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FACULTY OF INDUSTRIAL SCIENCES & TECHNOLOGY MATERIAL

TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMME

MATERIAL SCIENCE AND SOLID STATE LABORATORY (BSP2422)

Title of Experiment : Hardness Test

Date of Experiment : 14 November 2019

Date of Submission : 21 November 2019

Instructor’s Name : Dr Ashry Jusoh

Group of Member :

Name ID

1.MUHAMMAD SYUKRY BIN KAMARUDIN SC17064

2.RIHASHNI A/P THIVAGARA SC18030

3.SHASHITHARAN A/L ANNADORAI SC17058

Group No.: 4

Marks :
1.0 Abstract

The hardness test is a mechanical test for material residences which are used in engineering
design, evaluation of structures, and materials development. The foremost motive of the
hardness check is to determine the suitability of a cloth for a given application, or the
particular cure to which the cloth has been subjected. The ease with which the
hardness test can be made has made it the most common method of inspection for metals and
alloys.

2.0 Introduction

Hardness is defined as the resistance of a fabric to everlasting deformation such as


indentation, wear, abrasion, scratch. Principally, the importance of hardness checking out has
to do with the relationship between hardness and different properties of material. For
example, both the hardness test and the tensile take a look at measure the resistance of a
metallic to plastic flow, and results of these assessments may closely parallel every other. The
hardness test is preferred because it is simple, easy, and particularly nondestructive. There are
many hardness assessments currently in use. The necessitate for all these one of a kind
hardness tests is due to the need for categorizing the gorgeous vary of hardness from tender
rubber to hard ceramics.

3.0 Material/Equipment

Rockwell hardness testing machine, specimen which brass, copper and aluminium

4.0 Methods
1. The Rockwell 574 Hardness measuring machine's operating instructions are carefully
read.
2. The right level of hardness of Rockwell has been determined.
3. The hardness tester for Rockwell has been calibrated.
4. The surface of the sample was washed with dust, dirt, oil and grease removed.
5. The surface of the sample and the ball are connected by spinning the changing wheel
of the hammer.
6. For a load, the appropriate button was pushed.
7. For at least 15 seconds of waiting, the load release lever was released. The load was a
dded slowly automatically
8. The support table for the sample was removed and the indentation was found.
9. At different positions, the entire operation was replicated 5 times.

5.0 Data
Position Indenter type: S13043 Indenter type: S13043
HR30N HR30N
Copper (Cu) Aluminium (Al) Brass
1 31.9 35.6 43.4
2 32.0 36.8 43.7
3 31.7 34.5 40.7
4 31.5 34.2 42.9
5 32.5 35.7 41.9

6.0 Analysis and discussion


A hardness check is typically performed by pressing a precisely shaped and packed object
(indenter) into the surface of the material you are testing.The indenter is pressed with the
test preforce (also known as preforce or preload) to a penetration depth of h0 in the
specimen to be tested. HO defines the residual indentation depth measurement reference
point (base) afterwardsThe additional test force is applied for a dwelling time specified in
accordance with the norm (several seconds), with the indenter penetrating the specimen to
a maximum indentation depth of H1.
Now the Rockwell hardness (HR) can be measured, taking into account the applied Rock
well scale, using the residual indentation depth (h) and a formula specified in the norm.
Pre-load is also known as a minor load or preliminary test force. The pre-load was applied
to a sample using the indenter. The reason is the preload will break through the surface to
reduce the effects of the surface finishing.

The benefits of Rockwell test are:


i. No specific sample preparation preferred like separation, grinding and etc.
ii. Clearly readable hardness value, no optical judgment needed (diagonal calcula
tion as in optical methods)
iii. That means a short test period and a cost
effective method (the related hardness testers are relatively cheap, as they do n
ot need to be supplied with elaborate optical systems
iv. It's the easiest and most self-
operating process. It's got a quick test time. The number of the hardness was re
ad out directly on the dial. You can use this test for a wide variety of materials.

Metal that provide highest hardness values is brass because it has the highest Rockwell
Hardness number. Also, brass id made of copper and zinc so it is an alloy. The higher
percentage of zinc in brass made it become even more strong and hard.

In case of metal material, hardness and tensile strength both are the indicator for metal’s
resistance to deformation of plastic. The tensile strength measures the amount of stress for
material can handle before it going to have permanent deformation or irreversible
deformation while hardness means the measurement of resistance to elastic deformation. For
most of the metals, tensile strength increases as hardness also increases. The tensile strength
value can be calculated from the hardness and it is very convenient since hardness test such
as Rockwell are simple to do, cheaper and non-destructive.

CONCLUSION

The aim of this experiment is to study the Rockwell Hardness testing machine and perform
the Rockwell Hardness test. After completed experiment,the data recorded and compared
between copper,brass and aluminium.The indenter type was given by the instructor. In this
experiment, it is needed to try which indenter type suits the materials given. Other than that,
the hardness test was measures in simplest way which is the indenter was press into the
surface of the material with the an amount of load. The Rockwell Hardness machine shows
negative values which the negative values means that indicator was not suitable for the
materials.If we continue to take the reading when it shows negative means there will be an
error when retreiving our data.Lastly,it was an easiest and more accurate way in identify the
hrdness of different type materials.

REFERENCES

1. Hill, R., Storåkers, B., & Zdunek, A. B. (1989). Brinell hardness test. A. Mathematical
and Physical Sciences, 423(1865), 301-330.

2. Herrmann, K. (Ed.). (2011). Hardness testing: principles and applications. ASM


International.

3. Lee, G. C., & Choi, H. B. (2013). Hardness test, 40, 455-460.

4. Tan, C. F., & Radzai, S. M. (2009). Hardness test. Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 36(3),
276-286.

5. Özkan, N., Xin, H., & Chen, X. D. (2002). Application of hardness test to evaluate the
mechanical properties. Journal of Food Science, 67(5), 1814-1820.

6. Vlis, A. C. (1970). Hardness test. International Society of Rock Mechanics,


Proceedings, 1(1-19).

7. Hryha, E., Zubko, P., Dudrova, E., Pešek, L., & Bengtsson, S. (2009). An application of
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8. Hauck, J. M., & Barfoot, D. A. (2006). U.S. Patent No. 7,139,422. Washington, DC:
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.