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Final Test Odd Semester 2019/2020

Professional Ethics
Class: E
Date of Examination: 10 December 2019
Instructor: Rachman Hartono
Take Home

Name : Hylda Baktiar Octaviana

SIN : 175040101111051
Class :E
1. Based on the reading material on the Chapter 5 from the book entitled The
Taste for ethics describe the considerable change in the food ethics!
Answer :
Major changes to food ethics are:
1.) First, "globalization" has become a conversation today. The world
has "opened up" so that everyone can have relationships with people all over
the world. This also relates to actions taken now that not only have local but
also global consequences.
2.) Second, the historical aspect is back on the agenda, which is an
interest in how people in the past were ethically related to food. In this case,
people are encouraged to study historical sources related to food. One of the
historical sources of food ethics is that food ethics is understood in two
different ways: individually and socially.
2. Based on the reading material on the Chapter 11 from the book entitled
Before Dinner, answer the following questions:
a. Discuss the three challenge that mention in that chapter!
1.) The first challenge is the selective cultivation of technological
processes in a normative context. In this challenge will explain
related to choosing the best attitude to be used with people around.
On the other hand, this challenge also explains related technology
used in the care of plants or animals, physical health in the western
world, or hunger of farmers in underdeveloped countries, in all
2.) Second, the world is increasingly faced with sociocultural
aspects of nutrition and agriculture and the consequences of
pluralism. The other hand is directly related to two food styles in the
world: one where consumers eat to live, and one where they live to
eat. There are two systems that can be done, namely with
contemporary agriculture and monoculture plant integration systems.
Both systems are connected by the types of plants produced, and the
diversity of planting creates a different way of life. However, individual
consumers in each country are increasingly forced to choose one of
these systems, while the combination of the two will offer the best
potential for pluralism. The romantic-expressive view, which views
pluralism as a great good, also involves the reassessment of the
landscape and the related role of agriculture (multifunctional
3.) Third, consumers have a new role, which is to bridge the gap
between production and consumption. This challenge explains
that consumers must build relationships based on mutual trust, from
high to low, from close to far. Through this challenge the adverse
effects of an almost unavoidable risk can be well absorbed. The goal is
a mutual trade-off between technological processes and new
constructive standards, to help in living a good life.
b. What are the key ethical concepts that the author discuss?
Answer: The key to the ethical concept is to understand that nutrition
is an important value for a good life. Nutrition is associated with all
kinds of fundamental conflicts, both for individuals and society as a
whole. The author also discusses the right to voice, access, and exit
along with various debates, functioning as the axis through which the
food production consultation system can develop, taking into account
practices, food styles, and other social strata. The right to access
means that individuals are permitted to access the market where they
buy their favorite food and also means the research and production of
certain foods must be distributed fairly. Voting rights mean that
consumers can allow themselves to be heard by the authorities in their
chosen food segment. The right to leave means that a person is free to
neglect health food and slow food.
3. Based on the FAO Ethical Series publication, entitled the Ethical Issues in food
and agriculture, answer the following questions::
a. What is the motivation for writing that publication?
Answer : Technological advances and organizational changes that have
influenced the food and agricultural systems in recent years have been
very radical and rapid. The impact will be felt for a long time Recent
developments have put forward many ethical issues that are important
for food security and for sustainable rural development and natural
resource management. Therefore FAO made the issue an important
concern. FAO has an obligation to ensure that its actions are
responsible, transparent and accountable, so that ethical
considerations are inherent in the Organization's program. With regard
to human rights to participate democratically, for example, in all its
activities the FAO seeks to promote justice and the involvement of all
free and meaningful stakeholders. This organization has a mission - to
help build a food safe world for now and in the future.
b. There are several topics discussed. What are they? Give a short
Answer :
 Introduction : This publication discusses the identified food and
agriculture center values. After this, the current situation is
examined and specific issues are analyzed. It was said that
balancing interests and peaceful resolution of conflicts must be
a common global goal. The final section explains a vision to
build an ethical, efficient and safe global agricultural and food
framework that is fair and solid and respects the diversity of
value systems.
 Ethics in food and agriculture : the most important of which are
considered below, FAO would have little reason to exist.
1. The value of food.Food is essential for the survival of human
beings; hunger results from neglect of the universal right to
2. The value of enhanced well-being. Today, nearly every nation
state recognizes the need to enhance the well-being of its
3. The value of human health.Human health is improved by the
elimination of hunger and malnutrition.
4. The value of natural resources. All human societies recognize
the importance of natural resources, which are those parts of
the natural world that are used to produce food and other valued
goods and which are necessary for our survival and prosperity.
5. The value of nature.Finally, there is growing agreement that
nature itself must be valued.
 Current trends : The global population is increasing to
unprecedented levels, posing challenges to food production and
distribution, the renewable natural resources upon which human
life is dependent — are being rapidly degraded, and Farmers are
more and more dependent on input suppliers for seeds,
fertilizers, machinery and pesticides.
4. Based on the reading material on the Case 23, entitled the US Industrial Food
System, answer the following questions:
a. What are the most significant issues in this case and are these really
that important to you?
answer : A significant problem in this case is that companies that run
food supply chains in the United States are constantly increasing
production to create larger quantities of food at lower costs. A more
efficient production process allows distribution of food products to
more parts of the world. However, the work of the food industry often
endangers employees. An example is animals raised and cared for in
controversial conditions, and many employees treat meat with
chemicals such as ammonia, which creates health problems such as
diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Eventually increasing demand for
medical professionals and the need for prescription drugs.
In my opinion this case study is very important for me. After reading
this case study, I learned that not always companies that run food
supply chains provide efficient production process services. On the
other hand, I also urge consumers to be even more careful in
differentiating foods that are free of chemicals and which have been
mixed with chemicals
b. Who are a few of the major stakeholders and their stakes in this case?
Answer : a few of the major stakeholders and their stakes in this case
is McDonalds, Burger King or another fast restaurant food.
c. Are the issues in this case national or global in nature? Explain.
Answer : this issue is a global issue like for example in the United
States, around 200,000 people get sick every day due to food-borne
diseases, 900 were hospitalized and fourteen died. After the 2 years
mentioned above died tragically due to eating beef containing E. coli.
For several years the USDA chief of staff was a former head lobbyist for
the beef industry, and the head of the FDA was a former executive vice
president of the National Food Processing Association. In January 2010,
the Supreme Court ruled to "overturn a 20-year-old Supreme Court
ruling prohibiting companies from spending money freely to support or
oppose candidates." Companies can now pour as much money as they
want into advertising for or against certain candidates.
d. Who is responsible and why for problems presented and argued in this
Answer : The responsible for this case does not exist. This is because
upon closer inspection, products made by the food industry that are
available to customers, in fact, lead to an increase in chronic illness
and an increase in health care costs. Employees work in unsafe and
often illegal situations with little or no benefit. Suppliers and farmers
exploited. Many of these groups do not understand that they are
victims. The government seems to have a collaborative relationship
with industry. Politicians receive money from industry giants. However,
time has finally begun to change with the new organic movement.
Consumers are better educated about what the food system does for
the health of their families.
e. Are there any, and if so please identify, positive steps being taken to
rectify the problems this case presents?
Answer : No. The responsible for this case is the consumer himself. On
the other hand consumers should be better educated and the food
industry is slowly shifting to provide more choices. Wal-Mart, for
example, has adopted organic products. Farmers' markets are seeing a
revival because consumers are demanding healthier and greener
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