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Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction of Project
Things that are connected to Internet and sometimes these devices can be
controlled from the Internet is commonly called as Internet of Things. The digitalized
future, it is directly proportional to increase in urbanization and industrialization. This is
the main cause of generation of large amount of waste. And in today's sophisticated
world; robots and autonomous machines are an integral part of daily routine. They help in
completing daily chores for human beings; especially for physically challenged and aged
people of the society. These robots are also critical in many industries as they reduce life
casualties and financial degradation while performing risky and critical operations.
The population in India has crossed 1.5 billion, so is the development of the nation
with the urbanization, utilization of raw materials, employment. The problem aroused is the
escalating of the waste by each individual is not possible. In such cases developing a Robotic
system would be helpful to keep the environment clean and tidy. Increasing interest in
recycling is driven by a multitude of factors, including fluctuations and increases in material
prices, environmental concerns over material production and disposal. A proposed system of
an automatic waste segregator is introduced, that aims at segregating the waste at the disposal
level itself. According to the principles of separation process, sorting technologies for solid
waste are divided into 2 major categories, namely wet and dry, thereby making waste
management more effective. One special class of robot which finds wide application is the
pick and place robot, which is microcontroller based system that detects the object and picks
that object from source location and places at desired location.
The sensed data is transmitted to Arduino UNO board using Zigbee module that
control the transmission Using ESP-Wi-Fi module to the web site through the TCP/IP
protocol. The web site displays the state of waste level in the containers. The displayed
status shows either containers get full or not, which helps for taking action to dispose the
waste through sending SMS to the garbage truck.

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1.2 Problem Statement of the Project
An astounding 0.1 million tons of waste is generated each day in India. Only 5%
of this colossal amount of waste is recycled. One possible solution for this problem could
be segregating the waste at the disposal level itself. In India, the collection, transportation
and disposal of MSW are unscientific and chaotic. Uncontrolled dumping of waste on
outskirts of towns and cities has created overflowing landfills which are not only
impossible to reclaim because of the haphazard manner of dumping but also has serious
environmental implication in terms of ground water pollution and contribution to Global
warming. This has found to reduce the average life span of the manual segregators. The
waste management system consist of System consist of three subsystems are smart bin,
smart control and monitoring system and waste vehicle. This study was carried out in two
parts. The first part is the construction of a system that collects and monitors waste in a
number of containers distributed in different geographic areas. The second section deals
with the implementation of this system on a specific city. The system can be improved by
connecting the system with the GPS system to determine the location of the bin and send
message to near waste Vehicle to empty the bin as well as use internet of things to
monitoring and access bins from anywhere.

1.3 Objective and Scope of the Project

Automated Waste Segregator has been successfully implemented for the
segregation of waste into dry and wet waste at a domestic level. However, it cannot
segregate ceramic into dry waste because of its higher relative dielectric constant as
compared to other dry wastes. Noise can be eliminated in the sensing module to increase
accuracy and overall efficiency. This system has its own limitations. It can segregate only
one type of waste at a time with an assigned priority for wet and dry waste. The levels are
divided into three categories which are empty, half and full. If the container is full the
Message is sent to vehicle car to empty the bin, the Wi-Fi module is used to send data via
the Internet protocol TCP/IP to the web page, data are stored in a database for future
analysis to control container distribution in appropriate location.

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1.4 Importance of the Project
• A reduction in the number of waste collection needed by upto 80%, resulting in
less man power, emissions, fuel use and traffic congestion.
• A reduction in the number of waste bins needed.
• Analytics data to manage collection routes and the placement of bins more
• Improved environment (No overflowing bins and less unpleasant odours).
• Proper garbage collection and disposal facilitates improved recycling, lessens the
impact on landfills, and protects the environment through effectively controlling
the pollutants and contaminants that are released.
• Waste collection and rubbish disposal play an extremely important role in the
global cleanliness and sustainability drive, with people’s health and the
conservation of resources being the responsibility of every government.
• In many cities it means that local government agencies have been left with the
responsibility of overseeing the work done by these privately held organisations.
• The most important reason for waste collection is the protection of the
environment and the health of the population.
• waste management and recycling collection can help conserve our planet’s natural
beauty which can be flawed by thoughtless disposal of waste, fly-tipping and
senseless littering. Landscapes can be ruined through littering and places of tourist
interest can lose their attraction; it is also a blight for those who live in areas
where waste collection and recycling is not managed effectively and responsibly.
• There are many challenges facing the waste management and recycling industry
but there is also a lot of excellent work going on to ensure that this is an industry
to be proud of and one that will continue to secure effective, sustainable and
ecologically sound waste management and recycling for many years to come.

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Chapter 2
Saadia Kulsoom Memon et al.,[1] has proposed 21st century has witnessed a mammoth
increase in garbage including plastic waste of households, which is a threat not only for
human race but also for earth’s environment. The purpose of this research is to develop an
IoT based cost effective system that can monitor the everyday garbage in real time by using
smart technology with the help of WeMos and Ultrasonic sensors, which eats meager
resources of the waste management authorities. In this era of information and technology
(IT), the world is prone to build smart cities, whose essential features are: smart economy,
smart mobility, smart environment, smart people, smart living and smart governance.
Advantage: It is automated waste monitoring and collection process with lower cost,
more efficient and time saving.
Disadvantage: The system is developed using two dustbins, which can be extended to
several bins, in order to automate the garbage collection.

Mahesh Kumar A and Rajesh A [2] has proposed the rising population of India poses
serious threats with regard to the availability of living space, utilization of natural
resources and raw materials, education and employment, another serious peril that
follows is the escalating amount of waste generated each minute by an individual.
Conveyor belt start moving, when the waste on the conveyor belt reaches the blower
section, the conveyor belt stop to a particular duration of time, during that time blower is
turned on, which makes the dry waste to blow off and fall into the bin.
Advantage: It segregates the waste into 3 types dry, wet and metal also it is low cost and
Disadvantage: The system can segregate only one type of waste at a time with an
assigned priority.

A Sengupta et al.,[3] has proposed Waste collection and management is a subject

undergoing extensive study, and solutions are being proposed meticulously. Making an
efficient use of Internet of Things to maintain a constant connection between a central
server and a network of garbage processing and collecting, independent, autonomous
robots, we rely upon such a system to produce accurate results, as well as considerably
reduce the cost, hence providing a feasible solution to minimize human effort and costs
during waste collection.

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Advantage: This is an cost efficient system that uses IoT to optimize the working of
garbage collectors.
Disadvantage: It has limited image processing on-board so the processing time is more.

B B Jithendrriyan et al.,[4] has proposed the paper represents the solution for collecting
the wastes contained in the dustbin in the companies. The prototype contains a rover
which is connected to a container which holds the waste, a robotic arm is used to hold the
dustbin and a camera is used to detect the dustbin. The dustbin is detected using image
processing technique in sequence the gripper which is connected to the robotic arm is
used to hold the dustbin and transfers all the wastes into the container. In today’s world
everyone is searching for an option to do things with fewer efforts, it is hard to keep time
for things such as cleaning and maintaining a healthy environment.
Advantage: It ensures safety and does not consumes time and safety for humans
preventing from allergic and other diseases.
Disadvantage: All type of waste is dumped into the same bin so the waste is not segregated.

Sabari N et al.,[5] has proposed the project presents Smart Dustbin-Separation of metal
and non-metal by using IOT and ROBOTICS. The yearly strong waste is about 1.3 billion
tones and it appears that tis limit will rise to 4.3 billion tones constantly of 2025, which
will cover half of the all-inclusive community around the world Furthermore, the dealing
with the waste gathering forms is a standout amongst the most muddled assignments in
the rustic territory on the grounds that the measures of strong squanders produced by
private and business modern site are colossal.
Advantage: As living beginning are facing the problems og inefficiently the usage waste
pollution, humans can minimize the wastage by optimizing the usage of waste in an
opulent manner.
Disadvantage: Inlet section can be improved with a crusher mechanism to reduce the
size of the incoming waste.

Abhinav Gupta et al.,[6] has proposed Data-driven approaches to solving robotic tasks have
gained a lot of traction in recent years. The models trained with home dataset showed a
marked improvement of 43.7% over a baseline model trained with data collected in lab.
Instead of using hand-designed models, these approaches focus on the collection of large-
scale datasets to learn policies that map from high-dimensional observations to actions.

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Advantage: This model improves grasp performance in curated environments like lab
and also able to successfully disentangle the structured noise in the data.
Disadvantage: It is crucial to train models with the data collected in households if the
goal is to eventually test them in homes.

S Lokesh et al.,[7] has proposed sorting of different objects on a conveyor belt is

generally carried out manually or by using sensors. A low cost automated system which
uses Arduino, moisture sensor, ultrasonic sensor, IR sensor, metal detector and a USB
camera. Advantage: It has successfully implemented the techniques of sorting and
classifying and special attention is based on collecting waste .
Disadvantage: To segregate the areas of waste management has to be improved and also
optimization and size of the product must be increased.

Reeny Zackarias et al.,[8] has proposed the municipal solid waste generation levels are
increasing significantly with the ever increasing population, urbanization, migration
issues and change in lifestyle. The smart waste management system helps to remove the
waste in appropriate time. The solid waste is increasing in urban and rural areas as the
population is increasing and waste management has become a global concern.
Advantage: It is less expensive. This system helps in better waste management without
much human intervention and also provide better health environment by proper waste
Disadvantage: Complex design of dustbin compared to other models and the system
requires number of waste bins for separate waste collection.

Ganjerupalli Chandra Sekhar et al.,[9] has proposed Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. It is a

national campaign by the Government of India, covering 4,041 statutory cities and towns,
to clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. Ultrasonic sensor detect the
garbage levels in dustbin and update to web server page automatically, if dustbin full the
data automatically gives alert message to the municipality department through internet
communication. IOT module interfaced to the controller through which the data is
available in the internet. This system monitors the garbage beans and informs about the
level of garbage collected in the garbage beans via a web page. For this the system uses
IR sensors placed on the top of beans to sense the garbage level and continuously
compare it with the garbage beans depth.

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Advantage: The information of all smart dustbins can be accessed from anywhere and
anytime and can take a decision accordingly. It is also cost effective.
Disadvantage: The system does not have time stamp in which it can show to the concern
person at what time the waste is collected from the smart dustbins.

Yashasvi Anantha Shenoy B et al.,[10] has proposed with the rise of sensor technology,
robotics and automation there is a new era of waste disposal management systems applied
in variety of applications in the recycling and waste processing industries. This paper
presents an effective waste management system which is helpful in sorting plastic and
metallic waste by using sensor technology.
Advantage: It mainly designed to separate glass and plastic materials at low cost and
effort automatically.
Disadvantage: This system can be further developed into a more effective one so to
segregate more precisely.

Abhishek Apte et al.,[11] has proposed many times, in our city we see that the garbage
bins or dustbins placed at public places are overloaded. To avoid all such situations we
are going to implement a project called Waste management system using IOT. These
dustbins are interfaced with arduino based system having Ultrasonic wireless systems
along with central system showing level and current status of garbage, on web browser
with html page by Wi-Fi.
Advantage: It can automatically monitor the garbage level and send the information to
collection truck and can avoid overflow of garbage from container.
Disadvantage: As GSM is used, sim needs to be recharged and also leads to network issues.

Kiran Boby et al.,[12] has proposed clean water is vital to our health, communities, and
economy. Themacroscopic waste present in the water bodies are currently creating a high
mode of threat to the use of this water for the people living in the corresponding areas. A
robot is designed to sense the waste using ultrasonic sensors and programmed to remove
the macroscopic waste present in water.
Advantage: The system is highly reliable effective and economical at water bodies and
any form of aquatic environment and also it reduces the time consumed to treat the
system efficient.
Disadvantage: The propsed system is beneficial but also impossible to install such
system in all places.
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K Dhayalini and R Mukesh [13] has proposed that android mobile with apk file is used
to detect the degradable (vegetables) and non-degradable (plastic cover) objects and it
will send that information to the microcontroller unit via Bluetooth module. When
microcontroller unit receives ‘1’ means from the bluetooth will find the non-degradable
object and it will take and put it on to the separate box.
Advantage: Robotic arm accurately separates the wastes with which humans are free
from waste separation.
Disadvantage: Only 2 types o wastes will be separated.

Sadia Zahin Diya et al.,[14] has proposed waste management as well as sorting is a very
crucial task to make the environment green and to ensure better (re)use of the resources.
So the purpose of this paper is to use the advancement of Information and
Communication technology (ICT) to improve the waste management system and make
lives better by providing a smarter way for waste sorting and management.
Advantage: This reduces the possibility of unnecessary rotation of the servo motor which
rotates the bucket carrier disc. It has the option to be operated automatically and
simultaneously it can control by mobile app.
Disadvantage: As sensors are sensitive, it is possible for them to give a value even when
there is no object to be identified.

Manish Chetia Patra et al.,[15] has proposed that in many places, we can see that the
municipal waste bins are overflowing because of it is not collected and cleaned before it fill
and overflow. Thus there should be a alert system that can monitor the bin and can give the
condition or level of filling of the waste bin to the municipality using wireless sensor
network. This paper presents the smart waste management system of the garbage system that
identifies fullness and level of the waste bin using the wireless sensor network(WSN).
Advantage: This system will alert the irregular cleaning of the municipal waste bin by
sending an alert to the concerned individuals at a regular intervals.
Disadvantage: Raspberry pi is a small computer and the cost is comparatively high.

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Doiphode Gayatri S et al.,[16] has designed to develop GSM based garbage monitoring
System. In this project, a smart garbage management system is proposed. This system
monitors the garbage overflow in garbage bin. In this project, with the help of sensor
systems the level of garbage in the dustbin is detected, and communicated same to the
authorized person through GSM system. Infrared sensor (IR sensor) is used to detect the
level of garbage. Microcontroller is used to interface the sensor system with the GSM
system. In case of any fire incidents in the garbage bin then the fire alert message is sent
to the control station via GSM.
Advantage: This system can avoid accidents in the garbage cans with the help of fire
Disadvantage: It can be improved by adding new functionalities like line follower robot.

Theodoros Anagnostopouls et al.,[17] has proposed that waste management is the

critical task to handle .by using devices like RFIDs, sensors, actuators and many smart
devices are embedded in environment to monitor and collect required information to
make smart city waste management is major challenge .Waste management not only
collecting garbage in the field but also the transport and disposal of waste to appropriate
place. Focus on the adoption of the smart devices as key enabling technology in
contemporary waste management. This survey sets up the basis for delivering new
models in the domains if it reveals the needs for defining model framework for waste
management .monitoring and controlling are done very accurately.
Advantage: Easy to contact the transportation facility and maintain clean around the
smart bins. Monitoring and controlling are done very accurately.
Disadvantage: Segregation is done by human. More smart bins are needed. Difficult to
manage the data.

Pallavi K N et al.,[18] has proposed that now a days waste management is very critical
problem in all over the world for developing cities.as the population is rapidly increasing
the garbage is also increasing. this will affect the cleanliness of environment ,spoiling
beauty of the area and also leading to the health hazard. IOT and its element ,testing and
prototyping tool are used to manage the waste management . Monitoring garbage level in
the smart bins by using internet of things is easier. Advantage: Easy to maintain.
Increase the speed of working.
Disadvantage: Segregation is not implemented. Sensor may damage any time.

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Mustafa M R et al.,[19] has proposed that design and developing of smart garbage
system by measuring the garbage level in real time and alert the municipality. system
consisted ultra sonic sensor which measure the garbage level in depth of the smart bins,
arm micro controller are used to monitor and control. Segregate garbage based on what it
is like plastics, metals, dry or wet place it in respective bins. After bins are filled, it send
the message to the truck based on GPS location and track the disposal of garbage
monitoring and controlling is handled by Internet Of Things.
Advantage: Reduce the human efforts. Increase the speed of working.
Disadvantage: Difficult to manage the data. Sensor may damage any time. Difficult
implement and design.

Apoorva S et al.,[20] has proposed that the today faces major garbage crises due to
population are increases rapidly and poor urbanization. Traditional methodology used for
waste management are very low effective means it is time consuming ,cost and mainly
not good for human health. So present days current technologies are tried to use waste
management by using some smart devices like sensors, robotic arm .robotic are used pick
and place the trash in respective smart bins . robotic arm manly designed to use in cement
path and beaches but it is can not able to use in muddy area. robotic arm controlled by
programing in arduino.
Advantage: Reduces the time consumption. High accuracy.
Disadvantage: Robotic arm will cover only small area. Pick and place process are very
difficult. System may damage any time.

Ashwini D et al.,[21] has proposed that one of the main concerns on environment is by
not proper waste management disturbing the balance of environment and also effect
health of the society .effective waste manage system main problem of present days .the
segregation ,handling, transportation have to properly managed to minimize the risk to
the environment. An economic automatic segregator reduce human effort time and cost
.which is cheep and easier to handle .It is designed to refuse into metallic, plastics, wet
and dry waste .
Advantage: It is cost effective. Easier to handle. High efficiency.
Disadvantage: Low accuracy. Analyzing of object is difficult.

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Gopalakrishna Shyam et al.,[22] have proposed that to make cities greener, safer and
more efficient Internet Of Things played important role. Improvement in safety and
quality of the life can be achieved by connecting vehicles and infrastructure all around the
cities. A waste management solution based on providing intelligence to the smart bins. By
using IOT prototype with sensor it can read, collect and transfer large amount of data to
the internet by this dynamically manage the waste management system effectively.
Advantage: Large data may read ,collect and transfer. Cheep and user friendly. Easy to
Disadvantage: Recycling is difficult. Segregating by human are time consuming. Sensor
may damage any time.

Muhannand al-jabi et al.,[23] has proposed that the main goal of the current cities to
make smear cities, but one of the important challenges they faced is waste processing,
main factor effecting this process was increasing urban areas and growth of population.
Due to the growth of the IOT technology, there is an increasing needs and importance of
designing and implementing of waste manage systems that attract citizen and involve
citizen into waste management process .main aim is to present the design of attractive
waste management that uses IOT devices , RFIDs, weights and ultrasonic sensors to
measure the citizen interaction with waste management process
Advantage: It attract the citizen by using current technology. User can easily operate it.
Easy to implement and design
Disadvantage: Segregation is not implemented. Many number smart bins are needed.
Low capacity.

Himadri Nath Saha et al.,[24] has proposed waste management is that the tactic of
treating solid wastes and offers reasonably solutions for usage things that don’t belong to
trash. Waste management disposes of the merchandise and substances that we simply
have use throughout a secure and economical manner. Researchers are finding out waste
management for over a century, and for over forty years waste utilization analysis.
Advantage: It special waste disposal system. The most easier technique of waste
management. It is very easy to control.
Disadvantage: Less accuracy. Implementation is costlier. Very sensitive.

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Anagha Deshpande et al.,[25] has proposed to design smart techniques for garbage
accumulation for bins. It will replace that vehicle with automated bot which will collect
garbage automatically from garbage bins and this system will be helpful in smart cities to
make waste management system automated.
Advantage: It is very innovative. It is user friendly. High speed process.
Disadvantage: Segregation is difficult. Recycling is difficult. Operation is complicated.

Dung D Vu and Georges Kaddoum et al.,[26] has proposed paper presents a new
method of smart waste city management which makes the environment of the city clean
with a low cost. In this approach, the sensor model detects, measures, and transmits waste
volume data over the Internet. The collected data including trash bin’s geo location and
the serial number is processed by using regression, classification and graph theory.
Advantage: This process clean the city with low cost. Dynamically and efficiently
managed waste collection. Waste management systematic process.
Disadvantage: Segregation is not implemented. Many number smart bins are needed.
Low accuracy and capacity.

Hasitha Banda and J Gowthami [27] has proposed paper aims to design an autonomous
multi-purpose trash picking robot. These robots move around the mall and collects the
trash. The customer can either wave hands at the robots or hold the empty glasses or
bottles in a way which the robot can recognize.
Advantage: Segregation is easy. Less time consuming. Easy to recycle.
Disadvantage: Analyzing the object is difficult. Design and implementation is complex
process. Data managing is difficult.

Bharadwaj B et al.,[28] has proposed that the main motto of the application is collection
of dry and wet waste separately which is placed in a conveyor belt on which the dry waste
collected dust bins are placed left side and wet waste collected bins on right side. When
the belt starts rotating clockwise the dust bin’s lid is automatically closed, simultaneously
the waste is dumped into the underground garbage container placed at the ground floor.

Advantage: It attract the citizen by using current technology. Simple and easy way to
manage waste from people side. Encourage the citizen to do task by spreading message.

Disadvantage: Difficult to manage and control the procedure. Difficult to disposal the
wasted. Difficult to provide transportation.
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Saravana kannan G et al.,[29] has proposed solid waste management is a big challenge
in urban areas for most of the countries throughout the world. The robot capable of
detecting the object in the random movement after detecting the object the robot senses
by webcam and followed by image processing, after the segmentation process the robot
classifies the waste into de gradable and non-degradable waste. The robot run with 60
rpm motor and the arm movement of the robot run with 10 rpm motor and the process is
interface with serial port by interfacing device.
Advantage: The robot works under the random movement of the vehicle and if any scrap
is detected by the ultrasonic sensor the vehicle stops and the object is detected.
Disadvantage: It is more time consuming and less efficient.

Sangita S Chaudhari and Varsha Y Bhole [30] has proposed an IoT based solid waste
management system which enables garbage bin monitoring, dynamic scheduling and
routing of garbage collector trucks in a smart city. We have designed a cloud based
system for organizing solid waste management process and mobile application for waste
collection drivers and Municipal Corporation to monitor and control solid waste
collection as a service.
Advantage: This system is more efficient as it uses Internet of Things concept that have
intelligent management of all garbage bins located throughout city with proposed features
like resource optimization, cost reduction ans as well time management.
Disadvantage: It can be equipped with small sensors to sense the intensity of false odor
coming out from garbage bin.

Pooja Nighot et al.,[31] has proposed Rapid increase in population has led to improper
waste management in metro cities and urban areas which has resulted in spreading of
diseases. An efficient method to dispose the waste has been designed in our project,
“automatic waste segregator and monitoring system”. This paper proposes an automatic
waste segregator (AWS) which is a cheap, easy to use solution for a segregation system at
households, so that the wastes can be sent directly for processing.
Advantage: It reduces the human effort by cleaning the public areas. This can also
provide the security service by recording the footage of the location.
Disadvantage: It is cost efficient as it uses many components for sensing purpose.

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Subhasini Dwivedi et al.,[32] has proposed that now-a-days the wastes are dumped as
landfill waste and the major problem in solid waste disposal is plastic bottles, glass
bottles, metal can separation and they are separated manually and recycled. So it is
necessary to have a suitable solid waste treatment plant. we are developing a prototype
for separating plastic, glass bottles and metal cans from solid waste material using
programmable logic controller (PLC) S7-300.
Advantage: It is more effective method that can sort different categories of plastic
bottles, glass bottles, metal cans, and tetra packs quickly and accurately. Disadvantage:
The wastes are not separated first as dry and wet waste.

Human Esmaeili et al.,[33] has proposed that the study is justified based on the current
situation of municipal solid waste management in Malaysia that (hypothetically) has been
affected by improper knowledge transfer between resource management agencies due to
the lack of technology involvement, and fast urbanization in Malaysia and increasing
demand for high-rise residential living lifestyle due to land scarcity, which is more
tangible in areas with higher density of population.
Advantage: More accurate, more efficient so that the images can be identified fastly.
Disadvantage: It can not measure the small-scale samples.

George E Sakr et al.,[34] has proposed Waste sorting is the process of separating waste
into different types. The current trend is to efficiently separate the waste in order to
appropriately deal with it. This research aims to automate waste sorting by applying
machine learning techniques to recognize the type of waste from their images only. Each
algorithm creates a different classifier that separates waste into 3 main categories: plastic,
paper and metal using only 256 x 256 colored png image of the waste. Advantage: It
uses raspberry pi so that it is able to sort waste by their images only.
Disadvantage: It has very low execution time and low GPU memory is available.

Eyhab Al-Masri et al.,[35] has proposed that addressing environmentally safe

management of waste is becoming increasingly a challenging task. The problem,
however, improving the collection of waste can be costly particularly during the source
separation process after waste is collected.
Advantage: It is a serverless IOT enabled framework so it can be effectively used to
reduce costs which is associated with waste materials.
Disadvantage: The edge computing capabilities has not been included in this system.
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Chapter 3
3.1 Existing System
A SC could incorporate various models to enable new services or efficient redesign of the
existing services. For instance, in the waste collection process, static models could be
transformed to Waste Collection as a Service (WCaaS) which enables online dynamic
scheduling and routing of the collection trucks presents an example for both a static and a
dynamic routing scenario for waste collection. The dynamic waste collection could be
described as an online decision process for defining, when to collect waste from bins , and
which routes the collection trucks should follow . Many technologies and hardware areal
ready used in waste management adopting different approaches in the management of the
physical infrastructure as well as the data collected in the field. For instance, the IoT hardware
and technology could identify real objects and transforms them to ‘smart things’.

RFID can be used for tagging an object, and so gives a unique identifier to each smart
thing. Sensors and WSNs enable the measurement of physical quantities and the
transformation to digital signals, which are processed wirelessly by an adhoc network
infrastructure. Low-power radio communications and low-cost embedded devices enable
sensors to incorporate RFID tags . Actuators are adopted to stimulate and give feedback to
digital systems by interacting, in the physical layer, with the infrastructure. Future Internet
provides interconnection to smart things with IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area
Networks (6LoWPAN) protocol, which is a modified version of IPv6 for low power
embedded devices In addition, many IoT architectures are builton Cloud Infrastructure ,
enabling the concept of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Furthermore, the interconnected
smart phones ,form networks which serve as WSN gateways for IoT systems . For instance,
in the waste collection example, collection truck drivers can use a smart phone network
enabling messaging with the waste management infrastructure and thus realize dynamic
scheduling and routing. Finally, the WSN/IoT’s strength is that it can combine diverse
technologies to support dynamic models for the efficient waste management in SCs.

we review a high number of models in the waste management domain to reveal

their pros and cons. The aim is to setup the basis for delivering novel models that will
outperform the existing ones. However, before we are ready to propose and discuss any
novel reference model for waste management, it is essential to compare the research
related to the adoption of dynamic models for waste collection.

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For realizing a comparative assessment, we proceed with the definition of a
concrete taxonomy that ‘covers’ the available models. The provided taxonomy will
become the basis for mapping any waste management model, thus, to be compared with
any other model found in the respective literature. Through the proposed taxonomy, the
interested readers/researchers will be capable of identifying any ‘gaps’ in the respective
research and propose efficient methods for dealing with new frame works in the domain.

3.1 Proposed System

The above-mentioned problem statement is recovered by a project named
“Robotic Arm for Trash Collecting and Separating Robot” which is an embedded system,
meaning something that is attached to another thing. An embedded system can be thought
of as a computer hardware system having software embedded in it. An embedded system
can be an independent system, or it can be a part of a large system. An embedded system
is a microcontroller or microprocessor based system which is designed to perform a
specific task.
An embedded system has these components:
• Hardware.
• Application software.
• Real Time Operating system (RTOS).
• Smart bin
• Monitoring and control system
• Truck trash

3.3 Contribution of the Project

This project will contribute many things to the society. Some of them are as flows:
• It will reduce the man power.
• It saves a lot of time.
• Automated Waste Segregator has been successfully implemented for the
segregation of waste into dry and wet waste at a domestic level.
• It cannot segregate ceramic into dry waste because of its higher relative dielectric
constant as compared to other dry wastes.
• Noise can be eliminated in the sensing module to increase accuracy and overall
efficiency. This system has its own limitations.

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3.4 System Architecture of the Project

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Chapter 4

4.1 Hardware requirement

• Raspberry pi Microcontroller.
• Pi-Camera.
• Memory Card.
• Robotic Arm.
• Motor Driver.
• Gear Motor.
• IR Sensor.
• Arduino UNO.
• Wi-Fi ESP 8266 Module.
• HC_SR04 Ultrasonic sensor.
4.2 Software requirement
• Raspbian Jessie.
• TightVNC Server.
• Python.
• KNN Algorithm.
• SQl.
• Arduino IDE.

Dept. of CSE, VKIT 2019-2020 Page 18

Chapter 5
Automated Waste Segregator has been successfully implemented for the
segregation of waste into dry and wet waste at a domestic level. However, it cannot
segregate ceramic into dry waste because of its higher relative dielectric constant as
compared to other dry wastes. Noise can be eliminated in the sensing module to increase
accuracy and overall efficiency. This system has its own limitations. It can segregate
only one type of waste at a time with an assigned priority for wet and dry waste. The
levels are divided into three categories which are empty, half and full. If the container is
full the Message is sent to vehicle car to empty the bin, the Wi-Fi module is used to send
data via the Internet protocol TCP/IP to the web page, data are stored in a database for
future analysis to control container distribution in appropriate location.

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