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BULLET!

OF THE

KANSAS STATE BOARD OF HEALTH


VoL. XI No.6
ENGINEERING BuLLETIN No. 19, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS

THE SANITARY PRIVY

DECEMBER, 1934

Published by the State Board of Health, Topeka


EARLE G. BROWN, M.D., Secretary and Editor

Entered as second-class matter, March 5, 1906, at the post office at Topeka, Kan., under the
act of Congress of July 16, 1894.
FOREWORD

This BuLLETIN has been prepared by the Division of Sanitation,


State Board of Health and the Department of Sanitary Engineering,
University of Kansas, for home owners living in rural and suburban
areas not served by public sewers.
Proper waste disposal can be accomplished without sewers, and
such filth-borne diseases as typhoid fever, diarrhea and enteritis,
which are responsible for much sickness and many deaths each year,
can practically be eliminated. The sanitary privy is a sewer substi-
tute, and when properly constructed and maintained is a safe means
of waste disposal. This BuLLETIN has been prepared after careful
study and is based on the results of many years' experience of
numerous investigators in problems of waste disposal, many of the
suggestions being taken from United States Public Health Service
material. It is important that installations be made strictly in accord-
ance with the detailed plans and instructions provided.
Additional copies may be obtained free of charge by addressing
the Secretary, State Board of Health, Topeka, Kan., or the Division
of Sanitation, State Board of Health, Lawrence, Kan.
EARLE G. BROWN, M.D.
Secretary and Executive Officer.
THE SANITARY PRIVY

INTRODUCTION
Every home not provided with running water and a water-carriage system
of sewage disposal should have a fly-tight sanitary privy. Experience has
shown that unless there is some special condition which requires the installation
of a more complicated type of outdoor toilet, the sanitary pit privy is the
cheapest and most satisfactory means of disposing of body wastes.
Typhoid fever, diarrhea, enteritis, hookworm and other filth-borne diseases
are responsible for much sickness and many deaths each year. The germs
which produce these diseases are present in the wastes of individuals known
as carriers. A small percentage of those having had one of the filth-borne
diseases continue to discharge vimlent organisms in their urine and feces,
although they, themselves, are in a normal, healthy state. Thus, repulsive
as the thought may be, anyone who contracts typhoid fever or dysentery
actually has taken into his mouth a minute quantity of the body excretion
of another individual. The path of infection may be through polluted water
supplies, or food commodities which have become infected through some
contaminating contact. Flies and other insects, fowls and animals frequently
are responsible for the infection of food when they have access to body
wastes which are carelessly scattered about or which have not been disposed
of properly.
The most spectacular reductions in typhoid fever, diarrhea, dysentery and
enteritis have been made through purification of public water supplies, pro-
tection of water supply sources, and the construction of sewers and sewage-
treatment plants. Outbreaks of these diseases have appeared in epidemic
form, so that the attention of public-health authorities has been directed to
the improvement of existing insanitary conditions. Similar progress, however,
has not been made in the reduction of water-borne typhoid fever traceable
to flies, contaminated wells and springs in rural sections. Such sources of
water supply cannot be protected against contamination through the usage of
elaborate purification processes applicable to public water supplies. As a
result, private wells and springs are often endangered by the proximity of
insanitary privies or by the careless practice of depositing excreta upon the
ground nearby. The chain by which infection reaches the individual must be
broken by providing a safe means for disposing of excreta.
In addition to water, flies are responsible for many cases of filth-borne
diseases. The records of the state health department show that the number
of cases of typhoid fever, dysentery, and enteritis during the warm months,
when flies are prevalent, greatly exceed those reported during lat~ fall and
winter. Food most commonly becomes infected in the home by flies which
have access to exposed human excreta containing the disease-producing germs.
They breed and feed in this infectious excreta, carry and deposit it upon the
food.
Filth-borne diseases thus transmitted do not appear in epidemic form, but
occur in sporadic, unrelated cases. It is most prevalent in the warmer months,

(3)
4 KANSAS STATE BoARD oF HEALTH

when flies are most numerous and active. In communities where sanitary
disposal of excreta is not practiced, the prevalence of filth-borne disease is
definitely influenced by the density of population. In villages and the portions
of towns and cities that are not equipped with sanitary sewers, the infectious
excreta in a single insanitary privy may endanger hundreds of people, while
usually only a single household is endangered by an insanitary privy at an
isolated farm home.
In the prevention of the endemic occurrence of excreta-borne diseases, there-
fore, sanitary disposal of excreta in towns and villages is equal in importance
to the improvement of public water supplies.
In the past twenty-nine years Kansas has succeeded in decreasing its
typhoid fever death rate from 25.7 to 1.4 per 100,000 population. This repre-
sents a decrease of 94.7 per cent. A few years ago diarrhea and enteritis
\Vere responsible for nearly 30 per cent of all deaths of infants less than one
year of age. Better care and feeding of infants, together with improved
water supplies and waste disposal in cities, have materially reduced this figure.
The fact remains, however, that at the present time nearly seven and one-
half per cent of all deaths of infants less than one year of age are caused
by diarrhea and enteritis. All of these figures are much too high, especially
when one considers that these diseases could be eradicated if everyone did his
part. However, before results can be expected, much improvement must be
made in the disposal of human wastes.
There is no reason why those who are denied the convenience of sewers
should not be provided with sanitary methods of sewage disposal. The
primary justification of a sewage system is the removal of the health menace
of insanitary disposal of excreta. Except in the larger cities, homes that are
served by a water-carriage system of sewerage remain in fly range of the
surrounding unsewered homes. Therefore, unless the facilities for the removal
of excreta or for otherwise preventing the access of flies to exposed excreta
are extended to embrace these other homes, the primary object of the water-
carriage system of sewerage for the heart of the community has not been
reached.
Furthermore, all, or at least a part, of the cost of sewers is frequently
met by a tax levy on all properties within the district or the jurisdiction of
the governing body. It is only just, then, that those homes that cannot be
given the benefit of permanent sewerage facilities be given the benefit of
temporary improvements, such as sanitary pit privies, until such times as
sewers to serve these homes can be installed.
If taxes are not levied on all properties for sewerage, then unsewered
properties could be taxed for sanitary privies at a rate necessary to defray
the cost of the utility, or a service charge could be made on the same
principle that sewer rental fees for scavenging privies and the collection and
disposal of garbage are based. In short, a system of sanitary privies in an
incorporated community is, in reality, a public utility, and should be treated
as such.
In several southern states where sanitary pit privy programs have been in
progress several years there has been a growing tendency for municipalities to
handle the installation and maintenance of a system of sanitary privies as a
public utility. This method of approach offers both the most satisfactory and
THE SANITARY PRIVY 5

the most economical solution to the problem. It is the most economical,


because when the material for a large number of privies is to be purchased,
it can be bought on competitive bids at very low cost in comparison with what
the cost would be for a single installation. Also, when built in quantity,
the construction may be done at a central point, where suitable facilities for
efficient utilization of labor and close supervision can be exercised to secure
high quality workmanship and close adherence to standards adopted.
The construction of a privy, though simple, involves certain specific details
that must be correct in construction in order that the privy will afford the
protection it is designed to provide. The following sketches and discussion
give in detail the approved method for building sanitary pit type toilets:
6 KANSAs STATE BoARD oF HEALTH

CONSTRUCTION OF THE SANITARY PIT PRIVY

PRECAST CONCRETE SLAB AND RISER


LoCATION. Select a well-drained location at least 50 feet, preferably more,
from the water supply, and so placed ~hat surface and underground drainage
will be away from the water supply. For convenience in bad weather, and to
prevent exposure, the location should be near the house.
THE PIT. Construct a digging frame 3% by 3% feet, using four pit siding
pieces. Square and brace the frame with wood strips across the corners.
Lay the frame on the ground at the point selected and dig the pit to a
depth of 4 feet 11 inches, the size conforming to the outside of the frame.
The depth should be measured from the highest point on the original ground.
Finish the pit by trimming the walls and corners true so that the frame will
slide evenly into the pit all the way down.
Take apart the digging frame, construct the pit lining 3% feet square,
outside dimensions, and 5 feet deep. The top three boards on each side of
the pit lining should be nailed up tight. From this point to the bottom they
may be spaced one inch apart. The lining should be built on the surface of
the ground and lowered into the pit. If it does not fit tightly, any cavities
must be tightly packed full of dirt, using a thin board for ramming. It is
important that the lining be placed immediately after the pit is dug to
eliminate possible caving. When installed the lining should extend one inch
above the original ground surface.
Before the mud sills are placed around the top of the pit lining the surface
of the ground should be brought to an even grade. Fills must be tamped to
prevent uneven settling of the structure.
PRECAST Muo SILLS. \Vhere large numbers are to be constructed 2-inch
by 6-inch material should be used to construct the forms. Small blocks con-
forming to the shape of the notch should be made and either clamped or
tacked at the ends of the form to construct joints so that the four sills will
lock when in place. One-quarter inch round steel reinforcing rods should be
placed one inch from the bottom and one inch from the top of the sill.
PRECAST SLAB AND RISER. Select a place on a floor or on the ground that
is level and where the slab can remain undisturbed until cured. Cover the
surface with building paper to prevent the fresh concrete from bonding with
the underlying material. Construct a box form with four 2- by 3-inch boards
so that the space inside is 4 feet square. The metal riser forms should be
placed inside the slab forms as shown on the plans. Care should be exercised
to keep the back of the outside riser form at least 3% inches from the edge
of the slab to provide space for the rear floor sill. Place the 4-foot square
piece of hog wire over the forms, mark the space that will be covered by the
inside riser form, and cut this space out of the wire, leaving the free ends
cut long to turn up between the riser forms. A piece of chicken wire 18
inches by 5 feet should be used to reinforce the riser. One-quarter inch steel
THE SANITARY PRIVY 7

DIGG lNG fRAMl':

PIT LINING IN PLACE:.

MUP JILL5 IN PLAct

Muv SILL UNIT

FIGURE 1
8 KANSAS STATE BoARD OF HEALTH

5LAB AND RI5J:.R. IN foR.M.5

I
I
I
I I
16-,f<s"to/1, ~
ifofa1e ,.of/
J ~· ~h in en/11'\! ~lab 4nd
~ ol"n/1
j riser, cvladol
.j ;k/~;:forciny borJ?
%~ 5" .boll lo lake~ ------~

sill rlole olri'Y

.SLAB AND Ri::>ER. PLAN

Ccy;jJer win: ..xreen


orer mnf jJife on
under ..s1de ofs~ol-+~--h,_:,_

1•1 cleo!
covnler .,unk. nvls lo
~--'-~==------'- o!lach '.seallo n'jer.

LID PLAti .SEAT PLAN

FIGURE 2
THE SANITARY PRIVY 9

reinforcing rods should be placed all around the outer edge of the slab, 3
inches inside and 1 inch from the bottom. Mix concrete (1 : 2 : 3 or 1 : 2 : 4,
depending on materials used.) Spread 1 inch of this material inside the slab
form and place the steel reinforcing material on top of the concrete. Put the
chicken wire inside the riser form, finish pouring the slab and then the
riser. Great care must be taken to spade the concrete around the edges of
the riser and slab forms to prevent honeycombing. Set the five bolts (% by 5
inches) in the floor slab and the six bolts (~ by 5 inches, brass or galvanized,
brass preferred) in the top of the riser as shown on the plans. The riser bolts
should be left exposed 1% inches above the concrete surface of the top of
the riser walls.
Build the mud sills with the remaining concrete, making sure to place the
reinforcing rods as indicated on the plans.
SEAT ToP AND LID. The seat top is made of two 2-inch by 10-inch dressed
pieces, each 26 inches long. Considerable time can be saved in laying out the
plan of the seat if a full-sized cardboard pattern is made in accordance with
the plans shown in figure 2. The two pieces of material from which the seat
is to be made can then be placed edge to edge and the cutting lines marked.
The seats should be cut out on a band-saw, since considerable labor is gener-
ally required to finish the seat if a key-hole saw is used. Four-inch dowel
pins should be placed in front of and just back of the seat and also in back
of the opening for the vent pipe, to prevent buckling. The two pieces of
material should then be glued together. A cleat should be fastened on the
bottom of the seat as shown on the plans. Tack a 6- by 6-inch piece of 16-mesh
copper screen over the bottom of the vent so that this opening is fly-tight.
The edges of the seat should be beveled and sanded.
Fasten two dressed 2- by 4-inch hinged blocks, one on each side of the
vent opening, with front ends even with the front side of the vent opening.
Construct the lid with two 1- by 6-inch pieces of dressed tongue-and-groove
material 19%, inches long and two cleats 1- by 4-inches, 10% inches long.
Install the lid with 3-inch rust-proof strap hinges on the hinge blocks.
Galvanized or sherardized hinges with brass or bronze pins can be purchased
for almost the same price as the ordinary strap iron hinges and are much
more satisfactory. A ~-inch opening should be left between the hinge blocks
and the lid so that dirt accumulating in front of the hinge blocks will not
prevent the lid from closing tightly. The seat and lid should be painted with
a good grade of paint.
After the concrete has set, the forms should be removed and the seat top
installed. Center the seat over the riser and tap lightly with a hammer
directly over each of the bolts to mark its position. Remove seat and bore
~-inch holes for the bolts, and with a l-inch bit bore % inch into the top
of each bolt hole for countersinking the nuts. Make up a small quantity of
sand-cement mortar and spread over the top of the riser. Place the seat top
in its proper position, leyeling and bedding into the mortar and turn the nuts
into place. The countersunk holes should be plugged with putty, plastic wood
or other satisfactory material.
SETTING THE MuD SILLS. Place the precast mud sills around the top of the
pit lining with ends locked as shown on the plans. The sills should be leveled
10 KANSAS STATE BoARD oF HEALTH

individually and as a unit. Any necessary fills should be made in thin layers
and tamped to prevent uneven settling.
SETTING THE SLAB AND RISER. Set the slab and riser on the mud sills, cen-
tering the slab over the pit. Two inches of each mud sill should be exposed
when the slab is in place.
GRADING. Using the earth taken from the pit, construct a mound level with
the top of the slab. The earth should be spread in 2-inch layers and tamped
firmly into place. A piece of firewood about 12 inches in diameter and 16
inches long, with two wood strips for handles, makes a suitable tamp. The
top of the mound should extend level several inches from the surface of the
slab before it begins to slope off. The slope must not be steep.
BUILDING. In constructing the building, follow carefully the "bill of ma-
terial" which shows the length that the various pieces should be cut. Con-
struct the sills and locate points where the floor bolts will strike the sill. Bore
1
h-inch holes at these points, place sills and turn down the nuts on the floor
bolts. Construct the frame of the building complete as shown on the plans
and secure framing, plumb and level by temporary braces. Sheath the build-
ing, placing the sheathing on the back first, then the sides, and finally the
front. Place the roof and hang the door. The building should be properly
ventilated, and for this reason the side sheathing should not extend above the
horizontal side braces. The sheathing on the front and back of the building
should extend up only as far as the bottom of the rafters, which provides a
4-inch opening all around the top for ventilation. Do not place any sheathing
below the top of the slab.
If a new building has been built, it should be removed from the slab until
it is in place. Then set the building back on the slab in the same position
that it was during the process of construction.
Where old buildings are to be reused, mark the location of the bolts in the
slab on the floor sills and drill holes so that the building can be set in place.
The old floor sills should be removed if necessary and new ones provided.
Install the drip boards over the mound at the rear of the building as shown
on the plans.
To INSTALL VENT PIPE. Using a spike or other object suspended on a string
about 6 feet long as a plumb-bob, suspend string from the roof inside the
building and center in the vent pipe opening of the seat top. At the point in
the roof thus located, cut a 4-inch circular opening. Push the vent pipe
through the top of the roof and set it firmly into place through the vent
opening in the seat, with the seam to the front. Use roofing cement to seal
the opening and make waterproof where the vent pipe passes through the
roof. A satisfactory joint can also be made by soldering the pipe to the
roof. Any opening around the vent pipe where it passes through the seat top
should also be sealed with roofing cement.
To SHAPE CAP ON VENT PIPE IF SEPARATE CAP IS NoT UsED. At the top of
the vent cut slits 4 inches long at points directly opposite each other. At the
bottom of each slit cut the metal 2 inches around the pipe in each direction.
Flatten the top 4-inch sections thus formed and curve each to form a hood
or cap over the top of the vent pipe.
THE SANITARY PRIVY 11

CARE AND MAINTENANCE


1. The sanitary pit privy must be kept fly-tight. Keep the lid closed at
all times when not in use. Keep the lid hinges in good repair and replace the
screen on the vent pipe when necessary.
2. Keep the earth filled in around the pit. Settlement sometimes occurs.
3. The walls, seat, floor and ground around the privy should be kept clean.
If the seat or floor becomes soiled scrub with boiling water and soap, or lye.
4. Disinfectants, lime, chemicals or deodorants should not be used in the
privy pit. They hinder the process of decomposition.
5. Do not deposit garbage, trash or ashes in the privy pit. They take
up space.
6. When the pit becomes filled to within 18 inches of the top it should be
cleaned or a new pit dug. \Vhen a new pit is dug, remove the mud sills, thf'
slab and building to the new location, and fill the old pit with earth. If the
pit is cleaned, the contents should be hauled away and buried.
7. For protection against filth-borne disease, keep your privy in good re-
pair, and use it exclusively. Remember that the control of filth-borne disease
depends upon thE;l proper disposal of human wastes from all homes. Use your
influence to secure proper privy construction in your community.
BILL OF MATERIAL
PIT LINING: No., Size and length. Total. Purchase.
Corner posts . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 11 x 4" x 5 1 201 pc. 2 11 x 4" x 10', rough
Lining ............... , 18 1 11 x 6" x 31 6" 031 l
18 1 11 X 611 X 31 411 60 1 s 9 pc. 1 11 x 611 x 141, rough

PRECAST SLAB, RISER AND MUD SILLS-CONCRETE: 2 sacks cement


% cu. yd. sand
'h cu. yd. crushed rock up tc
%,"size
1 pc. hog wire 41 x 4 1
5 bolts %" x 5"
4 pc. steel reinforcing rod
14, 11 X 3' 10 11
8 pc. steel reinforcing rod
',ill X 41
5 ft. of 18 11 chicken wire
SEAT AND LID:
Lid .................. . l"x 6"x1'7%, 11 3 1 3 1h 11 1 pc. T & G 1 11 x 611 x 41
Seat top ... , ...... , . . . . 2 2 11 x 10" x 2' 2" 4' 4" 1 pc. 2" x 10 11 x 5', dressed
Inside cleat , . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 11 x 4" x 10"
Hinge blocks . . . . . . . . . . . 2 11 x 4" x 6 11
Lid battens . . . . . . . . . . . . 1" x 4" x 10.%" 1' 9"
Other materials ........................................ 2 3" strap hinges, bronze
pin preferred
1 pc. 16-mesh copper screen
6 11 X 611
liz pound roofing cement
6 bolts '4" x 5", preferably
brass or galvanized
12 KANSAS STATE BOARD OF HEALTH

5ANITAli.Y PiT PRIVY

FIGURE 3
THEJ SANITARY PRIVY 13
BUILDING: No., Size and length. Total. Purchase.
Sills (side) ... , , , .. , .. , , 1 211 x 4 11 x 4' 81 }
Sill (back) ....• , . , , , , , 1 211 x 4 11 x 3' 4%, 11 3' 4%, 11 1 pc. 2 11 x 4 11 x 14', dressed
Sill (front) ...•....... 1 2"x 4 11 x1'3%" 1 1 3%"
Studding (back) •• , . . . . 2 2" x 4 11 x 6' 10" 11' 8 11 1 pc. 2" x 4 11 x 12', dressed
Brace (back diagonal) . , , 1 2 11 x 4 11 x 7 1 7' 1 pc. 2 11 x 4 11 x 8', dressed
Braces (side diagonal). , , 211 x 411 x 6' 8 11 13' 411 1 pc. 2 11 x 4 11 x 14', dressed
Roof ties , .... , , • , , .. , , 4 1" x 4 11 x 11 6" 6'
11
Studding (front) ......• 3 2 11 x 4 11 x6 1 9 14 1 9;9%. 11 } 2 pc. 211x 411x14', dressed
Braces (side horizontals), 2 2" x 411 x 3' 6" 7
Stringers (front and back) 2 211 x 411 x 41 81 } { 1 pc. 2 11 x 4 11 x 14', dressed
Rafters .......... , . .. .. 3 2" x 4 11 x 6 1 8" 17' 1 pc. 2 11 x 4" x 12', dressed
Back sheathing . , .. , . , , 13 1 11 x 6 11
x 4' 52' }
Side sheathing , .. , , , , , , 26 111 x 6 11x 4 1 %, 11 105' 7% 11 13 pc, 111 x 6 11 x 141, dressed
Front sheathing .... , .. , 13 111 x 6 11x 1 1 8'4 11 22' 2% 11
Front sheathing , . . . . . . . 2 1" x 6 11 x 4' llj2 " 8' 3" 1 pc. 1 11 x 6 11 x 10', dressed
Drip boards . , , , ... , . . . 3 111 x 6 11x 6' 18' 1 pc. 111 x 6 11 x 18', dressed
Roof sheathing, ..•....• 4 l"x 6"x5'8i4" 22'9" 2 pc. 1 11 x 6 11 xl2', dressed
Side strips ..... , ...... , 1" x 6 11 x 5' 8" 11' 4 11 }
Front and back roof 2 pc. 111 x 6 11 x 12 1 , dressed
strips .............. 2 l"x 6 11 x5 1 9%, 11 11'4"
Door •.. , ...... , •. , •. , 5 I" x 6" x 6' 80' } 2 pc. 1" x 6 11 x 12', dressed
Door braces ... , . , , , , . , 1 1" x 6" x 6' 8' 1 pc. 1" x 6 11 x 14 1 , dressed
Hinges .. , •... 0 , , • , •••••••••••• , • 0 • 0 •• , • 0 0 •••• 0 0 •••• 0 0 , 2 611 strap hinges
ROOF , , .... , , , , , , , , .. , , , , , , , , , . , , , .. , , . , , .. , , .......... , 3 pc. corrugated metal roof-
ing 6' long
MISCELLANEOUS ............•.......................... 3% lb. 16d. nails
4 lb. 8d. naHs
'h lb. 4d. box nails
'h lb. lead-headed roofing
nails

Summary of Materials Required


No., !Size and length. Board feet. No., Size and length. Board feet.
2 211 X 4 11 x 10', rough 00000000000 13.3 1 1 11 X 6 11 X 18', dressed 9.0
9 1" X 1
6" x 14 , rough o o o o o o o o o o o 63.0 1 1" X 6 11 X 10', dressed 5.0
1 }II X 6" X 4', T. and G., dr12ssed, 2.0 1
14 1" X 6 11 X 14 , dressed 98.0
211 X 10" X 5', dressed 8.3 6 1 11 X 6 11 X 12 1 , dressed o o o o o o o o o 36.0
2" X 4 11 X 14 1 , dressed 46.7
2 2 11 X 4 11 X 12 1 , dressed 16.0 Total · · · · · · · · • • • • • • o o o o • • • • • • 302.6
1 2 11 X 411 X 8', dressed 5. 3

Hardware and Miscellaneous


2 flacks cement 6 11 strap hinges
'lo cubic yard sand 1 pco 16-mesh copper screen 6" x 6"
'Ia cubic yard rock up to %, 11 size 1 pco 4" galvanized sheet iron vent
1 pco hog wire 4' x 4 1 pipe 6' 3" long with cover
4 pc. steel reinforcing rod '4 11 x 3' 1011 % pound roofing cement
8 pc. steel reinforcing rod lA. 11 x 4' 3% pounds 16d. nails
5 ft. of 1811 chid<en wire 4 pounds Bel. nails
5 bolts g's" x 5 11 % pound 4d. box nails
6 bolts '4 11 x 5 11 (brass preferred) % pound lead-headed roofing nails
3" strap hinges, galvanized, with brass 3 pes. corrugated metal roofing 6' long
or bronze pin gtue
14 KANSAS STATE BoARD oF HEALTH

DIGGING FUME.

PIT LINING IN PLAcE.

foUNDATION AND foR.M5 FO"R.. 5LAB IN PLACf...


'----------·-·---------------1
FIGURE 4
-
THE SANITARY PRIVY 15

CONSTRUCTION OF THE SANITARY PIT PRIVY

CONCRETE SLAB AND RISER, CAST IN PLACE


f:lince concrete construction has proven to be unquestionably superior to
wood for the building of the slab and riser, details for only this type of con-
struction are shown. It is difficult to make air-tight joints with wood flooring
and, consequently, odors from the pit escape into the building. This difficulty
is eliminated with. concrete, and the cost of construction is increased but very
little.
Not all of the sanitary privies built will be undertaken as community
projects and, therefore, the following details have been prepared so that in-
dividual units may be economically constmcted.
LocATION. Select a well-drained location at least 50 feet, preferably more,
from the water supply, and so placed that surface and underground drainage
will be away from the water supply. For convenience in bad weather and
to prevent exposure, the location should be near the house.
THE Pl'T. Construct and line the pit as previously outlined with the fol-
lowing alteration: Dig the pit only 41h feet deep so that when installed the
lining will extend 6 inches above the earth's surface as shown on the plans.
CoNCRETEJ SLAB AND RISEJR: Floor over the top of the pit with l-inch
rough material as a bottom form for the concrete floor. The front 18 inches
of the pit is covered with boards running the full width of the pit; however,
for the next 20 inches of the cover, provision must be made for the opening
below the riser. In order to leave an opening for the riser, pieces 14 inches
long are nailed to the pit lining on each side. This leaves an opening 4 inches
wide and 20 inches long in the center which is uncovered. A strip 4 inches
wide extends the full width of the pit at the back. To secure the 14-inch
pieces lay a board under the free ends and fasten in place by putting a nail
down through the continuous flooring boards at each end. This board should
be laid so that about 2 inches of its width is exposed in the opening, in order
to hold the inside form for the riser.
Using material 6 inches wide, construct a box form 4 feet square, inside
dimensions. Place this form around the pit lining and secure with stakes.
There should be a 3-inch space between the inside of the form and the out-
side of the pit lining at all points and the top of the form should be set 2lh
inches above the flooring over the pit at each corner. This is the form for
the foundation. It should be off the ground about 3 inches so that the con-
crete, when poured, will spread out and form a footing on the surface of
the ground.
Make up enough concrete to fill the space between the pit lining and the
foundation form. Stones may be laid in the concrete when pouring to re-
duce the amount of concrete needed. When the space is filled strike off evenly
with the top of the floor over the pit and cover the concrete with newspaper
folded 6 thicknesses. When concrete for the slab is poured the newspaper
between the two concrete surfaces forms a joint of separation, making the
slab a unit independent of the foundation.
16 KANSAS STATE BoARD oF HEALTH

foR.M3 FOQ R.tSt:.lt

SLAB AND R.tsut CoMP~-.r:.rr.v

5creen over
vent opening

L1o AND Sur

FIGURE 5
THE SANITARY PRIVY 17
The forms for the riser consist of 2 boxes as shown on the plans. The
box making the inside form is 14 by 20 inches, outside dimensions, and 17%,
inches deep. It is made of l-inch material fastened to crosspieces on the
inside, so arranged that they may be easily removed when the forms are
taken off. The outside form is 18 by 24 inches, inside dimensions, and 14
inches deep, with crosspieces on the outside to hold the form in place. The
inside form is set in place in the opening provided and the outside form
placed around it. vVood strips are nailed across the edges of the forms at the
top, allowing a space of two inches between the forms.
Place a piece of hog wire 4 feet square over the floor, and mark the space
over the riser. Cut the wire along two opposite sides of the riser and cut and
bend up between the riser forms. Place the inside riser form in the opening
provided and set the outside form in place. Mix concrete and pour the slab,
then the riser. Set 8 bolts (% by 5 inches) in the floor slab to secure the
building sills, as shown in figure 4. These bolts should extend above the con-
crete floor 2 inches. Set 4 bolts (14 by 5 inches) in the top of the riser as
shown, leaving them exposed 1% inches above the concrete surface of the
top of the riser wall. If desired, horse shoes or bent iron bars may be cast
in the edge of the slab to aiel in moving the slab when it becomes necessary
to construct a new pit at a different location.
SEAT ToP AND LID. The seat top is made of two pieces of 2- by 10-inch,
dressed, each 25% inches long. Place side by side and hold together by tem-
porarilY nailing a dressed 1- by 4-inch cleat across the front, and tacking a
strip across the back. The seat and vent openings are laid off in the fol-
lowing manner:
1. Use the joint between the two 10-inch pieces as a center line and meas-
ure back from the front of the cleat 3%, inches. This point is the front of
the seat opening. Starting at this point, measure back 3 inches, and strike
a circle with a 3-inch radius. Measure back from this center 3% inches.
Using this point as a center, strike another circle with a 4%-inch radius. Con-
nect the circumferences of the two circles with straight tangent lines.
2. For the vent opening, measure back from the front of the cleat 21 inches.
Using this point as a center, strike a circle with a 2-inch radius.
3. Separate the boards and cut out the openings with a key-hole or band
saw.
4. Place the pieces together again and firmly nail or fasten with screws tl1e
l-inch by 4-inch strip across the front. Fasten the 2- by 4-inch cleat at the
back, and install a cleat 11 inches long just back of and underneath the seat
as shown on the plan.
5. Fasten two dressed 2- by 4-inch hinge blocks on each side of the vent
opening, with the front ends even with the front edge of the vent opening.
6. Construct the lid with a 1- by 12-inch piece of dressed lumber 20 inches
long, and two cleats 10% inches long. Install the lid with 3-inch bronze pin
strap hinges, leaving 14-inch space between the seat and hinge blocks.
After the concrete has set, the forms may be removed from the riser and
the seat top installed. Center the seat top over the riser with the front 1-
by 4-inch apron board flush against the front of the riser. Tap the seat
lightly with a hammer directly over each bolt to mark the position of the
bolts. Remove and bore 14-inch holes for each bolt, and with a l-inch bit
18 KANSAS STATE BoARD OF HEALTH

P~IVY WITH CoNClH..n:. FL.oo~ AND R.ISE.'P-

FIGURE 6
-
THE SANITARY PRIVY 19
bore % inch into the top at each bolt hole for countersinking the nuts. Make
up a small amount of sand-cement mortar and spread over the top of the
riser. Place the seat top, leveling and bedding to the mortar, and turn the
nuts into place. The countersunk holes should be plugged with putty,
plastic wood or other satisfactory material.
GRADING. Same as previously outlined.
BuiLDING. Same as previously outlined.
VENT PIPE. Same as previously outlined.
CARE AND MAINTENANCE. Same as previously outlined.

BILL OF MATERIAL
PIT LINING: J.Yo.J Size and length. Total. Purchase.
Corner posts ........... 4 2" X 4 11 X fit 20 1 pc . 2 11 X 41! X 10', rough
Lining ................ 18 }II X 6"
6 11
X 31 6 11
4 11
63 1 }
601 9 pc. } 11 X 6 11 X }41, rough
18 }II X X 31

SLAB, RISER AND FOUNDATION-CONCRETE: 2 sacks cement


cu. yd. sand
NoTE.-For foundation forms use roof sheathing
pieces cut 51 8'\i" long with corners extended. *
1 3 cu. yd. crushed rock up to
1
%"size
1 pc. hog wire 4' x 4'
5 bolts %" x5"
Forms (slab) ........... 2 }II X 6 11 X 316 11 7' 2" pc . }II X 6'1 X 12', rough
4 1 11 X 6" X 1' 2 11 .j/ 8"
2 }II X 8" X }I 2 11 2' 4" pc. }II X 811 X 61, rough
1 1 11 X 411 X 3' 611 31 6 11 pc. }II X 4 11 X 8', dressed
Forms (riser) 12 } 11 X 6 11 2 11 141
·········· 8 1 11 X
X }I

6 11 x1'5%-" 111 10"


1 pc.
1 pc.
} 11 X

}II X
6 11
6"
X

X
14f, dressed
12', dressed
2 }II X S"x1'574" 2'111jz"} }II X 8fl X 61, dressed
2 }II X 8 11 X }1 2 11 2' 4" 1 pc.
4 1 11 X 4 11 X 2' 211 8 1 B" 1 pc. }II X 411 X }QI, dressed
4 }11 X 4"x1'10" 71 4" 11
4 }II X 4 11 X 1' 6" 61 }1 pc. 1 X 4" X }41, dressed
6 1 11 X 4 11 X 10 11 51 1
2
2
}II X
1 11 X
4" X lf 4N
4 11 X 1f 10"
2' 8 11
3' 8" p pc. }II X 4 11 X 121, dressed

SEAT AND LID :


Seat top ............. . 2" X 10 11 X 21 3 11 ·1' 6" 1 pc. 2" x 10 11 x 5', dressed
Rear cleat ............ . 1 2"x 4"x1'8" ]I 811
Inside bottom cleat .... . 1 2 11 X 4 11 X 10 11 10"
} 1 pc. 2 11 x 4 11 x 4', dressed
*Front apron ........... . 1 }II X 4 11 X }I 8 11 l' 811
*Hinge blocks .......... . 2 2 11
X 4 11
X 6" 11
Lid .................. . }II X }2 11 X }I 8%" 1'8%" pc. I" x 12" x 2', dressed
*Lid battens ........... . } 11 X 4" X 10Yz 11 ]I 911

Other materials 3" strap hinges, bronze


pin preferred
1 pc. 16-mesh copper screen
6" x.6"
1 pc. 4 11 gal. sheet tron pipe
01 3 11 long with top
'h lb. roofing cement
4 bolts 1,4" x 5", brass
preferred
20 KANSAS STATE BOARD OF HEALTH

BUILDING: No., Size and length. Total. Purchase.


Bills (side) ...•......... 2 2 11 X 4 11 X 4 1 81 1
Sill (back) ..•......... 1 2 11 X 4 11 X 3 1 8%,'1 3' 8~4," lr pc. 2 11 x 4 11 x 14', dressed
Sill (front) ........... . 1 211 X 411 xl'5%" 1' 5%" j
Studding (back) 2 211 X 4"x5'10" 11' 8 11 1 pc. 2 11 x 4 11 X 121, dressed
Brace (back diagonal) .. . 2 11 X 4" X 71 7' 1 pc, 2 11 x 4 11 X 8', dressed
Braces (side diagonal) .. . 2 211 X 4 11 X 61 8 11 13 1 4 11 1 pc. 2 11 x 4 11 X 141, dressed
*Roof ties ............. . 4 1 11 X 4 11 X 1' 6 11 6'
Studding (front) ......• 3 2 11 X 4"x6'914" 1919%, 11 )
Braces (side horizontals), 2 2 X 4fl X 31 6 11 11
7
, S 2 pc. 2 11 x 4 11 X 14 1, dressed
Stringers (front and back) 2 2 X 4 X 41 11 11
8' } { 1 pc. 2 11 x 411 X 14', dressed
Rafters ............... . 3 2 11 X 4 11 X 51 8 11 17' 1pc.2 11 x 411 X 121, dressed

1g~:
Back sheathing ........ 13 1 11 X 6 11 X 4'
Side sheathing . , .... , , , 26 }II X 6 11 X 41 %, 11 7llz 11 } 13 pc. 1 11 x 6 11 X 14', dressed
Front sheathing ....... , 13 }If X 6 11 X }I 81f2 11 22' 2llz 11
Front sheathing ... , , , , . 2 }II X 6 11 X 4' 11(2 11 8' 3" 1 pc. 1" x 6 11 X 101, dressed
Drip boards . . . . . . . . . . . 3 }II X 6 11 X 6 1 18' 1 pc. 111 x 6" X 18 1, dressed
*Roof sheathing . . . . . . . . • 4 }II X 6 11 X fit 814- 11 22' 9 11 pc. 1" x 6 11 X 12', dressed
Side strips (roof) .... , , , 2 1 11 X 611 X 51 8 11 111 411
Front and back strips pc. 1" x 6" x 12', dressed
(roof) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 11 x 511 x 51 9%, 11 11' 411
Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1" x 6" x (}' 30' } 2 pc. 1 11 x 6 11 x 12 1 , dressed
Door braces . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1" x 6 11 x 8 1 8' 1 pc. 1 11 x 6 11 x 14', dressed
Hinges , . , , ...... , ................ , , . , ................ , 2 611 strap hinges
ROOF .......... , ..... , , , ......... , , ........ , , . , ......... 3 pc. corrugated metal roof-
ing 6'long
MISCELLANEOUS .........•.............•...•........... 3llz lb. 16d. nails
4 lb. 8d. nai.Js
liz lb. 4d. box nails
liz lb. lead-headed roofing
nails
1 11
• Roof sheathing to be cut to 5 8'\4 lengths and used to make outside foundation form.
Miscellaneous pieces indicated to be taken from scraps already provided.

SUMMARY OF MATERIALS REQUIRED


Lumber
No., Size and length. Board feet. J\T o., Size and length. Board feet.
2 2 11 X 411 X 10 1, rough 13.30 1 1 11 X 811 X 6' dressed 4.00
1 1 11 X 8" X 6', rough 4.00 1 11 X 6 11 X 18 1', dressed 9.00
1" X 611 X 14 1, rough 28.00 15 1 11 X 611 X 14 1, dressed 105.00
6 1 11 X 6 11 X 12 1, rough 36.00 7 1 11 X 6 11 X 12 1, dressed 42.00
1 1 11 X 6 11 X 8', rough 4.00 I" X 611 X 10', dressed 5.00
2 11 X 1011 X 5' dressed 8.33 1 11 X 411 X 14 1 , dressed 4.66
2 11 X 411 X 14 1,' dressed 46.66 1 I" X 4 11 X 12 1 , dressed 4.00
2 11 X 41! X 12 1, dressed 16.00 1 I" X 4 11 X 10 1, dressed 3. 33
2" X 411 X 8', dressed 5. 33 1 1 11 X 411 X 8', dressed 3.00
2" X 411 X 4', dressed 2.67
I"x12"x 2', dressed 2.00 346.28

Hardware and Miscellaneous


2 sacks cement 1 pc. 4" galvanized sheet iron vent
:1;4 cubic yard sand pipe 6 1 3 11 long with cover
% cubic yard rock up to %. 11 size % pound roofing cement
1 pc. hog wire 4' x 41 3llz lb. 20d. nails
8 bolts %" x 511 4 pounds 8d. nails
bolts 14" x 5" liz pound 4d. nails
3" strap hinges li:J pound lead-headed roofing nails
6 11 strap hinges 3 pes. corrugated metal roofing 6 1 long
pc. 16-mesh copper screen 6" x 6" glue
-
THE SANITARY PRIVY 21

.ALTf:JGNATr:. .5HOI2T WooD Vr:.NT PIPE:

",,', ..,
~>
,I
// Riser wall
when mefa/
',' /" ,;'
,,
'" forms ore vsed

RecfQngular r::;)'
made 'wtlh wood l'orm.i
~

" ,,
'" ''-,
'-O"

AI.HRNAn: Po:mwN oF JG1:>EJ2

Sur~rsfed hlj Uniled Sfales Public !lec;/fh Service

FIGURE 7
22 KANsAs STATE BoARD OF HEALTH

APPENDIX
Some alternate designs have been made that have proved satisfactory so
that they are being included in this bulletin.
Alternate Vent Pipe
Much objection has arisen from the use of the vertical vent pipe because
of the difficulty encountered in maintaining a water-tight joint where the
pipe passes through the roof. Instances have been reported where seat tops
have rotted out as a result of this leakage. The alternate vent pipe has,
therefore, been developed. The use of this type of vent is advantageous not
only in saving the expense of a water-tight joint at the roof but undoubtedly
will also stand up under rougher usage than the ordinary metal vent pipe
which is generally installed.
Care must be exercised in the construction of the vent to prevent a sepa-
ration of the boards at the joints which would permit pit gases to escape in-
side the building.
Riser Installed with Center Line on the Diagonal of the Seat
With the riser installed parallel to the sides of the building, as has been
the practice, frequent objection has been made by householders complaining
tl~at there was insufficient free floor space in front of the riser. This objection
has frequently caused individuals to enlarge the size of the building, which
increases the cost of construction and necessitates cutting the material into
lengths which result in waste when cut from standard lengths.
By installing the riser on the diagonal, ample free floor space in front of
the riser is available in a standard 4-foot by 4-foot building. Either the rec-
tangular riser poured with wood forms or the curved riser poured with metal
forms may be installed this way as easily as any other way.
vVith the riser set on the diagonal it is obvious that the alternate vent pipe
could not be used, since it would pass through one of the rear studdings. For
this reason either the vertical vent or a T-vent is used.
The vertical section of the T is built as shown in the detail for the alternate
vent pipe. The horizontal leg of the T is of similar dimensions, projecting
through two walls of the building and should be rigidly toe-nailed at each
end. The joint where the two sections join should be reinforced and covered
by plates or battens.
This T-vent should provide more effective pit ventilation since there should
be a constant passage of air through the horizontal section.
Urinal
All sanitary pit privies built in public or semipublic places for men should
include urinals. These are necessary to prevent soiling of the seat and also
the interior of the building. The urinal shown in the detail can be eco-
nomically constructed and sets inside the building adjacent to the slab and
riser. This design his been worked out to prevent freezing during cold weather
which would undoubtedly result in urinals placed outside the building.
Multiple Units
This detail shows a proper method of installing multiple units. The size of
the slab is changed to 3 feet by 6 feet to provide additional floor space in front
of the riser. Mud sills are consti·ucted and placed as shown in the detail.
-- THE SANITARY PRIVY 23

.5eclion cuf oul


of riser lo show
conslrucfion,

UR-INAL Utm roR. MuLTIPLt P11.1vY

.3'-o~ 3'0" 3'-.o" J'..f>"


I I I

'';'
"
0 0 D0
'--

PLAN or MuLTIPLE: UNIT5

il" 2~/0'' t:• }!'-!()'' .Z.'-;o~


K 2'-lt>" e" .f'
-c-11 II II I
..,

s· 2'?" s· e·-r J' 2'T" ,5' 2'-r S"

:,. ;,
.
·' .-.:,

PLAN or Muo 51LL.S

FIGURE 8
PRJNTED BY KANSAS STATE PRJNTJNG PLANT
W. C. AUSTIN, STATE PRINTER
TOPEKA 1935

15-6892