаях они идут в плюс, а в каких
– в минус?
М. К.: Это зависит от типа оговорок и личности политика.
Скажем, в случае с Бушем-младшим это было скорее поводом для
издевательства. «Черномырдинки» и «путинизмы» – совершенно
особые лингвистические явления, а «бушизмы» – просто ляпы.
Буш путал названия столиц и государств. Их собирали, потому что
они действительно нелепы. В «бушизмах» нет второго плана, это
просто демонстрация необразованности человека. А
«черномырдинки» – это уже скорее создание афоризмов и
политических смыслов. В случае Черномырдина и Путина
цитирование их высказываний уже не издевательство – это
полноценный речевой портрет.

51
UNIT 4. LINGUSTIC MEANS OF POLITICAL
DISCOURSE

TEXT 7.

1. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на особенности


перевода фразовых глаголов.

Know your values and frame the debate

January 21, 2004 – on this date I spoke extemporaneously to a group


of about two hundred progressive citizen-activists in Sausalito,
California. My favourite exercise is: Don't think of an elephant!
Whatever you do, do not think of an elephant. I've never found a student
who is able to do this. Every word, like elephant, evokes a frame, which
can be an image or other kinds of knowledge: Elephants are large, have
floppy ears and a trunk, and are associated with circuses. The word is
defined relative to that frame. Even when we negate a frame, we evoke
the frame.
Richard Nixon found that out the hard way. While under pressure to
resign during the Watergate scandal, Nixon addressed the nation on TV.
He stood before the nation and said, «I am not a crook». And everybody
thought about him as a crook. This gives us a basic principle of framing,
for when you are arguing against the other side: Do not use their
language. Their language picks out a frame – and it won't be the frame
you want.

52
Let me give you an example. On the day that George W. Bush arrived
in the White House, the phrase «tax relief» started coming out of the
White House. It still is. Think of the framing for relief. For there to be
relief there must be an affliction and a reliever who removes the
affliction and is, therefore, a hero.
When the word tax is added to relief, the result is a metaphor:
taxation is an affliction. And the person who takes it away is a hero, and
anyone who tries to stop him and be in the way of «the president's tax-
relief plan» is a bad guy. That is what framing is about. Framing is about
getting language that fits your worldview. The ideas are primary – and
the language carries those ideas, evokes those ideas.
Another useful technique widely used by politicians is repetition. No
one had been publicly less spontaneous or more effectively repetitious
than G. Bush; but sometimes, as he said, you «keep repeating things over
and over and over again» and what really sinks in is the truth rather
than the propaganda.
Sometimes, just that extra bit of repetition under less than perfect
circumstances, and words that once struck fear or offered hope
suddenly sound hollow. They begin to sound repetitious, and so, false.
This is, I suspect, exactly what Americans were experiencing in relation
to President G. Bush. It's a mysterious process really – like leaving a
dream world or perhaps deprogramming from a cult. Once you step
outside the bubble, statements that only yesterday seemed heartfelt or
resolute truths suddenly look like themselves, threadbare and
impoverished.

G. Lakoff and T. Engelhardt

2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
говорить без подготовки, экспромптом
определять относительно чего-л.
уходить в отставку
приводить доводы против (чего-л.)
быть помехой, мешать
соответствовать мировоззрению

53
вселять страх непоколебимая
истина
безосновательное утверждение

3. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,


расположенным в левой колонке:
1) evoke; a) swindler;
2) extemporaneous; b) trite;
3) negate; c) suffering;
4) crook; d) sincere;
5) affliction; e) reject; 6) heartfelt; f) cause to occur; 7) threadbare;
g) Offhand.

4. Переведите устно с листа следующие предложения.


Обратите особое внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания.
1. Under the present tax system, the government gives with one
hand and takes away with the other.
2. Too late, he found out that the plane had been cancelled.
3. He's not in the office; he's just stepped outside for a breath of
fresh air.
4. Some of the material was so unsuitable it seemed to have
been picked out at random.
5. Her presence added a much needed sparkle to the occasion.
6. When the truth came out there was public outrage.
7. Such fringing away of precious life, in thinking of carpets and
tables, is an affliction to me.
8. The Green Paper evoked critical reactions from various
bodies.
9. The news will come as a great relief to the French authorities.
10. Donaldson was a petty crook with a string of previous
offences.
11. He warned that to negate the results of elections would only
make things worse.

5. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.

54
1. What is a frame according to G. Lakoff and T. Engelhardt? How
does it work?
2. What is essential to bear in mind while arguing against the other
side?
3. How do the authors explain favourable effects produced by the
phrase «tax relief» on the audience?
4. What is the magic power of repetition? Does it last long?
5. Can you agree with the following: «A little inaccuracy sometimes
saves tons of explanation» (Saki)?
6. In what circumstances is it acceptable to 'gloss the reality'? Who
benefits from this?

6. Переведите письменно со словарем следующий отрывок.


Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
Каждому времени соответствует свой политический язык.
Политический язык Ленина был ориентирован на полемику и
убеждение оппонентов. Язык Сталина изобиловал повторами, был
медитативен и направлен не на убеждение равных, а на
подчинение. Эту разницу отмечал, например, Г.Г. Хазагеров, когда
говорил, что речи Сталина, «вязко возвращающиеся к одному и
тому же предмету, полные повторов и плеоназмов... очень мало
напоминают колючие речи Ленина». Суконный язык эпохи застоя
уже вовсе не требовал никакого отклика снизу и задавал
полностью формальное отношение граждан к поставленным
партией и правительством задачам.
Политический язык – это не только лексика, определенный
понятийный аппарат, но и показатель той степени доверия,
которую власть оказывает гражданам. Показательно отличие
лексики Ельцина-трибуна от лексики Ельцина-президента со
всеми «рокировочками» и «загогулинами». Понятно, что эти
изменения соответствовали изменению в отношении власти к
народу. Разумеется, народ это хорошо чувствовал.
Иногда бывает нужно сознательно изменить политический
язык. Это крайне сложная вещь, поскольку политический язык
всегда соответствует своей эпохе, малейшие вариации могут
прозвучать фальшиво и навредить взаимопониманию. Здесь

55
нельзя не добавить, что люди, выросшие в России, обладают
повышенной чуткостью к оттенкам правительственной речи. Из
удачных примеров следует вспомнить знаменитое «братья и
сестры!», которым Сталин хотел достичь максимального
сближения с народом. Другой пример – выражение «мочить в
сортире», экспрессивный заряд которого был понят
большинством граждан России как ожидаемый поворот к
решительной и бескомпромиссной политике. Но даже с учетом
всех этих рисков политический язык представляет собой столь
перспективный ресурс, что не использовать его было бы большой
ошибкой.
Сейчас перед страной стоит задача повышения уровня
взаимопонимания между властью и гражданами. Это очень
сложная задача. Во-первых, уровень доверия к властям в России
традиционно низок; во-вторых, для каких-то серьезных прорывов
в экономике нужно не просто доверие, а дополнительный кредит
доверия; в-третьих, развитие социальных сетей объективным
образом провоцирует критику власти (вне зависимости от
текущей политики). Нужен новый язык, а соответственно – новый
стиль и формат общения, уровень доверия. На мой взгляд,
лейтмотивом последних двух встреч Д. Медведева со
сторонниками стало «нащупывание» какого-то общего языка.
Если это сознательные шаги, их можно только приветствовать. Но
удачными они могут быть, только если будут частью какого-то
последовательного правительственного курса, а не инициативой
одного человека.

М. Соломатин, журналист, историк

TEXT 8.

1. Переведите текст. Обратите внимание на пассивные


конструкции, употребляемые в тексте, и предложите
наиболее целесообразные способы их перевода на русский
язык (такие как сохранение пассивной формы, замена

56
пассивной формы активной, лексические трансформации,
лексические замены, введение дополнительных слов).

Soft language

Most people understand intuitively the importance of language. We


all use it every day in order to function in society. Society without
language is inconceivable. Outside the realm of high art, language is
intended to convey meaning. Ideally, it should do so accurately.
However, some speakers betray this ideal, and use language as a
stalking horse for quite different ideas they dare not acknowledge. I
think George Carlin put it best when he said that most people seem to
have the inability to accept reality for what it is, so they created a soft
language – one that shields people from the reality around them and
makes sure they don't get offended.
Speech which serves to disguise the thing being discussed depending
on circumstances may be called tact, diplomacy, euphemism,
doublespeak or lying. The proper description depends on the speaker’s
purpose.
Tact sets out to avoid giving offence. It suppresses or disguises an
unhappy truth to spare the feelings of another. It is falsehood in the
service of kindness; a down-payment on future favour. When tact is
lifted from the personal to the national scale, it is called diplomacy.
Euphemism does not directly suppress the truth, but disguises it by
substituting gentle words for harsher ones. Its intention is benign.
Euphemism is especially needed where body parts and body functions
are the subject: a cheap frock for recognised facts.
Tact is kind; diplomacy is useful; euphemism is harmless and
sometimes entertaining. By contrast, doublespeak is dishonest and
dangerous. It is language which attempts to avoid responsibility and is
designed to alter our perception of reality.
Twisting the truth was a commonplace in Hitler’s Germany. Hitler
had done much to restore the fortunes and spirit of the German nation,
a nation that had been nearly destroyed by the terms of the Treaty of
Versailles. But Hitler had also been engaged in enterprises which the

57
world would eventually deplore; much of what he did was masked in
falsehood.
In the Nazi dictionary «final solution» of the Jewish problem was a
phrase which meant «extermination», «special treatment» of war
prisoners meant «killing»; «protective custody» meant «concentration
camp»; «duty labor» meant «slave labor»; and an order «to take a firm
attitude» or «take positive measures» meant «to act with unrestrained
savagery». Before we accept their word at what seems to be its face, we
must always look for hidden meanings.

J. Burnside

2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
передавать значение обычное
явление восприятие
действительности
замалчивать правду заменять
что-л. чем-л.
благое намерение
изменять восприятие/понимание
возрождать дух нации подвергать
критике, осуждать
необузданная жестокость

3. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть: outside the realm of high
art to betray the ideal
a stalking horse for the ideas they dare not acknowledge
inability to accept reality to twist the truth to shield
people from the reality to disguise an unhappy truth to
spare the feelings falsehood in the service of kindness
a down-payment on future favour to
lift to the national scale
a cheap frock for recognised facts

58
4. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,
расположенным в левой колонке:
1) inconceivable; a) kind;
2) accurately; b) change;
3) acknowledge; c) sensation;
4) disguise; d) replace;
5) substitute; e) unimaginable;
6) benign; f) precisely; 7) perception; g) admit; 8) alter; h) conceal.

5. Переведите письменно на английский язык следующие


предложения. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
1. Her political views have not found favour in recent years.
2. The Ambassador has been taken into protective custody because
his life is in danger.
3. It's feared that the talks are just a stalking horse for a much wider
deal between the two parties.
4. Savageries like this massacre make you ashamed to be a human
being.
5. International measures have been taken to prevent the
extermination of the whale.
6. A new law to shield companies from foreign competitors has been
adopted recently.
7. This information has been deliberately suppressed.
8. The attitude of the Minister is to be deplored.
9. His campaign has been unrestrained and often vulgar.
10. He dismissed recent rumours that he'd arranged doubtful
deals as a tissue of lies.
11. You should possibly resist the temptation to discuss topics
that are not strictly relevant to the matter.
12. These results should not be taken at face value – careful
analysis is required to assess their full implications.
13. The bribe he's taken in a weak moment put her reputation, if
not her life, at stake.
14. The government is desperate to regain credibility with the
public.

59
15. Legal norms and definitions often remain vague. The law is
notoriously vague on this point. The statement was vague in its
wording.

6. Переведите на русский язык следующие косвенные


наименования (эвфемизмы), соотнесите их с прямыми
наименованиями в таблице. Определите, чем обусловлено
предпочтение косвенных наименований прямым
обозначениям явлений действительности.
curtain, senior citizen, join the great silent majority, departure,
golden years, democracy reset, exchange this life for a better, poetic
truth, setback for democracy, slumber, stranger to the truth

direct meaning euphemisms


death
die
old age
old person
lie
habitual liar
military coup d'état

7. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, в


которых использованы эвфемизмы. Обсудите различные
варианты перевода.
1. To have given Nixon knowledge of even the smallest part of that
particular Haig connection would have meant curtains for Haig as
Nixon’s Chief of Staff (figurative use).
2. Mary said it was a memorial quilt, done by Mrs. Parkinson in the
memory of her dear friend’s departure.
3. Sure, politics is a game, but it seems to me that telling porkies for
your political mates is a step too far. Spin doctor is such a euphemism.
Like stranger to the truth. Call a spade a spade, I say. In my opinion,
these guys don’t tell the truth.

60
4. Many stores provide discounts only to seniors who ask for them.
Wherever you are doing business, ask whether there is a senior
discount available.
5. Egypt’s generals are not alone in setting back democracy.
6. Great captains on both sides of our Civil War have long ago passed
over to the silent majority, leaving the memory of their splendid
courage.
7. With 40 per cent of retirees being forced into retirement due to
redundancy, the golden years of many people are not as «golden» as is
commonly believe.
8. As evidence of this cultural acceptance of lying, we no longer tell
lies. Instead we misspeak. We exaggerate. We exercise poor judgment.
The use of such euphemisms is a new cultural syndrome identified as
«euphemasia». This would include everything from terms such as
credibility gap, to Winston Churchill's terminological inexactitudes.
What are we to do with terms such as poetic truth, nuanced truth,
alternative reality, or strategic misrepresentations? In our technological
age, driven by a digitalized dimension of lying, we are now accustomed
to talking about virtual truth.
9. Japanese toy makers now see senior citizens as their most
dynamic market.
8. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.
1. What other functions apart from conveying the meaning is
language tailored to perform?
2. What language disguising techniques does the author distinguish?
3. How does the author assess the impact of soft language on
people's perception of reality? Do you share the author's viewpoint?
4. Comment on the following: «Truth is suppressed, not to protect
the country from enemy agents but to protect the Government of the
day against the people» (Roy Hattersley).
5. As Oscar Wilde wrote, «The truth is rarely pure, and never simple».
Dwell on this famous quotation and complete the word forks that are
given below:
a) when the truth is unwelcome you may:

disguise

61
truth

suppress

b) when you are ready to accept the truth:

admit
truth

9. Переведите письменно со словарем следующий отрывок.


Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
Посол США в России Майкл Макфол (Michael McFaul) начал свою
деятельность далеко не лучшим образом. Архитектор
«перезагрузки» (это драматичное название получила не слишком
драматическая политика нерешительного сотрудничества США с
Россией по ограниченному кругу вопросов, начатая
администрацией Обамы) не может прожить и неделю-другую, не
ляпнув чтонибудь, ставящее его самого в неловкое положение.
Следует при этом отметить, что русские тоже не упускают ни
единого шанса раздразнить и спровоцировать Макфола, а
изрядная часть их возмущения выглядит лицемерной и
наигранной. Впрочем, Макфол часто сам оказывается злейшим
врагом самому себе, когда отвечает на вопросы и подначки
примерно так, как и следовало бы ожидать от идеалистически
настроенного профессора политологии.
Искренность и серьезность, которыми Макфол обладает в
избытке, очень полезны для ученого, но исключительно вредны
для дипломата. Сергея Лаврова таким блестящим дипломатом
делает в том числе способность спокойно говорить явную ложь –
что-нибудь вроде: «Мы поддерживаем не правительство Сирии, а
план Кофи Аннана, адресованный как властям, так и вооруженной
оппозиции».
62
Это звучит некрасиво, но дипломат должен уметь умалчивать
правду и, не колеблясь, противоречить своим прежним словам.
Судя по всему, Макфол в этом не слишком хорош.
Повод для очередной бури дала вполне оптимистическая по
тону презентация Макфола в московской Высшей школе
экономики. Демонстрируя слайды, посвященные успехам
«перезагрузки», посол заявил, что русские хотели договориться об
обмене уступками по вопросам, не связанным друг с другом (это
правда), пытались подкупить киргизское правительство, чтобы
оно прогнало американских военных с авиабазы «Манас» (это
правда), телеканал RT пропагандирует российскую точку зрения в
ущерб американской (это тоже правда).
Однако грязное белье такого рода не принято выносить на
публику. При закрытых дверях можно сколько угодно яростно
спорить, но на публике дипломат должен встать перед камерами,
улыбнуться и сказать – вежливо и почтительно, что «мы
продолжаем развивать отношения с нашими российскими
партнерами».
Российское министерство иностранных дел в ответ сделало в
адрес Макфола оскорбительный дипломатический жест,
разместив в своем Твиттере несколько сообщений, ядовитый и
ехидный тон которых было трудно не заметить. Яснее
продемонстрировать неудовольствие было просто невозможно –
разве что созвать пресс-конференцию и начать стучать
ботинками по трибуне.
Хотя непосредственные причины последнего скандала
восходят к академическому прошлому Макфола и проистекают из
его привычки к прямоте в речи, на деле в его основе – более
глубокие структурные проблемы в американо-российских
дипломатических отношениях. А конкретнее – тот факт, что США
и Россия кардинально расходятся по целому ряду важных
вопросов. Я хочу также отметить то, что США и Россия исчерпали
или практически исчерпали возможности перезагрузки,
дипломатический такт мог бы лишь отчасти скрыть эту простую
истину, но не мог бы спрятать ее полностью.

63
Самый важный вывод из этого инцидента, который скоро
забудется, заключается не в том, что Макфол – плохой посол, и не
в том, что нам стоило бы лучше готовить наших послов к
неминуемым компромиссам с честностью, которые необходимы
дипломату. Главное в этом эпизоде то, что он наглядно
показывает ограничения, присущие «перезагрузке».
Злоключения Макфола лишь частично связаны с
особенностями его личности и биографии. В целом, они отражают
нечто более глубокое – а именно то обстоятельство, что у США и
России очень разные интересы и очень разные взгляды на то, как
функционирует мир.

UNIT 5. INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS BINDING AT


INTERNATIONAL LAW: TREATIES

Over the past centuries, state practice has developed a variety of


terms to refer to international instruments by which states establish
rights and obligations among themselves: treaties, agreements,
conventions. However, a fair number of additional terms have been
employed, such as «statutes», «covenants», «accords» and others. In
spite of this diversity of terminology, no precise nomenclature exists. In
fact, the meaning of the terms used is variable, changing from State to
State, from region to region and instrument to instrument. Some of the
terms can easily be interchanged: an instrument that is designated
«agreement» might also be called «treaty».
The title assigned to such international instruments thus has
normally no overriding legal effects. The title may follow habitual uses
or may relate to the particular character or importance sought to be

64
attributed to the instrument by its parties. The degree of formality
chosen will depend upon the gravity of the problems dealt with and
upon the political implications and intent of the parties.
Although these instruments differ from each other by title, they all
have common features and international law has applied basically the
same rules to all of these instruments. These rules are the result of long
practice among the States, which have accepted them as binding norms
in their mutual relations. Therefore, they are regarded as international
customary law. Since there was a general desire to codify these
customary rules, two international conventions were negotiated. The
1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties («1969 Vienna
Convention»), which entered into force on 27 January 1980, contains
rules for treaties concluded between States. The 1986 Vienna
Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International
Organizations or between International Organizations («1986 Vienna
Convention»), which has still not entered into force, added rules for
treaties with international organizations as parties. Both the 1969
Vienna Convention and the 1986 Vienna Convention do not distinguish
between the different designations of these instruments. Instead, their
rules apply to all of those instruments as long as they meet certain
common requirements.
Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations provides that «every
treaty and every international agreement entered into by any Member
State of the United Nations after the present Charter comes into force
shall as soon as possible be registered with the Secretariat and
published by it». All treaties and international agreements registered or
filed and recorded with the Secretariat since 1946 are published in the
UNTS. By the terms «treaty» and «international agreement», referred to
in Article 102 of the Charter, the broadest range of instruments is
covered. Although the General Assembly of the UN has never laid down
a precise definition for both terms and never clarified their mutual
relationship, Art.1 of the General Assembly Regulations to Give Effect to
Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations provides that the
obligation to register applies to every treaty or international agreement
«whatever its form and descriptive name». In the practice of the
Secretariat under Article 102 of the UN Charter, the expressions

65
«treaty» and «international agreement» embrace a wide variety of
instruments, including unilateral commitments, such as declarations by
new Member States of the UN accepting the obligations of the UN
Charter, declarations of acceptance of the compulsory jurisdiction of
the International Court of Justice under Art.36 (2) of its Statute and
certain unilateral declarations that create binding obligations between
the declaring nation and other nations. The particular designation of an
international instrument is thus not decisive for the obligation
incumbent on the Member States to register it.
It must however not be concluded that the labelling of treaties is
haphazard or capricious. The very name may be suggestive of the
objective aimed at, or of the accepted limitations of action of the parties
to the arrangement. Although the actual intent of the parties can often
be derived from the clauses of the treaty itself or from its preamble, the
designated term might give a general indication of such intent. A
particular treaty term might indicate that the desired objective of the
treaty is a higher degree of cooperation than ordinarily aimed for in
such instruments. Other terms might indicate that the parties sought to
regulate only technical matters. Finally, treaty terminology might be
indicative of the relationship of the treaty with a previously or
subsequently concluded agreement.

TEXT 9.

Treaties

The term «treaty» can be used as a common generic term or as a


particular term which indicates an instrument with certain
characteristics.
(a) Treaty as a generic term: The term «treaty» has regularly
been used as a generic term embracing all instruments binding at
international law concluded between international entities, regardless
of their formal designation. Both the 1969 Vienna Convention and the
1986 Vienna Convention confirm this generic use of the term «treaty».
The 1969 Vienna Convention defines a treaty as «an international

66
agreement concluded between States in written form and governed by
international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two
or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation».
The 1986 Vienna Convention extends the definition of treaties to
include international agreements involving international organizations
as parties. In order to speak of a «treaty» in the generic sense, an
instrument has to meet various criteria. First of all, it has to be a binding
instrument, which means that the contracting parties intended to
create legal rights and duties. Secondly, the instrument must be
concluded by states or international organizations with treaty-making
power. Thirdly, it has to be governed by international law. Finally the
engagement has to be in writing. Even before the 1969 Vienna
Convention on the Law of Treaties, the word «treaty» in its generic
sense had been generally reserved for engagements concluded in
written form.
(b) Treaty as a specific term: There are no consistent rules when
state practice employs the terms «treaty» as a title for an international
instrument. Usually the term «treaty» is reserved for matters of some
gravity that require more solemn agreements. Their signatures are
usually sealed and they normally require ratification. Typical examples
of international instruments designated as «treaties» are Peace
Treaties, Border Treaties, Delimitation Treaties, Extradition Treaties
and Treaties of Friendship, Commerce and Cooperation. The use of the
term «treaty» for international instruments has considerably declined
in the last decades in favour of other terms.

1. Проанализируйте перевод Североатлантического


договора на русский язык.

The North Atlantic Treaty

Washington D.C. 4 April 1949

67
The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and
principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in
peace with all peoples and all governments.
They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage
and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of
democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. They seek to promote
stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area.
They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for
the preservation of peace and security. They therefore agree to this
North Atlantic Treaty.
Article 1.
The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United
Nations, to settle any international dispute in which they may be
involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace
and security and justice are not endangered, and to refrain in their
international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner
inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.
Article 2.
The Parties will contribute toward the further development of
peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free
institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles
upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting
conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate
conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage
economic collaboration between any or all of them.
Article 3.
In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this Treaty, the
Parties, separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective
self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and
collective capacity to resist armed attack.
Article 4.
The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of
them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any
of the Parties is threatened.
Article 5.

68
The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them
in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them
all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs,
each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-
defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations,
will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith,
individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it
deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and
maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.
Article 7.
This Treaty does not affect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting
in any way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties
which are members of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility
of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and
security.
Article 8.
Each Party declares that none of the international engagements now
in force between it and any other of the Parties or any third State is in
conflict with the provisions of this Treaty, and undertakes not to enter
into any international engagement in conflict with this Treaty.
Article 9.
The Parties hereby establish a Council, on which each of them shall
be represented, to consider matters concerning the implementation of
this Treaty. The Council shall be so organised as to be able to meet
promptly at any time. The Council shall set up such subsidiary bodies as
may be necessary; in particular it shall establish immediately a defence
committee which shall recommend measures for the implementation of
Articles 3 and 5.
Article 10.
The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other
European State in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and
to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area to accede to this
Treaty. Any State so invited may become a Party to the Treaty by
depositing its instrument of accession with the Government of the
United States of America. The Government of the United States of

69
America will inform each of the Parties of the deposit of each such
instrument of accession.
Article 11.
This Treaty shall be ratified and its provisions carried out by the
Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
The instruments of ratification shall be deposited as soon as possible
with the Government of the United States of America, which will notify
all the other signatories of each deposit. The Treaty shall enter into
force between the States which have ratified it as soon as the
ratifications of the majority of the signatories, including the ratifications
of Belgium, Canada, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United
Kingdom and the United States, have been deposited and shall come
into effect with respect to other States on the date of the deposit of their
ratifications.
Article 12.
After the Treaty has been in force for ten years, or at any time
thereafter, the Parties shall, if any of them so requests, consult together
for the purpose of reviewing the Treaty, having regard for the factors
then affecting peace and security in the North Atlantic area, including
the development of universal as well as regional arrangements under
the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international
peace and security.
Article 13.
After the Treaty has been in force for twenty years, any Party may
cease to be a Party one year after its notice of denunciation has been
given to the Government of the United States of America.
Article 14.
This Treaty, of which the English and French texts are equally
authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the
United States of America.

2. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
1) to reaffirm their faith in; 2) the Charter of the United Nations; 3)
desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments; 4) to
safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their

70
peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and
the rule of law; 5) to promote stability and well-being; 6) to unite efforts
for collective defence; 7) preservation of peace and security; 8) to
undertake; 9) to settle any international dispute by peaceful means; 10)
to endanger international peace and security and justice; 11) to refrain
in their international relations from the threat or use of force; 12)
inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations; 13) to contribute
toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international
relations; 14) to bring about a better understanding of; 15) to promote
conditions of stability and well-being; 16) to eliminate conflict in their
international economic policies; 17) to encourage economic
collaboration; 18) to achieve the objectives of this Treaty; 19)
separately and jointly; 20) to accede to this Treaty; 21) to deposit its
instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of
America; 21) to ratify; 22) in accordance with their respective
constitutional processes; 23) instruments of ratification; 24) to enter
into force; 25) to cease to be a Party; 26) to give notice of denunciation.

3. Переведите на английский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
1) подтверждают свою веру в цели и принципы Устава
Организации Объединенных Наций; 2) жить в мире со всеми
народами и правительствами; 3) преисполнены решимости
защищать свободу, общее наследие и цивилизацию своих народов,
основанные на принципах демократии, свободы личности и
законности; 4) преследуют цель укрепления стабильности и
повышения благосостояния в Североатлантическом регионе; 5)
объединить свои усилия с целью создания коллективной обороны
и сохранения мира и безопасности; 6) в соответствии с Уставом
Организации Объединенных Наций; 7) мирно решать все
международные споры; 8) ставить под угрозу международный
мир, безопасность и справедливость; 9) воздерживаться от
любого применения силы или угрозы ее применения; 10)
содействовать дальнейшему развитию международных
отношений мира и дружбы путем укрепления своих свободных

71
институтов; 11) стремиться к устранению противоречий в своей
международной экономической политике.

4. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие


словосочетания:
by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid –
порознь и совместно – to maintain and develop their individual and
collective capacity to resist armed attack – самостоятельные усилия
и взаимопомощь – to threaten territorial integrity, political
independence or security – поддерживать и наращивать свой
индивидуальный и коллективный потенциал борьбы с
вооруженным
нападением – in exercise of the right of individual or collective
selfdefence – территориальная целостность, политическая
независимость или безопасность окажутся под угрозой –
individually and in concert with the other Parties – счесть
необходимым – to deem necessary – включая применение
вооруженной силы с целью восстановления и последующего
сохранения безопасности – to restore and maintain the security –
брать на себя какие-либо международные обязательства,
противоречащие настоящему договору – rights and obligations
under the Charter – быстро собираться в любое время –
responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of
international peace and security – совет обязуется создавать
вспомогательные органы – to be in force – по всеобщему согласию
– to enter into any international engagement – присоединиться к
настоящему договору – to consider matters concerning the
implementation of this treaty – передача на хранение правительству
Соединенных Штатов Америки документа о своем присоединении
к настоящему договору – to meet promptly at any time – настоящий
договор подлежит ратификации – to set up subsidiary bodies –
ратификационные грамоты – to recommend measures – выйти из
настоящего договора – by unanimous agreement – уведомление о
расторжении настоящего договора.
5. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания.
Проанализируйте их перевод на русский язык.

72
PEACE

countries in/at with each other


Although the two countries were officially at peace, fighting continued
to achieve/bring about/establish/make The two countries made
peace in 1994 to live in/keep/promote/maintain/safeguard/preserve
UN troops are trying to keep the peace in the region
to break/disturb/threaten/endanger
durable/lasting/permanent
fragile/uneasy/relative
world ; campaigner; agreement; negotiations / talks; initi-
ative; envoy

SECUIRITY

forces/services/adviser/guard/measures/policy/risk
collective/national/state/internal/personal/home
heightened/strict/tight/lax
to ensure/ provide/ maintain/ strengthen/ tighten/ improve/ re-
store/ preserve/ safeguard
We need to tighten security around the hotel during the president's
visit.
to compromise/undermine/threaten
The leaking of secrets from the Defence Ministry has compromised
national security.
to be lulled into a false sense of

6. Составьте словосочетания из слов в правой и левой


колонках:

1) to reaffirm a) from the threat or use of force


2) to eliminate b) agreement

73
3) to resist c) peace with all peoples and all
governments
4) to threaten d) efforts for collective defence
5) to achieve e) any international dispute by peaceful
means
6) to promote f) freedom, common heritage and
civilisation of their peoples
7) to endanger g) necessary
8) to settle h) international peace and security and
justice
9) to refrain i) its instrument of accession
10) to unite j) territorial integrity, political
independence or security
11) to safeguard k) armed attack
12) to live in l) under the Charter
13) to deem m) into any international engagement
14) by unanimous n) stability and well-being
15) to re- o) the objectives of this Treaty
store/maintain/preserve
16) rights and obligations p) their faith in
17) to enter q) conflict
18) to deposit r) peace and security

7. Ролевая игра. Представьте, что вы – лидеры крупнейших


экономик мира. Обсудите и подпишите договор о
добрососедстве, мире и коллективной безопасности. Укажите
условия присоединения для других стран. Используйте
следующие выражения:
a desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments; to

74
safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of our
peoples; to promote stability and well-being in the region; to unite
efforts for collective defence; preservation of peace and security; to
settle any international dispute by peaceful means; to endanger
international peace and security and justice; to refrain in their
international relations from the threat or use of force; to contribute
toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international
relations; to promote conditions of stability and well-being; to eliminate
conflict in their international economic policies; to encourage military
collaboration; to maintain and develop our individual and collective
capacity to resist armed attack; to threaten territorial integrity, political
independence or security; to restore and maintain the security;
responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of
international peace and security; to enter into any international
engagement; by unanimous agreement; to invite any other state; to
accede to this Treaty; to deposit its instrument of accession with; to
ratify; in accordance with their respective constitutional processes;
instruments of ratification; to enter into force; to give notice of
denunciation.

8. Переведите письменно на английский язык. Обсудите


различные варианты перевода.

Глава МИД Германии признал ошибки миссии НАТО


в Афганистане
© РИА Новости. Алексей Никольский

МОСКВА, 12 окт. Министр иностранных дел Германии


ФранкВальтер Штайнмайер считает, что в ходе операции НАТО в
Афганистане был совершен ряд ошибок, однако отказался
признать миссию провальной.
«Многое свидетельствует о том, что крупнейшей нашей
ошибкой было возлагать на эту миссию слишком большие
надежды без вложения значительных средств».
«Мы хотели не только ликвидировать исходившую от
Афганистана угрозу в сфере безопасности, но и спешным

75
порядком привести эту страну в будущее, которое соответствует
нашим представлениям… Между тем в Афганистане процветает
наркоторговля, на всех уровнях присутствует коррупция, в
некоторых районах господствуют могущественные полевые
командиры, местами по-прежнему царит насилие. Мы слишком
рано стали праздновать победу над исламским радикальным
движением
“Талибан”», – цитирует Штайнмайера медиакомпания Deutsche
Welle.
Компания подчеркивает, что вместе с этим глава
внешнеполитического ведомства отказался признавать
афганскую миссию провальной. Он считает, что от Афганистана
больше не исходит террористическая угроза для мирового
сообщества и по сравнению с Сирией и Ираком события в стране
выглядят не столь удручающими.
В 2014 г. завершается военная стадия операции США и их
союзников по НАТО в Афганистане. Как ранее сообщали
высокопоставленные представители альянса, вместо
контингента Международных сил по обеспечению безопасности в
Афганистане (ISAF), максимальный размер которого составлял
139 тыс. человек, в начале 2015 г. в стране будет размещено около
12 тыс. человек. Миссия будет небоевой – натовские
военнослужащие смогут обороняться, но не будут вовлечены в
боевые действия вместе с афганскими силами безопасности.

TEXT 10.

1. Переведите текст договора о добрососедстве, дружбе и


сотрудничестве между Россией и Китаем.

Treaty of good-neighborliness and friendly


cooperation between the people's Republic of China
аnd the Russian Federation

The People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation,

76
In view of the historical tradition of good-neighborliness and
friendship between the people of China and Russia,
Hold that the Sino-Russian Joint Declarations and Statements signed
and adopted by the heads of states of the two countries from 1992 to
2000 are of great significance to the development of bilateral relations,
Firmly believe that to consolidate the friendly and good neighborly
ties and mutual cooperation in all fields between the two countries is in
conformity with the fundamental interests of the peoples of the two
countries and conducive to the maintenance of peace, security and
stability in Asia and the world,
Reiterate the obligations committed by each party in accordance
with the Charter of the United Nations and other international treaties
of which it is a signatory,
With the hope of promoting and establishing a just and fair new world
order based on universally recognized principles and norms of
international laws,
Endeavor to enhance relations between the two countries to a
completely new level, Determined to develop the friendship between
the people of the two countries from generation to generation, Have
reached agreement as follows.
Article. 1.
In accordance with universally recognized principles and norms of
international laws and on the basis of the Five Principles of mutual
respect of state sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual
nonaggression, mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs,
equality and mutual benefit and peaceful co-existence, the contracting
parties shall develop the strategic cooperative partnership of
goodneighborliness, friendship and cooperation, equality and trust
between the two countries from a long-term view and in a
comprehensive manner.
Article 2.
In handling their mutual relations, the contracting parties will
neither resort to the use of force; or the threat of force nor take
economic and other means to bring pressure to bear against the other.
The contracting parties will only solve their differences through
peaceful means by adhering to the provisions of the «United Nations

77
Charter» and the principles and norms of universally recognized
international laws. The contracting parties reaffirm their commitment
that they will not be the first to use nuclear weapons against each other
nor target strategic nuclear missiles against each other.
Article 5.
The Russian side reaffirms that the principled stand on the Taiwan
issue as expounded in the documents signed and adopted by the heads
of states of the two countries remain unchanged. The Russian side
acknowledges that there is only one China in the world, that the
People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the
whole of China and that Taiwan is an inalienable part of China.
Article 6.
The contracting parties point out that each has no territorial claim
on the other. The contracting parties will adhere to the principles of
non-encroachment upon territories and national boundaries as
stipulated in international laws and strictly observe the national
boundary between the two countries.
Article 8.
The contracting parties shall not enter into any alliance or be a party
to any bloc nor shall they embark on any such action, including the
conclusion of such treaty with a third country which compromises the
sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of the other contracting
party. Neither side of the contracting parties shall allow its territory to
be used by a third country to jeopardize the national sovereignty,
security and territorial integrity of the other contracting party.
Article 9.
When a situation arises in which one of the contracting parties
deems that peace is being threatened and undermined or its security
interests are involved or when it is confronted with the threat of
aggression, the contracting parties shall immediately hold contacts and
consultations in order to eliminate such threats.
Article 11.
The contracting parties stand for the strict observation of
universally acknowledged principles and norms of international laws
and oppose any action of resorting to the use of force to bring pressure
to bear on others or interfering in the internal affairs of a sovereign

78
state under all sorts of pretexts and both are ready to make positive
efforts to strengthen peace, stability, development and cooperation
throughout the world. The contracting parties are against any action
which may constitute a threat to international stability, security and
peace and will conduct mutual co-ordination with regard to the
prevention of international conflicts and bringing about their political
settlement.
Article 12.
The contracting parties shall actively promote the process of nuclear
disarmament and the reduction of chemical weapons, promote and
strengthen the regimes on the prohibition of biological weapons and
take measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction.
Article 20.
The contracting parties shall actively cooperate in cracking down
terrorists, splittists and extremists, and in taking strong measures
against criminal activities of organized crimes, illegal trafficking of
drugs, psychotropic substances and weapons.
Article 25.
The term of validity of the present treaty is twenty years. If neither
side of the contracting parties notify the other in writing of its desire to
terminate the treaty one year before the treaty expires, the treaty shall
automatically be extended for another five years and shall thereafter be
continued in force in accordance with this provision.

Language Note:
«splittist» adj. – (pejorative, Marxism, China) favoring a split or
separation from the Party or the nation.
The Politburo had already met on 1 April to agree that the Nanking
incident had been splittist and supportive of Teng Hsiao-ping.
«splittist» n. – (China, Korea, pejorative) separatist, sectarian.
Our Party and the Government of the Republic have till now done all
they can to check and frustrate the colonial enslavement policy of US
imperialism towards Korea and the nation-splitting manoeuvres of the
domestic and foreign splittists and achieve the independent, peaceful
reunification of the country.

79
«Trouble. I'll tell you frankly, little Han, we have a lot of splittists here.
You know what I mean by a splittist?» «Of course. People who want to split
the Motherland».

2. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
1) good-neighborliness and friendship; 2) bilateral relations; 3) to
firmly believe; 4) to consolidate the friendly and good neighborly ties
and mutual cooperation in all fields; 5) in conformity with the
fundamental interests of the peoples of the two countries; 6) conducive
to the maintenance of peace, security and stability; 7) to reiterate the
obligations committed by each party; 8) in accordance with the Charter
of the United Nations; 9) signatory; 10) to promote and establish a just
and fair new world order based on universally recognized principles
and norms of international laws; 11) to enhance relations between the
two countries to a completely new level 12) to have no territorial claim
on the other; 13) to adhere to the principles of nonencroachment upon
territories and national boundaries; 14) to strictly observe the national
boundary; 15) to enter into any alliance; 16) to embark on any such
action; 17) to compromise the sovereignty, security and territorial
integrity; 18) to jeopardize the national sovereignty, security and
territorial integrity; 19) to threaten and undermine peace; 20) to be
confronted with the threat of aggression; 21) to eliminate such threats;
22) to stand for the strict observation of universally acknowledged
principles; 23) to interfere in the internal affairs of a sovereign state
under all sorts of pretexts; 24) to constitute a threat to international
stability; 25) nuclear disarmament and the reduction of chemical
weapons; 26) prohibition of biological weapons; 27) to prevent the
proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; 28) to crack down
terrorists, splittists and extremists; 29) term of validity of the present
treaty; 30) to terminate the treaty; 31) to expire; 32) treaty shall
automatically be extended.

3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:

80
1) исторические традиции добрососедства и дружбы между
народами России и Китая; 2) развитие двусторонних отношений;
3) укрепление дружбы, добрососедства и взаимовыгодного
сотрудничества; 4) способствовать утверждению нового
справедливого и рационального международного порядка,
основанного на строгом соблюдении общепризнанных принципов
и норм международного права; 5) поднять отношения между ними
на качественно новый уровень; 6) принципы взаимного уважения
суверенитета и территориальной целостности, взаимного
ненападения, невмешательства во внутренние дела друг друга,
равенства и взаимной выгоды, мирного сосуществования; 7)
применять силу или угрозу силой, не использовать друг против
друга экономические и иные способы давления и разрешать
разногласия между собой исключительно мирными средствами в
соответствии с положениями Устава ООН; 8) не применять
первыми друг против друга ядерное оружие, а также взаимно не
нацеливать стратегические ядерные ракеты; 9) российская
сторона подтверждает неизменность своей принципиальной
позиции по тайваньскому вопросу; 10) неотъемлемая часть; 11)
отмечает отсутствие взаимных территориальных претензий; 12)
неукоснительно соблюдать государственную границу; 13)
взаимное сокращение вооруженных сил; 14) нанести ущерб
суверенитету, безопасности и территориальной целостности.
4. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие
словосочетания:
mutual respect of state sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual
non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other's internal
affairs, equality and mutual benefit and peaceful co-existence – создать
угрозу миру, нарушить мир или затронуть интересы безопасности
– to resort to the use of force or the threat of force – возникновение
угрозы агрессии против одной из сторон – to bring pressure to bear
against the other – стороны выступают за строгое соблюдение
принципов и норм права, против любых действий, направленных
на оказание силового давления или на вмешательство под каким-
либо предлогом во внутренние дела суверенных государств – to
solve their differences through peaceful means – активно

81
содействуют процессу ядерного и химического разоружения,
осуществляют меры по предотвращению распространения
оружия массового уничтожения – to adhere to the provisions of the
«United Nations Charter» – сотрудничать в области борьбы с
терроризмом, сепаратизмом и экстремизмом, а также в области
борьбы с организованной преступностью, незаконным оборотом
наркотических средств, психотропных веществ, оружия и другой
преступной деятельностью – to reaffirm their commitment –
настоящий договор действует в течение 20 лет – to use nuclear
weapons against each other nor target strategic nuclear missiles against
each other – срок действия автоматически продлевается на –
principled stand on the Taiwan issue – истечение соответствующего
периода действия – sole legal government – уведомить в
письменной форме – прекратить действие договора – inalienable
part of China.

5. Составьте словосочетания из слов в правой и левой


колонках:

1) to have no territoriala) the national boundary


2) to solve b) integrity
3) inalienable c) to a completely new level
4) principled d) with the threat of aggression
5) to adhere e) sovereignty
6) to bring f) non-encroachment upon territories and
national boundaries
7) to resort g) with the fundamental interests of the
peoples of the two countries
8) state h) the national sovereignty, security and
territorial integrity
9) territorial i) pressure to bear against the other
10) to enhance relations j) weapons of mass destruction
between the two coun-
tries

82
11) in conformity k) disarmament
12) to consolidate l) in the internal affairs of a sovereign state
under all sorts of pretexts
13) bilateral m) and friendship
14) good-neighborliness n) their differences through
peaceful means
15) principles of o) to the provisions of the «United Nations
Charter»
16) to strictly observe p) part of China
17) to enter into q) the friendly and good neighborly ties
18) to compromise r) a threat to international stability
19) to jeopardize s) terrorists, splittists and extremists
20) to be confronted t) stand on the Taiwan issue
21) to interfere u) relations
22) to constitute v) the sovereignty, security and territorial
integrity
23) to crack down w) to the use of force or the threat of force
24) nuclear x) claim on the other
25) proliferation of y) any alliance

6. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания.


Проанализируйте их перевод на русский язык.

GOOD-NEIGHBOURLINESS

good-neighborliness and friendship; bilateral relations; to consoli-


date the friendly and good neighborly ties and mutual cooperation in all
fields; in conformity with the fundamental interests of the peoples of
the two countries; conducive to the maintenance of peace, security and
stability; in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations; to
promote and establish a just and fair new world order based on
universally recognized principles and norms of international laws; to
enhance relations between the two countries to a completely new level.
83
STATE BOUNDARIES

mutual respect of state sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual


non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other's internal
affairs, equality and mutual benefit and peaceful co-existence; to have
no territorial claim on the other; to adhere to the principles of
nonencroachment upon territories and national boundaries; to strictly
observe the national boundary; to compromise the sovereignty,
security and territorial integrity; inalienable part of China; to jeopardize
the national sovereignty, security and territorial integrity; to stand for
the strict observation of universally acknowledged principles; to
interfere in the internal affairs of a sovereign state under all sorts of
pretexts; to crack down terrorists, splittists and extremists.

MILITARY COOPERATION

to be confronted with the threat of aggression; to threaten and


undermine peace; to eliminate such threats; to constitute a threat to
international stability; to resort to the use of force or the threat of force;
to bring pressure to bear against the other; to solve their differences
through peaceful means; to use nuclear weapons against each other nor
target strategic nuclear missiles against each other; principled stand on
the Taiwan issue; sole legal government; to enter into any alliance; to
threaten and undermine peace; to eliminate such threats; to constitute
a threat to international stability; nuclear disarmament and the
reduction of chemical weapons; prohibition of biological weapons; to
prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; to crack
down terrorists.

8. Переведите письменно на английский язык. Обсудите


различные варианты перевода.

84
«Крепкая дружба и плодотворное сотрудничество» –полный
текст Посла Китая в России Ли Хуэй по случаю 65-й годовщины
установления дипотношений между Китаем и Россией.

Крепкая дружба и плодотворное сотрудничество

За более чем 50 лет вначале китайско-советские, а затем –


китайско-российские отношения прошли непростой путь,
пережив несколько этапов развития и изменений:
дружественный союз, ухудшение взаимоотношений, отношения
дружбы и добрососедства, которые в конце концов переросли в
стратегическое взаимодействие и партнерство. Можно сказать,
что данные отношения выдержали испытания историей, они
следовали веяниям эпохи, принося благо как народам двух стран,
так и народам всего мира. Они стали классическим образцом
гармоничного сосуществования, сотрудничества и обоюдного
выигрыша между соседними странами, великими державами и
новыми экономическими субъектами.
65-летнее развитие китайско-российских отношений
подтвердило, что стратегия и тактика, совместно выбранные
двумя странами, представляются правильными. Только
неизменно придерживаясь идеи развития политических
отношений в духе равноправного взаимодействия и взаимного
уважения, неизменно руководствуясь принципом взаимной
выгоды, пользы, сотрудничества и обоюдного выигрыша, следуя
духу гармонии и инклюзивности, вечной дружбы и мира, следуя
концепции совместного противодействия кризисам и
согласованных действий в области безопасности, мы можем
непрерывно углублять политическое взаимодоверие между
двумя странами. Только таким образом можно в ходе
сотрудничества достичь взаимной выгоды и обоюдного
выигрыша и обеспечить долгосрочное, здоровое и стабильное
развитие взаимоотношений двух стран.
В ходе 65-летнего развития на фоне колоссальных перемен и
масштабного урегулирования, происходящих в мире,
китайскороссийские отношения всестороннего стратегического

85
взаимодействия и партнерства становятся все более прочными.
Они стали достойным примером стабильных, здоровых и зрелых
государственных взаимоотношений. На фоне непрерывного
распространения глобального финансового кризиса и серьезного
застоя в мировой экономике китайско-российское деловое
сотрудничество демонстрирует тенденцию к дальнейшему
подъему, к тому же становится все более плодотворным и
приносит двум странам и их народам реальную выгоду и пользу.
Политическое взаимодоверие двух стран достигло небывало
высокого уровня, а также стало важным фактором, способным
содействовать благоприятной интерактивности, защитить мир и
стабильность в регионе и во всем мире.
Для жизни отдельно взятого человека 65 лет – достаточно
продолжительный срок, однако для двух бурно развивающихся
держав подобное время напоминает солнце в 8 – 9 ч утра, полное
молодой энергии и жизнеспособности. В настоящее время
китайско-российские отношения находятся на новом
историческом старте, они обретают новые шансы для
дальнейшего развития. Будучи крупными державами, соседними
странами и постоянными членами Совета безопасности ООН,
Китай и Россия выполняют историческую миссию, в основе
которой лежит содействие отечественному развитию, защита
мира и развития во всем мире. Невзирая на любые перемены,
происходящие в мире, любые трудности и препятствия, стоящие
на пути поступательного движения вперед, вера в вечную дружбу
между Китаем и Россией непоколебима, как непоколебима и цель
китайско-российского сотрудничества в деле взаимной выгоды,
обоюдного выигрыша и совместного развития. Мы уверены в том,
что долгосрочные, стабильные и здоровые китайско-российские
отношения непременно принесут счастье народам двух стран,
обязательно внесут значимый вклад в дело мира, сотрудничества
и развития во всем мире.

86
UNIT 6. INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS BINDING AT
INTERNATIONAL LAW:
AGREEMENTS, CONVENTIONS

TEXT 11.

Agreements

The term «agreement» can have a generic and a specific meaning. It


also has acquired a special meaning in the law of regional economic
integration.
(a) Agreement as a generic term: The 1969 Vienna Convention
on the Law of Treaties employs the term «international agreement» in
its broadest sense. On the one hand, it defines treaties as «international
agreements» with certain characteristics. On the other hand, it employs
the term «international agreements» for instruments, which do not
meet its definition of «treaty». Its Art. 3 refers also to «international
agreements not in written form». Although such oral agreements may
be rare, they can have the same binding force as treaties, depending on
the intention of the parties. An example of an oral agreement might be
a promise made by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of one State to his
counterpart of another State. The term «international agreement» in its
generic sense consequently embraces the widest range of international
instruments.
(b) Agreement as a particular term: «Agreements» are usually
less formal and deal with a narrower range of subject-matter than
«treaties». There is a general tendency to apply the term «agreement»
to bilateral or restricted multilateral treaties. It is employed especially
for instruments of a technical or administrative character, which are
signed by the representatives of government departments, but are not
subject to ratification. Typical agreements deal with matters of
economic, cultural, scientific and technical cooperation. Agreements
also frequently deal with financial matters, such as avoidance of double

87
taxation, investment guarantees or financial assistance. The UN and
other international organizations regularly conclude agreements with
the host country to an international conference or to a session of a
representative organ of the Organization. Especially in international
economic law, the term «agreement» is also used as a title for broad
multilateral agreements (e.g. the commodity agreements). The use of
the term «agreement» slowly developed in the first decades of this
century. Nowadays by far the majority of international instruments are
designated as agreements.
(c) Agreements in regional integration schemes: Regional
integration schemes are based on general framework treaties with
constitutional character. International instruments which amend this
framework at a later stage (e.g. accessions, revisions) are also
designated as «treaties». Instruments that are concluded within the
framework of the constitutional treaty or by the organs of the regional
organization are usually referred to as «agreements», in order to
distinguish them from the constitutional treaty. For example, whereas
the Treaty of Rome of 1957 serves as a quasi-constitution of the
European Community, treaties concluded by the EC with other nations
are usually designated as agreements. Also, the Latin American
Integration Association (LAIA) was established by the Treaty of
Montevideo of 1980, but the subregional instruments entered into
under its framework are called agreements.

1. Переведите на русский язык текст Соглашения о двойном


налогообложении между Россией и Сингапуром.

Agreement between the government of the


Russian Federation and the government of
the Republic of Singapore for the avoidance of
double taxation and the prevention of fiscal
evasion with respect to taxes on income

The Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of


the Republic of Singapore, desiring to conclude an Agreement for the
avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with

88
respect to taxes on income and with a view to promote economic
cooperation between the two countries, Have agreed as follows.
Article 1.
This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or
both of the Contracting States.
Article 2.
1. This Agreement shall apply to taxes on income imposed in each
Contracting State, in accordance with the laws of each Contracting State,
irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.
2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on
total income or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from
the alienation of movable or immovable property.
Article 3.
1. For the purposes of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise
requires:
a) the terms «a Contracting State» and «the other Contracting State»
mean the Russian Federation (Russia) or Singapore, as the context
requires;
b) the term «the Russian Federation» means the territory of the
Russian Federation as well as its exclusive economic zone and
continental shelf where the Russian Federation exercises its sovereign
rights and jurisdiction in conformity with the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982;
g) the term «international traffic» means any transport by ship
or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except
when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the
other Contracting State.
h) the term «nationals» means:
- all individuals possessing the citizenship of a Contracting
State;
- all legal persons, partnerships and associations deriving
their status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;
i) the term «competent authority» means:
- in the case of the Russian Federation – the Ministry of Finance or
its authorised representative;

89
- in the case of Singapore, the Minister for Finance or his authorised
representative.
Article 4.
1. For the purposes of this Agreement the term «resident of a
Contracting State means any person who, under the law of that State, is
liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of
management, place of registration or any other criterion of a similar
nature.
2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is
a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be
determined as follows:
a) he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in
which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent
home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident
of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer
(centre of vital interests);
b) if the Contracting State in which he has his centre of vital inter-
ests cannot be determined, or if he does not have a permanent home
available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of
the State in which he has an habitual abode;
c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them,
he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State of which he is a citizen.
Article 5.
1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term «permanent
establishment» means a fixed place of business through which the
business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
Article 23.
Double taxation shall be eliminated as follows.
1. In Russia.
Where a resident of Russia derives income which, in accordance
with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in Singapore, the
amount of tax on that income payable in Singapore shall be credited
against the tax imposed in Russia. The amount of credit, however, shall
not exceed the amount of the tax on that income computed in
accordance with the laws and regulations in Russia.
Article 26.

90
1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall
exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the
provisions of this Agreement and of the laws of the Contracting States.
Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as
confidential in the same manner as information obtained under the
laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities
(including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the
assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect
of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by
the Agreement.
Article 28.
Each of the Contracting States shall notify to the other in writing
through diplomatic channels the completion of the internal procedures
required by the law of that Contracting State for the bringing into force
of this Agreement.
Article 29.
This Agreement shall remain in force indefinitely but either of the
Contracting States may terminate the Agreement through diplomatic
channels, by giving to the other Contracting State written notice of
termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year after
the expiration of five years from the date on which the Agreement
enters into force. In such event, the Agreement shall cease to have effect
in respect of income derived on or after the first day of January of the
calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is
given.

Done at Moscow, this 9th day of September 2002 in duplicate,


in the Russian and English languages, both texts being equally
authentic

2. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания.


Проанализируйте их перевод на русский язык.

RESIDENCE

91
legal/permanent/temporary ; permit; qualification; to change
place of one's ; to establish/take up ; to have one's in.

CITIZENSHIP

interstate/dual/Russian/British etc ; to
have/hold/possess ;
to give/grant ;
to take/acquire/receive/lose ; to
refuse/revoke smb.'s/strip smb of ;
to apply for/give up/renounce one's .

NATIONALITY

dual/foreign ; to have/acquire/adopt/assume/take ;
to retain/change/give up/renounce/lose/grant/refuse
.

3. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
1) to conclude an Agreement for the avoidance of double taxation; 2)
prevention of fiscal evasion; 3) taxes on income; 4) to promote
economic cooperation; 5) Have agreed as follows; 6) this Agreement
shall apply to; 7) resident; 8) to impose taxes; 9) to levy taxes; 10) total
income; 11) taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or
immovable property; 12) exclusive economic zone; 13) to exercise its
sovereign rights and jurisdiction; 14) in conformity with the United
Nations Convention; 15) international traffic; 16) national; 17) to
possess the citizenship; 18) legal persons; 19) to derive income; 20)
competent authority; 21) authorised representative; 22) resident; 23)
to be liable to tax; 24) domicile, residence, place of management, place
of registration.

4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:

92
1) избежание двойного налогообложения; 2) предотвращение
уклонения от налогообложения; налоги на доходы; 3)
содействовать экономическому сотрудничеству; 4) резидент; 5)
взимать налоги; 6) настоящее соглашение распространяется на
налоги на доходы; 7) в соответствии с законодательством каждого
договаривающегося государства; 8) налоги на доходы от
отчуждения движимого или недвижимого имущества; 9)
компетентные органы; 10) исключительная экономическая зона;
11) осуществляет суверенные права и юрисдикцию; 12)
физическое лицо; 13) национальное лицо; 14) гражданство.
5. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие
словосочетания:
by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 – истечение пяти лет с
даты вступления – to determine his status – прекратить действие
настоящего соглашения – to deem smb be a resident – остается в
силе в течение неограниченного срока – permanent home available
to him – завершение внутренних процедур – centre of vital interests
– письменно уведомить по дипломатическим каналам – habitual
abode – вступить в силу – permanent establishment – раскрывать
информацию – to carry on a business – оценка, сбор,
принудительное взыскание – to be exempt from tax –
конфиденциальная информация – to be remitted to or received –
сумма вычета не должна превышать сумму налога на доход – to
eliminate double taxation – сумма налога на такой доход может
вычитаться из налога, взимаемого в России – to be credited against
the tax imposed – облагаться налогами – to exceed the amount of the
tax – устранение двойного налогообложения – to treat as
confidential – осуществлять предпринимательскую деятельность –
to disclose only to persons or authorities – постоянное
представительство – to notify in writing through diplomatic channels
– обычно проживать – completion of the internal procedures – центр
жизненных интересов – to bring into force – располагать
постоянным жильем – to remain in force indefinitely –
местожительство, постоянное место пребывания, место
управления, место регистрации – to terminate the agreement – лицо,
которое в соответствии с законодательством этого государства

93
подлежит в нем налогообложению на основании его
местожительства – expiration of five years.

6. Переведите на английский язык, обращая внимание на


перевод специальной терминологии.
1. Настоящее соглашение применяется также к любым
идентичным или по существу аналогичным налогам на доходы,
которые взимаются после даты подписания настоящего
соглашения в дополнение к существующим налогам либо вместо
них.
2. Компетентные органы договаривающихся государств
уведомят друг друга о любых существенных изменениях,
внесенных в их соответствующие налоговые законы.
3. Прибыль предприятия одного договаривающегося
государства подлежит налогообложению только в этом
государстве, если только такое предприятие не осуществляет
предпринимательскую деятельность в другом
договаривающемся государстве через находящееся там
постоянное представительство.
4. Доходы, получаемые резидентом одного договаривающегося
государства от отчуждения недвижимого имущества,
упомянутого в ст. 6 и расположенного в другом
договаривающемся государстве, могут облагаться налогом в этом
другом договаривающемся государстве.
5. Ничто в настоящем соглашении не затрагивает налоговых
привилегий сотрудников дипломатических миссий или
консульских учреждений, предоставленных в соответствии с
нормами общего международного права или в соответствии с
положениями специальных соглашений.
6. При подписании соглашения об избежании двойного
налогообложения и о предотвращении уклонения от
налогообложения в отношении налогов на доходы, заключенного
сегодня между Правительством Российской Федерации и
Правительством Республики Сингапур, нижеподписавшиеся
согласились с тем, что следующие положения составляют
неотъемлемую часть соглашения.

94
7. Составьте словосочетания из слов в правой и левой
колонках:

avoidance of with the United Nations Convention


prevention of to tax
taxes the citizenship
to impose/levy double taxation
alienation on income
to exercise fiscal evasion
in conformity persons
to possess of movable or immovable property
legal its sovereign rights and jurisdiction
to derive authority
competent taxes
to be liable income
8. Ролевая игра. Представьте, что Вы – глава государства.
Обсудите, с какой страной Вы должны подписать соглашение
о двойном налогообложении. Составьте договор.

TEXT 12.

1. Переведите Соглашение о создании Университета мира.

International agreement for the


establishment of the University for
Peace

The States parties to the present Agreement,

95
Recalling that, by its resolution 34/111 of 14 December 1979, the
General Assembly of the United Nations established an international
commission which, in collaboration with the Government of Costa Rica,
was requested to prepare the organization, structure and setting in
motion of the University for Peace,
Desirous of giving effect to the recommendations of the Commission
on the University for Peace endorsed by the General Assembly at its
thirty-fifth session, Have agreed as follows.
Article 1.
The University for Peace (hereinafter referred to as the University)
is hereby established, to function in accordance with the Charter of the
University for Peace.
Article 2.
1. The headquarters of the University shall be established in Costa
Rica on land donated for this purpose by the Government of Costa Rica.
2. The University shall conclude a headquarters agreement with the
Government of the host country.
Article 3.
The University shall have in the host country such legal capacity and
facilities and shall enjoy such privileges and immunities as are
necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its
purposes.
Article 4.
1. The expenses of the University shall be met from voluntary
contributions made by Governments, by intergovernmental
organizations and by foundations and other non-governmental sources,
and from revenue derived from tuition and related charges.
2. The financing of the University shall not have any financial
implications for the budget of the United Nations or that of the United
Nations University.
Article 7.
The present Agreement shall enter into force on the date on which it
shall have been signed or acceded to by ten States from more than one
continent.
Article 8.

96
The present Agreement, the Arabic, Chinese, English, French,
Russian and Spanish texts of which are equally authentic, shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United.

Annex to the agreement charter of the University for


Peace

Article 1.
The University for Peace shall be an international institution of
higher education for peace established pursuant to the International
Agreement for the Establishment of the University for Peace.
Article 2.
The University is established with a clear determination to provide
humanity with an international institution of higher education for
peace and with the aim of promoting among all human beings the spirit
of understanding, tolerance and peaceful coexistence, to stimulate
cooperation among peoples and to help lessen obstacles and threats to
world peace and progress, in keeping with the noble aspirations
proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations.
Article 15.
1. Irenology, which shall comprise the study of peace, education for
peace and human rights, shall be the main concern of the University.
The studies carried out at the University shall focus on the topic of
international peace. Completion of a programme of studies, including
irenology as a compulsory subject, shall be required for obtaining any
degree granted by the University.

2. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
1) to establish an international commission; 2) in motion of; 3) to
give effect to the recommendations of the Commission; 4) to endorse;
5) to establish hereby; 6) to conclude a headquarters agreement with
the Government of the host country; 7) to enjoy privileges and
immunities; 8) voluntary contributions; 9) intergovernmental
organizations; 10) non-governmental sources; 11) to have any financial
implications for the budget of the United Nations; 12) established

97
pursuant to the International Agreement; 13) a clear determination;
14) to promote among all human beings the spirit of understanding,
tolerance and peaceful coexistence; 15) to stimulate cooperation
among peoples; 16) to lessen obstacles and threats to world peace and
progress; 17) in keeping with the noble aspirations; 18) irenology.

3. Переведите на английский язык, используя слова и


выражения из текста.
1. Университет создан с ясной решимостью обеспечить
человечество международным высшим учебным заведением по
вопросам мира и с целью укрепления между всеми людьми духа
взаимопонимания, терпимости и мирного сосуществования для
поощрения сотрудничества между народами и содействия
уменьшению препятствий и угроз международному миру и
прогрессу в соответствии с благородными целями,
провозглашенными в Уставе Организации Объединенных Наций.
С этой целью университет содействует достижению великой
всеобщей задачи просвещения по вопросам мира с помощью
обучения, исследований, аспирантской подготовки и
распространения знаний, имеющих основополагающее значение
для всестороннего развития человеческой личности и общества
путем проведения межотраслевого исследования всех вопросов,
касающихся мира.
2. Университет обладает правовым статусом, необходимым ему
для достижения своих целей и задач. Он пользуется в своей
деятельности автономией и академической свободой в
соответствии со своей глубоко гуманной целью в рамках Устава
Организации Объединенных Наций и Всеобщей декларации прав
человека.

4. Переведите устно с листа следующие предложения.


Обратите особое внимание на подчеркнутые словосочетания.
1. Непрекращающиеся на протяжении всей истории
человечества войны и возросшая за последние десятилетия
угроза миру подвергают опасности само существование
человеческого рода и свидетельствуют о насущной

98
необходимости того, что не следует более рассматривать мир как
негативную концепцию, завершение конфликта или просто
дипломатический компромисс, а следует добиваться его
установления и обеспечения посредством наиболее ценного и
эффективного средства, имеющегося у человечества, –
образования.
2. Обеспечение мира – первейшая и постоянная обязанность
государств и основная цель Организации Объединенных Наций;
мир – цель ее существования. Однако для достижения этого
высшего блага человечества не было использовано лучшее
средство – образование.
3. Многие государства и международные организации
пытались достичь мира путем разоружения. Следует продолжать
эти усилия; однако факты свидетельствуют о том, что
человечеству не следует испытывать излишний оптимизм, пока
понятие мира не будет привито человеку с раннего возраста.
Необходимо разорвать порочный круг борьбы за мир, которая не
зиждется на образовании.
4. Это задача, которая в настоящее время, в XXI в., стоит перед
всеми государствами и всеми людьми. Необходимо принять
решение, с тем чтобы спасти человеческий род, находящийся под
угрозой войны, путем просвещения по вопросам мира. Поскольку
образование является инструментом науки и техники, оно тем
более должно быть использовано для осуществления этого
основного права человека.

5. Переведите текст Соглашения между Организацией


Объединенных Наций и Республикой Корея.

99
Agreement between The United Nations and the
government of the Republic of Korea regarding
administrative and financial arrangements for the
Asian and Pacific training centre for information and
communication technology for development

Whereas by its resolution 2005/40 of 26 July 2005, the Economic


and Social Council established the Asian and Pacific Training Centre for
Information and Communication Technology for Development in the
Republic of Korea (hereinafter «the Centre»), as decided by the United
Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific in its
resolution 61/6 of 18 May 2005;
Whereas the Government of the Republic of Korea (hereinafter «the
Government») has offered to host the Centre and to provide office
premises for the Centre (hereinafter «the premises»), and to bear its
institutional and operational costs by making a voluntary contribution
in cash to be used by ESCAP in meeting the cost of the operation and
maintenance of the premises, as well as training activities of the Centre
(hereinafter «the Contribution»);
Now Therefore, the United Nations and the Government hereby
agree as follows:
Article 1.
The Government shall provide, without undue delay, the occupancy
and use of suitable premises, comprising approximately one thousand,
six hundred and eighty-nine square metres at the Boribudong 3rd floor,
located at Songdo Techno Park, 994 Dongchun-Dong, Yeonsu-Gu,
Incheon Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea.
Article 3.
The Government shall notify the United Nations in advance in
writing should it become necessary for duly authorized representatives
of the Government to inspect, repair, maintain, or reconstruct the
premises or a portion thereof. The United Nations shall make suitable

100
arrangements to enable such authorized representatives to enter the
premises, under conditions which shall not unreasonably disturb the
carrying out of the functions of the Centre.
Article 4.
The Government shall make every effort to ensure that activities in
the vicinity of the premises shall not adversely affect the use of the
premises by the United Nations.
Article 5.
The United Nations shall take good care of the premises, including
the lighting, bathrooms and lavatory facilities, windows, window
frames, and the fixtures and appurtenances therein, except for
reasonable wear and tear.
Article 6.
1. The United Nations may, after notification in writing to the
Government and subject to the consent of the Government, make
alterations, attach fixtures and erect additions, structures and signs in
or upon the premises, and shall have the right to affix flagpoles, office
signs and insignia outside the building and on the premises. Consent by
the Government is presumed if no objection to the notification has been
received within fifteen (15) working days of delivery of such
notification to the Government.
Article 7.
The United Nations shall have no financial responsibility and shall
not be obligated to make any repairs or replacements made necessary
as a result of damage to the premises caused by civil disturbance, riot
vandalism, aircraft and other aerial devices, war, floods, earthquakes or
force majeure.
Article 8.
1. The United Nations shall ensure that the premises are insured for
a reasonable amount, consistent with the United Nations regulations
and rules, against damage.
Article 11.
1. The Government shall place at the disposal of ESCAP its
Contribution of US$ 7.5 million. This contribution will be used to cover
the institutional and operational costs of the Centre for its first five
years of operation.

101
2. The Government shall deposit the funds in five installments of US$
1.5 million per installment, to be paid annually no later than 31 March
of each year from 2006 to 2010.
Article 13.
All financial accounts and statements related to the trust fund shall
be expressed in United States Dollars.
Article 19.
1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the date when the Parties
have notified each other in writing of the completion of their respective
internal procedures for the entry into force of the Agreement, but in no
event before the Headquarters Agreement.
2. This Agreement shall expire at the end of the five-year period from
the date of its entry into force under paragraph 1 hereof.

6. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
1) to host the Centre and to provide office premises for the Centre;
2) to bear institutional and operational costs; 3) to make a voluntary
contribution in cash; 4) maintenance of the premises; 5) without undue
delay; 6) to notify in advance; 7) duly authorized representatives; 8) to
inspect, repair, maintain, or reconstruct the premises; 9) to make
suitable arrangements; 10) under conditions which shall not
unreasonably disturb; 11) to make every effort; 12) in the vicinity of the
premises; 13) to adversely affect; 14) to take good care of the premises;
15) reasonable wear and tear; 16) to make alterations; 17) to affix
flagpoles; 18) office signs and insignia; 19) to presume consent; 20) to
receive objection; 21) to be obligated to make any repairs or
replacements; 22) civil disturbance, riot vandalism, war, floods,
earthquakes or force majeure; 23) to insure for a reasonable amount
against damage; 24) to place at the disposal of; 25) to cover the
institutional and operational costs; 26) to deposit the funds in five
installments; 27) all financial accounts and statements shall be
expressed in United States Dollars.

102
7. Ролевая игра: встреча между лидером крупной страны и
Генеральным секретарем ООН. Обсудите возможность
саммита ООН в Вашей стране.

TEXT 13.

Conventions

The term «convention» again can have both a generic and a specific
meaning.
(a) Convention as a generic term: Art. 38 (1) (a) of the Statute of
the International Court of Justice refers to «international conventions,
whether general or particular» as a source of law, apart from
international customary rules and general principles of international
law and – as a secondary source – judicial decisions and the teachings
of the most highly qualified publicists. This generic use of the term
«convention» embraces all international agreements, in the same way
as does the generic term «treaty». Black letter law is also regularly
referred to as «conventional law», in order to distinguish it from the
other sources of international law, such as customary law or the general
principles of international law. The generic term «convention» thus is
synonymous with the generic term «treaty».
(b) Convention as a specific term: Whereas in the last century the
term «convention» was regularly employed for bilateral agreements, it
now is generally used for formal multilateral treaties with a broad
number of parties. Conventions are normally open for participation by
the international community as a whole, or by a large number of states.
Usually the instruments negotiated under the auspices of an
international organization are entitled conventions (e.g. Convention on
Biological Diversity of 1992, United Nations Convention on the Law of
the Sea of 1982, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969). The
same holds true for instruments adopted by an organ of an
international organization (e.g. the 1951 ILO Convention concerning
Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal
Value, adopted by the International Labour Conference or the 1989

103
Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the General Assembly
of the UN).

1. Переведите текст Рамочной конвенции ВОЗ по борьбе с


табаком.

WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

Preamble.
The Parties to this Convention,
Determined to give priority to their right to protect public health,
Recognizing that the spread of the tobacco epidemic is a global
problem with serious consequences for public health that calls for the
widest possible international cooperation and the participation of all
countries in an effective, appropriate and comprehensive international
response,
Seriously concerned about the increase in the worldwide
consumption and production of cigarettes and other tobacco products,
particularly in developing countries, as well as about the burden this
places on families, on the poor, and on national health systems,
Recognizing that scientific evidence has unequivocally established
that tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke cause death,
disease and disability, and that there is a time lag between the exposure
to smoking and the other uses of tobacco products and the onset of
tobacco-related diseases,
Alarmed by the increase in smoking and other forms of tobacco
consumption by women and young girls worldwide,
Deeply concerned about the high levels of smoking and other forms
of tobacco consumption by indigenous peoples, Have agreed, as follows.
Article 2.

104
In order to better protect human health, Parties are encouraged to
implement measures beyond those required by this Convention and its
protocols, and nothing in these instruments shall prevent a Party from
imposing stricter requirements.
Article 3.
The objective of this Convention is to protect present and future
generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and
economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to
tobacco smoke by providing a framework for tobacco control measures.
Article 4.
To achieve the objective of this Convention and its protocols and to
implement its provisions, the Parties shall be guided, inter alia, by the
principles set out below:
1. Every person should be informed of the health consequences,
addictive nature and mortal threat posed by tobacco consumption and
exposure to tobacco smoke and effective legislative, executive,
administrative or other measures should be contemplated at the
appropriate governmental level to protect all persons from exposure to
tobacco smoke.
2. Strong political commitment is necessary to develop and support
comprehensive multisectoral measures and coordinated responses.
The participation of civil society is essential in achieving the objective
of the Convention and its protocols.
Article 5.
Each Party shall, in accordance with its capabilities: establish or
reinforce and finance a national coordinating mechanism or focal points
for tobacco control; and adopt and implement effective legislative,
executive, administrative and/or other measures and for preventing
and reducing tobacco consumption.
Article 6.
2. Without prejudice to the sovereign right of the Parties to
determine and establish their taxation policies, each Party should take
account of its national health objectives concerning tobacco control and
adopt or maintain measures which may include: implementing tax
policies and price policies, on tobacco products.
Article 11.

105
1. Each Party shall adopt and implement effective measures to
ensure that: tobacco product packaging and labelling do not promote a
tobacco product by any means that are false, misleading, deceptive or
likely to create an erroneous impression about its characteristics,
health effects, hazards or emissions, including any term, descriptor,
trademark, figurative or any other sign that directly or indirectly
creates the false impression that a particular tobacco product is less
harmful than other tobacco products. Each unit packet and package of
tobacco products also carry health warnings describing the harmful
effects of tobacco use, and may include other appropriate messages.
Article 13.
Each Party shall, in accordance with its constitution or constitutional
principles, undertake a comprehensive ban of all tobacco advertising,
promotion and sponsorship.
Article 14.
Each Party shall develop and disseminate appropriate,
comprehensive and integrated guidelines based on scientific evidence
and best practices, taking into account national circumstances and
priorities, and shall take effective measures to promote cessation of
tobacco use and adequate treatment for tobacco dependence.
Article 16.
1. Each Party shall adopt and implement effective legislative,
executive, administrative or other measures at the appropriate
government level to prohibit the sales of tobacco products to persons
under the age set by domestic law, national law or eighteen.
Article 17.
Parties shall promote economically viable alternatives for tobacco
workers, growers and, as the case may be, individual sellers.
Article 22.
1. The Parties shall cooperate to strengthen their capacity to fulfill
the obligations arising from this Convention, taking into account the
needs of developing country Parties and Parties with economies in
transition.
Article 27.
1. In the event of a dispute between two or more Parties concerning
the interpretation or application of this Convention, the Parties

106
concerned shall seek through diplomatic channels a settlement of the
dispute through negotiation or any other peaceful means of their own
choice, including good offices, mediation, or conciliation. Failure to
reach agreement by good offices, mediation or conciliation shall not
absolve parties to the dispute from the responsibility of continuing to
seek to resolve it.

Language Note:
WHO – (World Health Organisation)
good offices – help given by someone who has authority or can in-
fluence people inter alia− among
other things
2. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и
словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
1) to give priority to; 2) to protect public health; 3) spread of the
tobacco epidemic; 4) to call for the widest possible international
cooperation; 5) comprehensive international response; 6) to be
seriously concerned; 7) worldwide consumption; 8) to place the burden
on families, on the poor, and on national health systems; 9) to establish
unequivocally; 10) exposure to tobacco smoke; 11) to cause death,
disease and disability; 12) to be alarmed by the increase in; 13) to be
deeply concerned about; 14) indigenous peoples; 15) to impose stricter
requirements; 16) to protect present and future generations; 17)
devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences;
18) inter alia; 19) addictive nature and mortal threat; 20) to implement
effective legislative, executive, administrative or other measures; 21)
strong political commitment.

3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
1) поощрять к осуществлению мер; 2) соответствовать нормам
международного права; 3) положения настоящей конвенции и ее
протоколов; 4) заключать дву- или многосторонние соглашения;
5) защита нынешнего и будущих поколений от разрушительных
последствий для здоровья, а также социальных, экологических и
экономических последствий потребления табака и воздействия

107
табачного дыма; 6) постоянно и существенно сокращать
распространенность употребления табака и воздействия
табачного дыма; 7) каждый человек должен быть
проинформирован о последствиях для здоровья, наркотическом
характере и смертельной опасности употребления табака; 8)
эффективные законодательные, исполнительные,
административные или иные меры; 9) необходимость принятия
мер для содействия и поддержки прекращения и уменьшения
употребления табачных изделий в любой форме; 10) создать,
укрепить и финансировать национальный координационный
механизм или координационные органы по борьбе против табака.

4. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие


словосочетания: civil society – эффективные законодательные,
исполнитель-
ные, административные или иные меры – in accordance with its
capabilities – без ущерба для суверенного права – to establish or
reinforce and finance a national coordinating mechanism –
содействовать прекращению употребления табака – to prevent and
reduce tobacco consumption – каждый человек должен быть
проинформирован о последствиях для здоровья, наркотическом
характере и смертельной опасности употребления табака –
without prejudice to the sovereign right – в соответствии со своими
возможностями – to determine and establish their taxation policies –
заключать дву- или многосторонние соглашения – false,
misleading, deceptive or likely to create an erroneous impression – для
предупреждения и сокращения потребления табака – health
effects, hazards or emissions – гражданское общество – to carry
health warnings – создать, укрепить и финансировать
национальный координационный механизм – to undertake a
comprehensive ban of all tobacco advertising – принятия мер для
содействия и поддержки прекращения и уменьшения
употребления табачных изделий в любой форме – to develop and
disseminate appropriate, comprehensive and integrated guidelines.

108
5. Переведите письменно на английский язык следующие
предложения. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.

ВОЗ: в России курят шесть из 10 мужчин и


каждая пятая женщина
08.10.2014, 08:13 «Газета.Ru»

Глава секретариата Рамочной конвенции Всемирной


организации здравоохранения по борьбе с табаком доктор Вера
Луиза да Коста э Сильва заявила, что в России курят шесть из 10
мужчин и каждая пятая женщина, всего 35% населения России.
«Решайте сами: катастрофа это или эпидемия», – сказала
представитель ВОЗ в эксклюзивном интервью «Газете.Ru».
«Еще в России остро стоит проблема пассивного курения: курят
рядом с детьми, беременными женщинами, больными людьми. Я
уж не говорю о работниках сферы туризма, гостиничного и
ресторанного бизнеса, которые постоянно подвергаются
вторичному дыму», – отметила да Коста э Сильва.
По словам эксперта, международный форум с участием
представителей 178 стран, ратифицировавших Рамочную
конвенцию ВОЗ по борьбе с табаком, пройдет именно в Москве,
поскольку у правительства России «есть серьезные намерения
остановить табачную эпидемию». «В этом смысле Россия
находится в тренде большинства стран, которые серьезно
противостоят распространению табака и делают успехи в этом
направлении», – подчеркнула да Коста э Сильва.
Она также сообщила, что 36% населения Земли курят и что за
последние два года, прошедших с предыдущей конференции в
Сеуле, ситуация не изменилась. «Но на разных континентах
ситуация с потреблением табачных изделий разная: в странах
ЮгоВосточной Азии и Африке число курящих немного выросло.
Как и на Ближнем Востоке. В то время как в Европе и в
ЗападноТихоокеанском регионе произошло снижение», –
уточнила представитель ВОЗ.

109
«В Европейском регионе ВОЗ (куда входит и Россия в числе
других 53 наций региона) курят 27% людей старше 15 лет. В США
на начало 2014 г., по оценкам CDC, курили 18% взрослых старше
18 лет (20,5% мужчин и 15,8% женщин)», – добавила она.
Проблемы табачной зависимости будут обсуждать 13 – 18
октября в Москве на международном форуме.

5. Переведите текст о ратификации конвенций.

Ratification

Ratification gives official sanction or approval to a formal document


such as a treaty or constitution. It includes the process of adopting an
international treaty by the legislature, a constitution, or another
nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution)
by the agreement of multiple sub-national entities.
The ratification of international treaties follows the same rules as the
passing of laws in most democracies. Important exceptions are the
United Kingdom and the United States.
In the UK, treaty ratification is a Royal Prerogative, exercised by Her
Majesty's Government,
In the U.S.A., treaty ratification must be advised and consented to by
a two-thirds majority in the U.S. Senate. The Senate does not actually
ratify treaties. Once the Senate has given its advice and consent to
ratification, the President ratifies the treaty by signing an instrument of
ratification. While the United States House of Representatives does not
vote on it at all, the requirement for Senate advice and consent to
ratification makes it considerably more difficult in the US than in other
democracies to rally enough political support for international treaties.
The treaty or legislation does not apply until it has been ratified.
Usually this must be done first by both parties (in July 2006 British
bankers contested their extradition to the US in application of a treaty
not yet ratified in America), or in a multilateral agreement it may be
provided that a quorum (e.g. half) of the signatories must have ratified
it.

110
6. Переведите текст инструмента ратификации.

INSTRUMENT OF RATIFICATION
(by Head of State or Government)

WHEREAS the Treaty (Convention, etc.) was concluded (opened for


signature, etc.) at ... on ... 20___,
AND WHEREAS the said Treaty (Convention, etc.) has been signed
on behalf of the Government of ... on ... 20____,
NOW THEREFORE, I [name and title of the Head of State or
Government] do hereby declare that the Government of ... , having
considered the above-mentioned Treaty (Convention, etc.), ratifies
the same and undertakes faithfully to perform and carry
out all the stipulations therein contained.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF I have signed this instrument of ratification
at ... on ... 20___.
(signed)

7. Составьте документ о ратификации от имени Российской


Федерации по одному из договоров, соглашений или
конвенций, описанных выше.

UNIT 7. FINAL INSTRUMENTS OF


INTERGOVERNMENTAL NEGOTIATIONS
AND VISITS: DECLARATION

111
Final instruments of intergovernmental negotiations
and visits

Final documents of negotiations or visits now embrace a wide range


of important international issues and are becoming more meaningful.
Communiqués as well as joint statements and declarations have
become increasingly widespread, playing a far more important role in
international relations than they used to play in the past. Meetings
between heads of government or state, as well as between ministers for
foreign affairs, to discuss policies or problems of mutual interest to
their countries have become common practice in intergovernmental
relations. The results of such meetings are mainly, for lack of time, not
set out in formal treaties or agreements signed in the traditional
manner. Very often, the participants confine themselves to the drawing
up of a joint statement, declaration or communiqué, handed out
during a press conference and usually published in newspapers.
Although communiqués, joint statements and declarations
(either bilateral or multilateral) are similar in their purpose, here are
certain differences between them. A communiqué is a more general
kind of document. Its prime objective is to inform the press and the
public at large of the results of the talks and of the atmosphere in which
they were held. A joint statement is a document that is more binding
on the sides. It presumes that something substantial has come out of the
negotiations – either in the field of general international problems or in
the field of bilateral relations – and in view of that the participants
decided to issue a joint statement. Finally, a declaration is a still more
weighty and binding document. Declarations proclaim identical views
and joint intentions. All three forms of documents – communiqués, joint
statements and declarations – record the decisions which have been
adopted during the talks (for instance, it is announced that a consular
convention has been signed during the talks, or that an invitation to
make an official visit has been extended or accepted, and so forth). The
language of communiqués is business-like and dryish. Elevation of style
is characteristic of joint statements, and particularly declarations.
The chief merit of communiqués (joint statements or declarations)
lies in a precise, realistic and faithful reflection of the results achieved

112
and of the positions of the sides expounded during the talks. The final
document does not reflect the ups and downs of negotiations but their
end results, and it is in setting down those results on paper that each
phrase, word or punctuation mark should be thoroughly weighed.
In most cases communiqués, joint statements and declarations have
their own protocol part. When, besides negotiations, there has been a
tour of the country, mention is usually made of the cities or important
industrial, scientific or cultural centres or projects that were visited and
of the reception accorded by the population. In listing the participants
in the negotiations, it is important to be very precise in stating their
surnames and initials in conformity with the rules of the language
concerned, and in observing the precedence dictated by the protocol.
The usual pattern of a communiqué, joint statement, or declaration
is as follows: mention is first made of the negotiations (or a visit) that
have taken place and their duration; then follows a reference to the
meetings that have taken place and a list of their participants; then
comes a general appraisal of the atmosphere of the talks and a range of
issues considered; the part setting forth the results of the talks on
international problems usually precedes the one relating to questions
of bilateral relations. If an invitation to pay a visit has been extended,
agreement on that is generally recorded in the final part of a document.
It has been customary to note, at the very end of a final document, the
significance of the negotiations for the development of relationship
between the two countries, as well as for international security.
Final instruments of intergovernmental negotiations are sometimes
drawn up in the form of a memorandum of understanding, which has
become common practice of late.

(From «Modern Diplomacy» by K. Anatoliev)

TEXT 14.

Declaration

The term Declaration is used in various senses. It may relate to


communications made by states as «an explanation and justification of

113
a line of conduct pursued by them in the past, or an explanation of views
and intentions concerning certain matters»; or to such acts as
declarations of war, or of neutrality, or concerning contraband, etc. It
may also be used as «the title of a body of stipulations of a treaty
according to which the parties undertake to pursue in future a certain
line of conduct».
The term «declaration» is used for various international
instruments. However, declarations are not always legally binding. The
term is often deliberately chosen to indicate that the parties do not
intend to create binding obligations but merely want to declare certain
aspirations. Declarations can however also be treaties in the generic
sense intended to be binding at international law. It is therefore
necessary to establish in each individual case whether the parties
intended to create binding obligations. Ascertaining the intention of the
parties can often be a difficult task. Some instruments entitled
«declarations» were not originally intended to have binding force, but
their provisions may have reflected customary international law or may
have gained binding character as customary law at a later stage. Such
was the case with the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Declarations that are intended to have binding effects could be
classified as follows.
(a) A declaration can be a treaty in the proper sense. A significant
example is the Joint Declaration between the United Kingdom and
China on the Question of Hong Kong of 1984.
(b) An interpretative declaration is an instrument that is
annexed to a treaty with the goal of interpreting or explaining the
provisions of the latter.
(c) A declaration can also be an informal agreement with respect
to a matter of minor importance.
(d) A series of unilateral declarations can constitute binding
agreements. A typical example are declarations under the Optional
Clause of the Statute of the International Court of Justice that create
legal bonds between the declarants, although not directly addressed to
each other. Another example is the unilateral Declaration on the Suez
Canal and the arrangements for its operation issued by Egypt in 1957

114
which was considered to be an engagement of an international
character.
Although sometimes declarations (i.e. legally binding agreements)
are important international agreements in themselves, they are more
often appended to a treaty or convention to form a subsidiary compact,
or to place on record some understanding reached or some explanation
given. Ministers for Foreign Affairs, even heads of government or heads
of state, now frequently meet for a few days, even for a few hours, to
discuss policies and problems of common interest to their countries.
These meetings lead to what is sometimes known under the traditional
term of «Declaration». Legal experts are concerned about the obligatory
value of these «declarations of intention» or «statements of policy and
principles», the juridical character of which must still be defined.
Normally, because of their designation as «Declaration» or
«Communiqué» they are assumed to constitute statements of intention
or policy rather than to constitute international commitments, such as
are normally embodied in the customary form of an international
agreement.
The title «Declaration» is also frequently given to agreements
between governments regarding some minor matter, and has been used
in this way for a considerable number of agreements on such subjects
as modification of a former convention, execution of letters of request,
recognition of tonnage certificates, fishery regulations, etc. These may
or may not provide for ratification.

1. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания.


Проанализируйте их перевод на русский язык.

DECLARATION

customs, formal, solemn, ringing, joint, unilateral, political, public


The Russian leader received a ringing declaration of support
yesterday.
to issue, make, sign, adopt

115
The government will issue a formal declaration tomorrow. All four
countries have adopted the declaration against hunting rare animals.
~ about/on, ~ of
the UN declaration on Human Rights, a declaration of war, a ~ of in-
dependence

DECLARE

virtually, immediately, promptly, formally, officially, openly,


publicly, grandly, proudly, loudly, boldly, confidently, firmly, roundly,
stoutly, brightly, solemnly, unanimously, unilaterally
He has virtually declared war on the right-wingers in his party.
Martial law was immediately declared. She proudly declared that she had
once been introduced to the Queen. The communists had unilaterally
declared a ceasefire.
hereby (law or formal)
We, the people of Indonesia, hereby declare Indonesia's independence.

2. Переведите текст декларации по итогам саммита.

Declaration of the Summit on Financial Markets and


the World Economy

1. We, the Leaders of the Group of Twenty, held an initial meeting in


Washington on November 15, 2008, amid serious challenges to the
world economy and financial markets. We are determined to enhance
our cooperation and work together to restore global growth and
achieve needed reforms in the world's financial systems.
2. Over the past months our countries have taken urgent and
exceptional measures to support the global economy and stabilize
financial markets. These efforts must continue. At the same time, we
must lay the foundation for reform to help to ensure that a global crisis,
such as this one, does not happen again. Our work will be guided by a
shared belief that market principles, open trade and investment
regimes, and effectively regulated financial markets foster the

116
dynamism, innovation, and entrepreneurship that are essential for
economic growth, employment, and poverty reduction.
Root Causes of the Current Crisis.
3. During a period of strong global growth, growing capital flows,
and prolonged stability earlier this decade, market participants sought
higher yields without an adequate appreciation of the risks and failed
to exercise proper due diligence. At the same time, weak underwriting
standards, unsound risk management practices, increasingly complex
and opaque financial products, and consequent excessive leverage
combined to create vulnerabilities in the system. Policy-makers,
regulators and supervisors, in some advanced countries, did not
adequately appreciate and address the risks building up in financial
markets, keep pace with financial innovation, or take into account the
systemic ramifications of domestic regulatory actions.
4. Major underlying factors to the current situation were, among
others, inconsistent and insufficiently coordinated macroeconomic
policies, inadequate structural reforms, which contributed to excesses
and ultimately resulted in severe market disruption.
Actions Taken and to Be Taken.
5. We have taken strong and significant actions to date to stimulate
our economies, provide liquidity, strengthen the capital of financial
institutions, protect savings and deposits, address regulatory
deficiencies, unfreeze credit markets, and are working to ensure that
international financial institutions (IFIs) can provide critical support
for the global economy.
6. But more needs to be done to stabilize financial markets and
support economic growth. Economic momentum is slowing
substantially in major economies and the global outlook has weakened.
Many emerging market economies, which helped sustain the world
economy this decade, are still experiencing good growth but
increasingly are being adversely impacted by the worldwide slowdown.
7. Against this background of deteriorating economic conditions
worldwide, we agreed that a broader policy response is needed, based
on closer macroeconomic cooperation, to restore growth, avoid
negative spillovers and support emerging market economies and

117
developing countries. As immediate steps to achieve these objectives,
as well as to address longer-term challenges, we will:
- continue our vigorous efforts and take whatever further actions
are necessary to stabilize the financial system;
- use fiscal measures to stimulate domestic demand to rapid effect,
as appropriate, while maintaining a policy framework conducive to
fiscal sustainability.
Common Principles for Reform of Financial Markets.
8. In addition to the actions taken above, we will implement reforms
that will strengthen financial markets and regulatory regimes so as to
avoid future crises. Regulation is first and foremost the responsibility
of national regulators who constitute the first line of defense against
market instability. However, our financial markets are global in scope,
therefore, intensified international cooperation among regulators and
strengthening of international standards is necessary. Financial
institutions must also bear their responsibility for the turmoil and
should do their part to overcome it including by recognizing losses,
improving disclosure and strengthening their governance and risk
management practices.
9. We commit to implementing policies consistent with the following
common principles for reform:
- strengthening Transparency and Accountability: We will
strengthen financial market transparency, including by enhancing
required disclosure on complex financial products;
- enhancing Sound Regulation: We pledge to strengthen our
regulatory regimes, prudential oversight, and risk management, and
ensure that all financial markets, products and participants are
regulated or subject to oversight, as appropriate to their circumstances.
We will exercise strong oversight over credit rating agencies, consistent
with the agreed and strengthened international code of conduct. We
will also make regulatory regimes more effective over the economic
cycle, while ensuring that regulation is efficient, does not stifle
innovation, and encourages expanded trade in financial products and
services. We commit to transparent assessments of our national
regulatory systems;

118
- promoting Integrity in Financial Markets: We commit to protect
the integrity of the world's financial markets by bolstering investor and
consumer protection, avoiding conflicts of interest, preventing illegal
market manipulation, fraudulent activities and abuse, and protecting
against illicit finance risks arising from non-cooperative jurisdictions.
We will also promote information sharing, including with respect to
jurisdictions that have yet to commit to international standards with
respect to bank secrecy and transparency;
- reinforcing International Cooperation: We call upon our national
and regional regulators to formulate their regulations and other
measures in a consistent manner. Regulators should enhance their
coordination and cooperation across all segments of financial markets,
including with respect to cross-border capital flows;
- reforming International Financial Institutions: We are committed
to advancing the reform of the Bretton Woods Institutions so that they
can more adequately reflect changing economic weights in the world
economy in order to increase their legitimacy and effectiveness.
Tasking of Ministers and Experts.
10. We are committed to taking rapid action to implement these
principles. We instruct our Finance Ministers, as coordinated by their
2009 G-20 leadership (Brazil, UK, Republic of Korea), to initiate
processes and a timeline to do so. An initial list of specific measures is
set forth in the attached Action Plan.
We request our Finance Ministers to formulate additional
recommendations, including in the following specific areas:
- mitigating against pro-cyclicality in regulatory policy;
- reviewing and aligning global accounting standards;
- strengthening the resilience and transparency of credit
derivatives markets and reducing their systemic risks.
11. In view of the role of the G-20 in financial systems reform, we will
meet again by April 30, 2009, to review the implementation of the
principles and decisions agreed today.
Language Note.
The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, commonly
known as Bretton Woods Conference, was a gathering of 730 delegates
from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in

119
Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to regulate the international monetary
and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.
During the conference the agreements were signed to set up the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the International
Monetary Fund (IMF). As a result of the conference, the Bretton Woods
system of exchange rate management was set up. crisis sg. – crises pl.

3. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.


1. Where did the summit take place?
2. Who were the participants?
3. What issues were considered?
4. What were the results of the summit?
5. What is the stated purpose of the meeting?
6. What goals and objectives are set in the preamble?
7. What problems were identified as the root causes of the
current financial crisis?
8. What caused severe market disruptions?
9. What has already been done to combat the crisis?
10. What further actions are needed?
11. What reforms should be implemented in financial markets?
12. What does G-20 Group commit to?

4. Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим


словосочетаниям:
1) to restore global growth; 2) to take urgent and exceptional
measures; 3) to stabilize financial markets; 4) to lay the foundation for
reform; 5) to ensure that a global crisis does not happen again; 6) to be
guided by a shared belief; 7) to foster the dynamism, innovation, and
entrepreneurship; 8) poverty reduction; 9) root causes; 10) market
participants; 11) to seek higher yields without an adequate
appreciation of the risks; 12) to exercise proper due diligence; 13)
unsound risk management practices; 14) increasingly complex and
opaque financial products; 15) excessive leverage; 16) to create
vulnerabilities in the system; 17) policy-makers, regulators and
supervisors; 18) to keep pace with financial innovation; 19) to take into

120
account the systemic ramifications of domestic regulatory actions; 20)
inconsistent, insufficient, inadequate structural reforms; 21) severe
market disruption.
5. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим
выражениям:
1) наращивать свое сотрудничество; 2) работать сообща в
целях возобновления глобального роста; 3) проводить реформы;
4) осуществлять в срочном порядке исключительные меры для
поддержки глобальной экономики; 5) заложить основу для
реформы; 6) руководствоваться совместным пониманием того,
что…; 7) рыночные принципы; 8) эффективное регулирование
финансовых рынков; 9) способствуют динамизму, инновациям и
предпринимательству; 10) обеспечить экономический рост,
занятость и снижение уровня бедности; 11) стремиться к
получению высоких прибылей; 12) учитывать должным образом
имеющиеся риски; 13) надлежащий предварительный анализ; 14)
слабые нормы в отношении гарантий, непродуманные методы
управления рисками, растущая сложность и непрозрачность
финансовых продуктов; 15) чрезмерное использование кредитов
для биржевой игры; 16) привели к появлению в этой системе
уязвимых мест; 17) идти в ногу с финансовыми инновациями; 18)
непоследовательная и недостаточно скоординированная
макроэкономическая политика и неадекватные структурные
реформы; 19) защита сбережений и вкладов; 20) устранение
изъянов в сфере регулирования; 21) «размораживание»
кредитных рынков.

6. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие


словосочетания:
to provide liquidity – страны с развивающейся рыночной
экономикой – to strengthen the capital of financial institutions –
укрепить международные нормы и последовательно их
осуществлять – to address regulatory deficiencies – повышение
транспарентности и подотчетности – to unfreeze credit markets –
стимулировать внутренний спрос – to provide critical support for
the global economy – регулирование не должно душить инновации

121
– global outlook has weakened – отстаивать целостность мировых
финансовых рынков – emerging market economies – усилить
международное сотрудничество между регулирующими
инстанциями – to experience good growth – недопущение
расползания негативных явлений – to be adversely impacted by the
worldwide slowdown – смягчение последствий – deteriorating
economic conditions – нести свою долю ответственности за
нынешние неурядицы – to continue our vigorous efforts – «первая
линия обороны» в борьбе с нестабильностью рынка – fiscal
measures – предупреждение незаконных рыночных махинаций,
мошенничества и злоупотреблений – to stimulate domestic demand
– меры в области налогообложения – to constitute the first line of
defense against market instability; to bear their responsibility for the
turmoil – признание убытков, раскрытие информации и
совершенствование применяемых методов управления и
снижения рисков – to recognize losses, improve disclosure and
strengthen governance and risk management practices – transparency
and accountability.

7. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,


расположенным в левой колонке:

1) to enhance; to bolster a) financial turmoil


2) to support b) insufficient, inadequate
3) to pledge c) to implement
4) coordination d) manipulation
5) policy-makers e) to stabilize; to stimulate; to restore
6) abuse f) to foster; to strengthen
7) to deteriorate g) cooperation
8) market disruption h) to commit to
9) fraudulent i) to weaken
10) inconsistent j) opaque; illicit; illegal
11) to exercise k) regulators and supervisors

122
8. Подберите из правой колонки антонимы к словам,
расположенным в левой колонке:

1) to deteriorate, to weaken a) to enhance; to bolster; to


foster; to strengthen
2) to mitigate against b) to exacerbate
3) to stimulate domestic demand c) to stifle innovation;
4) economic growth d) economic slowdown
5) fraudulent, unsound, opaque, e) transparent
illicit
excessive f) insufficient
6) to keep pace with financial g) to lag behind
innovation
7) advanced countries h) emerging market economies
8) to address long-term challenges i) to ignore underlying problems

9. Составьте словосочетания из слов в правой и левой


колонках:

1) to overcome, to avoid, to prevent a) the foundation for reform


2) to hold b) financial markets
3) to implement, to advance c) urgent and exceptional
measures; further actions
4) to enhance, strengthen, bolster, d) consequences of the crisis
foster
5) to restore e) risks, deficiencies
6) to take f) a shared belief
7) to stabilize g) meeting
8) to lay h) cooperation, coordination
9) to seek i) good growth
10) to experience j) higher yields

123
11) to address k) crisis
12) to keep pace with l) domestic demand
13) to stimulate m) reform
14) to mitigate m) financial innovation
15) to be guided by o) global growth

10. Ролевая игра. Представьте, что Вы – журналист,


освещающий саммит. Подготовить доклад о декларации.

11. Ролевая игра. Представьте, что вы – лидеры


крупнейших экономик мира. Проведите пресс-конференцию.
Обсудите экономические вопросы. Предложите план
действий.

TEXT 15.

1. Переведите текст Декларации ООН о предоставлении


независимости колониальным странам и народам.

Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial


Countries and Peoples Adopted by General Assembly
resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960

The General Assembly,


Mindful of the determination proclaimed by the peoples of the
world in the Charter of the United Nations to reaffirm faith in
fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human
person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and
small and to promote social progress and better standards of life in
larger freedom,
Conscious of the need for the creation of conditions of stability and
well-being and peaceful and friendly relations based on respect for the
principles of equal rights and self-determination of all peoples, and of

124
universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental
freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,
Recognizing the passionate yearning for freedom in all dependent
peoples and the decisive role of such peoples in the attainment of their
independence,
Aware of the increasing conflicts resulting from the denial of or
impediments in the way of the freedom of such peoples, which
constitute a serious threat to world peace,
Considering the important role of the United Nations in assisting the
movement for independence in Trust and Non- Self- Governing
Territories,
Recognizing that the peoples of the world ardently desire the end of
colonialism in all its manifestations,
Convinced that the continued existence of colonialism prevents the
development of international economic co-operation, impedes the
social, cultural and economic development of dependent peoples and
militates against the United Nations ideal of universal peace,
Affirming that peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of
their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations
arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the
principle of mutual benefit, and international law,
Believing that the process of liberation is irresistible and
irreversible and that, in order to avoid serious crises, an end must be
put to colonialism and all practices of segregation and discrimination
associated therewith,
Welcoming the emergence in recent years of a large number of
dependent territories into freedom and independence, and recognizing
the increasingly powerful trends towards freedom in such territories
which have not yet attained independence,
Convinced that all peoples have an inalienable right to complete
freedom, the exercise of their sovereignty and the integrity of their
national territory,
Solemnly proclaims the necessity of bringing to a speedy and
unconditional end colonialism in all its forms and manifestations; And
to this end Declares that:

125
1. The subjection of peoples to alien subjugation, domination and
exploitation constitutes a denial of fundamental human rights, is
contrary to the Charter of the United Nations and is an impediment to
the promotion of world peace and co-operation.
2. All peoples have the right to self-determination; by virtue of that
right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their
economic, social and cultural development.
3. Inadequacy of political, economic, social or educational
preparedness should never serve as a pretext for delaying
independence.
4. All armed action or repressive measures of all kinds directed
against dependent peoples shall cease in order to enable them to
exercise peacefully and freely their right to complete independence,
and the integrity of their national territory shall be respected.
5. Immediate steps shall be taken, in Trust and Non-Self-Governing
Territories or all other territories which have not yet attained
independence, to transfer all powers to the peoples of those territories,
without any conditions or reservations, in accordance with their freely
expressed will and desire, without any distinction as to race, creed or
colour, in order to enable them to enjoy complete independence and
freedom.
6. Any attempt aimed at the partial or total disruption of the national
unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the
purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
7. All States shall observe faithfully and strictly the provisions of the
Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights and the present Declaration on the basis of equality,
noninterference in the internal affairs of all States, and respect for the
sovereign rights of all peoples and their territorial integrity.

Language Note:
people sg. – peoples pl. [C] a race or nation

2. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:

126
1) to proclaim determination; 2) to reaffirm faith in fundamental
human rights; 3) dignity and worth of the human person; 4) equal
rights; 5) to promote social progress and better standards of life; 6)
stability, well-being, peaceful and friendly relations based on respect
for the principles of equal rights; 7) self-determination of all peoples; 8)
universal respect for; 9) observance of human rights; 10) fundamental
freedoms for all without distinction as to race; 11) to yearn for freedom;
12) decisive role of such peoples; 13) to attain their independence; 14)
denial of or impediments in the way of the freedom; 15) to constitute a
serious threat to world peace; 16) to assist the movement for
independence; 17) to ardently desire the end of colonialism; 18) to
prevents the development of international economic cooperation; 19)
to impede the social, cultural and economic development; 20) to
militate against the United Nations ideal of universal peace.

3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
1) решительно провозгласить; 2) Устав Организации
Объединенных Наций; 2) «вновь утвердить веру в основные права
человека, достоинство и ценность человеческой личности,
равноправие мужчин и женщин и равенство прав больших и
малых наций»; 3) «содействовать социальному прогрессу и
улучшению условий жизни при большей свободе»; 4) сознавать
необходимость создания условий устойчивости и благосостояния,
мирных и дружественных отношений; 5) на основе уважения
принципов равноправия и самоопределения всех народов и
всеобщего уважения и соблюдения прав человека и основных
свобод для всех, без различия расы, пола, языка и религии; 6)
признавать горячее стремление всех зависимых народов к
свободе; 7) решающая роль этих народов в достижении своей
независимости; 8) зная об усилении конфликтов, вызываемых
отказом в свободе или созданием препятствий на пути к свободе
таких народов; 9) представляет собой серьезную угрозу
всеобщему миру; 10) содействие движению за независимость; 11)
горячо желают покончить с колониализмом во всех его
проявлениях; 12) исходя из убеждения, что …; 13) препятствует

127
развитию международного экономического сотрудничества,
задерживает социальное, культурное и экономическое развитие
зависимых народов; 14) в своих интересах свободно
распоряжаться своими естественными богатствами и ресурсами;
15) принцип взаимной выгоды международного экономического
сотрудничества; 16) процесс освобождения нельзя ни остановить,
ни повернуть вспять; 17) приветствуя достижение в течение
последних лет свободы и независимости.

4. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие


словосочетания:
to freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources –
неотъемлемое право на полную свободу, осуществление своего
суверенитета и целостность их национальной территории –
without prejudice – на основе равенства, невмешательства во
внутренние дела всех государств, уважения суверенных прав всех
народов и территориальной целостности их государств – any
obligations arising out of international economic co-operation –
отрицание основных прав человека – the principle of mutual benefit
– военные действия или репрессивные меры – the process of
liberation is irresistible and irreversible – строго и добросовестно
соблюдать положения Устава Организации Объединенных Наций
– an inalienable right to complete freedom – во всех формах и
проявлениях – integrity of their national territory – противоречить
Уставу Организации Объединенных Наций – in all its forms and
manifestations – the subjection of peoples to alien subjugation,
domination and exploitation – препятствовать развитию
сотрудничества и установлению мира во всем мире – an
impediment to the promotion of world peace and co-operation – право
на самоопределение – to freely expressed their will and desire –
передать всю власти народам – a denial of fundamental human rights
– уважать целостность их национальных территорий – to freely
determine their political status – свободно устанавливать свой
политический статус и осуществлять свое экономическое,
социальное и культурное развитие – inadequacy of political,
economic, social or educational preparedness – без каких бы то ни

128
было условий или оговорок – to serve as a pretext for delaying
independence – недостаточная политическая, экономическая и
социальная подготовленность – all armed action or repressive
measures.

5. Переведите устно с листа следующие


словосочетания.
1) to be directed against; 2) to cease; 3) to enable them to exercise
peacefully and freely their right to complete independence; 4) to
respect the integrity of their national territory; 5) to take immediate
steps; 6) to transfer all powers to the peoples of those territories; 7)
without any distinction as to race, creed or colour; 8) partial or total
disruption of the national unity; 9) incompatible with the purposes and
principles; 10) в соответствии со свободно выраженной ими волей
и желанием; 11) to observe faithfully and strictly the provisions; 12)
non-interference in the internal affairs.

6. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,


расположенным в левой колонке:

mutual benefit unbiased


sovereignty territorial unity
to yearn for freedom reciprocal gain
to constitute a serious threat to use as an excuse
to impede social and cultural development
independence
without prejudice to seek independence
integrity of their national territory
to hinder social and
cultural progress
to serve as a pretext to pose danger
7. Подберите из правой колонки антонимы к словам,
расположенным в левой колонке:

peaceful and friendly atmosphere subjugation

129
speedy and unconditional end to impede social and cultural
development
prejudice domination and exploitation
sovereignty prolonged and opaque
to promote social progress and without any distinction
better standards of life
observance of human rights armed action or
repressive measures
stability, well-being, peaceful and denial of the freedom
friendly relations

8. Составьте словосочетания из слов в правой и левой


колонках:

to reaffirm their natural wealth and resources


to promote against the United Nations ideal of universal
peace
to proclaim their national integrity
to observe determination
to yearn for the end of colonialism
to constitute human rights and fundamental freedoms
to desire to the peoples of those territories
to impede will and desire
to militate social, cultural and economic development
to dispose of freedom
to serve as serious threat to world peace
to exercise peacefully their right to complete independence
and freely
to respect a pretext for delaying independence
to transfer all powers faith in fundamental human rights
to freely express social progress and better standards of life

130
9. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания:

FREEDOM

political, religious, complete


from fear/hunger/pain to
gain/secure/win to
abridge/curtail
of assembly, of speech, of the press, of religion; of worship

10. Ролевая игра. Представьте, что Вы – Генеральный


секретарь ООН. Составьте декларацию, используя следующую
схему.

Declaration on ___________________________________________

The General Assembly,


Mindful of…,
Conscious of…,
Recognizing the…,
Aware of…,
Considering the…,
Recognizing that…,
Convinced that…,
Affirming that…,
Believing that…,
Welcoming the…,
Guided by…,
Solemnly proclaims… and to this end declares that: … .

11. Ролевая игра. Представьте, что вы – лидеры


крупнейших экономик мира. Проведите конференцию.
Обсудите, какая декларация должна быть подписана первой:
о правах животных, об экологически чистых источниках
энергии, об освоении космоса, о генетических исследованиях.

131
UNIT 8. FINAL INSTRUMENTS OF
INTERGOVERNMENTAL NEGOTIATIONS
AND VISITS: JOINT COMMUNIQUE

TEXT 16.

Joint communique

A communique is an official report on the course of international


negotiations, and on the agreement achieved. It may be brief and
contain an announcement of some fact or facts in general terms.
Sometimes, however, it may be long and elaborate, and then it will
include a detailed description of the course of negotiations, declaration
of the decisions adopted by the participants and the terms of the
agreement achieved.

1. Переведите текст Совместного коммюнике Совета ЕС –


Россия.
Joint communiqué of the EU – Russia Permanent
Partnership Council on Freedom, Security and Justice

The ninth meeting of the EU – Russia Permanent Partnership Council


(PPC) on Freedom, Security and Justice was held in Paris on 14 – 15
October 2008.
At the meeting, the European Union was represented by Brice
Hortefeux, Minister of Immigration, integration, national identity and
mutually-supportive development, Michèle Alliot-Marie, Minister of

132
Interior, Overseas France and Territorial communities, and Rachida
Dati, Minister of Justice of the current French EU Presidency, Vice
President of the European Commission Jacques Barrot, responsible for
Justice, Freedom and Security, as well as Tomas Bocek, Deputy-minister
of Justice of the incoming Czech EU Presidency.
The Russian Federation was represented by Alexander Konovalov,
Minister of Justice, Special Envoy of the President of the Russian
Federation with the EU in the Field of Freedom, Security and Justice,
and Rashid Nurgaliev, Minister of Interior.
The participants reviewed the implementation of the EU – Russia
Road Map of the Common Space of Freedom, Security and Justice and
noted that this well-advanced cooperation can bring further tangible
benefits for citizens. Both parties reiterated the importance of
respecting the overarching principles for the Common Space providing
a framework for closer cooperation.
The participants exchanged views on the implementation of the EC
– Russia Agreements on Visa Facilitation and Readmission and
reconfirmed their will to continue discussions on related technical
questions in a constructive manner.
Attention was given to the Visa Dialogue to be continued in
accordance with the modalities approved by the PPC.
They also underlined the importance of continuing the dialogue on
migration management and asylum issues.
As regards border issues, both parties welcomed the established
cooperation between FRONTEX and the Russian Border Guard Service
and discussed issues concerning common borders.
Both parties appreciated the valuable cooperation between
EUROPOL and liaison officers of the EU Member States, on the one hand,
and Russian law enforcement agencies, on the other, and of operational
cooperation in the fight against organised crime. They also highlighted
the importance of cooperating in the fight against cyber crime.
The participants exchanged views on issues related to narcotics,
including cooperation with respect to drugs precursors, synthetic drugs
and drugs originating from Afghanistan, and discussed the
development of anti-drug cooperation platforms.

133
The participants exchanged views on judicial cooperation in civil
and criminal matters and welcomed the recent contacts between
EUROJUST and Russia on a possible cooperation agreement.
The incoming Czech EU Presidency presented its priorities and
committed itself to a constructive cooperation.
The EU and Russia agreed to hold the tenth meeting of the EU –
Russia PPC on Freedom, Security and Justice during the first half of
2009 in Russia.

Language Note:
EU – European Union.
EC – European Council.
FRONTEX – European Agency for the Management of Operational
Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the
European Union; European Union agency for external border security.
It is responsible for co-ordinating the activities of the national border
guards in ensuring the security of the EU's borders with non-member
states.
EUROPOL – European Police Office.
EUROJUST – an agency of the European Union dealing with judicial
co-operation. It is composed of national prosecutors, magistrates or
police officers of equivalent competence from each of the EU states. Its
task is to enhance the effectiveness of the national authorities when
they are dealing with the investigation and prosecution of crossborder
and organised crime.

2. Сопоставьте официальные названия в двух колонках.


Выучите их наизусть:

EU – Russia Permanent
Partnership Council on Freedom, министр внутренних дел
Security and Justice
Minister of Immigration,
integration, national identity and заместитель Председателя
mutually-supportive Европейской комиссии
development

134
постоянный совет партнерства
Россия – ЕС по вопросам
Minister of Interior
свободы, безопасности и
правосудия
министр иммиграции,
интеграции, национальной
Minister of Justice
идентичности и солидарного
развития
Vice President of the European российские
Commission правоохранительные
органы
Minister of Justice, Special Envoy
of the President of the Russian
Federation with the EU in the визовый диалог
Field of Freedom, Security and
Justice
Road Map of the Common Space Российская Пограничная служба
of Freedom, Security and Justice
министр юстиции, Специальный
представитель Президента по
Common Space взаимодействию с Европейским
союзом в области свободы,
безопасности и правосудия
соглашения Россия – ЕС об
Agreements on Visa Facilitation
упрощении выдачи виз и о
and Readmission
реадмиссии
Visa Dialogue министр юстиции
Russian Border Guard Service Общее пространство
«дорожная карта» Россия – ЕС по
Russian law enforcement
общему пространству свободы и
agencies
безопасности

135
3. Подберите русские эквиваленты к следующим
словосочетаниям:
1) EU – Russia Permanent Partnership Council on Freedom, Security
and Justice; 2) to be held; 3) to be represented by; 4) integration,
national identity and mutually-supportive development; 5)
participants; 6) to review the implementation of…; 7) to note that…; 8)
welladvanced cooperation; 9) to bring further tangible benefits for
citizens; 10) both parties reiterated the importance of respecting the
overarching principles for; 11) to provide a framework for closer
cooperation; 12) to exchange views on the implementation of…; 13) to
reconfirm their will to continue discussions on related technical
questions in a constructive manner; 14) attention was given to; 15) to
be continued in accordance with.

4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
1) постоянный совет партнерства Россия – ЕС по вопросам
свободы, безопасности и правосудия; 2) на заседании
Европейский союз был представлен…; 3) участники заседания
рассмотрели ход реализации «дорожной карты» Россия – ЕС по
общему пространству свободы, безопасности и правосудия; 4)
отметили, что это сотрудничество может принести дальнейшую
ощутимую пользу гражданам; 5) стороны подтвердили важность
уважения основополагающих принципов общего пространства; 6)
обеспечивает рамки более тесного сотрудничества; 7) участники
обменялись мнениями относительно выполнения соглашений
Россия – ЕС; 8) упрощение выдачи виз и реадмиссия; 9)
подтвердили свое желание продолжить обсуждение
соответствующих технических вопросов в конструктивном
ключе; 10) внимание было уделено визовому диалогу.

5. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие


словосочетания:
to underline the importance of continuing the dialogue – подчерк-
нули важность продолжения диалога по вопросам управления
миграцией и беженцев – migration management and asylum issues –

136
стороны приветствовали установившееся сотрудничество – as
regards border issues – оперативное сотрудничество в борьбе с
организованной преступностью – both parties welcomed the
established cooperation between – подтвердили свое желание
продолжить обсуждение соответствующих технических вопросов
в конструктивном ключе – to appreciate the valuable cooperation
between – стороны высоко оценили сотрудничество между
российскими правоохранительными органами и Европолом –
liaison officers of the EU Member States – судебное сотрудничество
по гражданским и уголовным делам – operational cooperation in the
fight against organised crime – участники обменялись мнениями
относительно выполнения соглашений Россия – ЕС – to highlight
the importance of cooperating in the fight against cyber crime –
внимание было уделено визовому диалогу – drugs precursors,
synthetic drugs and drugs originating from Afghanistan – взяло на себя
обязательство по развитию конструктивного сотрудничества –
judicial cooperation in civil and criminal matters – упрощение выдачи
виз и реадмиссия.

6. Составьте словосочетания из слов в правой и левой


колонках:

to review their will to continue discussions


to bring in civil and criminal matters
overarching valuable cooperation
to reiterate views on the implementation
to exchange agencies
to reconfirmed against crime
dialogue the implementation
to appreciate a framework for closer cooperation
law enforcement principles for the Common Space
in the fight to a constructive cooperation
on judicial cooperation recent contacts
to welcome further tangible benefits for citizens

137
to commit oneself on migration management and asylum issues
to provide the importance of

7. Ролевая игра. Представьте, что вы – лидеры ЕС.


Проведите конференцию о входе России в Европейский союз.
Напишите совместное коммюнике по следующей схеме:

well-advanced cooperation, to bring tangible benefits, overarching


principles, Common Space, to provide a framework for closer
cooperation, the implementation of, in a constructive manner, in
accordance with, migration management and asylum issues, Border
Guard Service, common borders, law enforcement agencies, in the
fight against organised crime

Joint communiqué of the European Union Member States on


Admission of ___________________________

The meeting of the European union Member States on Admission


of__________.
At the meeting, the European Union was represented by_____________.
The participants reviewed the implementation of the Road Map for
Admission__________________________, they noted that________________________.
All parties reiterated the importance of________________________________.
The participants exchanged views on___________________________________
and reconfirmed their will to continue_____________________________________.
Attention was given to________________________________________________.
They also underlined the importance___________________________________.
All parties welcomed the established cooperation between__________.
All parties appreciated the valuable cooperation_____________________.
They also highlighted_____________________________________________________.
The participants exchanged views on issues__________________________.
The parties presented its priorities and committed themselves
to______________.

8. Переведите письменно на английский язык следующие


предложения. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.

138
17-е заседание Постоянного совета партнерства
Россия – ЕС по вопросам свободы, безопасности и
правосудия

17 января 2014 г. в Москве состоялось 17-е заседание


Постоянного совета партнерства Россия – ЕС по вопросам свободы,
безопасности и правосудия.
Заседание проведено под председательством специального
представителя Президента Российской Федерации по
взаимодействию с Европейским союзом в области свободы,
безопасности и правосудия Министра юстиции Российской
Федерации Александра Коновалова и Еврокомиссара по
внутренним делам Сесилии Мальмстрем.
В мероприятии также приняли участие члены правительства
страны – председателя в ЕС, министр юстиции, гласности и прав
человека Греческой Республики Харалампос Афанасиу и министр
общественного порядка и защиты граждан Греческой Республики
Николаос Дендиас, а также член правительства будущего
итальянского председательства в ЕС министр юстиции
Итальянской Республики Аннамария Канчелльери.
Участниками рассмотрен весь спектр вопросов, который
традиционно входит в повестку дня Постоянного совета
партнерства Россия – ЕС по вопросам свободы, безопасности и
правосудия, таких как безвизовый диалог, миграционные и
приграничные вопросы, взаимодействие России с Европолом и
Евроюстом, антинаркотическое сотрудничество, а также
сотрудничество в сфере правосудия и прав человека.
Следующее заседание совета состоится в конце 2014 г.
Формат Постоянного совета партнерства Россия – ЕС по
вопросам свободы, безопасности и правосудия действует с 2004 г.
Заседания проводятся поочередно в России и ЕС на уровне
министра юстиции Российской Федерации, еврокомиссаров и
руководства специализированных агентств Евросоюза, а также
стран действующего и будущего председательств ЕС.

139
TEXT 17.

1. Переведите текст Совместного коммюнике глав


государств ШОС.

Session of the Council of Heads of State of the SCO


August 27 – 28, 2008 Joint Communiqué of meeting of
SCO Heads of State Council

A regular meeting of the Council of Heads of Member States of the


Shanghai Cooperation Organisation took place on 28 August 2008 in
Dushanbe. Heads of member states were in attendance.
President of the Republic of Tajikistan E.Rakhmon chaired the
meeting.
The heads of states exchanged opinions on international issues and
the regional situation. Broad convergence or similarity of positions was
noted which was reflected in the Dushanbe Declaration.
Plenipotentiary representatives of the member states of the
Organisation signed the Agreement on the staging of joint
counterterrorism exercises and the Agreement on combating illegal
circulation of weapons, ammunition and explosives.
In the course of the meeting in a traditional spirit of friendship,
mutual understanding and constructivism the achievements of the
Organisation were considered, development priorities were set for the
period until the next meeting of the CHS and longer term perspective.
The heads of states approved the report of the SCO SecretaryGeneral
on the work of the Organisation in the past year.
The heads of states congratulated Chairman of the People’s Republic
of China Hu Jintao on successful staging of the Summer Olympic Games
in Beijing. The Chinese side expressed gratitude to the SCO member
states for extensive support in the period of their preparation and
staging. Cooperation in the SCO framework in ensuring security at the
Olympics was highly evaluated.
The heads of states underlined the importance of the Treaty on
Long-term Good-neighbourly Relations, Friendship and Cooperation
signed in August 2007 in terms of strengthening interaction in the

140
framework of the Organisation in joint counteraction against new
challenges and threats, cementing international peace and security,
maintaining global and regional stability.
The heads of states noted a gradual increase in the activity of the SCO
Regional Antiterrorist Structure in the field of fighting new challenges
and threats as an effective mechanism of coordination of interaction
among the competent agencies of the SCO member states.
The heads of states reiterated their concern over threats related to
the possibility of using modern information and telecommunication
technologies for purposes incompatible with the tasks of ensuring
international stability and security.
The heads of states expressed their support for further expansion of
international ties of the Organisation.
For the sake of providing additional opportunities for mutually
beneficial cooperation with interested states and international
organisations the heads of states approved the Regulations on the
Status of Dialogue Partner of the SCO.
The heads of state welcomed the positive dynamics which had
appeared in a number of areas of common interest in trade and
economic cooperation, namely the creation of a favourable trade and
investment conditions, development of transportation routes and
transit potential, modern information and telecommunication
technologies. The heads of states expressed satisfaction at the start of
dialogue in the SCO framework on agricultural issues.
The heads of state underlined the significance of establishing
interaction in the framework of the Organisation in the field of
healthcare, including the fight against infectious diseases, which is
vitally important in terms of providing a suitable environment for
steady economic development and raising the living standards of
population in the region.
An intention was expressed to continue cooperation in the fields of
education and science, development of cultural and youth exchanges for
the sake of strengthening understanding and friendship among peoples
of interested member states of the Organisation.

141
A positive development of cooperation in the field of ecology was
noted. The importance of continuing the work on the preparation of an
SCO concept on environmental protection was underlined.
The pace of cooperation among the departments responsible for
emergency prevention and disaster relief was highly rated. It was
opined that it is expedient to speed up the work on founding an SCO
Centre for Prevention of Natural and Man-made Disasters.
The heads of states highly appreciated the chairmanship of the
Republic of Tajikistan at the SCO and expressed gratitude to the Tajik
side for hospitality during the Dushanbe summit.
The next meeting of the SCO Heads of States Council will be held in
2009 in the city of Yekaterinburg.

Language Note:
CIS – Commonwealth of Independent States
SCO – Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
CHS – Council of Heads of Member States

2. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
1) Council of Heads of Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation
Organisation; 2) to be in attendance; 3) to chair a meeting; 4) to
exchange opinions on international issues and the regional situation; 5)
broad convergence or similarity of positions; 6) plenipotentiary
representatives; 7) to stage joint counterterrorism exercises; 8) to
combat illegal circulation of weapons, ammunition and explosives; 9) in
a traditional spirit of friendship, mutual understanding and
constructivism; 10) to set development priorities; 11) to congratulate
smb on successful staging of the Summer Olympic Games; 12) the
Chinese side expressed gratitude to the SCO member states for
extensive support; 13) to ensure security; 14) to evaluate highly; 15)
Long-term Good-neighbourly Relations, Friendship and Cooperation;
16) to strengthen interaction in the framework of the Organisation.

3. Переведите на слух следующие словосочетания:

142
1) joint counteraction against new challenges and threats; 2) to
cement international peace and security; 3) to maintain global and
regional stability; 4) to note a gradual increase in the activity of; 5) to
reiterate their concern over threats; 6) to express their support for
further expansion of international ties; 7) to provide additional
opportunities; 8) mutually beneficial cooperation; 9) to welcome
positive dynamics; 10) favourable trade and investment conditions; 11)
to express satisfaction at the start of dialogue; 12) to underline the
significance of; 13) steady economic development; 14) to raise the
living standards of population in the region; 15) to express an intention;
16) emergency prevention and disaster relief; 17) to express gratitude
to smb for hospitality.

4. Переведите письменно на английский язык следующие


предложения. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.
1. Главы государств обменялись мнениями по международным
вопросам и ситуации в регионе. Констатировано широкое
совпадение или близость позиций по обсуждавшимся вопросам,
что нашло отражение в Душанбинской декларации.
2. В ходе заседания в традиционной атмосфере дружбы,
взаимопонимания и конструктивизма были рассмотрены
результаты деятельности Организации после Бишкекского
саммита, определены приоритеты ее развития на период до
следующего заседания СГГ и на более долгосрочную перспективу.
3. Констатировано, что задачи, поставленные на заседании СГГ
в Бишкеке, а также достигнутые договореннности успешно
реализуются.
4. Заслушан и утвержден доклад Генерального секретаря ШОС
о деятельности Организации за прошедший год и доклад Совета
РАТС о работе Региональной антитеррористической структуры в
2007 г.
5. Главы государств поздравили Председателя Китайской
Народной Республики Ху Цзиньтао с успешным проведением
летних Олимпийских игр в Пекине. Китайская сторона выразила
признательность государствам – членам ШОС за всестороннюю
поддержку в период их подготовки и проведения. Была дана

143
высокая оценка сотрудничеству в рамках ШОС в сфере
обеспечения безопасности Олимпиады.
6. Главы делегаций присутствовали на открытии IV фестиваля
искусств государств – членов ШОС.
7. Главы государств подчеркнули важность подписанного в
августе 2007 г. в Бишкеке Договора о долгосрочном
добрососедстве, дружбе и сотрудничестве государств – членов
ШОС для укрепления взаимодействия в рамках Организации в
совместном противостоянии новым вызовам и угрозам,
упрочении международного мира и безопасности, поддержании
глобальной и региональной стабильности.
8. Главы государств особо подчеркнули значение
взаимодействия в гуманитарной сфере как одного из ключевых
факторов неуклонного укрепления и расширения социальной
базы дружбы, добрососедства и взаимопонимания между
народами государств – членов ШОС. Отмечено намерение к
налаживанию контактов между законодательными органами
заинтересованных государств – членов Организации.
9. Выражено намерение продолжить сотрудничество в сфере
образования и науки, развития культурных и молодежных
обменов в интересах укрепления взаимопонимания и дружбы
между народами заинтересованных государств – членов
Организации.
10. Отмечено позитивное развитие сотрудничества в
области экологии. Подчеркнута важность продолжения работы по
подготовке природоохранной концепции ШОС.

5. Составьте словосочетания из слов в правой и левой


колонках:

to chair international peace, security and stability


to exchange trade and investment conditions
broad convergence friendship, mutual understanding and
constructivism
plenipotentiary concern over threats

144
joint illegal circulation of weapons, ammunition
and explosives
to combat on successful staging of
in a traditional spirit of their support for further expansion
to congratulate beneficial cooperation with interested
states
Treaty on Long-term relief
to cementing or similarity of positions
to reiterate counterterrorism exercises
to express Good-neighbourly Relations,
Friendship and Cooperation
international prevention
mutually representatives of the member states
favourable opinions on international issues and the
regional situation
to raise the meeting
emergency ties of the Organisation
disaster the living standards of population in the
region

6. Ролевая игра. Представьте, что Вы – государственный


пресс-секретарь. Подготовьте коммюнике о международном
саммите в России:

The heads of states/ were in attendance


sides/parties approved the report on
congratulated smb on
considered the achievements in
exchanged opinions on international issues
expressed an intention to continue
cooperation
expressed gratitude to smb for extensive
support/ hospitality during the visit

145
expressed satisfaction at the start of dialogue
expressed their support for
highly appreciated the chairmanship of
highly evaluated cooperation in noted broad convergence or
similarity of po-
sitions
reiterated their concern over set development
priorities for
signed the Agreement on
underlined the importance/significance of welcomed the
positive dynamics in

146
UNIT 9. FINAL INSTRUMENTS OF
INTERGOVERNMENTAL NEGOTIATIONS AND VISITS:
MEMORANDA OF UNDERSTANDING,
PROTOCOLS

TEXT 18.

Memoranda of understanding

A memorandum of understanding is an international instrument of


a less formal kind. It often sets out operational arrangements under a
framework international agreement. It is also used for the regulation of
technical or detailed matters. It is typically in the form of a single
instrument and does not require ratification. They are entered into
either by States or International Organizations. The United Nations
usually concludes memoranda of understanding with Member States in
order to organize its peacekeeping operations or to arrange UN
Conferences. The United Nations also concludes memoranda of
understanding on cooperation with other international organizations.
A memorandum of understanding (MOU) is a document describing a
bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a
convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended
common line of action. It most often is used in cases where parties
either do not imply a legal commitment or in situations where the
parties cannot create a legally enforceable agreement. It is a more
formal alternative to a gentlemen's agreement.

147
In international relations, MOUs fall under the broad category of
treaties and should be registered in the United Nations treaty database.
In practice and in spite of the United Nations' Legal Section insistence
that registration be done to avoid 'secret diplomacy,' MOUs are
sometimes kept confidential.
Many companies and government agencies use MOUs to define a
relationship between departments, agencies or closely held companies.
These branches of the organization fall under similar control structures
but need to ensure smooth operations where there are shared
resources or workflows. Often these organizations are not legal persons
and hence cannot enter into binding legal agreements.
As a matter of law, the title of MOU does not necessarily mean the
document is binding or not binding under international law. To
determine whether or not a particular MOU is meant to be a legally
binding document (i.e. a treaty), one needs to examine the intent of the
parties and well as the position of the signatories (e.g. Minister of
Foreign Affairs vs Minister of Environment). A careful analysis of the
wording will also clarify the exact nature of the document. In some
cases, depending on the exact wording, MOUs can have the binding
power of a contract; as a matter of law, contracts do not need to be
labeled as such to be legally binding. Whether or not a document
constitutes a binding contract depends only on the presence or absence
of well-defined legal elements in the text proper of the document (the
socalled «four corners»). For example, a binding contract typically must
contain mutual consideration – a legally enforceable obligations of the
parties, and its formation must take place free of the so-called real
defenses to contract formation (fraud, duress, lack of age or mental
capacity, etc.).
One advantage of MOUs over more formal instruments is that,
because obligations under international law may be avoided, they can
be put into effect in most countries without requiring parliamentary
approval. Hence, MOUs are often used to modify and adapt existing
treaties, in which case these MOUs have factual treaty status. The
decision concerning ratification, however, is determined by the parties'
internal law and depends to a large degree on the subject agreed upon.
MOUs that are kept confidential (i.e. not registered with the United

148
Nations) cannot be enforced before any UN organ, and it may be
concluded that no obligations under international law have been
created.

Language Note:
memorandum sg. – memoranda pl.

1. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.


1. Who usually signs MOU?
2. What does MOU express?
3. What is «secret diplomacy»?
4. Is MOU a binding or non-binding instrument?
5. How do you determine whether a MOU has a legally binding
character?
6. What is an advantage of MOU over more formal instruments?

2. Переведите текст Меморандума о взаимопонимании с


Норвегией.

Memorandum оf Understanding

Between the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank


of Russia)
аnd the Financial Supervisory Authority of Norway
(Kredittilsynet)

regarding the cooperation in the supervision of DnB NOR Bank ASA


and its Russian subsidiary Monchebank.
1. The purpose of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).
The parties to this MOU seek to prepare and develop a close
collaboration to ensure an efficient and adequate supervision of DnB
NOR Bank ASA and its Russian subsidiary Monchebank.
149
2. The different supervisory tasks of the parties to the MOU.
2.1. The Bank of Russia’s supervisory tasks and responsibilities.
The Bank of Russia conducts home state supervision of Monchebank
pursuant to Federal Law On the Central Bank of the Russian Federation
of 10 July 2002.
2.2. Kredittilsynet’s supervisory tasks and responsibilities.
Kredittilsynet conducts the home state supervision of the DnB NOR-
group and a large number of its licensed subsidiaries.
3. Cooperation and supervision.
The authorities agree to communicate to each other all essential and
relevant information which may allow or aid in the exercise of
supervision. Essential information is information that could materially
influence the assessment of the financial soundness of the banks, and is
to be communicated on the supervisor’s own initiative. Relevant
information is information that is relevant to the performance of the
other supervisor’s obligations and is to be communicated on request.
The authorities shall observe professional secrecy. If there is any doubt
about the type of information subject to professional secrecy, the
supervisors involved shall contact each other directly.
4. Supervision group.
The Bank of Russia is responsible for drawing up a list of the staff in
the Bank of Russia assigned to the supervision of Monchebank. The list
shall contain names, telephone- and faxnumbers, e-mail and area of
responsibility.
5. Crisis management.
The authorities shall notify each other if they become aware of the
difficulties or imminent crises that might affect the undertaking under
supervision of the entire group.
6. Review of the MOU.
The parties to the MOU are aware of possible changes in the
organisation of Monchebank and DnB NOR Bank ASA, which might
involve amendments to this MOU. Moreover, the MOU might need
regular review following amendments to relevant legislation or due to
other circumstances.
7. Effective date.

150
This Memorandum of Understanding shall take effect upon
signature by the supervisory authorities party to this Memorandum of
Understanding.

3. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста урока.


1. What is the purpose of the memorandum?
2. Is it legally binding?
3. Who accepts the responsibility to conduct supervision?
4. What is essential information?
5. What is relevant information?
6. What may cause amendments to the memorandum?
4. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и
словосочетания и выучите их наизусть:
1. regarding the cooperation in the supervision of…; 2) Russian
subsidiary; 3) The parties to this MOU seek to prepare and develop; 4)
a close collaboration; 5) to ensure an efficient and adequate
supervision; 6) different supervisory tasks; 7) to conduct home state
supervision; 8) pursuant to Federal Law; 9) cooperation and
supervision; 10) to communicate to each other all essential and relevant
information; 11) to aid in the exercise of supervision; 12) to materially
influence the assessment; 13) the financial soundness of the banks; 14)
on the supervisor’s own initiative; 15) the performance of the other
supervisor’s obligations; 16) to communicate on request; 17) to
observe professional secrecy; 18) information subject to professional
secrecy; 19) to contact each other directly; 20) to draw up a list of the
staff; 21) to assign to the supervision; 22) crisis management; 23) to
notify each other; 24) to become aware of the difficulties; 25) imminent
crises; 26) to affect the undertaking under supervision of the entire
group; 27) amendments to this MOU; 28) regular review; 29) relevant
legislation; 30) to take effect upon signature by the supervisory
authorities.

5. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
1) сотрудничество в области осуществления надзора за
деятельностью; 2) российский дочерний банк; 3) надзорные

151
органы; 4) налаживают и развивают тесное сотрудничество для
обеспечения эффективного надзора за деятельностью; 5)
надзорные функции; 6) осуществляет надзор; 7) в соответствии с
федеральным законом; 8) надзорные органы согласны сообщать
друг другу всю существенную и относящуюся к вопросам надзора
информацию; 9) существенно повлиять на оценку финансовой
устойчивости банков; 10) по инициативе надзорного органа; 11)
по запросу другого надзорного органа; 12) список сотрудников,
которым поручен надзор за деятельностью банка; 13) кризисное
управление; 14) уведомлять друг друга о; 15) становится известно
о финансовых затруднениях; 16) осуществлять сотрудничество
при необходимости принятия надзорных мер; 17) затронуть
сферу надзора другого надзорного органа; 18) внесение
изменений в меморандум; 19) вступает в силу после подписания
его надзорными органами.

6. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,


расположенным в левой колонке:

cooperation impending, looming disaster


to notify each other to assist in regulation
supervision solvency
all essential and relevant control, oversight
information
on the supervisor’s own initiative change or improvement to a law
or document
to observe professional secrecy a law or set of laws
imminent crises a close collaboration
obligations to communicate to each other
to aid in the exercise of supervision commitments
financial soundness of the banks fundamental and appropriate
to conduct supervision to start to produce results
supervisory authorities to be communicated on request

152
amendments financial regulators
legislation to honour confidentiality
to ensure adequate supervision to be in charge of oversight
to take effect to secure appropriate oversight

7. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания:

SUPERVISE

Adj. carefully, closely, strictly, well, fully, properly, adequately,


personally, internationally
The children will be closely supervised at all times. The pool is fully
supervised by trained staff. I will supervise the work personally. a
proposal for an internationally supervised ceasefire
Verb + supervise appoint sb to
An executive officer was appointed to supervise the arrangements.

SUPERVISION

Adj. careful, close, strict, adequate, effective, proper, inadequate,


constant, daily, day-to-day, regular, minimal, direct, general, overall,
adult, clinical, expert, medical, parental, personal
New staff are trained to work without direct supervision.
Verb + supervision need, require, get, have, receive, exercise, give
sb, offer (sb), provide (sb with), be responsible for, keep sb./sth under,
improve, tighten, relax, escape, evade
The scheme offers only minimal supervision for young offenders. He
needs to be kept under strict supervision. She managed to escape her
boss’s constant supervision.
Prep. under sb’s , with/without
Phrases a lack of supervision

SUPERVISOR

153
Adj. chief, senior, area, office, shift, project, production, technical,
research

COLLABORATE

Adv. actively, closely


Prep. on , with
We have collaborated closely with the university on this project.

COLLABORATION

Adj. active, close, effective, fruitful, happy, successful, international


Prep. in with
Rock musicians are working in collaboration with an orchestra to
create a new opera.

COOPERATE

Adv. fully, closely


He has said he will cooperate fully with the police enquiries.
Verb + cooperate agree to, be prepared to, be willing to, refuse to
COOPERATION

Adj. close, full, greater, increased, active, effective, international,


local, mutual, cultural, economic, military, political, social, technical a
society founded on mutual cooperation and shared prosperity
Verb + cooperation need, require, ask for, call for, demand, seek,
enlist, get, ensure, give (sb), offer (sb), encourage, promote
She called for closer cooperation on drugs control. They are seeking
the cooperation of senior medical staff. We are hoping to enlist the
cooperation of women's groups. promoting cooperation between
universities and industry.

8. Переведите письменно на английский язык следующие


предложения. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.

154
1. Надзорные органы налаживают и развивают тесное
сотрудничество для обеспечения эффективного надзора за
деятельностью банка.
2. Банк России осуществляет надзор за соблюдением ОАО
«Мончебанк» законодательства, нормативных актов,
регулирующих банковскую деятельность, и надзор за
соблюдением банком надежной и надлежащей деловой практики.
3. Надзорные органы согласны сообщать друг другу всю
существенную и относящуюся к вопросам надзора информацию,
которая способствует осуществлению надзора.
4. Существенная информация – информация, которая может
существенно повлиять на оценку финансовой устойчивости
банков и которая должна передаваться по инициативе
надзорного органа.
5. Информация, относящаяся к вопросам осуществления
надзора, – информация, касающаяся выполнения надзорным
органом своих обязанностей и передаваемая по запросу другого
надзорного органа.
6. Надзорные органы соблюдают требования к сохранению
профессиональной тайны.
7. В случае возникновения каких-либо сомнений, относится ли
информация к профессиональной тайне, сотрудники надзорных
органов напрямую консультируются друг с другом.
8. Банк России составляет список сотрудников, которым
поручен надзор за деятельностью банка ОАО «Мончебанк».
9. Надзорные органы уведомляют друг друга, если им
становится известно о финансовых затруднениях или
возможности возникновения кризиса, которые могут повлиять на
поднадзорную организацию или всю группу.
10. Надзорные органы осуществляют сотрудничество при
необходимости принятия надзорных мер.
11. Надзорным органам известно о возможности изменений
в организационную структуру банков.
12. Настоящий меморандум вступает в силу после
подписания его надзорными органами.

155
9. Прочитайте текст меморандума, заполните пропуски.

Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department


of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (Canada)
and the State Committee on Northern Affairs
of the Russian Federation Concerning Cooperation on
Aboriginal and Northern Development

RECOGNIZING that Canada and the Russian Federation_____________;


CONSCIOUS of the importance of_____________________________________;
AFFIRMING the commitment of both countries_______________________;
TAKING INTO ACCOUNT______________________________________________;
DRAWING on the_____________and wishing to__________________________;
RECOGNIZING that the Participants wish_________in all activities_____,
HAVE REACHED the following Understanding:
1. The Participants will______________________________________________.
For the purpose of this Memorandum of Understanding, the
Participants
will_________________________________________________________________.
2. Cooperation under this Memorandum of Understanding will
be_______.
3. Unless otherwise arranged between the Participants,_____________.
Efforts will be made_______________________________________________________.
4. In proposed cooperative activities where intellectual property
rights might arise, the Participants, in accordance with their national
laws, will_________________________________________________________________.
5. To implement this Memorandum of Understanding, the
Participants
will________________________________________________________________.
6. This Memorandum of Understanding_______________________________,
and will be in effect for another period of three years, and may be
extended with the consent of the Participants. This Memorandum of
Understanding may
be_________________________________________________________.
Done at Ottawa, Canada in this 29th day of February 2000 and will
replace the MOU between Participants signed on October 20, 1997 the
Russian, French and English languages, all texts being of equal validity.
156
a) as Arctic states, are facing a wide range of common interests
and
issues peculiar to the Arctic and northern regions;
b) take effect upon signature by the Participants;
c) the federal responsibility and mandate of the Participants for
northern and Aboriginal affairs in their respective countries;
d) to optimize the participation of provincial/regional govern-
ments and other non- governmental organizations;
e) in effect for another period of three years, and may be
extended
with the consent of the Participants;
f) international travel expenses, as well as in-country travel ex-
penses, will be borne by the Sending participant;
g) undertaken under the Memorandum of Understanding;
h) contribute further to the commitment of both countries to
en-
hanced circumpolar cooperation;
i) long relationship between Canada and the Russian
Federation in
the area of Arctic and northern cooperation;
j) encourage and facilitate, as appropriate, the direct contacts
between regional, territorial and local governments, academic and
scientific institutions, including the conclusion of working
arrangements on the implementation of specific projects and
programs;
k) to the well-being of its northern population, including the
recognition of the unique interests and the special relationship of
Aboriginal peoples of the Arctic;
l) realized in accordance with the laws and regulations of each
country;
m) to develop cost-sharing arrangements in support of work
programs undertaken under the present Memorandum of
Understanding;
n) amended at any time by mutual consent of the Participants;

157
o) develop further and strengthen bilateral cooperation
concerning
northern issues on the basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual benefit;
p) agree in advance as to the effective protection and allocation
of
those intellectual property rights;
q) of promoting and ensuring sustainable development,
including
environmental protection;
r) establish a Joint Committee which will consist of equal
numbers
of representatives from Canada and Russia, designated by the
Participants.

10. Переведите с листа следующие слова и словосочетания:


1) to face a wide range of common interests; 2) to promote and
ensure sustainable development, including environmental protection;
3) well-being of its northern population; 4) to recognize unique
interests; 5) to contribute further to the commitment of both countries;
6) enhanced circumpolar cooperation; 7) to optimize the participation
of provincial/regional governments; 8) all activities undertaken under
the Memorandum of Understanding; 9) to develop further and
strengthen bilateral cooperation; 10) on the basis of equality,
reciprocity and mutual benefit; 11) to encourage and facilitate direct
contacts; 12) implementation of specific projects and programs; 13)
cooperation under this Memorandum of Understanding will be realized
in accordance with the laws and regulations of each country; 14)
foreseeable; 15) in accordance with their national laws; 16) to agree in
advance as to the effective protection; 17) allocation of intellectual
property rights; 18) to establish a Joint Committee; 19) designated by
the Participants; 20) with the consent of the Participants; 21) to be
amended at any time by mutual consent of the Participants; 22) equal
validity.

11. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,


расположенным в левой колонке:

158
to face cooperation
sustainable a Joint Committee
environmental intellectual property rights
well-being the laws and regulations of each country
recognition protection
bilateral, circumpolar a wide range of common interests
on the basis of of its population
implementation of of the unique interests
in accordance with equality, reciprocity and mutual benefit
allocation of specific projects and programs
to establish development

TEXT 19.

Protocols

The term «protocol» is used for agreements less formal than those
entitled «treaty» or «convention». The term could be used to cover the
following kinds of instruments:
(a) A Protocol of Signature is an instrument subsidiary to a
treaty, and drawn up by the same parties. Such a Protocol deals with
ancillary matters such as the interpretation of particular clauses of the
treaty, those formal clauses not inserted in the treaty, or the regulation
of technical matters. Ratification of the treaty will normally ipso facto
involve ratification of such a Protocol.
(b) An Optional Protocol to a Treaty is an instrument that
establishes additional rights and obligations to a treaty. It is usually
adopted on the same day, but is of independent character and subject
to independent ratification. Such protocols enable certain parties of the
treaty to establish among themselves a framework of obligations which
reach further than the general treaty and to which not all parties of the
general treaty consent, creating a «two-tier system». The Optional
159
Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of
1966 is a well-known example.
(c) A Protocol based on a Framework Treaty is an instrument
with specific substantive obligations that implements the general
objectives of a previous framework or umbrella convention. Such
protocols ensure a more simplified and accelerated treaty-making
process and have been used particularly in the field of international
environmental law.
(d) A Protocol to amend is an instrument that contains
provisions that amend one or various former treaties, such as the
Protocol of 1946 amending the Agreements, Conventions and Protocols
on Narcotic Drugs.
(e) A Protocol as a supplementary treaty is an instrument which
contains supplementary provisions to a previous treaty, e.g. the 1967
Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees to the 1951 Convention
relating to the Status of Refugees.

1. Переведите текст Киотского протокола.

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework


Convention on Climate Change

The Parties to this Protocol,


Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as «the Convention»,
In pursuit of the ultimate objective of the Convention as stated in its
Article 2,
Recalling the provisions of the Convention,
Being guided by Article 3 of the Convention,
Pursuant to the Berlin Mandate adopted by decision 1/CP.1 of the

160
Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its first session, Have
agreed as follows.
Article 2.
1. Each Party included in Annex I, in achieving its quantified
emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3, in
order to promote sustainable development, shall:
(a) Implement and/or further elaborate policies and measures in
accordance with its national circumstances, such as:
(i) Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the
national economy;
(ii) Protection and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of
greenhouse gases, taking into account its commitments under relevant
international environmental agreements; promotion of sustainable
forest management practices, afforestation and reforestation;
(iii) Promotion of sustainable forms of agriculture in light of
climate change considerations.
(v) Progressive reduction or phasing out of market imperfections,
fiscal incentives, tax and duty exemptions and subsidies in all
greenhouse gas emitting sectors that run counter to the objective of the
Convention and application of market instruments;
(b) Cooperate with other such Parties to enhance the individual and
combined effectiveness of their policies and measures adopted under
this Article. These Parties shall take steps to share their experience and
exchange information on such policies and measures, including
developing ways of improving their comparability, transparency and
effectiveness.
3. The Parties included in Annex I shall strive to implement policies
and measures under this Article in such a way as to minimize adverse
effects, including the adverse effects of climate change, effects on
international trade, and social, environmental and economic impacts on
other Parties, especially developing country Parties.
Article 3.
1. The Parties included in Annex I shall, individually or jointly,
ensure that their aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent
emissions of the greenhouse gases listed in Annex A do not exceed their
assigned amounts, calculated pursuant to their quantified emission

161
limitation and reduction commitments and in accordance with the
provisions of this Article, with a view to reducing their overall
emissions of such gases by at least 5 per cent below 1990 levels.
The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to this Protocol shall, at its first session, approve appropriate and
effective procedures and mechanisms to determine and to address
cases of non-compliance with the provisions of this Protocol, including
through the development of an indicative list of consequences, taking
into account the cause, type, degree and frequency of non-compliance.
Any procedures and mechanisms under this Article entailing binding
consequences shall be adopted by means of an amendment to this
Protocol.
Article 10.
Formulate, implement, publish and regularly update national and,
where appropriate, regional programmes containing measures to
mitigate climate change and measures to facilitate adequate
adaptation to climate change.
Article 12.
The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties
to this Protocol shall ensure that a share of the proceeds from certified
project activities is used to cover administrative expenses as well as to
assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the
adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.
Article 19.
The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of
disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Protocol.
Article 20.
1. Any Party may propose amendments to this Protocol.
2. Amendments to this Protocol shall be adopted at an ordinary
session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to this Protocol.
3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any
proposed amendment to this Protocol by consensus. If all efforts at
consensus have been exhausted, and no agreement reached, the
amendment shall as a last resort be adopted by a three-fourths majority
vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting. The adopted

162
amendment shall be communicated by the secretariat to the
Depositary, who shall circulate it to all Parties for their acceptance.
Article 24.
1. This Protocol shall be open for signature and subject to
ratification, acceptance or approval by States and regional economic
integration organizations which are Parties to the Convention.
Article 27.
1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Protocol
has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from this
Protocol by giving written notification to the Depositary.
Article 28.
The original of this Protocol, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English,
French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
DONE at Kyoto this eleventh day of December one thousand nine
hundred and ninety-seven.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to
that effect, have affixed their signatures to this Protocol on the dates
indicated.

2. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания:
1) Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change; 2) in pursuit of the ultimate objective; 3) recalling the
provisions of the Convention; 4) being guided by; 5) pursuant to the
Berlin Mandate; 6) to achieve quantified emission limitation and
reduction commitments; 7) in order to promote sustainable
development; 8) to implement and/or further elaborate policies and
measures in accordance with its national circumstances; 9)
enhancement of energy efficiency; 10) sinks and reservoirs of
greenhouse gases; 11) to take into account its commitments under
relevant international environmental agreements; 12) promotion of
sustainable forest management practices, afforestation and
reforestation; 13) in light of climate change considerations; 14) to
phase out of market imperfections; 15) fiscal incentives, tax and duty
exemptions; 16) to emit greenhouse gas; 17) to run counter to the

163
objective of the Convention; 18) to cooperate with other such Parties;
19) to enhance the individual and combined effectiveness of their
policies.

3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты к следующим


выражениям:
1) Рамочная конвенция Организации Объединенных Наций об
изменении климата; 2) обязательства по ограничению и
сокращению выбросов; 3) в целях поощрения устойчивого
развития; 4) повышение эффективности использования энергии в
соответствующих секторах национальной экономики; 5) охрана и
повышение качества поглотителей и накопителей парниковых
газов; 6) международные природоохранные соглашения; 7)
содействие рациональным методам ведения лесного хозяйства,
облесению и лесовозобновлению; 8) поощрение устойчивых форм
сельского хозяйства; 9) внедрение, разработка и более широкое
использование новых и возобновляемых видов энергии; 10)
инновационные экологически безопасные технологии; 11)
постепенное сокращение или устранение рыночных
диспропорций; 12) освобождение от налогов и пошлин; 13)
повышение индивидуальной и совокупной эффективности
политики и мер, принимаемых согласно настоящей статье; 14)
распространение опыта и обмен информацией; 15) стремятся к
ограничению или сокращению выбросов парниковых газов; 16) в
результате использования бункерного топлива при воздушных и
морских перевозках; 17) свести к минимуму неблагоприятные
последствия, в том числе – изменения климата, воздействие на
международную торговлю и социальные, экологические и
экономические последствия.

4. Переведите на слух в быстром темпе следующие


словосочетания:
to take steps to share their experience and exchange information –
comparability, transparency and effectiveness – to minimize adverse
effects, including the adverse effects of climate change – aggregate
anthropogenic emissions – to exceed their assigned amounts – in

164
accordance with the provisions of this Article – to reduce their overall
emissions of such gases – to approve appropriate and effective
procedures and mechanisms – to determine and to address cases of
noncompliance with the provisions of this Protocol – indicative list of
consequences – to take into account the cause, type, degree and
frequency of non-compliance – to entail binding consequences – to
formulate, implement, publish and regularly update national and
regional programmes – to mitigate climate change – to facilitate
adequate adaptation to climate change – to cover administrative
expenses – vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change – to settle
disputes – to propose amendments to this Protocol – by consensus – to
exhaust all efforts at consensus – as a last resort – to adopt by a three-
fourths majority vote – to circulate it to all Parties for their acceptance
– to be open for signature – to be subject to ratification, acceptance or
approval – to enter into force – to withdraw from this Protocol by giving
written notification – equally authentic.

5. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания.

CLIMATE CHANGE

to mitigate/contribute to/combat/offset/predict and


asses/exacerbate
to intensify efforts to model and predict ; through the manmade
modification of greenhouse gases might be disastrous; conference;
is already more important than acid rain, genetic engineering;
incalculable risk that the consequences of might be bring; impact of
on British flora and fauna; to draw up data on which warns of massive
disruption to agriculture

GREENHOUSE EFFECT

to cause/contribute to/enhance/add to
to curb/combat/control the adverse effects of climate change/to

165
counter to experience warming due to the enhanced /
develops
The research contradicts computer models predicting a warmer,
wetter world as the greenhouse effect develops.
Burning coal, gas and oil all produces carbon dioxide and adds to the
greenhouse effect.
Energy Ministers from 21 countries, meeting as the governing board
of the International Energy Agency, agreed on May 30, 1989, on a range
of policies aimed at curbing the greenhouse effect.

6. Изучите названия международных соглашений и их


перевод:

Protocol Concerning Протокол относительно


Cooperation in Combating Oil сотрудничества в борьбе с
Spills in the Wider Carribean разливами нефти в Карибском
Region регионе
Protocol Concerning Протокол относительно
Cooperation in Combating сотрудничества в борьбе с
Pollution in Cases of Emergency загрязнением в чрезвычайных
случаях
Protocol Concerning Протокол относительно
Cooperation in Combating сотрудничества в борьбе с
Pollution of the Mediterranean загрязнением Средиземного
Sea by Oil and Other Harmful моря нефтью и другими
Substances вредными веществами в
in Cases of Emergency чрезвычайных случаях
Protocol Concerning Regional Протокол относительно
Cooperation in Combating регионального сотрудничества в
Pollution by Oil and Other борьбе с загрязнением нефтью и
Harmful
Substances in Cases of другими вредными веществами в
Emergency чрезвычайных случаях

166
Protocol Concerning Regional Протокол относительно
Cooperation in Combating регионального сотрудничества в
Pollution by Oil and Other борьбе с загрязнением нефтью и
Harmful Substances in Cases of другими вредными веществами в
Emergency чрезвычайных случаях
Protocol Relating to Протокол о вмешательстве в
Intervention on the High Seas in открытом море в случаях
Cases of Marine Pollution by загрязнения веществами, иными
Substances Other than Oil чем нефть

7. Подберите из правой колонки синонимы к словам,


расположенным в левой колонке:

commitments their assigned amounts


energy cases of non-compliance with the provisions
market disputes
sustainable greenhouse gas
tax and duty the adverse effects of climate change
to address agreement on any proposed amendment
to adopt by all efforts at consensus
to be subject to their overall emissions of such gases
to cover against climate change
to emit amendments to this protocol
to entail imperfections
to enter from the protocol by giving written notification
to exceed ratification, acceptance or approval
to exhaust a three-fourths majority vote
to minimize exemptions
to mitigate administrative expenses
to propose efficiency
to reach adverse effects

167
to reduce into force
to settle binding consequences
to withdraw management practices
vulnerable under relevant international environmental
agreements to
8. Переведите письменно на английский язык следующие
предложения. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.

Глобальное заблуждение:
почему с изменением климата всерьез бороться
никто не будет

Карен Шаинян
Slon Magazine
29 сентября 2014

Борьба с глобальным потеплением – это лишь бурная


имитация деятельности. Устранять его главные причины никому
не выгодно, да и не под силу.
Неделю назад, 21 сентября, на улицы Манхэттена вышло
больше 310 тыс. человек с транспарантами, гигантскими
карнавальными куклами и бумажными подсолнухами. Марш в
НьюЙорке был приурочен к проходившему в городе саммиту ООН
по изменению климата. Неделя, пока шел саммит, вообще была
богата на громкие события и заявления. Билл де Блазио, мэр
НьюЙорка, пообещал, что к 2050 г. город сократит выбросы
парниковых газов на 80%. Следом Барак Обама заявил, что США к
середине века снизят общие выбросы парниковых газов на 17%, а
также призвал Китай последовать хорошему примеру. И хотя сам
председатель КНР Си Цзиньпин на саммит не приехал, его
заместитель Чжан Гаоли, кажется, впервые в истории пообещал
сделать все возможное для сокращения выбросов парниковых
газов.
В известном смысле это прогресс. К примеру, Киотский
протокол – международную конвенцию по снижению выбросов

168
парниковых газов – ни США, ни Китай в свое время даже не
ратифицировали. Притом что они являются странами с двумя
крупнейшими экономиками и загрязнителями атмосферы с их 5
млрд и 10 млрд тонн CO2 в год соответственно (Россия занимает 4-
е место, сразу за Индией).
Впрочем, не так важно, ратифицировали Штаты и Китай тот
протокол или нет, поскольку даже подписавшие его страны с
треском провалили взятые на себя обязательства. Мало кто
сбавил обороты, а общие глобальные выбросы продолжают расти
с ускорением и в прошлом году достигли 10 млрд т в пересчете на
чистый углерод, или 39 млрд т углекислого газа.
На манхэттенскую демонстрацию вышли самые известные
борцы с глобальным потеплением, в том числе бывший
вицепрезидент Ал Гор, который на рубеже веков сделал себе имя
и карьеру на климатическом алармизме.
Гор писал книжки про «неудобную правду» (которую критики
назвали удобной ложью) и творил всемирную зеленую
революцию, призывая человечество использовать
энергосберегающие лампочки, фонари на солнечных батареях,
экономичные системы обогрева воды и помещений, покупать
вещи из вторсырья – во имя спасения планеты. И люди с
энтузиазмом следовали его рекомендациям.
Зеленая революция стала мейнстримом, в нее включились
крупные корпорации.
В апреле 2014 г. IKEA объявила, что собирается вложить 2 млрд
долл. в ветряные электростанции в рамках программы
озеленения собственных технологий, согласно которой к 2020 г.
компания должна выйти на замкнутый цикл производства и
потребления энергии с нулевым выбросом парниковых газов.
Компания Apple пообещала пристально наблюдать за
выбросами ее контрагентов за пределами США, а также – вместе с
Google и Facebook – пообещала перевести свои дата-центры на
возобновляемые источники энергии. 23 сентября 40 крупнейших
компаний, в том числе Kellogg, L’Oréal и Nestlé, подписали
декларацию о намерении сократить вырубку тропических лесов
вдвое к 2020 г. и полностью прекратить ее к 2030 г. Правительства

169
Штатов, Китая и стран Евросоюза уже тратят суммарно 140 млрд
долл. ежегодно на субсидирование зеленых (возобновимых)
источников энергии.
Все это очень здорово и духоподъемно. Досадный нюанс
состоит в том, что зеленая революция со всеми ее
энергосберегающими лампочками, ветряками и солнечными
батареями влияет на климат в пределах погрешности.

TEXT 20.

1. Переведите протокол, который прилагается к Договору о


Европейском союзе.

Protocols to be annexed to the Treaty оn European Union


рrotocol on the application of the principles оf
subsidiarity and proportionality

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,


WISHING to ensure that decisions are taken as closely as possible to
the citizens of the Union,
RESOLVED to establish the conditions for the application of the
principles of subsidiarity and proportionality, as laid down in Article 3b
of the Treaty on European Union, and to establish a system for
monitoring the application of those principles,
HAVE AGREED UPON the following provisions, which shall be
annexed to the Treaty on European Union and to the Treaty on the
Functioning of the European Union.
Article 1.

170
Each institution shall ensure constant respect for the principles of
subsidiarity and proportionality, as laid down in Article 3b of the Treaty
on European Union.
Article 2.
Before proposing legislative acts, the Commission shall consult
widely. Such consultations shall take into account the regional and local
dimension of the action envisaged. In cases of exceptional urgency, the
Commission shall not conduct such consultations. It shall give reasons
for its decision in its proposal.
Article 4.
The Commission shall forward its draft legislative acts and its
amended drafts to national Parliaments at the same time as to the Union
legislator.
Article 5.
Draft legislative acts shall be justified with regard to the principles
of subsidiarity and proportionality. Any draft legislative act should
contain a detailed statement making it possible to appraise compliance
with the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality. This statement
should contain some assessment of the proposal's financial impact and,
in the case of a directive, of its implications for the rules to be put in
place by Member States. The reasons for concluding that a Union
objective can be better achieved at Union level shall be substantiated by
qualitative and quantitative indicators. Draft legislative acts shall take
account of the need for any burden, whether financial or administrative,
falling upon the Union, national governments, regional or local
authorities, to be minimized.
Article 6.
Any national Parliament or any chamber of a national Parliament
may send to the Council and the Commission a reasoned opinion stating
why it considers that the draft in question does not comply with the
principle of subsidiarity.
Article 7.
1. The European Parliament, the Council and the Commission, and,
where appropriate, the group of Member States, the Court of Justice, the
European Central Bank or the European Investment Bank shall take

171
account of the reasoned opinions issued by national Parliaments or by
a chamber of a national Parliament.
Each national Parliament shall have two votes, shared out on the
basis of the national Parliamentary system. In the case of a bicameral
Parliamentary system, each of the two chambers shall have one vote.
2. Where reasoned opinions on a draft legislative act's
noncompliance with the principle of subsidiarity represent at least one
third of all the votes the draft must be reviewed. This threshold shall be
a quarter in the case of a draft legislative act submitted on the basis of
Article 6.
After such review they may decide to maintain, amend or withdraw
the draft.
Article 8.
The Court of Justice of the European Union shall have jurisdiction in
actions on grounds of infringement of the principle of subsidiarity by a
legislative act, brought in accordance with the rules laid down in Article
230 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union by Member
States, or notified by them in accordance with their legal order on behalf
of their national Parliament or a chamber thereof.
2. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания:
Principles of Subsidiarity and Proportionality, the Commission of the
European Union, the Council of the European Union, the European
Parliament, the Court of Justice, the European Central Bank, the
European Investment Bank.

3. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания:
1) the high contracting parties; 2) wishing to ensure that decisions
are taken as closely as possible to the citizens of the Union; 3) resolved
to establish the conditions for the application of the principles of
subsidiarity and proportionality; 4) to lay down in Article 3b of the
Treaty; 5) to monitor the application of those principles; 6) to agree
upon following provisions; 7) to annex to the Treaty; 8) to ensure
constant respect for the principles of; 9) to propose legislative acts; 9)
to consult widely; 10) to take into account the regional and local
dimension of the action envisaged; 11) in cases of exceptional urgency;

172
12) to conduct such consultations; 13) to forward its draft legislative
acts and its amended drafts to; 14) draft legislative acts; 15) to justify
with regard to the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality; 16) to
contain a detailed statement; 17) to appraise compliance with the
principles of subsidiarity and proportionality; 18) assessment of the
proposal's financial impact; 19) to be substantiated by qualitative and
quantitative indicators; 20) any financial or administrative burden that
falls upon the Union; 21) any chamber of a national Parliament; 22)
infringement of the principle of subsidiarity; 30) to bring in accordance
with the rules.

4. Переведите протокол о роли парламента в Европейском


союзе.

Protocol on the role of National Parliaments in


the European Union

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,


RECALLING that the way in which national Parliaments scrutinise
their governments in relation to the activities of the European Union is
a matter for the particular constitutional organisation and practice of
each Member State;
DESIRING to encourage greater involvement of national Parliaments
in the activities of the European Union and to enhance their ability to
express their views on draft legislative acts of the European Union as
well as on other matters which may be of particular interest to them,
HAVE AGREED UPON the following provisions, which shall be
annexed to the Treaty on European Union.
Article 1.
Commission consultation documents (green and white papers and
communications) shall be forwarded directly by the Commission to
national Parliaments upon publication.
Article 2.
Draft legislative acts sent to the European Parliament and to the
Council shall be forwarded to national Parliaments. For the purposes of
this Protocol, 'draft legislative acts' shall mean proposals from the

173
Commission, initiatives from a group of Member States, initiatives from
the European Parliament, requests from the Court of Justice,
recommendations from the European Central Bank and requests from
the European Investment Bank for the adoption of a legislative act.
Article 4.
An eight-week period shall elapse between a draft legislative act
being made available to national Parliaments in the official languages of
the Union and the date when it is placed on a provisional agenda for the
Council for its adoption or for adoption of a position under a legislative
procedure. Exceptions shall be possible in cases of urgency, the reasons
for which shall be stated in the act or position of the Council. Save in
urgent cases for which due reasons have been given, no agreement may
be reached on a draft legislative act during those eight weeks. Save in
urgent cases for which due reasons have been given, a ten-day period
shall elapse between the placing of a draft legislative act on the
provisional agenda for the Council and the adoption of a position.
Article 5.
The agendas for and the outcome of meetings of the Council,
including the minutes of meetings where the Council is deliberating on
draft legislative acts, shall be forwarded directly to national
Parliaments, at the same time as to Member States' governments.

Article 6.
When the European Council intends to make use of the first or
second subparagraphs of Article 48(7) of the Treaty on European
Union, national Parliaments shall be informed of the initiative of the
European Council at least six months before any decision is adopted.
Article 9.
The European Parliament and national Parliaments shall together
determine the organisation and promotion of effective and regular
interparliamentary cooperation within the Union.
Article 10.
A conference of Parliamentary Committees for Union Affairs may
submit any contribution it deems appropriate for the attention of the
European Parliament, the Council and the Commission. That conference
shall in addition promote the exchange of information and best practice

174
between national Parliaments and the European Parliament, including
their special committees. It may also organise interparliamentary
conferences on specific topics, in particular to debate matters of
common foreign and security policy, including common security and
defence policy. Contributions from the conference shall not bind
national Parliaments and shall not prejudge their positions.

Language Note:
Green Papers are documents published by the European
Commission to stimulate discussion on given topics at European level.
They invite the relevant parties (bodies or individuals) to participate in
a consultation process and debate on the basis of the proposals they put
forward. Green Papers may give rise to legislative developments that
are then outlined in White Papers.
For example, in the 1985 Green Paper on the future of the universities
(altogether a somewhat hasty and ill-expressed document) it was
suggested that more money should be given to universities, and more
places offered to students and this policy is now being implemented, with
considerable effect on the schools.
The debate which the Green Papers generated has been fully
chronicled elsewhere but the response to the proposal that rights of
audience should in future depend on certificates of competence in
advocacy rather than membership of a particular branch of the
profession met a predictably hostile response.
Unveiling the Green Paper, Norman Fowler, the Secretary of State for
Employment, said unofficial action cost jobs and undermined Britain's
international competitiveness.
The government's proposals on restrictive practices, published in a
green paper during March 1988, prohibited all agreements between
companies that distorted competition.
White Papers are documents containing proposals for Community
action in a specific area. In some cases they follow a Green Paper
published to launch a consultation process at European level. When a
White Paper is favourably received by the Council, it can lead to an
action programme for the Union in the area concerned.

175
British Defence policy is written, re-written, written about and
debated annually in the Defence White Papers, in which the government
of the day makes its case for military expenditure for the coming year.
Government time will be used to submit to the House for debate White
Papers setting out government proposals and government statements on
matters of topical public importance.
In order to counter concern about the lack of guidance for nationalised
industries, there were two government White Papers, which attempted to
produce financial targets and guidelines for pricing and investment
decisions.
Reform may sometimes be preceded by Green or White Papers
allowing pre-legislative consultation in Parliament.

5. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова и


словосочетания:
1) to scrutinise governments in relation to the activities in; 2) to
encourage greater involvement of national Parliaments in the activities
of the European Union; 3) to enhance their ability to express their views
on draft legislative acts; 4) green and white papers and
communications; 5) to forward directly by the Commission to national
Parliaments; 6) proposals from the Commission, initiatives from a
group of Member States, requests from the Court of Justice,
recommendations from the European Central Bank; 7) to adopt a
legislative act; 8) to elapse between a draft legislative act being made
available to national Parliaments; 9) to place on a provisional agenda;
10) in cases of urgency; 11) to state reasons for; 12) in urgent cases; 13)
to deliberate on draft legislative acts; 14) to intend to make use of; 15)
interparliamentary cooperation within the Union; 16) to submit any
contribution; 17) to deem appropriate for the attention of; 18) to debate
matters of common foreign and security policy; 19) to bind national
Parliaments; 20) to prejudge their positions.

6. Изучите следующие слова и словосочетания:

176
to propose/submit/forward to place a on a
provisional agenda to scrutinize/deliberate
on / debate to send a reasoned opinion about
to review
to amend DRAFT
to withdraw LEGISLATIVE ACT to agree upon/adopt
PROPOSAL to lay down in Article to annex to the Treaty to
ensure constant respect for to monitor the application of to
bring in accordance with the principles of to justify with
regard to the principles of

contains a detailed statement


DRAFT is substantiated by qualitative and
quantitative indicators
LEGISLATIVE ACT complies with the principle of
PROPOSAL infringes the principle of
binds national Parliaments

7. Переведите письменно на английский язык следующие


предложения. Обсудите различные варианты перевода.

Прорыв справа: новый состав Европарламента


РИА Новости

Позиции крайне правых и националистических партий по


результатам прошедших выборов в Европарламент значительно
укрепились.
Европейский парламент (ЕП) – один из ключевых институтов
Европейского союза (ЕС). Наряду с Советом он отвечает за
законодательную деятельность Евросоюза. В работе
Европарламента принимают участие более 700 депутатов,
которых избирают сами граждане ЕС посредством прямого
голосования (для сравнения – Парламентская ассамблея Совета
Европы (ПАСЕ) формируется из парламентариев, делегируемых
законодательными органами своих стран). Обновление состава ЕП
происходит каждые пять лет.

177
На последних выборах в Европарламент, прошедших с 22 по 25
мая 2014 г., лидирующие позиции заняли традиционные для этого
института силы – правоцентристская «Европейская народная
партия», левоцентристский «Прогрессивный альянс социалистов
и демократов» и либеральный «Альянс либералов и демократов за
Европу». Но вместе с тем заметно укрепились позиции крайне
правых и националистических партий, лидеры которых часто
выступают за выход своих государств из Евросоюза.
«Эти итоги не повлияют на работу Европарламента, потому что
большинство там все равно принадлежит “партиям мейнстрима”.
Это не очень повлияет на политический настрой других стран,
потому что, когда там будут проходить собственные выборы, там
будут совершенно другие критерии, но это, безусловно,
показатель того, сколь высок градус неудовлетворения
политической системой и предлагаемым ассортиментом во
многих странах Евросоюза», – считает главный редактор журнала
«Россия в глобальной политике» Федор Лукьянов.
Драматизировать итоги выборов в Европарламент не стоит,
они не повлияют ни на работу этого органа, ни на политический
настрой других стран, хотя в целом это показывает уровень
недовольства политической системой во многих странах ЕС.
Крайне правые партии и евроскептики добились в ряде стран
ЕС высоких показателей по итогам воскресных выборов в
Европарламент, что стало следствием раздражения избирателей
проводимой Брюсселем политики бюджетной экономии,
традиционные же партии понесли заметные потери. Символом
«прорыва справа» стал результат «Национального фронта» Марин
Ле Пен, которому по предварительным данным досталось 22 из 74
французских мандата.
СПИСОК РЕКОМЕНДОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

Основная литература

1. Волкова Т.А. Дискурсивно-коммуникативная модель


перевода Флинта. М.: Наука, 2010.

178
2. Глазкова М.Ю., Стрельцов А.А. Перевод официально-деловой
документации: учеб. пособие. Изд. 2-е, испр. и доп. – Ростов н/Д:
Издат. центр «МарТ»; Феникс, 2011.
3. Колесникова Н.Л. Деловое общение. Business Communication:
учеб. Пособие. 5-е изд., стер. М.: Флинта, 2012.
4. Пестова М.С. Перевод коммерческой документации =
Translation of commercial documentation: учеб. пособие. Ростов н/Д:
Феникс, 2012.
5. Светланин С.Н. Политика. Экономика. Право: англ.-рус.
словарь. Politics. Economics. Law: English-Russian Dictionary. М.:
Флинта, 2013.
6. Уфимцева О.А., Харитонова В.Ю. Дипломатическая
терминология и корреспонденция: учеб. пособие для студентов
специальности 031202.65 «Перевод и переводоведение». Саратов:
Научная книга, 2009.

Дополнительная литература

1. Кривых Л.Д. Технический перевод: учеб.-метод. пособие / Л.Д.


Кривых, Г.В. Рябичкина, О.Б. Смирнова. М.: Форум, 2008
2. Митягина В.А. Подготовка переводчика: Коммуникативные и
дидактические аспекты / авт. колл.: В.А. Митягина и др.; под общ.
ред. В.А. Митягиной. 2-е изд., стер. М.: Флинта, 2013.
3. Салимова Д.А. Двуязычие и перевод: Теория и опыт
исследования / Д.А. Салимова, А.А. Тимерханов. М.: Флинта: Наука,
2012.
4. Слепович В.С. Курс перевода (английский – русский язык) =
Translation Course (English – Russian): учеб. пособие для студентов
высш. учеб. заведений по специальности «Мировая экономика».
9-е изд. Мн: ТетраСистемс, 2011.

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

UNIT 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF INTER-GOVERNMENTAL

179
COMMUNUCATION ......................................................................................... 3
TEXT 1. Diplomacy: origin, goals, use .............................................................
3
TEXT 2. Diplomacy in ancient times ............................................................. 11
UNIT 2. HISTORY OF DIPLOMACY ............................................................19
TEXT 3. Diplomacy in the middle ages ........................................................ 19
TEXT 4. Diplomacy in modern times ............................................................ 24
UNIT 3. THE LANGUAGE OF DIPLOMACY ...............................................35
TEXT 5. Diplomatic language ...........................................................................
35
TEXT 6. The best language for diplomatic purpose ............................. 42
UNIT 4. LINGUSTIC MEANS OF POLITICAL DISCOURSE .....................50
TEXT 7. Know your values and frame the debate .................................. 50
TEXT 8. Soft language .......................................................................................... 54
UNIT 5. INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS BINDING AT
INTERNATIONAL LAW: TREATIES...........................................................62
TEXT 9. Treaties .....................................................................................................
64
TEXT 10. Treaty of good-neighbourliness and friendly
cooperation between the People's Republic of China
and the Russian Federation ..............................................................................
73
UNIT 6. INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS BINDING AT
INTERNATIONAL LAW: AGREEMENTS, CONVENTIONS ....................83
TEXT 11. Agreements ..........................................................................................
83
TEXT 12. International agreement for the establishment
of the University for Peace ................................................................................
91
TEXT 13. Conventions .........................................................................................
98
UNIT 7. FINAL INSTRUMENTS OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL
NEGOTIATIONS AND VISITS: DECLARATION .................................... 106

180
TEXT 14. Declaration
.........................................................................................108
TEXT 15. Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial
Countries and Peoples
........................................................................................118 UNIT 8. FINAL
INSTRUMENTS OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL
NEGOTIATIONS AND VISITS: JOINT COMMUNIQUE ............................125
TEXT 16. Joint
communiqué...........................................................................125 TEXT 17.
Session of the Council of Heads of State of the SCO .........137
UNIT 9. FINAL INSTRUMENTS OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL
NEGOTIATIONS AND VISITS: MEMORANDA OF UNDERSTANDING,
PROTOCOLS ................................................................................................. 139
TEXT 18. Memoranda of understanding...................................................139
TEXT 19. Protocols
.............................................................................................150
TEXT 20. Protocols to be annexed to the Treaty on European
Union
.........................................................................................................................160

181
Учебное издание

Уфимцева Ольга Александровна,


Харитонова Виктория Юрьевна

ПЕРЕВОД В СФЕРЕ МЕЖГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫХ


ОТНОШЕНИЙ

Учебное пособие для


студентов специальности
45.05.01 «Перевод и переводоведение»

Редактор Н.В. Занозина


Компьютерная верстка Е.Н. Шокот

Подписано в печать 02.06.2015 г. Формат 60 × 84 1/16.


Уч.-изд. л. 11,11. Усл. печ. л. 10,75. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ 340.

410003, Саратов, ул. Радищева, 89. ССЭИ (филиал)


182
РЭУ им. Г.В. Плеханова

183