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316 Chapter 7 / Internal Flows

TABLE 7.2

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Nominal Loss Coefficients K (Turbulent Flow) a

Type of fitting

 

Screwed

Flanged

 
 

Diameter

2.5 cm

5 in.

10 cm

5 cm

10 cm

20 cm

Globe valve

(fully open)

8.2

6.9

5.7

8.5

6.0

5.8

(half open) (one-quarter open) Angle valve (fully open) Swing check valve (fully open) Gate valve (fully open)

 

20

17

14

21

15

14

57

48

40

60

42

41

4.7

2.0

1.0

2.4

2.0

2.0

2.9

2.1

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

0.24

0.16

0.11

0.35

0.16

0.07

Return bend

Tee (branch)

Return bend Tee (branch)
 

1.5

0.95

0.64

0.35

0.30

0.25

1.8

1.4

1.1

0.80

0.64

0.58

Tee (line)

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.19

0.14

0.10

Standard elbow Long sweep elbow

 

1.5

0.72

0.95

0.41

0.64

0.23

0.39

0.30

0.30

0.19

0.26

0.15

45° elbow

45° elbow 0.32 0.30 0.29

0.32

0.30

0.29

Square-edged entrance

Square-edged entrance 0.5
Square-edged entrance 0.5

0.5

Reentrant entrance

Reentrant entrance 0.8
Reentrant entrance 0.8

0.8

Well-rounded entrance

Well-rounded entrance 0.03
Well-rounded entrance 0.03

0.03

Pipe exit

1.0

 

Area ratio

 

Sudden contraction b

2:1

0.25

5:1 0.41
5:1 0.41

5:1

0.41

10:1

0.46

 

Area ratio A/A 0

 

Orifice plate

1.5:1

0.85

  2:1 3.4
 

2:1

3.4

4:1 29

4:1

29

Sudden enlargement c

6:1

Sudden enlargement c 6:1
Sudden enlargement c 6:1
 

2.78 0.6 2

A

A

0

1

A

2

A

2

1

 

90° miter bend (without vanes)

90° miter bend (without vanes)

1.1

 

(with vanes)

  (with vanes) 0.2

0.2

General contraction θ
General contraction
θ

(30° included angle)

(70° included angle)

0.02

0.07

a Values for other geometries can be found in Technical Paper 410, The Crane Company, 1957. b Based on exit velocity V 2 . c Based on entrance velocity V 1 .

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