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title author publisher ishn10 |asin print isbn3, ebook ishnit3 language subject publication date lee ade subject Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniques for Use in Design, ‘Manufacturing, and InspectionMechanical Engineering (Marcel Dekker, Inc.) ; 96 Meadows, James D. (0824793099 9780824793098 9780585157405 cover Pape Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Applications and Techniques for Use in Design, Manufacturing, and Inspection James D. Meadows Institute for Engineering & Design, Inc. Hendersonville, Tennessee Wi Mancet Dexen, Inc. New York Baset page i Page ti Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Meadows, James D. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing : applications and techniques for use in design, manufacturing, and inspection / James D. Meadows. p.cm, (Mechanical engineering: 96) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8247-9309-9 (alk. paper) 1. Tolerance (Engineering) 2. Engineering drawings-Dimensioning. 1. Title. II, Series: Mechanical engineering (Marcel Dekker, Inc.) ; 96. TS172.M43 1995 6207.0045-de20 95-12153 ce ‘The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For more information, write to Special Sales/Professional Marketing at the address below. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 1995 by MARCEL DEKKER, INC. All Rights Reserved. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. MARCEL DEKKER, INC. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 ‘Current printing (last digit) 10987 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA page_ii Page i Preface This text/reference has been created to allow those interested in the principles of geometric product definition to follow step-by-step examples in the application of geometric controls. Good geometric dimensioning and tolerancing are not chaotic. They are not learned through rote memorization, They make up a system that can and should be applied in a logical progression of easy-to-follow steps. But to arrive at the answers involved in geometric definition, one must first know the questions. Readers of this type of text are overwhelmingly likely to be logical people: otherwise they would not be involved in the professions its language of symbology serves. They are able to reason and analyze situations, Stil, they must know where to begin, and where that beginning leads, and proceed to the logical end to solving the puzzle of a product's geometric definition, its extreme boundaries, and the conditions under which the product must be made and inspected in order to function and be cost effective. Many believe one can learn to apply geometric dimensioning and tolerancing by simply studying the definitions and examples given in the standards. I do not believe that to be true. I believe one must know the philosophy and approach to be taken when defining parts and assemblies of parts. This text shows how to break it all down into a series of steps that consists of the significant questions to be asked of oneself or members of the product team at any point in the product definition. Each question is designed to elicit a response based on functionality, cost effectiveness, producibility, ease of inspection and many other factors that must be considered to optimize a dimensioning and tolerancing method. Given the correct questions, a logical professional, knowledgeable about a product and the environment in which it will be produced, can artive only at the best geometric controls to use for all features that comprise their parts. Having learned the logic and analytical reasoning behind the correct usage of this universally accepted language of geometric product definition, the professional is on the road to becoming literate in the language of the industry in which he or she has chosen to work. Trying to calculate and convey the definition and extreme boundaries of any product without a knowledge of the principles contained in this text is, atleast, extremely difficult and perhaps Page iii Page iv even impossible. Putting oneself in such a situation is absolutely unnecessary. The approaches used herein are finite. They can be easily learned and even mastered with study and practice. The sooner ‘one begins, the sooner the principles can be employed. Thave heard it said that a little bit of knowledge can be dangerous. If that is s0, show me the one with so much knowledge about anything as to be completely out of danger. I believe that even incomplete ‘geometric tolerancing is better than no geometric tolerancing at al We begin, persevere and eventually triumph. If we never begin, we never triumph. ‘The author wishes to express his gratitude to the many people who have made this text possible, from the journeymen and instructors who took the time to teach me what they knew when I was a young tool and die maker, to my college professors. My thanks go out to some of the world’s most knowledgeable professionals in the language of geometric symbology for what they pioneered. My thanks extend to those in the fields of measurement, design, manufacturing and a variety of engineering fields who helped me to put what I knew into the proper perspective Finally, my special thanks to those who helped actually construct the book: Jeannie Winchell, Kay DuVall, Michael Gay of Nashville CAD, Inc., and my editors at Marcel Dekker, Inc. JAMES D. MEADOWS. page_iv Contents Proface Iniroduction Section 0.1 - Geometric Praduct Definition Principles ‘Section 0.2 - Verification of Postion with Open Set-Up Section 0.3 - Geometie Characteristic Symbols ‘Section 04 - Char of Symbols Section 0 - Rules Shost ‘Chapter #1 ‘Geometic Dimensioning and Tolerancing Section I.1- An Explanation of Tolerance Zone Section 1.2 - Surfaces, Features, Features of Size, Datum Features, Datum Features of Size, and Datuns Section 13 - Tolerances Section 14 - Components Common to & Geometrically Dimension snd Toleranced Drawing Section 15 Fits and Allowances Chapter #2 “Maximum Material Condition, Least Material Condition, and Regardless of Feature sive ‘Section 21 - Maximum Material Condition: Meaning and Uses Section 2:2 - Least Material Condition: Meaning and Uses Section 23 - Regardless of Feature Size Chapter #3 owt Read a Feature Conrol Frame Chapter Size Contol Form Section 4.1 - The Taylor Principle Section 42 - Gaging Size Limits Section 4.3 - Merging Theory with Reality Chapter #S Rules, Conceps, Characteristics and Untoleranced Dimensions Section 5.1 - Individual or Related 9 Datum Section $2 - Material Conitons Section 53 - Untoleranced Dimensions Section $4 - Components Common ta Feature Contol Frame page y Is a 2 0 3 2 » 4 46 st 3 56 58 61 Ca Chapter #6 Datos Sexton 6 tui Features CConcurent Ensivong ‘Two Comal Diameters a «Datum Featre Pater Datuns atu Features of Sie st MMC “Threads, sas and Splines aun Targets Section 62-Oudly Configured and Curves Sure a Datu Festus Section 63 - Equalizing Datuns Sexton = Datutn Feature Symbols Section 5 -Flexibe Pars Poston an Profile Using Compound Dams (Two Ho) Common Misconceptions [Now Revision ANSI YI4S- Change Fisturng- Assuming Target Points Are the Same a he Datum Panes Two Mating Rigid Pats ‘Two Mating Flexible Pars Free Sate Variation in Shoot Metal Parts Section 66 Dirct vs. Indies Tolerancing inet Toterncing Chapter #7 ‘The Maxim Matra Comin Symbol ants Ramifications Chaper #8 ‘Relationships betwen Individual Features chapter #9 ‘Vintal Condon and Result Condition Boundaries Section. Viral Condon (MMC Conexp) Sexton 92- RFS es Not Meu Tights Fits Section 93 - Viral Conton A Funtional Boundary Section 9.4 Unigue ects on Controle Features That Invoke the LMC Principle Section 9S - Wall Thickness Cakultons Chaper #10 Datum Feats of Size Representation Section 10.» Mods of Datum Feature Reposentation Section 102 - Angular Orientation pate 6 66 16 se 86 86 oy 93 ns. 1 13 1s 136 1 18 18 138 1st 132 15 161 6s 165 181 8s m2 4 206 206 202 Form Contos Seton 11.1 Flam m Sages of Deri Median Line a Derived Mean Plane Sughines » “Theory vs Realy as Cay Rounds) Mestre Laster a Sston 12.1 - Orson Charette 76 Oecasion of Line Elemente as Seton 12.3 -Perondolagy Es Seton 13.1 Lin lest Controls 33 Seton 14.1 - Cela Rout w Seton 14.3 Reston a Non Pere! Datum Eablet 266 Chapter ats w Seton 15.3 Reston 30 oatng Fass a Proje Tolerance Zones (Fite Fastener) se ge Projected Tolerance Zanes for Tigh iting Holes Comparison of Coaxiality Contos eo Toeracing a MOC Composite Tolerancing ‘Composite Positional Tolranciag-Tolerancing Mating Pans Composite Positional Toleaing vs. Two Single Segment Posional Toeruciag Coals Converting from Plas a Minus to Tre Poston Tolerancing Chaper #16 ‘A Logical Appesch to Pat Toeraeing Section 16. car Segmented Thinking Section 16.2 - Refining Futons Goometi Controls o Be More Cos Etsstive Section 16.3 -Impyings Manufacturing Sesuence on Comper Pat Coatguratons Ssction 164 -Centerplane Dats CChapee#17 _Dimensionng and Toerancing Schemes Section 17.2 Design, Inspection, Pouction and Prototype Neots and Capablies Regarding Dimersioiag und Tlerancing Methods Chap #18 Stops forthe Development of « Dimensional Inspection Plan Section 1.1 ~The Dimensional Inspection Plan Format Plan Development ach Meare Hard vs, Soft Gages Determine Uncrsinty Section 182-4 Dimensional Inspection Pla Example Dimensional Inspection Plan - An Example Chapee #19 Paper Gasing Ssction 19.1 «Paper Gaping (Checking Datwn-to-Pate Requirements) Section 1.2 - Composite Postonal Controls (Checking Festre-4o- Feature Requirements) Section 193 - Pati of Festnes Cont to a Center Datum Feature of Size Section 194 pst Gaging with Datu Fests of Size age. a8 sis 9 S00 0 S00 su 0 $0 sr Section 19.5 - Visual Inspection of Positional Controls by Virtual Condition Boundary Verification Non-Visual Techniques Visual Techniques Chapter #20 Funetional Gaging Section 20.1 - Functional Gage Design Section 20.2 - Tolerance on the Work (Ten Percent of What?) Section 20.3 - Push Pin Gages (Advantages; Tolerance Distribution) Considerations of Functional Gage Design, Dimensioning and Tolerancing Definitions Bibliography Index page_ix 567 569 sul 599 601 Page xi Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing page_xi INTRODUCTION Section 0.1 GEOMETRIC PRODUCT DEFINITION PRINCIPLES ‘The world realized long ago that the plus and minus system of dimensioning and tolerancing parts was insufficient to consistently convey design intent. It was a language incapable of transferring the creative inventions of mankind to paper in such a way as (0 be unambiguous when interpreted by others. Geometric definition tolerances were often left to assumption. If parts were made in one geographic location and mating parts in another, even though both were made per drawing specifications, when brought together the parts would not always mate in assembly, We realized a better way was desperately needed. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing through the American National Standards Institute's Y14.5 Standard (ANSI Y14.5) is the result of many years of study and collaboration by dedicated individuals (representatives of the government, military and private industry) in the United States (while in constant communication with representatives in other countries throughout the world) to find amore complete language of design. Itis composed of many sym- bols and concepts. Look on it as a dictionary with more words or a tool box with more tools than we have ever had before. It is up to the individual de- signer to choose the symbols that most appropriately convey his or her ideas. However, itis a language of symbols that allows us, perhaps for the first time, to convey those ideas in a way that is precise and logical, Just as an author is allowed to be more specific in description and dialogue with a more complete dictionary and a machinist does better work when given the most appropriate tool, the designer now has the capability of using ANSI Y14.5 to help unlock those inventive, creative ideas and share them with the rest of the world. Not only is geometric definition of part size, shape, orientation and location made more understandable and precise using the concepts discussed in this book, but we can be assured that if parts are produced per ANSI Y14.5 drawing specifications, they will mate with mating parts in assembly situations. Let us start with a comparison of the plus and minus system for Tocation and what has often been called "true positioning”. 2 Introduction FIG. 0-1 1 a sss | ol ai Il 1 1 To be interpreted per no ondord ne could find 2. Bend ROB MAX, 13. Uniess otherwise specifies, of ongles = t degree 4, Stock size 090 thick, In FIG. 0-1, this simple part uses plus and minus tolerancing to locate the hole. In reality, we cannot be certain whether the hole is to be measured from the edges of the part, or the edges of the part are to be measured from the hole. This ambiguity could cause difficulties in determining set-ups for both ‘manufacturing and inspection. It also makes it difficult to discern the exact, configuration and location of the tolerance zone. Ifthe origin of measurement were to be the axis of the hole, then tolerance zones could be assumed (0 contain the edges of the part and perhaps even be perceived to control the location and profile/form of the two edges. For this example, however, even though that interpretation could be easily argued as valid, let us assume the hole is to be measured from existing ledges of the part, If so, the drawing says we would like the hole to be 1.500 inches from one edge and .750 inches from another, Knowing we are im- perfect beings and need a tolerance on that, we are allowed a plus and minus Introduction 3 tolerance in each direction of .005. This generates a O10. square (olerance zone in which the actual axis of the hole must lie, The tolerance zone is centered around the mean dimensional location of the 1.5 and .75 inch specifications We can see the tolerance zone is square, but the hole (in two-dimensional terms) is round. The tolerance zone is not reflective of the shape of the hole it protects. Curious. However, we know this is often done because of part function, so let us examine the mating part, It is a rectangular plate with a shaft diameter mounted on it (see FIG. 0-2) ‘The mating situation is simply that we would like the shaft to fit into the hole with the seating perpendicular surfaces firmly against one another and the edges of the parts (from which the 1.5 and .75 dimensions emanate) to line up flush, That would not dictate a square tolerance zone. Sometimes a tolerance zone is created as non-reflective of hole shape to protect wall thickness where too thin wall is a possibility from the hole surface to the outside of the part But with only a .250 to .260 diameter hole and a .010 square tolerance zone, ‘one can easily see the shortest distance of .750 of an inch is not capable of ‘creating so thin a wall that the hole weakens the part to a point of danger. FIG. 0-2 (Mating Part) © = So, there is no logic in having a round hole with a square tolerance zone considering the difficulties that zone places on us in tolerance analysis, worst case boundary calculations and functional gage design, Even though this hole is probably punched out in a press, let us examine some of the decisions that would have to be made if the hole were drilled. If ‘machinist were asked (0 drill the hole, one would have to choose what surface 4 Introduction to lay the part down on first to come in contact with the machine (drill press) table. The drawing allows us to choose one of at least two. The primary surface strikes a minimum of three high points of contact and eliminates part ‘movernent in two rotational and one linear direction. Since the part can still move, the machinist slides a rail or angle plate against another surface chosen from at least two surfaces and slides into wo point minimum high points of contact to eliminate two more degrees of freedom (one rotational and one linear). Whatever surface is left is used as a tertiary feature requiring a one point minimum high point of contact to climinate the last degree of linear movement. ‘The machinist then clamps the part into that orientation, measures from those rails and/or angle plates 1.5 ‘and .750 inches and drills the hole. The problem occurs when the part must be checked. There is no repeatability factor here. When the parts inspector gets this part and must set it up (0 inspect it, he ‘or she must make the same choices as did the machinist. Suppose he or she chooses differently. How many times and in how many different part ‘orientations must one set the part to determine that the part does not meet the drawing requirements? If the inspector sets it up the first time and it checks good, the part will most likely be accepted as within tolerance. Still, since the drawing does not indicate how this part seats in the assembly. there is no assurance that it has been inspected in a functional manner. It may check within tolerance but not assemble since it may not have been inspected in the same manner that it fits into the assembly. But, if the first set-up allows the part to check bad, the inspector might have chosen different primary, secondary and tertiary surfaces than the part uses in the assembly. The part might check within specifications with a differ- cent set-up (part orientation). So, the inspector resets it and resets it, knowing ‘each different set-up might be the one that allows the part to be bought off as good. Each set up takes time, and time and money are being wasted. If the designer had used some simple criteria to choose the set-up surfaces. the machinist and inspector would have had no choices to make. The drawing could have reflected the designer's knowledge of datum feature selection criteria (for example, part function and representation of the mating, situation) The same part using geometric dimensioning and tolerancing might appear as in FIG. 0-3, With this drawing, the primary datum feature is A (3 point high point minimum contact), the secondary B (2 point high point ‘minimum contact while maintaining A), the tertiary C (1 point high point Inuradution FIG. 03 pera) re. 255 +.005 one GSE | ip teonone asic | i } ols ae |e Lassen 1. To be interpreted per r=] msi ease shoes 2. Bend ROS MAX. 3. Unies othariae specitied, olonger = anges 4 Stock size 000 thik, ‘minimum contact while maintaining A and B). We know this is not because that is how they appear in the alphabet, but rather because this is how they appear inthe information block (called a feature control frame) read from left torright.Itis located directly below the size limits of the hole so as to localize much of the information about the hole Tt tells us we want to position the hole so the position symbol is the first piece of information given. The tolerance zone is described as a diameter so as to reflect the hole shape. The .010 square has been replaced by a .014 diameter tolerance zone in which the actual axis of the hole must lie. This is a design change sutely~-but one that will work because the mating shaft will be dimensioned and toleranced in a way to allow it to mate with this new requirement ‘ Introduction ‘The extra tolerance is about 57% more area of tolerance (see calculations in text), and the M in a circle will allow even more as the hole grows from 250 toward the 260 size limit, The datum features assure repeatability and, together with the larger tolerance, make the part more cost effective to ‘produce and inspect. Datum feature A locks in perpendicularity of the tolerance zone to it and, therefore, protects perpendicularity of the hole. This is a multi-purpose control because, besides datum A controlling perpendicularity, B and C locate the tolerance zone axis (1.5 exactly from B and .750 exactly from C) and, consequently, specify the hole axis’ perfect location. The dimensions from those surfaces are boxed to indicate an exact specification, Now we know that if we were able to make the hole perfect, it would be perfectly perpendicular to the plane formed by the 3 highest points of surface ‘A and 1.5 inches from the plane formed by the 2 highest points of B and .750 of an inch from the plane formed by 1 point of high point contact from C. Each plane is dependent upon and mutually perpendicular to the other two, forming what is commonly called a datum reference frame. This datum reference frame eliminates the 6 degrees of part freedom (previously described), orients the part and positions the hole for repeatability Since the hole can't be made exactly where the datums and basic ‘dimensions indicate, the tolerance zone of 014 is used to allow hole axis deviation from perfection, or more than .014 as the hole grows. The reason the circled M was used was a recognition of reality in this situation, The real- ity is simply that if the hole moves and/or leans 014 at a diameter of .250, the size shaft that can fit into that hole (in a manner described in the mating part — FIG. 0-7 a 1.240 +.010-—] be L forsee aed al 250.260 Before the partis inspected for the shaf’s compliance with its positional control, size requirements should be verified. Least material condition (LMC. -smallest shaft size) should be checked at every two opposing points. such as a ‘micrometer-type measurement would accomplish. Maximum material condi tion (MMC--largest shaft size) should be checked for violations of a perfect, cylindrical envelope, such as a GO gage would accomplish. Then, if functional gaging is not available or variable data is required, many ‘measurement techniques may be employed to inspect the position of the shaft A. computerized Coordinate Measuring Machine is a tool commonly used for this purpose and will be discussed later in this text AA surface plate type set-up (often referred to as an open set-up) may also bbe used, Because of the MMC symbol next to the geometric tolerance, the feature mating size--smallest cylindrical hole that will fit over the shaft without regard to orientation or location--must be determined, This can usually be accomplished quite simply through the use of fine or adjustable gages. This minimum circumscribed cylinder size will be used as the factor in determining "bonus" positional tolerance to be added to the original 014 diameter positional tolerance. Let us assume the feature mating size is .258. The part can then be positioned into the datum reference frame. For example. it would be nice if datum feature A could be pushed against an angle plate of sufficient size to allow feature A (o establish the minimum of 3 high Introduction uw point contact to simulate datum plane A. But, of course, ifthe datum feature is on the same side of the part as the shaft being inspected, that would not be fan easy thing to do. So, if that isthe case, the primary datum feature may be established by clamping the opposing side of the part to the angle plate and, through the use of shim stock or leveling screws anda dial indicator, the darum feature can be “indicated in". In other words. if the datum feature is inaccessible to mount on, the shim stock (by placing varying thicknesses of it between the part surface and the angle plate at appropriate locations) can be used to make the datum feature parallel tothe surface of the angle plate. This will have the effect of negating (within a range) the outof-parallelism between the surface that is accessible (and on which you will mount the part to the angle plate) and the datum feature ‘While maintaining this contact and orientation, the angle plate could be placed on a surface plate or machine table and datum feature B brought into a ‘minimum 2 high point contact with this surface to simulate datum plane B. ‘Another plate could then be brought into contact with 1 high point of datum feature C to positon the part so that datum plane C is not only established, but established 909 to an edge of the first angle plate and 90° to the surface plate (or machine table) on which the part was mounted. This allows us to rotate the angle plate 909 and have datum planes B or C simulated by the surface plate (or machine table) on which the angle pate (which holds our part) i resting FIG. 0-8 NN <2) — a Let us assume we have done this and our partis oriented in its simulated datum reference frame. A height gage with an affixed dial indicator can now be used (o determine the location of the shaft from simulated datums B and C. Step 1: Rotate the angle plate so that datum plane B is simulated by the surface plate 2 Step 2: ‘Step 3: Step 4 Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Introduction Zero out the dial indicator on the surface plate and record the vernier reading from the height gage. Raise the height gage indicator to the top of the shaft and run the in- dicator over the shaft as close to the part as possible. Keep adjusting the gage height until the same zero is recorded on the top of the shaft by the indicator, (We are looking for the deviation from the 1.500 basic dimension but must later-in Step 5~take into consideration the pin diameter.) Take the reading of the height of the top of the pin from the vernier scale on the height gage ‘Subtract the reading taken in Step 2 from the reading taken in Step 3. Let's assume the difference in those readings equals 1.631. Subtract from this number one-half of the diameter of the shaft (minimum circumscribed cylinder) 258 divided by 2 = .129 Thus, 1.631 minus 129 = 1.502 We know we wanted to be at 1.500 but ended up at 1.502. a deviation of .002, Record this .002 deviation. Rotate the angle plate 90° so that datum C is now simulated by the surface plate. Repeat Steps 2 through $ to determine the distance of the maximum deviation of the shaft axis from datum C. Let's assume the worst distance of the axis from C is 2.503--a maximum deviation from 2.500 of .003, We now know the bonus tolerance--the difference between MMC (260) and its actual feature mating size (.258) is .002. Since we started with O14, this gives us a total of a .016 diameter positional tolerance zone allowed. We also know the actual deviation from true position is .002 from datum B and ,003 from datum C. a aan ye Diameter of ot Deaton fom te Devaton fom tae SATS tee” SEES cer'* patente z= 2V 0022 + 0032 z= 2 J 0000s + BOO0OT z= 2 V000S Introduction B 2 = 2 (0036055) Z= 007211 ‘Actual Diameter of Deviation (Zone) from True Position is .007211 Since we are allowed to be out of position a diameter of .016 and are actually only out a little more than a diameter of .007, the feature is acceptable as produced, This process must also be performed at the other end of the shaft (farthest from the primary datum) and, if time permits, at various places in between, When the indicator is brought into actual contact with the feature surface, rather than in contact with a tool representing mating size, surface variations ‘must be taken into consideration, This direct contact type of check is sometimes made more valid if differential readings (180° from one another) are taken down the shaft and compared to determine the actual derived axial location. If any surface variations on the shafts or holes being checked are complex, this direct contact type of inspection technique can be time consuming and difficult. A similar procedure (such as described) will work for holes as well as shafts, and with slight modification is also accurate for other features of size such as elongated holes, slots, tabs, bosses, ete. Coordinate Measuring ‘Machines make this procedure easier and less time-consuming while using the ‘same or similar basic steps. A functional gage may be used to collect attribute {accept or reject) data and is even faster than a CMM, but this type of receiver gage will not collect variable data, as will the CMM and the surface plate set up. However, oft functional gages" which use data collected by (for example) a CMM can give variable data concerning the direction and amount a feature has deviated from geometric perfection, These soft gages, which are computer generated, willbe discussed more later in this text, as will the CMM and other measurement machines. Unspection Note for Holes: The maximum inscribed cylinder minus the ‘maximum inscribed cylinder with perfect perpendicularity equals the out-of- perpendicularity of a produced hole axis. Also, the maximum inscribed cylinder minus the maximum inscribed cylinder with perfect position equals the out-of-position of a produced hole axis.) is Introduction jection 0.3 GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS Tolerance Category ‘and Geometric Material Congition Characteristic Symbol Symbols Allowed FORM Famness o None No Staighiness © e © tordorved modi ine or No O- slo : oe |e © _an.| \ sano This is not an individual tolerance for each hole, but rather an allowed shift of the 4-hole pattern together (from true position). Any allowed out-of- perpendicularity of datum feature B to datum A experienced would negate an equal amount of this allowed shift because datum feature A is used as primary instead of datum feature B. ‘This type of extra allowed pattern shift is calculated with the following formulae a8 Chapter 6 When Primary Datum Feature Is a Shaft MMC size of datum feature (or virtual condition as applicable) ~ Actual mating size of datum feature Difference ‘Displacement of the pattern as a unit radially equals 1/2 the difference. When Primary Datum Feature Is a Hole ‘Actual mating size of datum feature Difference Displacement of the pattern as a unit radially equals 1/2 the difference. ‘When the primary datum feature is a planar surface and the secondary ‘datum feature isa shaft, the controlled pattern shift is calculated as follows: + Virtual condition (MMC concept) of the datum feature minus the minimum circumscribed cylinder of the datum shaft perfectly perpendicular to the primary datum plane equals the diameter of the controlled pattern shift zone. When the primary datum feature is a planar surface and the secondary datum feature is a hole, the controlled pattern shift is calculated as follows: + The maximum inscribed cylinder of the datum hole perfectly perpen- dicular 10 the primary datum plane minus the virtual condition (MMC concept) of the datum feature equals the diameter of the controlled pattern shift zone. or Virtual condition of the datum shaft ~ Actual mating size of the datum shaft ‘Controlled pattern shift diameter and Actual mating size of the datum hole - Virtual condition of the datum hole Controlled pattern shift diameter Datums ” Threads, Gears and Splines Screw threads, gears and splines generate axes that may be difficult to establish during inspection and, therefore, are sometimes avoided for use as datum features. However, when they are used, screw thread datums are derived from the pitch diameter, unless specified as generated by something other than that, Sometimes, the screw's major diameter or minor diameter is specified. Splines and gears used as datum features must specify what portion ‘of the gear or spline is desired to simulate the datum, such as MAJOR DIA... PITCH DIA. or MINOR DIA. Datum Targets When designing a par, it should be kept in mind that when more than one datum reference frame is used to define features on the part, more than one manufacturing set-up is implied and more than one inspection set-up is indicated. If it is necessary, in order to satisfy design requitements, to define ‘one feature with a different datum reference frame than is used to define another feature, then, of course, it should be done. However. the cost of multiple set-ups should be constantly kept in mind. Sometimes. due to the configuration of a part, its function in assembly or its rough or warped surfaces, it becomes desirable to use only a portion of the surface as a datum. ‘The portion may be designated as a point or points. a line or lines or an area or areas. The areas may be round or, through the use of chain lines. may be defined as any shape that is appropriate (see FIG. 6-39). This type of datum referencing is referred to as datum targeting. Aside from the thick chain lines used to define partial datums, we have also heen given the tools to identify datums established by datum targets on non-co- planar surfaces. As shown in the illustrations in this section, through the use of basic or toleranced dimensions to designate the distance between non-co- planar surfaces used and also basic or toleranced dimensions to identify the location of the target points (lines or areas) on surfaces, we can establish a useful datum reference frame for part orientation. Toleranced dimensions ‘may be used in place of basic dimensions in these situations. If basic dimensions are used, they are toleranced by established tooling or gaging tolerances. ‘When the datum target symbol is used, itis placed outside the part out- line, and its leader line (with no arrowhead) extends to the target on the part, If the target is actually on the opposite side of the par, this may be indicated by using a dashed radial leader line. The dashed line indicates the target is 90 Chapter 6 hidden in the view shown. The use of datum targets does not necessarily eliminate the need for datum feature symbols on a drawing, At times, itis desirable to use both to properly designate the points, lines or areas on that surface as well as the location of the origin of measurement (datum) they create (see FIG. 6-38 for correct application) ‘Datum target points are designated by the symbol "X" on the drawing in a direct view or on two adjacent views. Datum target lines use the "X" on an edge view or a phantom line in a direct view. Both may be used for clarification, When the target line length is controlled, the length and location of the target line is dimensioned with basic dimensions or toleranced dimensions. Datum target areas are areas of flat contact with manufacturing Cr inspection equipment made to the same specific size and shape designated for the target area. Sizes and locations of the areas are defined by basic di- mensions of toleranced dimensions. Pins or other shapes hitting at something less than full area contact somewhere within the specified area are unaccept- able. This rule is also true where fixture makers use pins instead of simulated planes on datum surfaces where the entire surface has been designated as the datum feature. If an entire surface is specified as the datum feature, the high points of that surface must be used to simulate that plane (not pins). This ‘means that datum planes must be simulated as drawn: + Points by point contact + Lines by line contact + Areas by flat area specified size contact, + Entire surface contact by simulated datum plane contact from high points over the entire surface Cylindrical datum target areas are also sometimes used. A portion of a shaft ‘hole may be appropriate as a datum. This may be specified as below. FIG. 6-10 init stun at eve ZY eb Datums or ‘An example of the use of a chain line to specify a partial datum is shown below om a rectangular part FIG. 6-11 ray As has been stated, basic or toleranced dimensions are significant in the designation of target point, line and area location. They ate also used to define the diameter of area contact, This is usually stated in the top half of the datum target symbol. For example: FIG. 6-12 but may be Basic or toleranced dimensions may also be used to define the extent of partial datums and to specify the size and shape of unusual patil datum target areas, When basic dimensions are used for datum targets in the many ways described, no tolerance is shown on the drawing relating to them. The tolerance for all basic dimensions used to define size and location of datum targets relies on established tooling and gaging tolerances used by the facility manufacturing the pants fixtures and/or gages. The dimension origin symbol is useful in showing which surface a dimension originates from. For example: 92 Chapter 6 7 arm FIG. 6-13 — q The bottom surface in this case will be used similarly to a datum feature in acting as the origin of measurement for the 1,000 + 010 to the top surface. If the origin symbol had not been included, the top surface might have been chosen as the origin of measurement or the tolerance shared by the wo surfaces. This symbol is especially useful in controlling parallelism, flatness and surface location from a specified origin plane, For example: FIG. 6-14 ‘This control uses the dimension origin symbol to assure that the entire 005 tolerance zone is used on the upper surface, ‘The lower shortest surface is weated much as though it were a primary datum feature. It receives none ‘of the form control size limits normally give, The tolerance zone is parallel to the plane formed by a minimum of a 3 high point contact from this bottom surface. ‘The upper surface must lie in the tolerance zone, which consists of two parallel planes .005 apart. The upper surface is longer; therefore, if it remains within its 005 tolerance zone, the angle that could occur between the upper and lower surfaces is less than if the tolerance were allowed to be shared between the two and even less than if all tolerance were given the lower shortest surface. An illustration of the tolerance zone generated by FIG, 6-14 follows. Datums 93 FIG. 6-15 eeeeroe oe Sie iad a oe tee Sie Section 6.2 ODDLY CONFIGURED AND CURVED SURFACES AS DATUM FEATURES It is now legal to identify a compound curve or contoured surface as a datum feature, Whereas before these surfaces were not mentioned as possible datum features in the Y14.5 Standard, except with the use of datum targets. ‘one may now identify the entire surface as a datum feature. As an extension of the principles of datum target points, one may speculate as to the limitless possibilities this concept opens to us. If, for example, a primary datum feature can be used to construct a primary datum plane from a minimum of 3 points of contact (high points if an entire planar surface is labeled as the datum feature, or specific points if datum targets are used), one might ask: "What is the maximum number of points that can be used” ‘The answer is, of course, there is no maximum. If no datum targets were used and (theoretically) a surface was produced perfectly fla, all points, being ‘of equal height and lying in the same plane, would be high points. If datum targets are used, especially on very flexible parts, such as sheet metal panels, it is not unusual to use more than three specific points to establish the datum plane. It is also quite common to use step datums, with some of these datum target points given height dimensions from the other target points to allow the panel to nest well. If the surface is a curve that has been mathematically defined, if using datum targets at varying stepped heights, we would pick the number of points we felt necessary to stabilize the part, then specify each as a datum target point, We would identify the location and height of cach, pethaps with basic dimensions (toleranced dimensions are also allowed). os Chapter 6 ‘Suppose, instead, we decided we needed more than the 3 point minimum to properly nest the part, more than 5, and more than 100 or even 1,000 points. At some moment we may reach the decision that it would be functionally appropriate, as well as less cluttered on the drawing, to specify an infinite number of points on the surface to stabilize the part, establish the primary datum plane and to allow the part to nest in the same manner in which it functions, even as it seats in assembly Upon reaching this decision, it seems logical to simply call the entire surface the datum feature, using all the basic mathematically defined points on the curved or otherwise complex surface to define the primary datum, We would create a simulation of a perfect representation of this basically defined surface on which to seat the actual (less than perfect) produced surface. This simulation of a perfect counterpart for the surface could be thought of as a fixture on which to nest the part. In other words, a fixture could be made to the basic dimensions given and the contoured surface seated on the datum feature simulator (fixture. in this case) to establish the datum, In summary, in the Y14.5 standard, itis now technically legal to identify ‘a compound curve or a contoured feature as a datum feature. This mathematically defined surface must be able to be related to a three plane datum reference frame and, as stated, is represented by the true geometric counterpart of the surface’s shape (o establish the datum. FIG. 6-16 PRIMARY DATUM PLANE Simulated from Feature High Point Contact; 3 Point Contact [Note: Datum feature simulators are labeled as examples only.) Datums 9s ‘To simulate the primary datum plane, the produced part may be placed in contact with the surface plate (or machine table) and rests on it high points of contact. A simulated primary datum plane is created by the imperfect surface plate (or machine table) from the datum feature (surface). A minimum of 3 high points on the surface are used to create the primary datum plane, If it happened that the surface did not rock, then the part would be stabilized in 3 Of its 6 degrees of spatial freedom, Two rotational degrees of freedom, as ‘well as I linear (up and down) degree of freedom, would be eliminated simply by placing the part surface in contact with the plate or table. If the part rocks ‘on the plate, then it is to be adjusted to an optimum position to stop this rock It may be rocked one way or another to stabilize the part to establish (simulate) the primary datum plane. It may, instead, be leveled while stil touching the surface plate using the same concept as shining. This actually creates a candidate set of datum planes from which is chosen the optimum one plane that will serve as the primary datum, The chosen plane has some limitations in its selection. If one were to view the datum feature (surface) as being comprised of three thirds, the middle thied may contain all points that create the valid datum plane. But neither of the outer thirds of the surface may individually contain all of the points that create the plane. Some of the high points may reside in both of the outer thirds of the surface simultaneously--but not all in either individually~in order to ereate a valid primary datum plane, This is a simplistic explanation of a more complicated concept on selection of a valid datum plane from a set of candidate planes. For more information, see the illustrations and explanations in this text on the creation ofa valid datum plane. To simulate the secondary datum plane in FIG, 6-17, the part may be placed in contact with an angle plate (or rail) which is perpendicular to the primary datum feature simulator. It rests on the high points of contact (2 point high point contact minimum). A simulated secondary datum plane is created by the imperfect angle plate (or rail) from the secondary feature (surface). If the surface does not rock on the datum feature simulator, the partis further stabilized by the elimination of 2 of the remaining 3 degrees of freedom (the other 3 degrees of freedom having already been eliminated stabilized by the primary plane). ‘The secondary datum eliminates the remaining rotational degree of free- ‘dom and one of the remaining linear degrees of freedom. Ifthe part does rock ‘on the secondary datum feature simulator, the part must be adjusted optimally to stabilize the part into the datum reference frame to which, in this case, a 96 Chapter 6 FIG. 6-17 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATUM SIMULATION {3 Point Contact on Primary; 2 Point Contact on Secondary [Note: Datum feature simulators are labeled as examples only. [> third plane will be added. For guidance in adjusting the rocking surface to an ‘optimum position, see the explanation for optimizing a primary rocking datum feature. FIG. 6-18 FULL DATUM REFERENCE FRAME SIMULATION 3 Point Primary; 2 Point Secondary; 1 Point Tertiary [Note: Datum feature simulators are labeled as examples only.] pA Datums 97 ‘The tertiary datum feature is brought into 1 point (minimum) of high point contact with the tertiary datum feature simulator (angle plate, rail, etc.) and eliminates the last degree of part freedom (linear). The last datum feature is brought into contact with the tertiary datum feature simulator while the part maintains its relationship with the primary and secondary datum feature simulator. ‘The part is now stabilized in the datum reference frame (three ‘mutually perpendicular planes), All 6 spacial degrees of freedom (three rotational and three linear) are climinated in this set-up. The part features that have been related to this datum reference frame may then be produced and/or inspected to the specified datums as represented by the manufacturing/ inspection equipment. FIG. 6-19 * DATUM FEATURE + DATUM FEATURE SIMULATOR. * DATUM PLANE aa runes suo — Se Sate pant TcorenicaLLy exacr ATOM PORE FeatoRe {Gere of Part) 98 Chapter 6 ‘The imperfect part is shown in FIG. 6-19 with the real primary datum feature (which is the underside of the part) seated on the datum feature simulator (the surface plate or machine table). The datum feature simulator is areal surface, flawed certainly, but of adequate precision in form to establish the simulated datum where the datum feature’s points encounter the points of the datum feature simulator, The simulated datum plane is not a perfect, representation of the theoretically exact datum plane formed by the high points of the datum feature, but itis the best we can do in a real world set-up. FIG. 6-20 SIMULATING A DATUM FEATURE the owe 0 3 Fame © Lemos dota The Figure A portion of FIG. 6-20 shows a datum feature that does not rock. If a primary datum feature, it merely rests on the 3 highest points of contact on, for example, a surface plate, This constitutes a valid simulated Datums 99 —— su. 001 — a pe | PART AS DRAWN PART as RODUCED FUNCTIONAL GAGE. i size ase ‘The datum feature is referenced as primary and at MMC. It is, therefore, represented in a functional gage (and mating part situation) at its maximum material condition. That gage element must be a minimum of the maximum length of the datum feature (shaft). ‘The controlled feature (shaft) is represented by a gage hole element at the shaft’s virtual condition. It, too, ‘must be a minimum of the maximum length of the controlled (positioned) shaft. If itis desired that the positioned diameter be represented in the gage at its maximum material condition, then the tolerance of position must be specified as zero at MMC. Datums 107 FIG. 6-29 POSITIONAL COAXIALITY Feature Controlled at MMC; Datum Simulated RFS ‘The actual surface of the datum feature is pitted, bumped and otherwise flawed. It would generate a derived median line that is reflective of the sur- face, The derived median line would be a cloud of points and unsuitable as an origin of measurement, Therefore, the datum axis is generated as the axis of the minimum circumscribed cylinder, the smallest perfect cylinder (hole) that ‘can receive the datum feature, The minimum circumscribed cylinder touches the flawed datum feature’s high points and forms the datum axis from which ‘one measures-at the center of this perfect geometric counterpart of the imperfect surface, FIG. 6-30 PRIMARY INTERNAL DATUM WIDTH RFS Typ porta plone equa eed abort Potaest ania 108 Chapter 6 FIG. 6-31 INCLINED DATUM FEATURES \ Se orna Since the tertiary datum feature is at an angle other than 900 from the primary and secondary datum features, it is important that this angle is shown, ‘on the drawing as a basic dimension, That way, the tertiary datum plane can be simulated at 900 to the primary and secondary datum planes through the use of an appropriately-angled wedge block, Measurements are taken from the datum planes once properly established. MEANS THIS Sakon Foote Although datum planes within a datum reference frame are, by definition, ‘mutually perpendicular, the features from which these planes are established do not have to be mutually perpendicular. atums FIG. 6-32 Dari Point Contact Ya | ip 109 'UM TARGET ASSIGNMENT Line Contact Bp Li! ‘The datum target point is commonly contacted with a spherically tipped pin or the pointed end of a cone. gf ‘A datum target line is estab- lished by contacting the surface with the side of a cylindrical pin as shown. Area Designations (See next page for contact) | lon Datum target areas of any Circular areas of contact, as such as these are used, they Datum plane @ formed at 88 degrees to the primary dtu plane A 16 Chapter 6 FIG. 6-48, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY DATUM FEATURES OF SIZE 2X #.500 +.00 —- oe 000 @Jajalc] Qi4 200) 500 +£.001 >} iV T 7 oe 4x 9.250 #.005 5] 8.050 OA POEG) ematric counterpart of dtm MEANS THIS: e “upetiona ‘yh cartr St & pin that ie be 2 the Wit Sanan t Sit Tectire 8.485). oge counterport - oF atom plore A. ‘Sommon centerpane ‘Shared bythe cantare ot Gotu fectures 2 et Tr guemetic cunter= Tot Sets aes Four gage pie mate 8 Grier ase, a er ale pale Eepepenaisictr * datum exis D for loco Sen and at con en only and conta the ne for conte of ‘Station of tha four hole pote. FUNCTIONAL GAGE | Peter rotation “he im ig perpendcuar to te four pie. ore mage ot urtoce thot representa datum AvThe te Viel Condition of Batter of feotres ie measured. trom ‘a four helen hey op— Set ox D along th ea thot resent (o" 8.248). Datums ny? FIG. 6-49 DATUM TARGETS USED TO CREATE A DATUM AXIS Another method of using equalizing datum targets is to create a datum axis. Itis recommended that at least six different datum target points be used in situations similar to the example shown above. In this example, three points, are defined at one circular line element and three at another. These circular line elements should be separated by a distance sufficient to create maximum, part stability without endangering or interfering with part functionality. It is common to define the three datum target points on each circular line clement as being 120° basic from one another, and the circular line elements a Le Chapter 6 distance apart and a distance from a surface. These distances (shown in the ‘example as 350mm apart and 30mm from datum B) may be specified with surface, These distances (shown in the example as 350mm apart and 30mm from datum B) may be specified with either basic or toleranced dimensions If shown as basic (as in the example), they are toleranced by established tooling or gaging tolerances. If you are unaware that such tolerances have been established, you may wish to tolerance the dimensions on the field of the drawing or in the drawing notes. Since the 6 target points in this example establish a primary datum axis A, and therefore the location and angle at which the specified circular runout controls will be assessed, datum B is useful ‘mainly as an origin of measurement from which to establish the datum target A point locations. Section 6.4 DATUM FEATURE SYMBOLS ‘The datum feature symbol has been changed in this latest revision of ANSI Y14.5 (from the previous symbology in ANSI Y14.5M 1982) to reflect, the international practice of designation, The symbol now consists of a capital letter inside of a square and has a leader line that extends from the frame to the feature, terminating with a triangle. The triangle may be either filled in for not. AS was the case in the previous standard, the leters 1, O and Q are not used for datum features. All other letters may be used and are to be assumed as either primary, secondary or tertiary based on their appearance in the feature control frame as read from left to right, not on the letters alphabetical ‘order. When the alphabet has been exhausted, datum feature designations may begin again by using a double alpha series, such as AA, AB, BA, BB, BZ, etc., fs the user deems appropriate. The datum feature symbol may be used in more than one place on the drawing to clarify that a particular feature is, indeed, the datum feature. In these instances, the datum feature symbol need not be idemtified as reference. ‘The datum feature symbol is shown applied to the surface outline, ‘dimension line, extension line or feature control frame. For example, it may be placed on the outline of a feature surface or on an extension line of the feature outline. If it is meant to designate the one surface only as the datum feature, and not a datum feature of size, itis important in that instance (0 clearly separate the datum feature symbol from the dimension line. If meant Datums ne as a datum feature of size, the datum feature symbol can be placed on an extension of the dimension line of a size feature. This will designate that the datum generated by the datum feature of size is either a datum axis, a datum centerplane or (as is the case with a spherical feature) a datum point. For the ‘designation of a datum feature of size, the dimension line associated with the ]B.005 OJAlalc} 2) 9.500 - $05 SHAFT 51.030 OJAlplc] Calculate the worst mating boundary size of the following, Answer for (I) 270 = MMC = 35 = Geo. Tol. at MMC (.300 - 270 = .030 + 005 = 035) 0.235 = Worst Mating Boundary Answer for (2) +035 = Geo. Tol. at MMC (.505 - .500 = .005 + 030 = 035) 9.540 = Worst Mating Boundary Section 9.5 WALL THICKNESS CALCULATIONS When we use geometric definitions, we employ many formulas to protect us from problems common to the task of creating designs for parts that will always mate at assembly (if produced per print), that have built-in repeatability factors, realistic tolerances based on part function and producibility, and countless other factors, One of the most important things ‘we can do is to protect the parts we design for wall thickness/material strength between the external features on a part and the internal features (holes, slots, etc.) we design to be machined or otherwise formed into them. Minimum wall thickness between these internal and external features can now be calculated (and usually quite easily) using, in addition to other factors, the calculations in this unit and the principle behind them. We know at this stage in our quest of perfect geometric definition that we often work with "worst case” situations. Virtwal Condition and Resultant Condition Boundaries 195 We ask ourselves “What is the worst thing that could happen?", and we incorporate into our design those factors that will make that situation work (or ‘we change the "worst ease” to something we know will work). And, in doing 50, any better situations that arise in the production of our designed parts, we know also will work One of the "worst case” situations we often use is to protect the ability of parts to mate at assembly, As you know, when an MMC molifier is used we call this "worst case” concept virtual condition. We design mating features so their worst case mating boundaries are compatible; and, therefore, theoretically and statistically, we know that puts us in great shape for those features produced within these limits to virtually always mate at assembly. ‘As mentioned, another “worst case” formula centers around the concept of protecting each part independently to make certain no breakout or near breakout situations occur between extemal features and their intemal features, No matter what the material condition symbol, this concept can be used. It can help us determine if features on our parts are in danger of breakout before the partis ever put into production. To be able to use a generic term, I will refer to this as a sweep, which will reflect a worst case feature boundary for wall thickness, Ifa circled L or M is used in the feature control frame, the formulae are as follows: INTERNAL FEATURES EXTERNAL FEATURES LMC LMC + Geo. Tol applicable at LMC Geo, Tol. applicable at LMC ‘Sweep (Outer Locus) ‘Sweep (Inner Locus) Sometimes, the minimum wall thicknesses are found by simply subtracting one sweep from another and dividing by two. At other times, ‘more factors must be brought into play to determine this type of *worst case” situation. However, whatever the situation, a Tittle practice with different part designs will soon make the important factors and ways of including them in this minimum wall thickness concept easy to identify and utilize, The following example demonstrates this concept and other factors to determine ‘minimum wall thicknesses. 196 FIG. 9-21 (Sweep Example) Chapter 9 415 030 + 150 )A5[e] ° 020 25 (leo Ons hyd, |_| | Formula for hole: 28.50 ~ 20.25 8.25 b— 200 #1.3-—> Pe Le 20.00 + Tol. ot LMC +_ 25 ‘Sweep 20.25 Le = Tol, ot LMC ‘Sweep 8.25 divided by 2=4.125 Minimum Woll Thickness Virtual Condition and Resultant Condition Boundaries 197 FIG. 9-22 DISPLACEMENT Does displacement of the feature pattern allowed because of the circled M used after datum feature D endanger wall thickness to the O.D. of the part for this pattern controlled to the center datum feature of size? Explain your answer and calculate the minimum wall thickness of the 4 holes to the OD. of, the part, x 9370-375 Aw) Answer: Minimum wall calculation begins LMC 4.990 -Tol_a LMC Minimum Boundary Swept = Because the 4 holes and the 4.990 - 5.000 O.D. are controlled to the same datums in the same order of precedence, they are considered one pattern; therefore, as D departs from MMC, they may shift-but all must shift in the same direction. So, if they all shift in the same direction, their relationship (0 ‘one another does not change. Therefore, the thickness between the two is not further endangered. 198 Chapter 9 4,950 = Boundary Swept by Shaft 375 = LMC 1.600 = Bolt Square +035 = Tol. at LMC 14142 = Square Root of 2 410 = Maximum Area 2.26272 = Diagonal of Square ‘Swept (Hole) = Outer Locus (Bolt Circley 4.950 = Sweep Boundary (Min) = Inner Locus 2.263 = Diagonal of Square (Bolt Circle) 2.687 -410 2277 sweep Boundary of the Shaft without the Bolt Circle ‘weep Boundary of the Hole (Max,) = Outer Locus ‘otal Material 2.277 divided by 2 = 1.1385 Minimum Wall Thickness FIG. 9-23, DISPLACEMENT #4.990-5.000 [eon @ls Virtual Condition and Resultant Condition Boundaries 199. EXAMPLE PROBLEM: Is displacement a factor in minimum wall thickness of the 4-hole pattern to the O.D. of the part? Explain and calculate ‘minimum wall thickness of the 4 holes to the O.D. of the par. Answer: Yes 4.990 = LMC of 0. D. 375 = LMC of Holes +1035 = Geo. Tol. at LMC Resultant Condition of O.D. 410 = Resultant Condition of Holes 4950 1.600 = Bolt Hole Square x 14142 = Square Root of 2 2.263 = Diagonal of Square (Diameter of Bolt Hole Circle) 4.950 = Resultant Condition of O.D. ~ 2.263 = Diameter of Bolt Hole Ciscle - 400 = Displacement (Pattern Shift Allowed) 1.477 = Total Material from D at Its As-Produced Location, 1.477 divided by 2 = .7385 minimum wall thickness of 4-hole pattern to O. D. of the part (datum feature B) Logic of adding displacement to 4 holes as a pattern: 1, As the datum feature of size departs from MMC, the pattern controlled 10 it may shift with the datum feature axis from the datum axis a like amount (one for one). 2. If Dis related to B and the 4 holes are related to D, then the 4 holes as a pattem are related to B to within the sum of their relationship to D and D's relationship to B. 200 Chapter 9 FIG. 9-24 USING DISPLACEMENT IN CALCULATING MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS: oxo 360 [2.030 [ap @le} item f Zee EXAMPLE PROBLEM: What is the minimum wall thickness of the hole pattern to datum feature C? Answer: Resultant Condition of Holes Ton, 2 = app. +£:130.= Allowed Movement of feature D at LMC 10 C adj +.120-= Displacement Pattem Shift Allowed from D alts As-Produced Location Tan, 1/20= 5 $70 = Resultant Condition with Movement of D from: 900 C and Pattern from D 00873 = {900 (00873) = 007857 = x 510 divided by 2 = .285 = Half Hole with All Movement One Way 1.000 = Basic Dimension 285 = Effective w: "715 = Basic Dimension - Effective Half Hole ~ 008 = Perpendicularty of Feature C .707 = Minimum Wall Thickness, unless datum feature C is allowed to be out-of-lat more than the .008 allowed out-of-perpendicularity. Any Virtual Condition and Resultant Condition Boundaries 201 extreme out-of-flatness experienced by datum feature C will reduce the ‘minimum possible wall thickness by that amount from the .780. In that case, the 008 would not be a factor. FIG. 9-25 CALCULATING MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS “Angular Tolerance Infringes on Basic Dimension toward Hole j= wwe po wc Ir in the figure above, it has been determined thatthe out-of-perpendiculaity control allowed most endangers wall thickness, the angular tolerance is used ‘when doing wall thickness calculations. LMC is not a factor in that corner because of the basic dimension; but, ifthe allowed out-of flatness ofthe datum feature caused by the difference between MMC and LMC (ora large enough direct flatness control) exceeded the allowed out-of-perpendicularity of the Palas a van 240 = LMC Hole Tolerance at LMC "280 = Boundary Swept by Hole 8. 280 divided by 2 = .140 = Half-Boundary 9. 391 140 "251 Minimum Wall Thickness ANSWER TO FIG. 9-27 - MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS (Plus or Minus Angles) 1 Ton 2 = opp. ad 2. Tan30= x 106 3. Osa = x Tr 106 4. 0555546 = x 5. 056 = x rounded off 6 48 = Le a 8 } shea mesa 25 a vu LMC Hole Tolerance at LMC ‘280 = Boundary Swept by Hole 8. 280 divided by 2 = .140 = Half Boundary 9. 439 ~ 80 °299 Minimum Wall Thickness Virtwal Condition and Resultant Condition Boundartes 205 Minimum Airspace versus Maximum Wall Thickness In situations such as the mating part designs in FIGS. 15-30 and 15-34, it is possible to double check your dimensions and tolerances. If the minimum. airspace between pin surfaces and cavity walls are equal to or larger than the ‘maximum wall thickness of their respective holes to the outside surfaces of the ‘mating part, no interference will occur between those surfaces. For the example, see Page 423 (FIG. 15-30), 1.635 = MMC + 168 = Tolerance at MMC '803 = Viral Condition of Pins 2. Half of 803 = 4015 3. 910 = Shortest Pin Axis Distance to Cavity Wall 4.9700 4015s ‘5685 = Minimum Airspace Between Pin Surface and Cavity Wall For the example, see Page 426 (FIG. 15-34), (671 = Smallest Hole (MMC and Virtual Condition) Half of 677 = 3385 907 = Maximum Distance of Hole Axis to Outside of Part 9070 3385 ‘5685 = Maximum Wall Thickness of Hole Surface to Outside of Part Minimum airspace, Page 423 = 5685 Maximum wall thickness for mating part design, Page 426= S685 No Interference Chapter 10 DATUM FEATURE OF SIZE REPRESENTATION Section 10.1 MODES OF DATUM FEATURE REPRESENTATION When datum reference frames used to locate features on a part are changed from feature-to-feature or pattern-to-pattern, an accumulation of toler- ance is experienced. Each feature is indirectly related back to the first origin of measurement and orientation through a series of other features--each of ‘which has been allowed its own error of location and/or orientation. The effect of this is a difficulty in part assembly unless each feature mates with a separate component not affixed to the component that mates with the previous feature. If the change of datum reference frames is kept to a minimum, the accumulation of tolerances between the first origin of measurement and subse- {quent features on the partis kept to a minimum. No changes quite often means parts can assemble with their single datum reference frames aligned. One change in location datum reference frames may mean that {wo parts may assemble with all internal features allowed to mate, but one of the wo datum reference frames on each part may not be able to be brought into alignment Unless controlled with straightness of a derived median line or plane, if a datum feature of size is referenced as primary and modified at MMC, it will be represented at its MMC size. Any departure from its MMC size allows a shift of any pattern of features referenced to it a total amount equal to that departure (or one-half that amount radially). If a datum feature of size is referenced as secondary or tertiary and modified at MMC, represented at its virtual condition size. Any departure from condition boundary allows a shift of any pattern of features referenced to it a {otal amount equal to that departure (or one-half that amount radially) If a datum feature of size is referenced in a positional control as secondary and modified at MMC, but has a refinement of orientation of its ‘own to the same primary datum used by the pattern controlled to it (such as a perpendicularity refinement), it is represented at the virtual condition size ‘generated by the orientation refinement. 206 Datum Feature of Size Representation 207 Any departure from that virtual condition boundary allows a shift of any pattern of features referenced to it @ total amount equal to that departure, The size at which these datum features are represented in the statements above are the sizes functional gages are dimensioned at to represent these datum features when inspecting the patterns of features controlled to them, These are also the sizes that should be taken into consideration when dimensioning mating features meant to simultaneously mate with these datum features of size and the patterns of features controlled to them. Ifa cylindrical datum feature of size is referenced at RFS, if primary and ‘an internal feature, it is represented by its maximum inscribed cylinder. If primary and an external feature, it is represented by its minimum circumscribed cylinder. If secondary (to an orientation datum) and internal, it is represented by its maximum inscribed cylinder that is perfectly oriented to the primary datum. If secondary (to an orientation datum) and external, itis represented by its minimum circumscribed cylinder that is perfectly oriented to the primary datum. If referenced at RFS, as the datum feature changes in size, no additional movement (pattern shift) of the patterns of features controlled to itis experienced Just as if datum feature D in FIG. 10-1 was referenced as a primary instead of a secondary datum feature, datum feature D applies at its MMC. In 4 functional gage, datum feature D would be represented at MMC (.750) when gaging the 4-hole pattern controlled to it because it has a virtual condition of its own of 9.750 (MMC) - .000 (positional geometric tolerance) = 9,750 virtual condition. If datum feature D is made within size limits, as it departs from MMC to LMC, the 4 holes in the pattern receive an additional allowed shift as a unit of their axes from the datum feature axis, In actuality, what has happened is that the datum feature axis has been allowed to depart in its position from the datum axis, thus allowing the 4-hole pattern as a group 10 radially shift from it an amount equal to one-half the datum feature's size departure from MMC, ‘An interesting factor that might interfere with this allowed shift is the orientation of the datum feature. If the datum D size feature departs from MMC, for example @.002, but at the same time is out-of-perpendicularity 10 datum A 9.002, the allowed shift of the datum feature axis from the datum D axis is nullified. An allowed shift may occur only if the departure from MMC Of the datum D hole is greater than its actual out-of-perpendicularity to datum A. The allowed shift is then equal to the difference between the datum feature of size’s (D) departure from MMC (within its size limits) and its out-of- 208 Chapter 10 perpendicularity to datum plane A. Datum B is for clocking (stopping rotation) of the hole pattern. It is used to orient the three datum plane system already invoked by datums A and D. Specifically, it is for angular orientation of the two planes crossing at the axis of D. FIG. 10-1 DATUM FEATURE OF SIZE REPRESENTATION [e010 OF PSE] + a 2.000 £.010 4.750 #006} + {55+} Lame — Glo 20 Oss) @ In FIG. 10-2, although datum feature D is referenced at MMC in the 4- hole pattern’s feature control frame, the fact that it has a feature control frame of its own stating position to datums A, B and C means that (when checking the 4-hole pattern's position to datum D) it will be represented at its virtual condition (.720). In FIG. 10-2, the datum feature axis may depart from the datum axis as the darum feature departs from MMC. Since datum feature D is represented for the 4-hole pattern at its virtual condition of .720 (in, for example, a functional gage), should the produced Datum Feature of Size Representation 209 hole be made perfectly perpendicular to datum A, an extra allowed shift of 015 radially or a diameter of .030 (.750 MMC - .720 Virtual condition) is realized, in addition to taking the shift allowed by the datum feature’s departure from MMC into consideration, Of course, any departure from perfect perpendicularity results in an equal loss of shift (a portion of the 9.030). A maximum shift ofthe datum feature axis to the datum axis would be allowed when the datum feature is perfectly perpendicular to datum A and made at the LMC of 0.760. ‘The allowed shift would be a diameter of .040 or 020 radially. Of couse, as a result, the 4-hole pattern as a group would be allowed to shift inthe same direction an equal amount FIG. 10-2 2.000 +.010 In FIG. 10-3, when representing D to check the 4-hole pattern's location to it, D applies at its virtual condition. But, as we can see, datum feature D thas two virtual conditions--one for its location (position) .720 and another for its orientation (perpendicularity) 740, In instances such as these, since 210 Chapter 10 the four holes also have datum A as primary, the .740 figure (the virtual condition calculated using the attitude refinement) is used when checking the location of the hole pattern to the datum axis. FIG. 10-3 sx 0.375-.380 wo4.750 2.006 |e (Sis sw OR Ey race In FIG. 10-4, if the form feature control frame for datum feature D was given a form surface control such as roundness or cylindricity or even straightness of the surface, then when checking the 4-hole pattern to it, the datum feature of size would be represented at its MMC size of .750--since this form control is contained within the size envelope (not additive) If a datum feature of size is referenced in a feature control frame such as in the four examples given, but instead of being referenced at MMC [G]F.010 @JA]O @]B) | itis referenced at RFS, for example, d/Z.T10@)A]O SG] Datum Feature of Size Representation 21 the datum feature (a hole) is to be represented at the size of the maximum inscribed cylinder or the largest diameter pin that can be fit into the full depth of the hole. A datum feature shaft RFS is represented by the minimum circumscribed cylinder. FIG. 10-4 2.000 £.010 In both cases, the size of the minimum circumscribed cylinder oF ‘maximum inscribed cylinder (inthe examples where a perpendicularty datum feature is used to establish a primary datum plane for the hole patterns), the cylinder sizes are determined while they are perfectly perpendicular to the primary datum plane. In other words, no matter what the orientation of the datum size feature (within its limits), for example, the minimum circumscribed cylinder for a shaft must fit down over the leaning datum feature while the cylinder itself is perfectly perpendicular to the primary datum plane. Its size willbe the sum of the actual datum feature size and the amount that datum feature is actually out-of perpendicularity to the primary datum plane. It can be thought of as the minimum circumscribed cylinder that is perfectly perpendicular tothe primary datum plane 2n Chapter 10 {In the same type situation, but for the case of a datum feature hole, the ‘maximum inscribed cylinder would have a size equal to the difference between the actual datum feature size and the amount that datum feature is actually out- of-perpendicularity to the primary datum plane. It can be thought of as the ‘maximum inscribed cylinder that is perfectly perpendicular to the primary datum plane. ction 10.2 ANGULAR ORIENTATION ‘A line is the result of the intersection of two planes in space. An axis is the result of this intersection of planes crossing at a 900 angle to one another. With an axis, the two planes which maintain their 900 orientation to one another may spin unless clocked by an auxiliary angular orientation datum. ‘When positioning a feature of size to a datum axis and only one datum axis is necessary to locate the feature of size, any additional datum features included in the feature control frame will be for orientation One of the orientation datums may be for perpendicularity. This is usually used as a primary datum feature. If the secondary datum feature forms a datum axis, any tertiary datum feature forms an auxiliary datum plane (or planes) and is used only to clock the two datum planes crossing at the axis Of the location datum. This angular orientation datum may be either a plane for another axis. If a planar surface is used as an angular orientation datum feature, it will stop the hole pattern rotation to the plane formed by at least a 2 high point contact on that angular orientation datum feature. In the case ofa tertiary datum feature of size which creates an auxiliary datum centerplane or axis (the intersection of two planes 900 to one another), it is used for orientation of the planes crossing at the axis of the location datum, Therefore, this auxiliary datum is represented at an appropriate size (MMC, RFS or virtual condition) and at an appropriate orientation. Sometimes, it is desirable to include features of different sizes in the same control to identify them as one pattern. Occasionally, an additional feature or features of size are controlled to the same datums in the same order of precedence by basic dimensions and with the same material condition (modifier) used after any datum features of size included as the other features being located. In this instance, the additional feature(s) would not only be represented at an appropriate size and orientation but also in a specific position Datum Feature of Size Representation 23 and included in the same representation as the other features controlled under those same conditions. They are considered a simultaneous gaging requirement. ‘A datum reference frame is composed of three mutually perpendicular planes from which features are orientated and measured. 2x #.250-.260 9.030 @[A[C@)o @] ‘A hole or shoft hole of shaft In the above situation, datum C is used to position the features from, and. datum D is theoretically used to clock the planes crossing at C’s axis. A compound datum is sometimes suitable for use from which to locate (Position) and clock (angularly/orient) other features. For example: FIG. 10-5 2x #.250-,260 G]s.050 OPO-0B) A hole {In analyzing this control, one may think in terms of functional gaging and the concept of a pattern of features designated as a datum pattern using the centroid of rotation of the pattern formed (with each feature represented at 28 Chapter 10 virtual condition) acting as the origin of measurement, The individual datum axes reside atthe true position of each hole. These are the axes ofthe virtual condition boundary cylinders, The 2-hole pattern constructs the secondary and tertiary datum planes. With the datum pattern referenced at MMC, the axis of the patter of the two 0.250 - 260 holes may depart from the axis of the datum reference frame as the datum features (within the datum pattern) depart from their virtual condition. A gage can be constructed to measure such a situation If datum axes C and D are shown on the drawing a basic dimension (di tance) apart, the gage would merely represent them at their virtual conditions with their axes the basic dimensional distance apart, The measurements for features controlled to them would be taken from the common plane formed from axis C to axis D one way and a plane formed half way between C and D (one-half the basic dimension they are supposed to be apart the other way. FIG. 10-6 an | dal wd & 2X #.250-.260 (O]e0 Oh EG-0G] Datum Feature of Size Representation 21s ‘The functional gage for checking position from a compound datum could be similar to the gage to check 2X_9.250-.260 [G]Z.030 @]AJC@]OG] bur the procedure for using the gages would differ in theory. In the gage checking features from the 2X_9.250-.260 [B]F.030 @]A|C@]O G] the representation of D would only be a datum to prevent rotation of the controlled pattern of holes: therefore, the part would first be oriented to A and the holes located from the gage pin representing C, Then the part would swing around to take its angular orientation (clocking) from the gage pin representing D. In the compound datum control of 2X_9.250-.260 [S]D.030@JA|C@-D@] both C and D are used simultaneously to create the datum planes from which to position the controlled features. It is ‘often more time consuming when checking position from the compound datum C® - D@ without a functional gage or the simulation of such a gage through the use of optical overlays for optical comparators or appropriate CMM software (gaging) programs. Since C and D are not produced the basic dimension apart, a center datum plane halfway between the two can be established mechanically from which to measure, This is certainly within the capabilities of most inspection departments if only 2 datum holes are used. Compound datums are commonly used where both datum features are coaxial features of size or coplanar planar surfaces. FIG. 10-7 is a more complete version of the partially complete drawings ‘on the two previous pages. This gives datum features C and D a positional Control to the outside of the part 216 FIG. 10-7 og [i ete) ee 4 (209) | Ty 278 ep tl y 2x 8.250~,260 [2.030 @fa]e@-0@) option 1 2x 0.250-260 ction 2 G00 GAGS) TOLERANCES: Unless Otherwise Specified ’ = 2.02 Dox = #005. ox = £0002 In FIG, 10-8 (Example 1), tertiary datum feature of size has been chosen as a cylindrical hole, This datum feature of size is to be used as an angular orientation datum feature (MMC concept). It will generate an axis consisting of two intersecting planes. One of these planes will run parallel to a plane in the axis of the secondary datum feature of size (the B hole), but offset from it by 6mm. In the other direction, the remaining plane of the tertiary datum feature of size's axis is parallel to a plane in the axis of the secondary datum feature of size, but offset from it by the basic dimension of 110mm shown, FIG. 10-8 4x 95 20.1 (G[ecOhFOES) TERTIARY DATUM FEATURES OF SIZE Example 1 owmmoseidey 028 fo 2umv0q wnyoq ae 28 Chapter 10 Ideally in FIG. 10-8, this tertiary datum feature of size will be represented by its virtual condition size. This plane will be used to orient the measurements of all features positioned of profiled from these datums in the order shown on this drawing. Features are measured perpendicular to datum plane A, from datum axis B for distance, while oriented to the planes of, datum axis C (that are parallel to their respective planes that construct datum axis B). In open set-up fixturing, this can be roughly simulated by mounting the part on an angle plate that seats against datum feature A. The angle plate rests on a surface plate Secondary datum axis B is now parallel to the surface plate. A gage pin ‘an be inserted into datum feature B in such a fashion that makes it represent the viral condition size for that hole while the gage pin is perfectly perpendicular to datum plane A (now represented by the angle plate). The height of the axis of this gage pin from the surface plate is recorded. A similar procedure is performed on datum feature C in that the virtual condition size gage pin is inserted into it perfectly perpendicular to datum plane A and the basic 110mm distance from the axis of the gage pin in datum feature B. (Remember, that at this point in the inspection procedure. the positional and size requirements of datum feature C have already been verified as in compliance) Now, an appropriate gage block height is selected that will set the height of the axis of the gage pin in datum feature C at 6mm lower than that of the gage pin representing datum axis B from the surface plate. At this point in the inspection procedure, the datum plane that runs through the axis of datum C that is parallel to one of the datum planes that construct datum axis B is also parallel to the surface plate on which the gage block(s) rest. All ‘measurements taken from this datum reference frame as set are taken perpendicular to datum plane A. measured for distance from datum axis B and ‘are measured parallel or perpendicular (as appropriate) from the datum plane constructed by datum feature C’s axis (which can now be thought of as the surface plate itself) Bonus tolerances and pattern shifts are not always needed to allow a part to comply with its geometric tolerances, but in cases where zero tolerancing at MMC is used (or in cases where the original geometric tolerances assigned are ‘not sufficient to allow parts to pass inspection), these additional geometric tolerances will be needed. Bonus tolerances and pattern shifts have not been discussed in this set-up procedure and should be considered before any parts are rejected. Shifting the part around on the stationary gage pins in datum Datum Feature of Size Representation 209 features B and C, then rechecking all controlled features until an orientation and location of the part allows them to pass inspection or until itis determined that no such orientation and location exists within these confines. will acknowledge allowable pattern shifts. 220 Chapter 10 Jn Example 2, a tertiary datum feature of size has been chosen as (wo sides of an elongated hole (MMC concept). This datum feature of size is to be used as an angular orientation datum feature. It will generate a centerplane ‘This centerplane will run parallel to a plane in the axis of the secondary datum feature of size (the B hole), but offset from it by 6mm, This plane will be used to orient the measurements of all features positioned or profiled from these datums in the order shown on this drawing. Features are measured perpendicular to datum plane A, from the axis B for distance, while oriented to the centerplane of the true geometric counterpart of datum feature C. Ideally, this tertiary datum feature of size will be represented at its virtual condition size. In open set-up fixturing, this can be roughly simulated by mounting the part on an angle plate that seats against datum feature A. The angle plate rests on a surface plate. Secondary datum axis B is now parallel to the surface plate. A gage pin can be inserted into datum feature B in such a fashion that makes it the virtual condition size for that hole while the gage pin is perfectly perpendicular to datum plane A (now represented by the angle plate). ‘The height of the axis of this gage pin from the surface plate is recorded. {A similar procedure is performed on datum feature C in thatthe virtual condition size gage block width, while parallel tothe surface plate and 6mm from datum axis B, is inserted into C and fixed in place on the angle plate. At this point in the inspection procedure, the datum plane that runs through the centerplane ofthe gage block that represents datum feature C is parallel to one of the datum planes that constructs datum axis B and both are parallel to the surface plate. All measurements taken from this datum reference frame as set ane taken perpendicular to datum plane A, measured for distance from datum axis B and are measured parallel or perpendicular (as appropriate) from the datum plane constructed by tertiary datum feature C's centerplane as represented by the gage block's centerplane (which can now be thought of as the surface plate itself). As stated in Example 1, any bonus tolerances or pattern shifts needed to allow the part to pass inspection must be determined and assigned as allowed by appropriate controlled feature and datum feature departure from MMC (or virtual condition MMC concept). Chapter 11 FORM CONTROLS ‘There are four form characteristics. They are flatness, straightness circularity and cylindricity. All controlled features are individual and are not related to datums. They are assessed by comparison to a perfect geometric ‘counterpart of themselves (a feature formed perfectly flat. straight, circular [round] or cylindrical). Before these geometric characteristic tolerances are assessed for compliance, each controlled feature must conform to its limits of size, Except for controls such as straightness of the derived median line and straightness of the derived median plane, unless otherwise specified. each controlled feature must not violate the envelope of perfect form at maximum ‘material condition and must not exceed the LMC requirement of size at every two opposing points (the cross-sectional requirement) Once the feature has been checked and accepted for compliance with size requirements, it can then be considered for compliance with a form characteristic as required by any given feature control frame, As has been stated in prior units, Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified, size limits ‘control the surface form. This is true until a form control, as mentioned here. takes over the task of controlling the allowed deviation from perfect form Surface form controls refine the control given in the limits of size. Straightness of the derived median line and straightness of the derived median plane at times refine and at other times loosen the control of form normally imposed by the limits of size of a feature. Some features are simply not controlled by size limits for their form at all, so if they are to be controlled they must rely on some additional requirement such as one of the form geometric characteristics to limit their deviations from perfect form. Surface form controls require all elements of the controlled surface or the controlled portion ofa surface to reside within the tolerance zone. The toler- ance zone for flatness is the distance between two parallel planes, for circu- larityis the distance between two coaxial circles, for cylindricity i the distance between wo coaxial cylinders and for surface straightness is the distance between two parallel lines, Just as circularity has a separate tolerance zone for each circular line element that comprises the surface, straightness ofthe surface has 4 separate tolerance zone for each nominally straight line element ofthe sur face, Each line element ofthe surface must reside within its own tolerance zone 2 22 Chapter 11 Straightness of the derived median line begins with a tolerance zone cylindrical in shape, but if a growth in the tolerance zone is allowed by virtue of the material condition symbol used in the feature control frame, the zone grows at different rates, as the local diameter grows or shrinks locally. Straightness of the derived median plane begins with a tolerance zone that consists of two parallel planes, but if a growth in the tolerance zone is allowed by virtue of the material condition symbol used in the feature contro! frame, the zone grows at different rates. as the local size of the controlled feature rows or shrinks locally. Surface form controls allow no maximum or least material condition ‘modifiers to be used in the feature control frame, no diameter symbols (since they are not axial controls with cylindrical tolerance zones), and as stated. no datum features. Surface form controls, on the other hand, are often used to ccontrol the shape of features that will be used as datum features (especially primary datum features) For more specific definitions of flatness, straightness, circularity and cylindricity see the definitions section of this text. For more information regarding specific form controls see the subsequent sections on flatness, straightness, circularity and cylindricity. Concepts on free state variation have ‘been included in the form unit because of the effect of free state variation on the form of a feature Section 11.1 FLATNESS Flatness is a surface form control. A perfectly flat surface is defined as having all its clements in the same plane, Flatness feature control frames ‘create a tolerance zone not related to any datums. The tolerance zone consists of the distance between two parallel planes. All elements of the produced feature under control must lie within the tolerance zone, This control is commonly used on planar surfaces to be used as primary datum features. It is, useful in achieving surfaces capable of resting on mating planar surfaces without significant rocking. It is also used to limit pitting, bumping and bowing of a surface. The control is usually limited to a flatness symbol and a geometric tolerance, although if used on a rate basis the control may contain two tiers evels of control), The upper tier contains the usual overall surface control Form Controls 223 while the lower tier contains a tighter tolerance to be held over limited portions of the surface. For example, if one is concerned about abrupt surface variations within 9 relatively small ara, it may be specified thatthe out-of- fatness allowed per 25 x 25mm square is smaller than the overall surface flatness tolerance. For example 0.4 0.1/25x25| 7} ‘This type of control is discussed again later in this text. ‘The regular flatness control looks like this: [2].001] which means the entire surface of the controlled feature must lie within a total wide tolerance zone which is the .001 distance between two parallel planes. Size requirements are separately verifiable and must be met. The flatness tolerance is most often merely a refinement of the form control given by the size requirements of an object (under Rule #1). Therefore, on rigid objects, the tolerance given in the feature control frame for a single planar surface must be less than that tolerance given for feature sizes that involve that single surface in combination with an opposing surface Flatness is a geometric control in which part surface (feature) is compared to a perfectly flat geometric counterpart of itself. A part surface is real therefore, it has flaws--ridges, grooves, pits, bumps, etc. Since a feature cannot be flat to something else, as in parallelism or perpendicularity of one feature to another, no datums are proper or allowed in the feature control frame. So, we check the surface to see how much irregularity an indicator registers when it is run across that surface. Since we are not checking for parallelism, we may not get an accurate reading if we simply set the part down om its opposing surface when running the indicator over the controlled surface and reject the part on that basis (although it could be accepted on that basis). ‘Therefore, at times, we must look into other ways of setting up the part. We could, for instance, use three jackscrews set on top of a surface plate and at the same time underneath the part. The jacks could be adjusted until the top surface (controlled surface) is parallel to the surface plate top (see FIG 11-2 and FIG. 11-3). Once the controlled surface is as level (parallel) as Possible, an indicator on a height gage or surface gage (which sits on and runs across the top of the surface plate) is put in contact with the controlled surface and pulled along--registering surface deviations. The deviations registered ‘must be smaller than or equal to the tolerance in the feature control frame 224 Chapter 11 Another alternative for registering flatness deviations is to set the controlled surface in contact with a surface plate that is equipped with a plunger-type indicator protruding from its surface and move the part over the indicator point, noting the full indicator movement (see FIG. 11-2). Since this type of set-up is rare, an option is to put parallels on the surface plate and put the controlled surface on the parallels. Then, with the height gage and the indicator, indicate the controlled surface for deviations in flatness. ‘The tolerance zone is to be considered the distance between two parallel planes. Consequently, all elements of the controlled surface must be between ‘wo parallel planes which are the distance apart reflected by the tolerance in the feature control frame. ‘The surface being controlled is not a feature of size, so no material condition symbols (modifiers) are to be used. The flatness tolerance is not additive to the size of the opposing sides of the part-which is a feature of size, Unless otherwise specified, an envelope of perfect form at MMC is required. Consequently, the part is checked for size using the envelope system for MMC. LMC is checked at every cross section for two opposing point ‘measurements. Once the size limits are verified in this manner, then the flatness requirement is checked. This guarantees the flatness tolerance is contained within the part's size limits. ‘As mentioned, flatness may be applied on a rate or unit basis. This is done to prevent abrupt variations in the surface within a relatively small area ‘When using this method, a total control should be used in conjunction with the unit control. The size and shape of the area being controlled should be made clear, For example: 008 :002/1.000 X 1.000] C7 In this type of control, the orientation of the portions of the surface complying ‘with the ,002/1.000 x 1.000 control may differ from the .008 overall surface ‘measuring orientation, but all elements of the surface must also lie within the (008 tolerance zone Any feature being controlled for flatness may be (and often is) a datum feature Example: [£7,002 Correct ‘but must not be related to a datum, Form Controls 225 evan: _ SABRE incorrect ‘*Flatness is used as a refinement of the form control imposed by size limits on the part (size limits control form). Consequently, the flatness tolerance must be smaller than the size tolerance, The flatness feature control frame is to be shown in a view where the controlled surface is a straight line. It is shown with a Ieader line to the surface or with an extension line off the surface In FIG. 11-1, the limits of size control the flatness, straightness and parallelism of the opposing surfaces to within .010 (1.250 minus 1.240) However, it has been decided that the one surface, perhaps because itis a seat- ing surface in the assembly, must be flatter than 010. ‘Therefore, a refinement of the flatness given by size limits has been used. This direct, flatness control makes the surface acceptable only if all elements of the surface reside within a tolerance zone consisting of two parallel planes .002 apart ‘These planes may take om any angle or location that will allow the surface to comply. It prevents any pits deeper than .002, any bumps taller than .002, and. ‘any uniform curvature of the surface that exceed the .002 tolerance zone However, as the size of the part approaches 1.250 (MMC), the surface must be flatter and flatter, until, if the part uniformly measures 1.250 (MMC), the ‘opposing surfaces are perfectly flat, straight and parallel (perfect form at MMC). *{Note: This statement excludes the situation where the general note "Perfect form at MMC not required” is added. 226 FIG. 11-1 Chapter 11 1.250 1.240 = 228 Chapter 11 FIG. 11-3 FLATNESS - Verification Techniques oor] ‘SURFACE PLATE Form Controls 229 Section 11.2 STRAIGHTNESS A Versatile Form Control Straightness is a form control that may be used as a surface, derived ‘median line or derived median plane control If used as a surface control, any deviations from a perfectly straight surface must be contained within the feature’s MMC limits of size. The tolerance in the feature control frame is not, for example, additive to the MMC limit of size for a shaft. Surface straightness controls are usually simple in composition using only a straightness symbol and a geometric tolerance. No MMC symbol, diameter sign or datum features are used or appropriate in the control. Surfaces inspected for compliance must be optimally oriented to eliminate the inclusion of out-of-paralelism of any full indicator movement. If a computerized Coordinate Measuring Machine is used when probing the surface, computer analysis must be assisted with enough reference points to input to give a representative simulation of the surface line elements under test If straightness is used as a derived median line or derived median plane control, whether specified at MMC or RFS, the MMC envelope is eliminated ‘and the feature may be out-of-straight beyond an envelope of perfect form at MMC by the amount given in the control. This creates a new boundary that is termed virtual condition if an MMC symbol is included in the feature control frame, This boundary is often used to determine what sizes and geometric controls to use on mating features. With derived median line straightness a diameter sign is included in the control to signify that the tolerance zone is not only about the derived median line but begins as cylindrical in shape. If derived median plane straightness is used, no diameter sign is included in the control, Either derived median line or derived median plane straightness may use the MMC symbol if functional RES is implied under Rule #2 if no other material condition symbol is specified. Inspection analyses are often assisted by feature axis or center~ plane stabilization and differential measurements. Opposing surfaces may be barreled or waisted in form without altering the straightness of the derived median line or derived median plane, In FIG. 11-4, each of the infinite number of line elements that comprise this surface in the direction shown is controlled by its own tolerance zone, Each tolerance zone consists of two parallel lines .003 apart and begins at the 230 Chapter 11 FIG. 11-4 STRAIGHTNESS: a 1.250.030 ‘bumber one ment tat Sarace i the direction shown, Esch ine dement & controled indviualy 9y th, Straighten ofthe race cont ‘optimum location and angle that will allow it to contain the line element that it controls, Each tolerance zone is oriented by the view in which it is shown and all tolerance zones apply only to line elements that run parallel to that view. ‘This control does not apply to the line elements running 900 to the view in which the straightness of the surface control is shown, At no time may the surface of the part exceed its size limit requirements. This straightness of the surface contro! does not change the requirements of size. It is a separately verifiable requirement of form. Form Controls 2 ‘Straightness is an individual control (unrelated). Therefore, no datums are allowable in the feature control frame. For example: = A This is incorrect. ‘That is not to say the controlled feature cannot construct a datum to which other features are controlled. For example: —T-002 This is correct. Al I can be two distinctly different controls: 1) a surface control or 2) a control of derived median planes or derived median lines. In both types of control, the feature control frame will appear in a view where the controlled surfaces appear as a straight line. 1) When used as a surface control, for example, for a planar surface (see FIG. 11-5), the tolerance zone is considered the distance between two parallel lines. The lines are accepted as perfectly straight and a distance ‘part equal to the tolerance in the feature control frame. Each line element of the considered surface must lie between two parallel lines, which are the allowed tolerance apart shown in the feature control frame. ‘These controlled line elements are inspected in the same plane represented in the view showing the control. In the case of surface straightness of a cylindrical feature, each longitudinal element of the controlled surface must lie between two parallel lines which are the allowed geometric (olerance apart and ina plane common to the nominal axis ofthe feature {As seen in FIG. 11-5, unless otherwise specified, for any part controlled with surface straightness, the envelope of perfect form at MMC must be preserved, So, where the partis produced at its MMC limit, the straightness tolerance must not extend above that point it is not additive to the MMC size) However, it may have its full straightness tolerance within the confines of that MMC envelope (below the MMC size). Least material condition must not be violated at any cross section 232 Chapter 11 FIG. 11-5 AN EXAMPLE OF STRAIGHTNESS OF LINE ELEMENTS OF A PLANAR SURFACE a For exomle: rowing Fight Front View ae ee Grection etn Sot indicator Front View —— Q-=2 Fight ‘Se Since this control is a refinement of the form control imposed by the size limits, it must have a straightness tolerance which is less than the size tolerance in order to have meaning. No material condition symbols (modifiers) are allowable since the geometric tolerance of straightness is not related to, nor additive to, the size. This means no bonus tolerance can be drawn from the size as the part deviates from MMC. Since the envelope of perfect form at MMC cannot be violated, no virtual condition or resultant condition is created by this geometric surface control For straightness of the surface of a cone and its verification techniques, see FIG. 11-6. It shows a straightness control applied to line elements of a surface. It applies independently to each line element in the view shown, The tolerance zones consist of two parallel lines 0.1 apart within which each poi fon the line under test must reside, Each line element of the surface has its own tolerance zone and is independently verifiable. Form Controls 233 FIG. 11-6 STRAIGHTNESS OF LINE ELEMENTS OF ACONICAL SURFACE (A ~ Face sreoRr X= sowsane surat ‘The inspection set-up shown consists of one center, one fixed support and ‘one adjustable support. The supports are set to allow the line element being inspected to be as parallel as possible to the surface plate/test table. A dial indicator held on a stand traverses the line under test while the stand slides along on top of the surface plate. The full indicator movement may not exceed 0.1 for each line inspected. This straightness control limits the pitting, ‘bumping and curving of each line element of the surface in the view shown. ‘The tolerance zones for straightness of any one surface are infinite. Each line element of the surface must, independent of all other line elements, lie 234 Chapter 11 within its own tolerance zone which consists of two parallel lines. The surface may be readjusted for the inspection of each line element to optimize the procedure and minimize the full indicator movement for that individual line element. Once a line clement has been inspected and accepted (with the part stationary and the indicator moving longitudinally over it), the part is rotated and another line element is inspected in the same way. This continues ntl all line elements are inspected and accepted, or a bad one is found, or more realistically (if none are found to be out-of-tolerance), until the inspector is assured that had all line elements been inspected, all would have been accepted 2) When used as a control of derived median planes or derived median lines for features of size, the shape of the tolerance zone is distinctly different than when used as a surface control. When used as a straightness of a derived median plane or derived median line, whether RFS or MMC, the feature control frame is associated with the size usually by placing it under the feature size. In tis instance, an extension of the dimension ine leads to the size dimension. No separate line is used to refer the feature control frame back to the controlled feature, Straightness of a Derived Median Line FIG. 11-7 EXAMPLE OF STRAIGHTNESS OF ‘A DERIVED MEDIAN LINE #.500-.510 —[o-005 Form Controls 235 FIG. 11-8 EXAMPLE OF STRAIGHTNESS OF ‘A DERIVED MEDIAN PLANE 625 £.010 (Jor When used for straightness of a derived median line (cylindrical feature) (see FIG. 11-7), a diameter symbol must appear in the feature control frame. For example: [(=]B.015] However, in straightness of a derived median plane (see FIG. 11-8), no diameter symbol is used-nor is one appropriate. In both straightness of a derived median line or derived median plane, the maximum material condition symbol must appear in the feature control frame if its principle (drawing extra straightness tolerance from the size tolerance as the controlled feature departs from its MMC) is to be invoked. If no MMC symbol is used. then RFS is to be assumed (according to Rule #2). In straightness of a derived median line, the tolerance zone begins as cylindrical in shape and runs through the feature's center. The controlled feature's derived median line must lie within this tolerance zone. This derived ‘median line, which is generated by the controlled feature’s surface, may bend. ‘or distort from a perfectly straight counterpart, but must never violate this cylindrical tolerance zone (when the MMC material condition symbol is stated, this tolerance zone may grow). When applied on an MMC basis, the maximum straightness tolerance applicable to the produced feature is the specified tolerance plus the amount the actual local size departs from MMC. 236 Chapter 11 ‘As each produced local size departs from its MMC, an increase in the local diameter of the straightness tolerance zone occurs that equals the amount of the departure from MMC. ‘The perfect form at MMC envelope generated by the MMC size limit may be violated. It is no longer sacred as it was in the case of straightness-of- surface element controls. However, in straightness of a derived median line or derived median plane, a new envelope is formed, and this new boundary ‘must never be violated. In the MMC concept, the new boundary is generated by the MMC size of the controlled feature and its straightness tolerance (an external feature’s boundary equals MMC plus straightness tolerance, and with internal features the boundary equals MMC minus straightness tolerance) ‘These boundaries are often used to determine worst mating condition sizes for ‘mating features or functional gages (as in the MMC concept usage), In these cases, size must still be verified but MMC limits are checked the same way LMC limits are checked. They are both checked at every cross section for 2 point opposing point violations of size. Once size is verified as ‘being within specified limits, the form (straightness) must be checked. If the feature of size is controlled with the MMC material condition symbol, a gage ‘can be made to check the form. This gage is sometimes referred to as @ functional gage or a receiver gage. This gage will be made to the virtual condition of the feature of size it is to check. If the controlled feature is a male feature (shaft, tab, boss, etc), the receiver gage will resemble its female counterpart in shape (hole, keyway, ring, slot, ete.). And, of course, a controlled female feature will have a functional gage that resembles its male counterpart. Form Controls 237 FIG. 11-9 STRAIGHTNESS OF A DERIVED MEDIAN LINE Virtual Condition, Functional Gaging and Bonus Tolerance 20-528 i Eles0 8) Lg.s3s vetual Condon FUNCTIONAL GAGING qe tee ip tT Lots bobs 238 Chapter 11 FIG. 11-10 STRAIGHTNESS OF A DERIVED MEDIAN LINE {Regardless of Feature Size and Boundary Exceeding Maximum Material Condition Envelope Allowed] 87s +.003 [ =| 010 #.888 Worst Condition Boundary 9.878 6.010 ToL. ZONE ic 872 or0 873 10. 874 O10 875 ‘010 878 010 877 ‘10 uc 878 10 Form Controls 239 Derived Median Plane Straightness In straightness of a derived median plane, the tolerance zone begins as the distance between two parallel planes and runs through the center of the controlled feature of size. The controlled feature's derived median plane as determined, for example, with differential measurements (see illustration) ‘must lie within this tolerance zone. The derived median plane is generated by the opposing points on the surfaces which make up the controlled feature of size ‘The derived median plane generated may bend, waffle or distort in any ‘way from a perfectly flat counterpart, but must never violate this tolerance zone of two parallel planes the distance apart allowed by the control, When the MMC (maximum material condition) symbol is specified, this tolerance zone may grow. ‘When applied on this MMC basis, the maximum straightness tolerance applicable to the produced feature is the specified tolerance plus the amount the actual local size departs from MMC. As each produced local size (each set ‘of measured opposing points) departs from its MMC, an increase in the local separation of the planes of the straightness tolerance zone occurs that equals the amount of the departure from MMC. Again, as in the case of straightness of the derived median line, the maximum material condition size reverts to a 2 point opposing point requirement for all opposing points of the surface. Least material condition, which already had such a measurement requirement (every 2 opposing points), retains this requirement. Straightness RFS ‘When it is necessary to control a feature’s derived median line or derived median plane--regardless of the feature size, checking its form can become ‘more time consuming and consequently, more costly. The checking procedure is similar for both cylindrical features (derived median lines) and for non- cylindrical features (derived median planes). Still, at times, the inspector must use a certain amount of creativity in setting up the part to have access to the feature, especially when taking differential measurements. 240 Chapter 11 FIG. 11-11 STRAIGHTNESS OF THE DERIVED MEDIAN PLANE VERIFICATION 2.250 1.125, Fr 2230 Pointe 1.900 890 [235] Adjustoble ‘Support Fines Support PN LLL Radial deviation from a perfectly flat centerplane is = M1 = M2 Itis recommended that the deviations at each cross section be diagramed to give a visual display of the entire median plane's actual deviations from perfectly straight. Remember, the tolerance given in the feature control frame is a total wide tolerance zone (the distance between two parallel planes) Form Comrols 241 FIG. 11-11 shows the specification of a derived median plane control the feature control frame is associated with the size requirement. The geometric control includes a straightness symbol, a geometric tolerance and either an implied (RFS) or specified material condition symbol (in this case, an implied regardless of feature size modifier). ‘The straightness tolerance zone generated is the distance between two perfectly flat parallel planes within which the derived median plane must reside. The derived median plane may be discerned from the set-up shown, All median points may be found by averaging every set of 180° opposed surface points. The inspection set-up shown is one that employs adjustable supports, fixed supports, a surface plate and dial indicators. The median points are found by comparing the readings on the indicators at MI and M2. ‘This may be viewed as each indicator recording shows a height from the surface plate to the surfaces. Once the center point is found, it should be plotted on a graph, If enough median points are plotted, a graphic display of the derived median plane emerges and is assessed for compliance with the 025 ‘geometric straightness tolerance. ‘All median points must reside within the two parallel planes of the tolerance zone to be accepted. Since no maximum or least material condition symbols have been used in the feature control frame, no bonus tolerance is allowed. Had such modifiers been employed, growth in the tolerance zone would have been allowed locally as each set of opposing points departed from MMC or LMC (as appropriate to the modifying symbol used), FIG. 11-12 shows the specification of a derived median line control ‘The feature control frame is associated with the size requirement. The geometric control includes a straightness symbol, a diameter sign, a geometric tolerance and cither an implied (RFS) o specified material condition symbol (in this case, a maximum material condition modifier. 22 Chapter 1 Fig. 11-12 1.000 +.010 (—[o .001 @| Form Controls 243 ‘The straightness tolerance zone generated begins as a perfectly cylindrical zone, may grow locally, and must contain the feature's derived median line In this case, the tolerance zone is a diameter of 001 at MMC. The derived median line may be assessed by averaging every set of diametrically opposed points. The inspection set-up shown is one that employs centers and indicators. The median point is found by comparing the readings on the indicators at Ma and Mb. One way to view this is that each of these readings uses a vernier scale or electronic device (such as may be part ofa height gage) to give the height of the surface at Ma and Mb. ‘These height readings are averaged to find the center and the point plotted on a graph to show the centerpoint. If this is done many times, for many different sets of diametrically opposed points on the surface and all are plotted on the same graph, a relatively accurate assessment of compliance with the geometric straightness control can be made. We will describe one method for taking differential measurements for a cylindrical feature with a straightness control of its derived median line First, the axis on each end of the feature must be established. Let us say for this particular part, centerdiling of the ends is permissible. (Keep in mind this process is only as accurate as the centerdrilling process.} On a lathe, each ‘end must be closely chucked or colleted with as little of the part as possible protruding. This is to allow the feature to turn true on the end and have @ better chance of hitting true center. Likewise, the centerdrill should not protrude from the chuck in the tailstock farther than necessary. Even though the centerdrll is hardened, itis prone to a minor amount of bend or wobble if not properly chucked (which makes centerdrilling less accurate). After being centerdrilled, these tapered holes can be used to place the ‘object between lathe centers for machining and then used to establish a perfectly straight axis with bench centers for inspection purposes. Or. if the machinist is doing his own inspection, the part can be rough checked while sill betwcen centers on the lathe Differential Measurements For Waisted or Barreled Features Only Once the set-up is established, the cylindrical object should have the indicator run across its surface from one end to the other while the cylinder is Stationary. ‘The inspector records the variations at every cross section. For example: 000, +001, +.002, +001, +000, etc. (See FIG. 11-13). 24s Chapter 11 FIG. 11-13 Then the object should be rotated 180° and the same routine followed, recording the longitudinal variations of surface straightness. When this i complete, the inspector should rotate the part periodically and record Surface point variations for many opposing line elements (at 180° Separations). Then, with many sets of figures. a comparison of these opposing figures should be made, subtracting one cross-sectional figure from its opposing cross-sectional figure and dividing by two to get radial deviation from perfectly straight For example: []Z.009] Form Controls 245 FIG. 11-14 (—]Z.009] -013 2/4001 2/+.001 (0005 (0008, These figures reflect the location ofthe points on the derived median line at these cross sections and the line's deviation (if any) from perfectly straight If any of these differences when graphed or examined in terms of a diameter is greater than the tolerance in the feature control frame, the part must be rejected or reworked~if possible 246 Chapter 11 In this control, the derived median line is allowed 0.009 out-of. straightness, and we can see the maximum out-of-straightness (for these sets of ‘opposing figures) is 005 radially in both the positive and negative direction or a diameter of .010. Therefore, this part is rejected or reworked. It is important to note it isn't always necessary to take differential measurements to establish derived median line or derived median plane straightness. This ‘method is used when the feature surface is: waisted or complicated by other odd surface variations. If, however, the feature of size is simply bowed PY the feature derived median line should be closely reflected in the surface and pethaps, for your needs, an indicator check of the surface from end to end in several places will suffice. or barreled Form Controle 27 ‘Straightness of a derived median line per unit length (on a rate basis) is a tool given by the ANSI Y14.5 Standard. It is used to prevent an abrupt out- of-straightness variation of the feature over a short specified length. In this application, it is important to state a total allowed out-of-straightness control as well as the unit straightness control Example: 3.005) @.005 @ @.001 1.000 B01 @/1.000 This prevents a possible large out-of-straightness variation for the overall Jength of the controlled feature, In this control, RFS or MMC rules apply as specified. If specified MMC, functional gaging is possible with a gage each for the total straightness control and the unit straightness control The total straightness control could utilize a functional gage made the ‘maximum length of the feature and to its virtual condition as figured with the feature MMC and the total straightness control tolerance, while the unit length straightness control could utilize a functional gage made the length of the specified unit (for example, 1.000") and the virtual condition of the feature as calculated using the feature MMC and the unit straightness control tolerance. If a feature of size was specified (implied under Rule #2) RFS, the straightness of the total control and the unit length control could be verified separately and as was described in the previous section on straightness of a derived median line or derived median plane regardless of feature size (RFS) (See FIG. 11-11) Section 11.3 CIRCULARITY Circularity is a two dimensional surface form control, The surface is assessed to determine that all circles that make up the surface being controlled are within the given circularity tolerance, Each circle is separately verified and without regard to datum features. The circularity tolerance zone consists ‘of two concentric circles the distance apart radially the amount that appears in 248 Chapter 11 the feature control frame. The centers of the measured polar profile may be used to determine the out-of-roundness. The centers which are used, unless otherwise specified, are determined by the minimum radial separation center. Minimum radial separation (MRS) is the center for which the radial difference between two concentric circles which just contain the measured polar profile is a minimum (also known as the center for ‘minimum full indicator movement (FIM), Other methods of finding the centers used for surface evaluation are least squares circle (LSC)--the center of a circle from which the sum of the squares of the radial ordinates of the measured polar profile has a minimum value; ‘maximum inscribed circle (MIC)--the center of the largest circle which can be inscribed within the measured polar profile: or minimum circumscribed circle (MCC)-the cemter of the smallest citcle which will just contain the measured Profile. Most feature control frames contain only the minimum informs such as: [O[0002] but the ANSI B89.3.1 Standard for Measurement of ‘Out-OF Roundness allows for a much more complete control, such as: (0002 TSC ]ISO_OO3) which means that this surface shall be round within ,0002 inches as assessed by the LSC method with 150 cycles per revolution response using a .003 radius stylus tp. ‘The minimum number of out-of-roundness measurements that are required to define the surface of a three dimensional body are not specified in the Y14.5 Standard, Sufficient measurements should be taken to ensure that the measured profiles are typical Circularity is an interesting control, being at a glance a relatively easy to ‘understand control, but on closer scrutiny one that can become so complex to accurately check that it warrants its own ANSI Standard (ANSI B89.3.1). Circularity is an unrelated control. Each feature is compared to a perfectly round geometric counterpart of itself. No datums are required or proper. It is a surface control wherein each circular line element of the surface is considered in a cross section perpendicular (normal) to the feature center at that cross section. In this two dimensional radial control, each element of the surface must lie within the boundaries formed by two concentric circles that lie the distance apart reflected by the tolerance in the feature control frame. Form Controls 249 FIG. 11-15 CIRCULARITY USED ON A CYLINDRICAL PART [= de AY ; aH N 1003 ToL. ZONE 90 | Rowe 250 Chapter 11 FIG. 11-16 VERIFICATION TECHNIQUES (O003 Yon comonne Form Controls FIG. 11-16 (continued) VERIFICATION TECHNIQUES. 232 Chapter 11 The diameter surface in FIG. 11-15 can be viewed as constructed by an infinite number of circular line elements. Each line element has been given its own tolerance zone. ‘These tolerance zones each consist of two coaxial circles the distance apart radially that appears in the feature control frame. The size tolerance given the diameter of 1.225 - 1.235 dictates the extent t0 which the surface may grow or shrink, taper or be out-of-straight. Since each circular line element ofthe surface is independently verifiable itis conceptually possible that a surface may be acceptable that looks bowed, is shaped like an hourglass, a bartel or even a stack of coins with each coin displaced from what would be @ common axis for the cylinder (since each circular line element may be assessed for out-of-roundness from its own center). The envelope of perfect form at MMC of @1.235 may not be violated and the LMC may not violate a micrometer-type measurement (every 2 diametrically opposing points may not measure less than a 1.225). ‘The conical feature shown in FIG. 11-17 is placed on a set of supports to create the optimum orientation for each measured cross section. The supports may be readjusted for each measured section to allow the least deviation of circularity (1) Either the spindle rotates 3600 for a circular measurement of each cross section or the table on which the pat rests rotates (see FIG. 11-16). (2) The probe or indicator is reset (zeroed) for each measured cross section of the part surface. Each section is separately verifiable and must reside within its own tolerance zone. Each tolerance zone consists of two coaxial circles 0.2 apart radially. Each measured cross section of the surface has tolerance zone appropriate 10 the size of the part at that cross section AA point atthe middle of each tolerance zone exists that is representative of a point on the spine of the surface, from which the circularity of the cross section is evaluated. Circularity (roundness) constructs a series of tolerance zones that must not be violated by all points on all circular line elements under test that comprise the surface of the controlled feature (see FIG. 11-15 and 11-16). Circular elements of the surface are established by cross sections perpendicular to a spine, A spine is a point or a simple non-self-intersecting curve. In terms of inspecting a cicularity control, measurements can be taken Perpendicular to this spine as constructed by a simple surface, The spine can be thought of as similar to a derived median line, and circular elements of the surface can be assessed for roundness from points that comprise the spine, For Form Controls 233 4 sphere, the spine is a point, but for a cylinder or cone, the spine, as already described, isa simple, non-self-intersecting tangent-continuous curve FIG. 11-17 CIRCULARITY OF A CONE Tolerance zone + ETO) 2 — FIXED suPPORT X= AWSTABLE SUPPORT Each set of concentric circles of the circularity tolerance zones are centered on and in a plane perpendicular to the spine at the circular element of the surface being measured. The center from which each circular line element of the surface is measured may be reset. This would allow configurations such as bowed surfaces, snaking surfaces and surfaces created by a stack of coins 254 Chapter 1 wherein each coin i offset, to measure round, whereas surfaces suchas these Would genealy not meta mote thre dimensional form requirement such as a gs... Clementi the minimum radial separation ofthe two concent circles closest a = =_—=—=sCC oe ‘A simple eteularty contol may appear as: [5] OOS] This means the two concent eicles that form the tolerance zane must be 003 apart 7 FIG. 11-18 1003 Each cross section of the circular feature must be such that all its surface elements fit between its appropriate set of these two circles, regardless of the feature size. The center from which the tolerance zone is established is important and can be established in many different ways. The deferred practice is the center of the minimum radial separation tolerance zone. This is the center for which the radial difference between two concentric circles which just contain the measured polar profile is a minimum, Another method that creates the center from the sum of the squares of the radial ordinates of the measured polar profile as a minimum value, is also popular. This is known as a least squares circle center. ‘The method known as maximum inscribed circle (for holes) of minimum circumscribed circle (for shafts) creates a center from which to measure. If the feature is an external one, a shaft or cylinder, or a cone or sphere, one way the outer circle of the tolerance zone can be established is by the minimum Form Controls 255 circumscribed circle or the smallest perfect circle that can be drawn around the feature cross section touching high points, The inner circle of the zone is then established concentric to the outer one. If, however, the feature is an internal one (a hole or inside tapered cone or sphere), the inner circle can be established first by the maximum inscribed circle or the largest perfect circle that can be drawn inside the cross section touching high points, The outer circle i established concentric to the inner circle. ‘The tolerance in the feature control frame is a refinement of the size control. Therefore, to make sense, it must be smaller than the size tolerance, keeping in mind that circularity is a radial control and size tolerance controls. form on a diameter basis. ‘The envelope boundary of perfect form at maximum material condition must not be violated. Therefore, the circularity tolerance is not additive to the size tolerance (or size limits) and no virtual condition is derived. ‘The MMC size limit is checked for any violation of this envelope and the LMC size limit is checked at cross sections (every 2 opposing points). If the size limits are violated, there is usually little reason to check the roundness of the feature because the feature hasn't met its first requirement and must be rejected or reworked, No material condition symbols are proper because circularity is always to be considered regardless of feature size. Because of this (no allowed use of the MMC concept), no bonus tolerance is ever possible. Theory vs. Reality All measurement procedures are flawed in some way. + the instruments we use are not perfect + the procedures the inspector performs are not exact or entiely appropriate + the fixturing devices don't meet the requirements to establish the datum reference frame (not a problem for circularity since no datums are allowed)~-or worse, no fixturing is used at all + the computer-assisted measuring instruments are programmed with faulty, inadequate algorithms ‘the probes do not touch all points on the surface and those touched are ‘often improperly distributed for the geometry commonly produced by a particular manufacturing procedure ‘The inspectors are often trained to perform tasks in an inappropriate man- ner or pethaps not trained at all. Often they only know what the machine can 256 Chapter 11 do, not what the geometric control on the part to be inspected really means and what operations must be performed to verify compliance. And the worst thing is, inspectors very often believe that what they are doing is absolutely correct. In this state of blissful ignorance, there is no reason to study, learn, explore, or elevate capabilites, Others often sce these misguided efforts at part verification and marvel at their inadequacies. Occasionally, an undiplomatic urge compels them to say “Don't bother performing that ‘measurement procedure. Why don't you take a coffee break instead?" Often this angers the inspector. “What are you talking about?” they yell, “I'm ‘working here! Can't you see I'm working?” They see it, but what they see is ‘an operation that collects information so vastly lacking in the area of part functionality that it may as well not be performed at ll Vee-blocks are an example of well intended instruments that may produce inadequate measurements regarding functionality. Vee-blocks, incapable of Part axial stabilization, allow the axis to move as one attempts to measure from it. This movement can give a false impression of a feature’s circularity or cylindricity, since, by definition, we attempt to assess those geometric characteristics of the surface from a stabilized center. If the Vee-block is used to establish a datum axis for the purpose of measuring a controlled feature’s circular or total runout, concentricity, position or conicity, it can add the datum feature’s surface deviations from perfection and the subsequent datum axis movement during rotation to the FIM of the controlled feature. These factors make the resultant measurement data suspect. A foothall-shaped object, for example, may read round, or a surface well within its runout tolerance may read out of tolerance. For these reasons, (a) a bad part read- ing good and (b) a good part reading bad, the Vee-block can only be relied on to give a rough estimate of part compliance to given geometric tolerances. If two Vee-blocks with different Vee angles are used on the same part, it is more likely to discover that a bad part is reading good (for example, round). Likewise, 2 point opposing point measurements are unreliable for checking form deviations like roundness and straightness or perfect form at ‘maximum material condition requirements. A part that is produced as 3 lobed is liable to measure similarly at different locations on the surface if measured with a micrometer. It may appear to be round if only opposing points are measured. This method is, therefore, only recommended as a very rough check of geometric compliance. Likewise, similar methods attempting to verify the MMC envelope under the Taylor Principle (Rule #1) may easily fail Form Control 257 to dectect axial out-of-straightness, allowing a feature to pass when it actually violates the perfect form at maximum material condition requirement, FIG. 11-19 EVALUATION OF ROUNDNESS (The following procedures are not recommended for final verification) larity (Roundness) Measurement Instruments The Measurement of Out-of-Roundness Standard (ANSI B89.3.1) in discussing instruments for measurement makes statements to the effect that ut-of-roundness as defined is usually measured by methods involving a stylus. in contact with the part surface. Analog or digital techniques are used to construct for graphical recording (usually on a polar chart) the magnified radial movements of the stylus, as either the stylus or the part is rotated around an accurately defined axis. (See illustrations in this unit.) While other types of roundness inspection are not forbidden, measurement of roundness with 2 point measurement instruments, such as a micrometer and Vee-block measurements, are flawed in that 2 point measurement methods can determine the out-of-roundness value only where the partis known to have an even number of uniformly spaced and uniformly sized lobes or undulations around its periphery. For parts having an odd number of lobes, the difference in diametral measurements generally will be smaller than the true radial out-of-roundness value and will diminish to zero for uniform symmetrically-shaped lobing. Parts having an even lobed surface will produce diametral out-of-roundness values larger than the true value. 258 Chapter 11 Vee-block measurements can be somewhat more useful than diametral measurements, however, shapes with a known odd number of uniform symmetrically-shaped lobes of equal size and uniform distribution can be related by a conversion factor 10 the out-of-oundness value when the Vee- block of proper included angle is used. This is based on the number of lobes and the Vee-block included angle. However, there is no single Vee-block Angle which will cover all numbers of odd-lobed parts. The Vee-block measurement system is not as useful for shapes with even numbers of lobes as the diametral method . The Vee-block tends to diminish the total indicator readings of even-lobed shapes, sometimes to nearly zero. The two-lobed shape and the four-lobed shape in the 600 Vee will show only a slight variation in each total indicator reading. ‘The major disadvantage of the Vec- block method is that itis not sensitive to all types of lobing. 1k should be mentioned also that Vee-block measurements are not (wo dimensional, but instead the part rides on its highest peaks along the contact length with the Vee-block surfaces. One common failing of both the 2 point and Vee-block measurement methods is the lack of a fixed center. This makes it incapable of stabilizing an axis or centerpoint from which to assess the surface roundness. It is measuring from a point in space that keeps moving, Circularity is a condition of a surface of revolution where for a cylinder ‘or cone, all points of the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to @ point on a spine are equidistant from that point. This would indicate that a garden hose, for example, may be round. A garden hose type feature would bbe considered as round enough where all points on every circular line element are equidistant from its median point and lies within a tolerance zone of two ‘concentric circles which has a minimum radial separation equal to or less than the circularity tolerance specified in the feature control frame. Section 11.4 FREE STATE VARIATION ‘The term free state variation is used to describe what may happen to a part that is non-rigid. Parts that will commonly measure one dimension ot t0 within a certain form tolerance while being restrained by manufacturing or inspection equipment, but something very different when released from those restraints often need to be dimensioned differently. ‘The options to specify or imply free state measurements given us by the Y14.5 Standard are to specify conventional size dimensions and tolerances, geometric tolerances or to add a Form Controls 259 circled F in the feature control frame for a part to clarify it is to be checked the free state, A note can be added to the feature specifying that itis to be spected in a restrained state meant to simulate the conditions under which the part will function. When AVG is added after a dimension, it means that feature is to be verified as having dimensions that must only average within the given limits. ‘There are tape measurements that may be taken about the periphery of the feature that will give an average of the surface diameter. If opposing points checks are chosen instead, then a minimum of four are required at each cross section of the surface. This AVG method is chosen by designers when they are certain that if a part averages within a dimensional range, then it will either function as is, of may be distorted (restrained) during assembly to conform to needed tolerances. ‘Often a feature must be inspected while restrained in order to simulate functional or assembly conditions, This assures the designer that if the part is accepted by the inspector under those restrained conditions specified on the drawing, that the part will indeed work. When this is the requirement, a note is added to the control (generally in the note column on the drawing) stating the restraints required for the feature during inspection. When thin walled parts are held in chucks, vises, fixtures or work: holding devices of various kinds for purposes of machining, there are frequently differences in measurements taken on them while in this restrained state than when they are released. As mentioned, this variation in size from the restrained state to the free state is called free state variation. Recognizing this fact is the designer's first step in taking precautions to assure that any geometric controls placed on features of this kind are well defined and realistic enough to allow manufacturers and inspectors to make, inspect and accept as many of the parts as are economically profitable as possible. Therefore, the ANSI Y14.5 Standard gives the aforementioned two simple solutions to this design dilemma. One states the geometric control as any other, but beneath the feature control symbol is placed a notation. For example: 7oosTAlS) SEE NOTE T This refers toa general note found elsewhere on the drawing that explains the rules under which the partis tobe restained during the checking (inspection) procedure. It might explain how to mount the pat on the datums sated and Pethaps which bolt ypes to se and even what pressures to be applied when 260 Chapter 1 torquing down the bolts to restrain the part. (See FIG. 11-23 emttled “Restrained State Control of Flexible Pars” in this unit). Another method of dealing with free state variation involves stating the feature's geometric control as it would normally be stated, with the option of placing the symbol for free state (a circled F) inside the feature control frame for clarification (See FIG. 11-22 entitled "Free State Inspection of Flexible Parts inthis unit.) ‘When giving feature size limits, the abbreviation AVG may be placed beside or beneath the limits. For example, see FIG. 11-20. This control jlves maximum and minimum dimensions that are averaged to determine an average dimension that must not lie ouside the stated average limits-—-for ‘example, the 1.000" to 1.010" stated in the figure FIG. 11-20 1.000 O08 ‘The roundness tolerance is used to (among other things) set the maximum upper limit size in the free state for any part made and also the minimum. lower limit size in the free state (unrestrained) for any part made. Besides lending other control, such as form, the geometric (circularity, in this case) tolerance may also be used to recheck the average dimension, For example, if you take two size checks (at least four at each cross section is the usual ‘minimum to establish an average for that cross section) and get, say, 1,003 on the first and 1.009 on the other, and then average them: Form Controls 261 1,003 (SEE NOTE) +1.009, 2.012 divided by 2 = 1.006 AVG Because 1.006 is the average, one must not exceed a maximum feature dimension of 1.006 plus the .010 roundness tolerance or 1.016" o a minimum feature dimension of 1.006" minus the .010 roundness tolerance or .996". For the stated circularity control in FIG. 11-21, please state the average dimension for each pair of size checks given and also whether or not the part is acceptable or a reject ‘Note: No dimension on any of the parts checked may exceed: 1.010 + 010 or 1.020 high limit, or 1.000 - .010 or 990 tow limit 262 Chapter 11 FIG. 11-21 = 4.010 01-010 ave. [010 © Allowable | Allgwable Mox. Min. ava. Rise ine'® | Accent [Exempies 7.010 996 [1.008 394 x 008 999 | 1.004 994 x 1.010 | 1.005 [1.0075 | 1.0175 | 9975 _[_x 1.002. 238_| 1.000 | 1.010 990 x 1.025 [1.008 [1.0155 x [Probiems) 7021 [1.000 1.019 391 1.008 | 1.007, 1.001 982 1011 995) 1.050 370 4.010 290 ¥.020_| 989 | 1.004 997 1.018 | 1.008 Form Controls 263 FIG. 11-22 FREE STATE INSPECTION OF FLEXIBLE PARTS IRFACES wae: © mens epi be spect oxi Ernst ie ee Sak cp Gea Satins Sina Dial Indicator surface Plate] ‘The top of the surface plate simulates datum plane A from the high points of both surfaces simultaneously while the partis in the free state. Distortion due to free state variation is not controlled. ‘The part is not clamped onto the datum features to try to compensate for the warpage experienced by the part during the inspection procedure. ‘The dial indicator traverses both surfaces controlled for coplanarity with the profile characteristic. This is accomplished while the partis in the free state to determine if the surfaces comply with the 0.1 profile tolerance, The surfaces must be coplanar (straight, fat, parallel and in the same plane) within ‘tolerance zone that consists of two parallel planes 0.1 apart, The tolerance zone must contain all clements of both surfaces simultaneously. The tolerance zone is parallel to datum plane A simulated by the surface plate. Note that since no coplanarity control has been applied to the datum features that form datum plane A from high point contact, the datum surfaces may be angled to and depart from the surface plate which simulates the primary datum plane A. If the circled F was not added to the control, the part would still be inspected 264 Chapter 11 in the same manner, since all geometric controls are considered to apply in the free state, unless a restrained state condition is specified on the drawing If this free state inspection condition is deemed non-functional and/or inappropriate, then a restrained state inspection condition may be used instead, ‘This is accomplished by a local or general note. See the following example. FIG. 11-23, RESTRAINED STATE CONTROL ‘OF FLEXIBLE PARTS iGIo.i14] TRURFACES URFACES {UTWOSIRPACTS. THECKAMSAKE TOME TORGUED TOO. Wm ight Gage and iat odestor Sa Means this: 2Champs ‘The top of the surface plate simulates datum plane A from the high points of both surfaces simultaneously while the part is in the restrained state. Distortion due to free state variation is controlled. ‘The part is clamped onto the datum features to try to compensate for the warpage that may otherwise be experienced by the part during the inspection procedure. ‘The dial indicator traverses both surfaces controlled for coplanarity with the profile characteristic. Thisis accomplished while the part is in the restrained Form Controls 265 state to determine whether or not the surfaces comply with the 0.1 profile tolerance. ‘The surfaces must be coplanar (straight, flat, parallel and in the same plane) within a tolerance zone that consists of two parallel planes 0.1 apart. The tolerance zone must contain all elements of both surfaces simul- taneously while the part is restrained as prescribed in the general note, Any free state variation of the datum features is negated by the restraint created by the clamping devices. This restraint should be, whenever possible, reflective of how the partis restrained during actual use (for example, assembly). The tolerance zone is parallel to datum plane A simulated by the surface plate. FIG. 11-24 __ INSPECTION OF PARTS PRONE TO FREE STATE VARIATION IN THE RESTRAINED STATE ot / be Trea [Noto 1 This tolerance apples when datum feature Ais meunted agains! a at surtace si festa sutton sinenate re Sate varaton Grog be nepocion process] a 266 Chapter 11 Section 11.5 CYLINDRICITY Cylindricity is a surface form control. It simultaneously limits the allowed out of roundness, straightness and taper a surface may experience. ‘The tolerance given in the feature control frame is considered radial (or per side), therefore a cylindricity tolerance of .003 is able to protect against any pits or bumps larger than 003 but may allow bumps of .003 to oppose one another at 1800 points on a cylindrical surface ‘The cylindricity tolerance is separately verifiable from the size limits on the feature and must reside within the MMC envelope (unless that envelope somehow is not applicable---as in, for example, a part that has been given average dimensions for size) ‘The feature control frame normally consists of only a cylindricity symbol and a geometric tolerance. No datums, diameter symbols or material condition symbols are appropriate inside of the feature control frame. ‘A perfectly cylindrical feature would have all of the elements on the surface an equal distance from a common feature axis, Thus, in the inspection process we often try to stabilize an axis about which to rotate the feature surface while probing it (for example, with a dial indicator) searching for deviations such as dips or bumps, barrels, waists or tapers. Axial stabilization is often difficult and carries with it certain hard to eliminate uncertainties, that ‘occasionally make verification reminiscent of a runout control. The difference, of course, is that with cylindricity we are attempting to rotate about the axis of the controlled feature, whereas with something like total runout we are attempting to rotate about the axis of a datum feature, This is strictly a surface control, and we are attempting only to determine if the entire surface is between two concentric cylinders the radial distance apart that appears in the feature control frame, Axial stabilization would be unnecessary if a computer algorithm were written to merge a large number of surface probed locations with the tolerance zone and render a conformance report. Cylindricity is a geometric control similar in many ways to circularity Both are individual (unrelated) geometric characteristics (no datums are proper or allowed), no material condition symbols are allowed---and, without the AVG control added, neither is to be associated with, or additive to, the size, Without the use of these material condition symbols (modifiers), no extra tolerance of form can be drawn from the size as the feature departs from its MMC size. Both circularity and cylindricity are form con- trols (joining the previously-mentioned members of that family.-flatness. and Form Controls 267 straightness to complete the category) and must have tolerances in the feature control frame smaller than the size tolerance. They are refinements of the form control imposed by the size limit, Both circularity and cylindricity are radial controls, to be considered always regardless of feature size. FIG. 11-25 CYLINDRICITY / 02) HK PART SURFACE ToL. ZONE, TWO CONCENTRIC CYLINDERS. (02 APART RFS 1002 TOL. ZONE 268 Chapter 11 As shown in FIG. 11-26, cylindricity is a surface control of three dimensional form. It controls circularity, straightness and taper of the surface, ‘The feature control frame contains a cylindricity geometric characteristic symbol and a geometric tolerance, This cylindricity control is (for rigid parts) a refinement of the form control given in the size tolerance of the cylinder. Unlike the size tolerance, which is given as a diameter and would allow, for example, a flat on one side of the part to be as deep as the entire size tolerance, the cylindricity tolerance limits any deviation from perfect form radially to within the amount given in the feature control frame. ‘The tolerance zone consists of two coaxial cylinders different in size radially by the amount shown in the cylindricity control (in the case of the part shown at the top of FIG. 11-26, a .001 radial difference). ‘The entire surface of the cylinder regardless of its size (which is separately verified) may rot have surface variations that exceed the cylindricity tolerance zone. Pits in the surface may not be deeper than 01. Bumps may not be taller than 001 Flats may not exceed .001. Line elements may not curve more than 001, The part may not taper more than ,001 on each side ‘The tolerance zone cylinders, while maintaining their coaxiality to one another and their radial difference in size of .001, may grow or shrink in ‘order to contain the surface of the part. Even though the size limits say the parts may measure from @.990 to @1.010, each individual part may not differ in size measurements on the diameter by more than .002 (as is dictated by the cylindricity control shown here). A taper of more than .001 per side of any fone part would create a situation where the entire surface being controlled would violate the eylindricity tolerance zone, ‘The part may be inspected in many ways, The inspection set-up shown for the part at the bottom of FIG. 11-26 consists of fixed and adjustable supports being used to orient the part so that its axis is coaxial to the axis of a rotating spindle. Attached to the spindle is an extension arm holding a dial indicator. Once oriented on the machine table, the part is inspected by rotating the spindle as it moves up or down the surface of the part with its attached indicator in contact with the cylinder under test. The full indicator movement is then compared directly to the geometric cylindricity tolerance allowed by the feature control frame, The tolerance may not be exceeded if the partis to pass inspection, Form Controls FIG. 11-26 CYLINDRICITY [REE oma Tolerance Geometric Characteristic Symbol @l 7 -— 1,000 #.010 i oP Sa el 270 Chapter 11 Unless otherwise specified, neither part shown can violate an envelope formed by the boundary of perfect form at the MMC size, When checking the size limits on both controls (before you've checked for form compliance), the feature is checked for any violations of that MMC envelope and for any Violations of LMC at any cross section at all 1800 opposing points. (A vernier caliper or micrometer is usually sufficient for the LMC check) Features controlled for circularity and cylindrcity are set up in a similar fashion to check for these form requirements There are, however, some very distinct differences between these two geometric characteristics. Whereas circularity is a two dimensional control (as previously described in the circularity unit), a cylindrical control is three dimensional. This characteristic controls roundness (circularity), straightness and taper. It can only be used to control cylindrical features---unlike circularity, which can be used on cones and spheres, as well as other two dimensionally round configurations All elements ofthe controlled cylindrical features surface must li in the tolerance zone formed by two perfect concentric cylinders. On an external feature like a shaft, the outermost cylinder of this tolerance zone can be formed by the minimum sized cylinder that can fit over the outside of the actual feature (minimum circumscribed eylinder). The innermost cylinder is then constructed perfectly concentric to that cylinder and the distance apart allowed by the radial tolerance stated inthe feature contol frame. On internal features, the innermost cylinder of the tolerance zone may be formed first by the maximum sized perfect cylinder that can fit inside the controlled feature (internal feature---a hole). ‘This cylinder could be called the maximum inscribed cylinder. The outermost eylinder of this tolerance zone is then constructed perfectly coaxial to that cylinder and the distance apart allowed by the radial tolerance stated in the feature control frame. (For other methods of forming the center of the tolerance zone, use least squares cylinder center and minimum radial separation center.) There are many checking procedures used to determine if, indeed, all clements of the controlled surface are inside the tolerance zone. Placing the feature inside a Vee-block and rotating the feature while deriving a full indicator movement (FIM) is a rough check used to check circularity and cylindricity. In checking circularity, the indicator is often stationary as the feature is rotated 3609. But in checking the cylindricity, the indicator is moved down the feature longitudinally while the feature is rotated 3609. This Form Controls a rough check is not always an accurate indication of a feature's compliance to the stated tolerance. However, because of the possibility of football shaped or other oddly configured features, a center-to-center check, using the indicator FIM as described in the circularity unit, is a better--but still rough--check for cylindricity (keeping in mind the longitudinal movement necessary for the cylindricity check but not for the circularity check). In this center-to-center inspection method, the FIM should reflect the radial out-of-cylindrical error. ‘The polar graph method is a more accurate inspection technique used quite successfully by many manufacturing facilities. With this method, a precision spindle with work-holding capabilities is used to grip the feature being checked. The feature can be rotated 3600 and the uppermost portion of the feature aligned to the lowermost, creating an axis to which perpendicular readings can be taken. For example: FIG. 11-27 6 ~ 360 Se For circularity checks, a probe will contact the workpiece at different cross sections during separate 3600 rotations. For cylindricity, the probe will ‘move up and down the controlled feature during 3600 rotations. While this process takes place, a drawing (record) of the feature surface readings is being made, Afterward, an overlay with concentric circles at specified distances apart (for example, 001" apart) can be placed over the recorded surface profile to determine if all the feature surface elements lie within the specified tolerance zone (at every cross section for circularity or over the entire surface for cylindricity). The cylindricity feature control frame is directed to the controlled feature by a leader line and may be shown in either view. an Chapter 11 FIG. 11-28 EVALUATION OF CYLINDRICITY (The following procedures are not recommended for final verification) For a detailed explanation, see the explanation for FIG. 11-19, Methods of Measuring Deviations from Cylindricity ‘The German Democratic Republic issued research on the measurement of deviation from cylindricity between 1985 and 1986 (effective date 10/1/86) that, until recently, had not been available in English. ‘This standard involves, some research currently under consideration in the United States, but not yet formally available in the form of a standard. Some of the results of that German study will be summarized in this section. That study is known as the German Democratic Standard TGL 39 097 on Methods of Measuring Deviations from Cylindricity. The test methods used were: 1. Measurement of the deviation from cylindricity with a roundness ‘measuring device with precision slide bar. 2. Measurement of deviation from cylindricity with a multi-coordinate ‘measuring instrument. Description of the procedure: 3.1 Measurement with a length measuring instrument by fastening the specimen (part) between two tips (centers. 3.2 Measurement with several length measuring instruments with the part between centers Form Controls 273 3.3 Measurement with an electric sensor with the part between centers. 4.1 Measurement with a stationary 2 point instrument, 4.2 Measurement with a 2 point manual instrument, 5.1 Determined by calculation of the deviation from roundness, straightness and taper, 5.2 Determination by calculation of the deviation from roundness and the deviation of the profile of the longitudinal section. Measurement strategies: 1.2.2 Arrangement and number of sections, test lines and/or test points on the specimen surfaces, as well as the procedure and sequence of scanning, 1.2.3 Even-stochastic distribution (which means) - arrangement of the test points or test lines in a random position within approximately evenly distributed areas. Conditions: 1.3.1 Since not all conditions for measurements according to the cylindricity definition could be met at that time, this study contains only simplified measuring procedures Basic principles: The following measurement strategies were used “Radial section method “Generatrix method “Helical line method End points method It was determined that all of the above measurement strategies can be used with equal validity. However, if information on the type of geometric deviations from cylindricity must also be determined in addition to the ‘numerical value, the end points method with graphic evaluation is preferred. Other methods than those listed may be used with special computer programs, such as iteration (repetition) or coefficient (a number or algebraic symbol prefixed as a multiplier to a variable or unknown quantity) methods ‘When using the methods used in this test, only a small part of the surface is scanned. For this reason and due to the different, instrument-specific implementations of the measurement strategies, differences may result in the deviation from cylindricity determined for the same specimen, It must be assured in all measurement strategies that the measured profiles are referred 24 Chapter 11 to the same coordinate system, the position of which remains fixed during the entire measurement process, Deviation from cylindricity should be determined via graphic or computer evaluation of the measured values regardless of whether scanning was continuous or discontinuous. These strategies are applicable to bores as well as shafts. FIG. 11-29 MEASUREMENT OF THE DEVIATION FROM CYLINDRICITY WITH AN ELECTRIC SENSOR AND ‘THE SPECIMEN FASTENED BETWEEN TWO TIPS, ane E HW A 1) Specimen 8) Slide Bor 2) Bectie Sensor 6) Tip Support 3) Sectonie Unit 7) Motor 4) Unear Pristar Position the specimen between the tips. Make sure that the slide bar is parallel to the line connecting the two fastening tips. Scan the cylindrical surface to be measured continuously with a constant scanning rate according to the generatrix method, Draw up the measured profiles as a linear diagram, Form Controls 275 FIG. 11-30. MEASUREMENT OF THE DEVIATION FROM CYLINDRICITY WITH SEVERAL LENGTH MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND THE SPECIMEN FASTENED ‘year cena a - \ | ZA 3) Tp Support Position the specimen between the tips. A length measurement device is assigned to each test point on the generatrix to be measured, s0 that all test points of a generatrix are determined simultaneously. Set all length ‘measurement devices to the same indicated value with the help of the reference cylinder. Scan the cylindrical surface to be measured, Chapter 12 ORIENTATION CONTROLS Section 12.1 ORIENTATION CHARACTERISTICS First Individual, Then Related ‘There are three orientation or attitude characteristics. They are angularity, perpendicularity, and parallelism (perpendicularity and parallel- ism can be considered varieties of angularity), All controlled features are related to datum planes or to datum axes or to a combination of datum planes and datum axes. Before these interrelationships can be considered, each controlled feature rust first be considered as an individual feature controlled only by its size limits. Unless otherwise specified (for example, if the feature was also controlled with an individual control of its axis for straightness, like [=]B-003) ) each feature controlled for orientation ( 1. //, 2 ) must first be checked to see that the envelope of perfect form at MMC hasnt been violated and checked at every cross section at every two opposing 1800 points {to make certain the LMC size has not been exceeded. Once the feature has been checked and accepted as an individual feature, it can then be considered as an interrelated feature. ‘This has been stated previously in this text and is true for all related features. At times, more than one datum feature is used to stabilize the part and tolerance zone in multiple directions. Tolerance zones require all elements of controlled surfaces, or perhaps an axis or centerplane to reside within. Line elements of surfaces may be controlled individually, separately verifiable for each line and each line residing within a tolerance zone (consisting of two paralle! lines oriented appropriately to the datum ) of its own, To invoke this, type of control, a note such as EACH ELEMENT, EACH LINE ELEMENT or EACH RADIAL ELEMENT is added below the feature control frame. ‘When functionally appropriate, a plane, tangent to the surface, may be controlled for orientation by adding a circled T to the feature control frame after the geometric tolerance. 276 Orientation Controls 277 Angularity is the condition of line elements of a surface, the entire surface, an axis or a centerplane at a specific basic angle (other than 00, 900, 1800 or 2700) from a datum plane or axis. More than one datum may be used for additional tolerance zone orientation, Parallelism is the condition of line elements of a surface, the entire surface, an axis or a centerplane equidistant from one or more datum planes or a datum axis. Perpendicularity is the condition of line elements of a surface, the entire surface, an axis or a centerplane 900 from one or more datum planes or a datum axis, For more specific definitions of angularity, perpendicularity and parallelism, see the definitions section of this text. For more information regarding specific orientation controls, see the subsequent sections on angularity, perpendicularity and parallelism, Section 12.2 ANGULARITY Angularity is often called the father of the orientation controls because it ccan be used for tolerancing all angles other than those that are perpendicular oo parallel. It can tolerance the angles of surfaces, centerplanes or axes 10 tak} a vee J 43 030) J {ais Meaning COMPARATOR CHART 030 wide tol. zone ‘O15 an each side of true’ profile 80° 'to"doturm plone ‘The designer of this part had, at some point, decided what the perfect part would look like (ts configuration) and how big it should be (its size) 424 Chapter 13 ‘Then, the tendency is to step away and think the job is complete. Someone from manufacturing usually inserts a bit of reality into the situation and says. ‘We can't make it exactly like that. How far from perfect may it deviate before it fails to function?” In other words, tolerance the thing! Many designers, feeling they have more important projects to tackle, or lacking the knowledge to appropriately tolerance the part, tend to either slap some ill-conceived tolerances on the part or relegate the tolerancing to someone else not as familiar with the part's function. It sometimes happens that a few parts are made, then inspected, and the largest deviations from perfect are recorded as the tolerances allowed on the drawing (sort of tolerancing, after the fact) Plus or minus tolerancing may be used, but with complex features that hhave many angles, radi, sizes or even locations, the accumulation of error thi creates from angle to angle and radius to radius (and so on) can allow ‘manufacturing to create a part that conforms to the drawing requirements but doesn't even remotely resemble the configuration shown on the drawing. Itis similar to the situation often created when a line of holes is located by dimensioning and tolerancing each hole from the previous hole. The accumulation of error may not even require the last hole to reside on the part (if it wasnt for the hole violating its size requirements), to say nothing of the fact that these holes would stand very little chance of aligning with related ‘mating holes or shafts on another part in the assembly. To avoid this type of problem on this part, the dimensions of 2.000. 1.625, the two radii of 1.500 and the two 900 angles shown all around in one view have been made to be basic dimensions. This means they will draw their tolerances from an appropriate feature control frame (a profile control in this, cease) and never from the general tolerances most often shown in the drawing's title block. The fact thatthe tolerance is all around in this view, as designated by the circle on the elbow of the leader line from the feature control frame to the part, creates a non-accumulating tolerance of one continuous zone. This zone follows the configuration drawn; and, since no phantom line is used. the zone is considered equal bilateral, 015 on each side of the basic profile given. Only at the 900 corners does a hypotenuse-type effect create a distance which is greater, from sharp point to sharp point, than .015 outside and 015 inside the basic profile. With profile, use of a datum or datums is optional; but, in this case. a seating surface has been used as a primary datum feature for part stability and repeatability during inspection and also to reflect the way the part seats in the Profile 2s assembly. ‘The actual surface of the part, if it resides within the tolerance zone, will be controlled for size, form (including surface flatness, where appropriate), perpendicularity of one surface to another as shown and, because of datum A, line element perpendicularity of the profile to datum plane A. This tolerance zone can easily be simulated in an optical comparator overlay created specifically for this part (see "Means This" portion of FIG. 13-6) and, subsequently, inspected on an optical comparator, pethaps similar to the one shown in the next illustration, when properly seated on datum feature A. A strong light source strikes the part and its enlarged image is shown on the screen to which the appropriately enlarged transparency overlay of the tolerance zone has been clamped. If the image can be manipulated (while maintaining the required datum relationship) to fall within the tolerance zone, the controlled feature is on its way to acceptance. The thicker the part, the more the possibility increases that pits in the surfaces or the out of-perpendicularity of the line elements to datum A may not have been reflected in the screen image and must be inspected. These items, as well as the par’s thickness, should be investigated before finally accepting the part. FIG. 13-7 OPTICAL COMPARATOR 326 Chapter 13 Section 13.2 THE POWER AND VERSATILITY OF PROFILE TO CONTROL IRREGULAR AND UNUSUAL FEATURES Profile is the Y14.5 Standard’s most versatile geometric control, It is capable of handling many of the most difficult situations, When a person is having trouble geometrically defining tolerances of size, form, orientation and/or position of irregular features for those configurations that the other ‘geometric characteristic symbols are unable to handle, profile may be un- leashed upon them. Quite often, it turns an otherwise difficult problem of geo- ‘metric definition into one easily solved, Some of the advantages of profile are: ‘+ itt may be used as a three dimensional surface control as in Q\ or a two dimensional line element control with A, + the tolerance zone may be either equal bilateral, unequal bilateral, unilateral inside, oF unilateral outside, + datums may be used to orient or locate tolerance zones, oF + not used at al. FIG. 13-8 ‘STEP ONE a : I | Profile a7 ‘Step 1: This controls the size and shape of the cavity in FIG. 13-8 by setting the size and form of the tolerance zone, This tolerance zone is all around and unilateral outside, The controlled profile must be equal to or larger than the basic dimensions that define the inner boundary of the profile tolerance zone. FIG. 13-9 STEP TWO pal a | | del (a Phen 005 ) STEP THREE ag wa ai ig 328 Chapter 13 Regarding FIG. 13-9: Step 2: This controls the size, shape and perpendicularty of the surface elements of the cavity. The tolerance zone consists of two uniform ‘boundaries. The inner portion of the zone is sized by the basic dimensions ‘The outer zone is uniformly 005 larger all around, The zone boundaries are perpendicular to datum plane A. To conform, the produced surface must reside within (between) the boundaries ofthe profile zone. Step 3: This controls the size, shape, perpendicularity and location of the surface of the cavity. Basic dimensions from the added datums B and C locate a profile tolerance zone that already had size, form and (line element) perpendicularity to datum plane A. If the controlled surface, as produced, resides within the profile tolerance zone, it is within its limits of size, form, orientation and (now) location, If the mating feature in the nex illustration is dimensioned and toleranced in a similar manner, with its profile zone given as unilateral inside, the controlled features stand an extremely good chance of mating at assembly. FIG. 13:10 PROFILE Mating Part Dimensioning and Geometric Tolerancing of Complex Feature Surfaces ‘Step 4: Dimension and geometrically tolerance this external counterpart for the cavity to mate with the design in FIG. 13-8. The external feature must fit into the internal feature and the datum features should be representative from ppart to part, How different would this be if the dimensions on both parts were all given as plus and minus dimensions? 329 029 oan NOISIG % ONRIZ3NION3 YO3 BINLULSNI : is fo poupeds seniaino ssoun :szoNMATOL a a Ba ue bs evo Tacs] Profile FIG. 13-11 waspboy aoonnuis a [looky oo (Belv] ooo TS} 2o0'F ont @ (@iooeTT} 330 Chapter 13 ‘The part in FIG. 13-11 is dimensioned and toleranced in a manner that implies a manufacturing sequence. Some features are based on the pre- existence of other features. It begins with a blank part and either datum feature A exists and is already flat to within .001, or it is implied datum feature A is finished as the first geometric tolerance to be complied with. The hole designated as datum feature B is related to datum feature A, which at that point in the geometric definition is the only existing datum feature to which B ‘may be related. Their shared relationship is one of perpendicularity ‘This perpendicularity relationship is toleranced in the feature control frame. It can be read, “The axis of datum feature B may be out-of- perpendicularity a diameter of .001 if feature B is produced at maximum ‘material condition (a diameter of .124) to datum plane A". This, of course. implies that after datum feature A (the opposing side of which is probably relatively non-functional but exists), datum feature B is created. After A and B are defined/created, every other feature on the part is implied as a simultaneous creation, This has been done in two ways. The first is that every other control on the drawing uses datums A (as primary for perpendicularity) and B (as secondary for location) at maximum material condition (really, at its virtual condition in its interrelationship to datum A. a diameter of .123). The second way is through the use of clarifying (and redundant) notes that state all remaining features are a simultaneous requirement. {tis implied that all these features produced simultaneously (in fone set-up); and, if datum feature B grows larger than its virtual condition of 2 9.123, the pattern shift allowed, if experienced, must shift all these simultaneous features from datum axis B in the same direction. This assures that these features may continue to function as one pattern of features at the same time (simultaneously). For example, if all these features are to mate or align with features on ‘one other part, if all maintain their distances/relationships from one another, they stand a much better chance of mating than if some features were allowed to shift from datum axis B one way and other features to shift another way. Shifting of features in different directions from datum axis B as feature B grows would be allowed if the local notes beneath each feature control frame stated a "SEPARATE REQUIREMENT (SEP REQT)" instead of a “SIMULTANEOUS REQUIREMENT (SIM REQTY” In reality, manufacturing does not have to follow the implied man- vufacturing sequence if it is able to hold the required relationships through different manufacturing procedures. Inspection procedures will determine if Profile a these relationships between the controlled features have been held sufficiently to allow them to function as one pattern of features (simultaneous). However, this method of implying a manufacturing sequence is useful 10 convey 10 readers of the design drawing the requirements and interrelationships which are needed to be held to allow the part to function. The profile of the part is treated, as are the holes, as one team of features all working together, related through datums A and B to one another. FIG. 13-12 shows an example of a profile of a surface control that not only applies all around in the view depicted, but in all views simultaneously. ‘The local note "ALL OVER" is shown beneath the profile feature control frame to convey that this is a profile zone that tolerances the basic dimensions in all views. This "ALL OVER" profile tolerance zone is continuous, enveloping the part three dimensionally. It creates two boundaries .006 apart, (003 on each side of the basic profile shown by the basic dimensions, an equal bilateral tolerance. These two boundaries control the size limits of the part (largest and smallest), its form and orientation, and location (to datum axis A) 332 FIG. 13-12 Chapter 13 PROFILE OF A SURFACE ALL OVER AL oR (res sunrmcous.y ‘AL Vis) L ‘ herwise. specified ‘00% Profile 33 Section 13.3 COMPOSITE PROFILE vs. TWO SINGLE SEGMENT PROFILE CONTROLS Like their counterpart controls in the position category, composite profile and two (separate) single segment profile controls can take on a difference in ‘meaning in some situations, while having the same meaning in others. For example, a composite profile control, such as: 05 [alale| (0.25) where datum A is used to control perpendicularity and datums B and C are for location, the meaning is exactly the same as two single segment profile controls such as: [Sfosfalelc] Two Single Segment Profile Tolerances [S025 FIG. 13-13 ie} 5 38 Chapter 13, In both cases, the upper level control acts to confine the location to 374 Chapter 15 FIG, 15-28 9.750 £.005 62.375 +.002 OEO } ] 7 fe 1.000-} 1.000 be 0 oor 2 +,005 ay chucking “7 Inieator Readings oo top "bor, -002, ~003, -002 eter | “F001, +.002,-.001, 4.005 Location 375 By touching the surface with probes or indicators on the datum feature as in FIG. 15-2A (1), we ate probably not able to comply with the same accuracy im establishing an appropriate datum axis as when we use a collet-type ‘chucking device as shown in FIG. 15-2B. However, when the use of such a device is not available, probes or indicators may be used, When probes or indicators are used, as many points as possible should be taken and the highest points probed used to establish the datum axis from the datum feature In the example shown in FIG. 15-2, one should align the object with the ‘measurement equipment making the simulation of the datum feature axis coincident with the equipments rotating axis, Then (2) record the difference in radius at a predetermined number of diametrically-opposing points on the controlled feature to determine the location of the median points, The departure from perfect concentricity is calculated by using these median point locations and comparing them to the location of the datum axis (as simulated by the axis of the measurement equipment). This method can be applied to internal as well as external diameters. Its reliability is enhanced by computer- assisted measurement equipment. It is also helpful if a polar diagram is generated for a visual display of collected data. Section 15.2 THE RETURN OF SYMMETRY ‘The symmetry symbol was absent from the ANSI Y14.SM-1982 Standard. It was decided that symmetry should be replaced by position to control features for centering. It was reasoned that because position could also center rectangular features such as slots and tabs and could be used at MMC, RFS or LMC (whereas symmetry could only be used at RFS), that use of the position symbol in place of the symmetry symbol would make the symmetry concept more versatile. After 1982, the ANSI Y14.5 Committee considered the discontinuance of the concentricity symbol for the 1994 revision. It was reasoned that, because cconcentricity was also for centering features of size, it was the same concept as symmetry, except for the fact that each symbol controlled different feature shapes. Concentricity controlled circular-type features and symmetry controlled parallel planar opposing features, but position could control either. ‘And, whereas both symmetry and concenticity were always to be used RFS. 376 Chapter 15 position was under no such constraints and could be used at RFS, MMC or even have the tolerance controlled at LMC. So, for a short time in the writing of the ANSI Y14.5M-1994 Standard on Dimensioning and Tolerancing, the concentricity symbol was to be replaced (as the symmetry symbol had been) by position. ‘However, at one point, a committee member spoke against the banishment of the concentricity symbol. He pointed out that although the concepts of Concentricity and symmetry were essentially the same, position was quite a bit different. Position controlled the axes and centerplanes of the mating size of a feature. It controlled, for example, the axial location of the maximum inscribed cylinder of a hole (simulated by the largest gage pin capable of being inserted) and the axis of the minimum circumscribed cylinder of a shaft Position was concerned as to whether or not the maximum inscribed cylinder ‘or the minimum circumscribed cylinder axis was located within the positional tolerance zone (see FIG. 15-3). FIG. 15-3 t =e Dotum Feature A. ~ Gina of Cantata’ Feature Dotum Asia sen. einen roma Fase Se Ss as Location a7 Concentricity, on the other hand, was not concerned about that at all, but rather tried to control the location of the “cloud of median points” created ‘when all 1800 opposing-point sets of a diameter were averaged (see below). FIG. 15-4 Ola csp at 4.800 +.005 Moons ‘hie Moimum Greamscrioee Cynder Dotum Feature: oF Batom Factors #.005 toerance zone a ‘antered ‘Satan hee Datum asi A Controieg Faatore Daren Maden w/e lado Point —Y sage, onirage Fetare, Maat reese nthin After some discussion, the committee saw the difference and agreed that since the symbols did not control exactly the same geometric characteristics. both should be allowed. It was decided concentricity would stay in the Y14.5M Standard. At that point, a callective realization dawned. If cconcentricity was the same basic concept as symmetry (centering features by taking the differential opposing surface point locations) and neither was the same as position (control of the axis or centerplane of the perfect geometric counterpart of the produced feature), then all tools were needed in the Standard~if the Standard as a box of tools was to be complete. Therefore, symmetry was put back into the ANSI Y14.5M Standard for the 1994 revision after an absence of twelve years. AAll median points of all opposed elements of the controlled feature of size (the slot) shown in FIG. 15-5 may form an entity that waffles, pits. bumps or is uniformly curved, It reflects the middle of every 2 opposing points of the slot and, so, the entity goes where the surface takes it. In this example, all median points must reside within the tolerance zone created perpendicular to primary datum plane C and centered about secondary centerplane A. This 378 Chapter 15 tolerance zone is between two parallel planes which are 00S apart and equally distributed about datum centerplane A (.0025 on each side). If all median points of the slot reside within the tolerance zone, the slot is within its symmetry tolerance, The zone receives neither growth (no MMC symbol is allowed after the geometric tolerance of 005) nor shift (no MMC symbol is allowed after datum feature of size A). The regardless of feature size concept is implied throughout the contro FIG. 15-5 |— seco sans] |__f ac ponee, while perpendcuir te dolam Bore 05! oe hn al Bsttorictenen Setetate Soon esac) oe 402s ena sete coer, Sk Say tet rand ie bias Cag Soin Ma Ca Sah ST Dera Medion Plane “Clu of Pans "dated ramen Location 379 If a centerplane control of the slot’s mating size is desired, a position control may be used instead of a symmetry control. ‘The position control is allowed to use the MMC, LMC or RFS concepts. As with all geometric controls, if the RFS concept is desired, no circled S is needed, since it is implied (unless the circled M or L is stated) In FIG. 15-6 below, the tolerance zone is equally distributed about the centerplane of primary datum feature A. It is a total wide tolerance zone of 0.08, of which 0.04 lies on each side of centerplane A. FIG. 15-6 INSPECTION OF SYMMETRY ssze-ssan f— -—}- 215-225 | 1 x a a 340 Chapter 15, ‘The median plane of the slot is derived. The measurement procedure shown in this illustration is only viable if the two opposing surfaces that ‘comprise datum feature A are very parallel. In this example, one side of datum feature A is set-up on the surface plate, then a dial indicator and stand (also on the surface plate) is run over one side of the slot--recording its height at all points. The part is then rotated 180° to allow the opposing side of datum feature A to rest on the surface plate. The indicator then records the height of all points on the opposite side of the slot. ‘The readings on the opposing sides of the slot are compared and the differences recorded and used to determine violations of, or compliance with, the symmetry tolerance zone. ‘A more appropriate set-up to establish the centerplane of datum feature A would be comprised of two parallel planar rails at minimum possible separation while touching the high points of the opposing sides of datum feature A. Section 15.3 POSITION Position is the most often used of the geometric characteristics. Its impact on part functionality, interchangeablitty, repeatability, cost savings and clarity of design intent have been dramatic. It uses functional origins of measurement, basic dimensions and symbology inside of feature control frames that explain design requirements clearer than could any written words. Positional tolerancing is capable of generating a tolerance zone that confines the center, centerplane or axis of a feature of size (a feature that is spherical, cylindrical, two parallel planar/opposing surfaces or a set of ‘opposed elements). Itis also capable of confining a surface or surfaces within or outside of (as applicable) a boundary. This boundary, discussed extensively in this text, is known as the virtual condition (MMC or LMC concepts). This unit explores all facets of position, its uses and the inspection procedures used to verify compliance. ‘A simple, yet effective use of position is for situations similar to the illustration in FIG. 15-7. This illustration shows a six-sided part with four clearance holes. The position of these holes is geometrically defined by these key controls: Location 381 FIG. 15-7 4X6 008.010 [o ow ® Pleo] | 5500 s.020 pepe | 000 +.020 (F305) wal fats ee 1) A datum reference frame is established from which to measure. Datum feature D is chosen as primary, datum feature B as secondary and datum feature C as tertiary. These datum features have high points, which will be used to establish a simulation (in the manufacturing and inspection equipment) of a datum reference frame. This datum reference frame consists of three mutually perpendicular planes. The planes are established in their order of precedence (the order defined in the feature control frame). First, atleast 3 high points of contact from the primary datum feature are needed to establish the primary datum plane. If the highest point or points on the surface are somewhere in its middle, an undesirable rocking effect could cause difficulty in establishing a repeatable datum plane. A flatness control could be used to diminish this problem. 382 Chapter 15 ‘The primary datum plane having thus been established, a secondary datum plane is simulated which is perpendicular to the primary. This datum plane is established from the high points of the secondary datum feature while the primary feature is still in 3 point contact with its datum feature simulator. The secondary datum plane is simulated from at least 2 high points on the secondary datum feature, Again, rocking effects could be minimized through the use of form (flatness) or orientation (perpendicularity) type controls AA tertiary (third) datum plane, which is mutually perpendicular to the first two (primary and secondary) datum planes, is established from the tertiary datum feature. This is done while the primary and secondary datum features maintain their respective 3 and 2 point contact with the primary and secondary datum feature simulators. The tertiary datum plane is established by a minimum of | high point of contact from the tertiary datum feature, These three mutually perpendicular planes are used for positive part orientation for purposes of manufacturing and inspection, 2) Basic dimensions are used, generating from the location datums (B and C) to define the theoretically exact (true) axis position of the four holes Because these basic dimensions have no tolerance in defining where each true axis position of the holes is, they can be chain dimensioned from one another with no accumulation of tolerance from the datum-to-feature and feature-to-feature dimensions. The position of each hole has an exact perfect axis location, This perfect location is called the "true position” of the hole. This perfect location is what we will target as the produced location of each hole (as applicable), However, recognizing that this, exact location can never be attained (because nothing can in reality be ‘made perfect), we must build a tolerance zone about these exact locations. ‘These tolerance zones are described in the feature control frame. 3) The feature control frame contains vital information as to: + the geometric characteristic being used. As we can see, position is used in this contro. + the shape of the tolerance zone which is described, or implied. In this cease, the tolerance zone shape is described as a diameter (cylindrical tolerance zone) centered about the true position of the controlled holes. The produced holes mating size axis must reside within these tolerance zones, Location 383 + the diameter of the tolerance zone (which has true position as its exact center), defined as .030, ‘+ the material condition used to define when the given tolerance applies. In this case, the tolerance of a diameter of .030 applies to each hole when the hole is at its maximum material condition of .190. Should the feature depart from its MMC (in this case, grow) within its size limits, additional positional tolerance is gained. Since there is an additional 020 of tolerance in each hole's size limits to be drawn from, this .030 diameter tolerance zone has the capability of growing toa maximum of 050 diameter for any hole made at its largest size (Least Material Condition) of .210 diameter. Of course, should any hhole depart from its MMC by any amount (within size limits), the positional tolerance zone of that hole would grow by the same amount. These tolerance zones are perfectly cylindrical and perpendicular to the orientation datum (D). Datums B and C (as previously discussed) use the basic dimensions to show where the hole's perfect axis location exists, as well as each tolerance zone's center. FIG. 15-8 FLOATING FASTENERS a4 Chapter 15, Floating Fastners As can be seen in FIG, 15-8, a floating fastener assembly can consist of ‘wo or more components with any number of corresponding non-threaded through holes, These components are to be fastened together with separate components (screws/nuts). The screws in this illustration are considered floating fasteners. ‘They have no set orientation until they pass through both parts and the nut is applied. Thus, the danger of the floating fastener formulae for positional tolerance application not allowing for enough clearance for out-of-squareness (asis the case with fixed fasteners) is eliminated, ‘The floating fastener formulae are as follows: ional tolerance for all holes H=T+F HT ‘These formulae can be used to deduce tolerance to be assigned to holes in the assembly: or, if that information is given, the hole MMC or even the closest applicable fastener MMC size can be calculated for use. If the tolerance size is sought and both pars possess holes with the same size limits, then the formula T = H.-F only has to be used once to calculate the positional tolerance for all clearance holes under consideration on both parts. However, if the hole size limits vary between the mating parts, you will have to use the formula once for each part. Projected Tolerance Zones (Fixed Fasteners) Tolerance zones projected beyond a feature’s surface simulate the ‘maximum thickness of mating parts or the maximum height of shafts (studs, bolts. ete.) projecting from the controlled hole, Conventional location or perpendicularity controls do not provide sufficiently for the possible out-of- squareness of threaded or tight fitting holes. Fixed fastener formulas from ANSI Y14.5 can be used to determine positional tolerance for threaded holes However, should the produced threaded holes use part of that positional tolerance for out-of-perpendicularity, a no-fit situation most likely will occur when screws are introduced to bind the parts together. Therefore, it is recommended that projected tolerance zones be used on all threaded holes unless the screws that are to be threaded in do not protrude beyond the threads of the hole, such as inthe case of set screws. ‘An example of the use of one of the fixed fastener formulas is given on the next page, Location 3as ‘The MMC of the fastener (that will fit into the threaded hole) subtracted from the MMC of the clearance hole of the mating part (through which the fastener will pass to connect the two parts) equals the tolerance to be divided ‘up and assigned to threaded and clearance holes. Although this tolerance may be divided equally between the two parts (between the threaded holes and the clearance holes) it is more desirable to divide this tolerance based on difficulty of manufacture, The largest portion of the allowance should be assigned to the most difficult to manufacture features. It should also be remembered that the centering effect of the threaded holes tends to negate a major portion of ‘bonus positional tolerance gained as the pitch diameter of the threaded hole grows. Therefore, one should consider assigning a greater portion of the allowance to the threaded holes’ positional tolerance than to the clearance holes, Also, one should consider that a large pool of size tolerance on the clearance holes, which may be drawn from as one for one bonus positional tolerance, reduces the amount of original positional tolerance needed for the clearance holes. MMC (clearance hole) 385, ~ MMC (fastener) 3158, Allowance 010 010 = 005 If one chooses to divide the allowance equally then allowance = geometric tolerance to be assigned to each 2 hole on each part This tolerance could be assigned in a conventional manner: FIG. 15-9 Bt ities THT ntl wy However, should the hole be produced several thousandths (of the 005) cout-of-perpendicular to datum A, the chances of a threaded fastener passing through the clearance hole of a mating part of any real thickness and screwing, 386 Chapter 15 into the threaded hole become remote. In order to guard against this very likely possibility, one must either enlarge the size of the clearance holes to ‘outrageous proportions, refine the perpendicularity or position of the threaded hholes using an elaborate formula that figures in mating part thickness, or use projected tolerance zones. Inspecting Threaded Holes ‘The location of a threaded hole’s axis is often incorrectly checked by putting an unthreaded gage pin into the hole's minor diameter. The gage pin is then probed for location only atthe surface of the part. This method gives us two dimensional information about a three dimensional feature, and it gives that information about the location of @ point on the axis of the minor diameter rather than locating the entire axis of the hole's pitch diameter (oshich is what is required) Algo, the tolerance zone, if not removed entirely from the threaded hole and projected only outside of the part through the height of the axis of the screw or stud above the inerfacing/seating surface, will give information that cannot be relied on to determine if the part will actually assemble. The axis of the screw takes on the location ofthe hole itis threaded into, but the angle is exaggerated. FIG. 15-10 See part Location 387 ‘This may allow a threaded hole to pass an inspection procedure, but if a gage screw was threaded into the hole and its axis inspected for violations of a projected tolerance zone, it would fail. The part must be inspected as functions, or as close to that as is possible, or functionality cannot be verified. Projected tolerance zones are recommended for threaded holes or tight-fitting/press-fitting holes where a screw or pin will be inserted in a later operation If the part shown in FIG. 15-9 using conventional positional tolerancing was given position using a projected tolerance zone, it would appear like this FIG. 15-11 ‘This assumes the threaded fastener goes through the mating part and the mating part has a thickness of 1.500 or the threaded fastener (once screwed into the controlled hole) will protrude 1.500 up from the top surface of the part. The overriding factor in deciding the height of the projected tolerance zone is the height that the screw or stud protrudes beyond the surface of the threaded hole. Some mistakenly believe the tolerance zone once projected, resides not only outside of, but also within the part surface (in the threaded hole). This is not true. Once projected, the positional tolerance zone resides only beyond the confines of the threaded hole. The projected tolerance zone could also be shown with the use of a chain line as in FIG, 15-12, In FIG. 15- 11 and FIG. 15-12, the tolerance zone applies above the surface of primary datum A. A functional gage that simulates the mating part situation may be used to determine if the feature axis, when projected 1.500 above the par’s primary datum plane, lies within the ,00S tolerance zone depicted in the figure in FIG. 15-13. aaa FIG. 15-12 1.5000 iE FIG. 15-13 Chapter 15 9.375~16UNC~28 (Ole. OODEM i ® .005 Tol. Zone ‘Axis of Thread oe 1.500 Projected Tol. Zone Location 389 Threaded Holes Treated as Screws to Calculate Virtual Condition ‘The virtual condition of a threaded hole controlled with perpendicularity or position with a projected tolerance zone at MMC should be calculated exactly as though it were a screw. Use the MMC size of the screw that will fit into the hole, then add that MMC to the geometric tolerance ( 4. or ® ) to get the virtual condition (MMC concept). (Note: This also works for RFS conditions to calculate the worst mating boundary size.) ‘This virtual condition may be used to build a functional gage to check the tapped hole, The functional gage can consist of a plate to represent the A datum, It will have a hole in it the calculated virtual condition size. If the control is true position instead of perpendicularity, the axis of the gage hole will be at true position as simulated from the datum planes that make up the complete datum reference frame, With the actual part in the datum reference frame, if the screw made for the tapped hole can pass through the hole in the ‘gage and screw into the actual part, the part is good ‘The question is often asked as to whether the RFS or MMC concept should be employed in threaded holes. When a screw is inserted into a threaded hole, there is some "play" (slop, if you will) during assembly. This slop between the screw and threaded hole is the result of the pitch diameter of the screw being smaller than the pitch diameter of the threaded hole, and this, slop or “play” helps us to more easily assemble the parts. Hence, there is ‘more slop if the class of fit is @ 1B instead of a 2B, and even less for a class 3B threaded hole, ‘The larger the pitch diameter of the hole, the more "play (slop) we derive, If the "play" is utilized to help us assemble the products, it should be allowed as additional tolerance during the inspection procedure. This is bonus tolerance, and using the MMC concept in the control recognizes that, If you ‘can't measure the bonus tolerance, the dimensioning and tolerancing engineer ‘can suggest gaging procedures that will automatically accommodate the allowed minimum bonus tolerance available for that hole (for example, functional receiver-type gaging). If you do not wish to utilize the bonus tolerance because you can’t ‘quantify its exact number of thousandths of an inch or portions of a millimeter, that is your decision. Use of the RFS symbol in the control will negate it in the inspection procedure. Still, for a tolerancing engineer (as merely a describer of physical phenomena) to say it doesn't exist by putting in an RFS modifier instead of an MMC is not recommended. The RFS symbol ‘implies that the hole contracts to meet the screw size--and that is rarely true. 390 Chapter 15, In visualizing the act of a screw and threaded hole assembling, don't view the additional "play" (as the hole’s pitch diameter grows) as a tolerance zone ‘growth, rather see it as allowing you to use the available "play" to push the screw over into the projected tolerance zone of the hole. In inspection, see the ‘gage screw as entitled to the same advantage. Because, however itis viewed, ‘additional tolerance exists even if it is small and we cant ascribe a number to it. As tolerancing engineers, we are tellers of physical truths. A feature control frame is nothing but a sentence in the form of symbols strung together like words and phrases. If we lie in a geometric control, the result is usually either: 1) parts that work are rejected, or 2) Parts that don’t work are accepted Importance of Formulae for Floating Fastener Situations or Fixed Fastener Situations ‘The formulae for floating and fixed fastener situations are important in so much as they allow mating parts to have size and positional tolerance in combination so as to create a situation wherein the worst mating conditions of the mating parts will be compatible For example, in the floating fastener cases, the main purpose of inputting the MMC of the holes and the MMC of the fasteners into the formula to calculate the holes’ positional tolerance is to create a MMC concept virtual condition (a boundary or tube) equal to or greater than the MMC of the fastener that will fill it. This virtual condition boundary will run through the thickness of both parts and no special or extra data must be inserted into the formula. It works for any number of holes and any number of hole patterns. ‘The important factor in whether or not the parts will mate at assembly is the positional MMC concept virtual condition boundary being compatible on each part for every respective hole each fastener fits through. With fixed fasteners, the principle is the same, If the worst mating conditions are compatible (with help from projected tolerance zones, where applicable), the parts will mate at assembly. Projected Tolerance Zones for Tight Fitting Holes ‘The reason we use projected tolerance zones on tight fitting holes is to assure that once the shaft is pushed into the hole, it won't lean too far to increase its effective mating size and not allow it to mate with (fit inside of) the hole(s) on the mating parts). The fit of the shaft, although tight fitting into one part. is not necessarily a tight fit into the other (mating) part Location 39 FIG. 15-14 PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONES (Verification Without Functional Gaging) #.375~16UNC~28 [BI a 005 © O10] re Besides the use of functional gaging to check the location of this threaded hole, verification can also be accomplished through the use of a pin threaded ‘on one end (to the depth of the hole) and with a smoothly ground (1.5" long) periphery on the other. The threaded end could be screwed into the full depth of the controlled hole, the part oriented to and positioned from datums A, C, and B and the axis of the 1.5" length checked with conventional methods for location to determine if the axis of the hole, as dictated by the pitch cylinder, when projected over the height specified [1.5 inches], exceeds the confines of the .005 diameter tolerance zone. 392 FIG. 15-15 INSPECTING THREADED HOLES Possible oval locations and ‘raratine of he: treated flee ptchdometee ver the height ot the crew” (and toting part) if projected (Glerance’ sone ie not used 4.008 tolerance zone focaton W projected Gsorerpar"s Sl 4.005 tolerance zone tocation pro tolerance zone is not True Poston Chapter 15 Sisoxoiieg Location 393 FIG. 15-16 TRUE POSITION LOCATORS FOR THREADED HOLES ‘Stade ar mone bee Threaded plug gage pins are often used to inspect the position of threaded holes that have a projected tolerance zone. ‘The pin is screwed into the hole ‘Then the CMM probe or the dial indicator determines the hole location over the height of the tolerance projection. 394 Chapter 15 FIG, 15-17 PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONES 750 — 16 uNF-28 ca Res | [i Ee sor ein This illustration shows a somewhat unusual datum reference frame that hhas been established to orient and locate a threaded hole. The datum reference frame uses two coplanar surfaces to establish the primary datum plane (A), a ‘datum target line establishes the secondary datum plane B, and datum target C forms the tertiary datum plane. Since the tolerance zone for the threaded hole is projected above the curved surface on the inside radius and the zone is offset from the primary datum plane (A) which acts to orient the zone, a chain Tine has been used next to the hole's centerline to show the location, direction and length of the projected tolerance zone, The zone is oriented by datum plane A, but begins at the inner curve and projects up a minimum of 3 inches. Any information concerning the threaded hole's compliance with the cylindrical projected positional tolerance zone must be given in regards to the hole’s axis as dictated by its pitch cylinder. No portion of the projected tolerance zone exists within the part. The axis of the pitch cylinder, when projected, must lie within the zone as the axis leaves the part and must remain within the zone constantly until it reaches the height of 3 inches. After that, it may lean beyond the 005 diameter of the true position requirement since the requirement ceases to apply beyond that height, A threaded gage pin is recommended to simulate the axis of the threaded hole’s pitch cylinder as dictated by the hole in its projection beginning at the surface and extending up to 3 inches above the pars surface. Location 395 FIG, 15-18 POSITIONAL COAXIALITY fee eels | oe eens In the illustration above, the controlled feature of size has been positioned to datum feature A at MMC. As the feature control frame says: when the controlled feature is made at a diameter of .590 (MMC), its axis must be ‘within a diameter of 000 from the axis formed by datum feature A if produced at MMC (1.000). No basic dimensions are needed to tell us the true position of the controlled feature, Its true position is when its axis is in perfect alignment coaxial with datum axis A at MMC. Realistically, we know datum feature A will not be made uniformly perfect and exactly at MMC (1.000). Therefore, where is true position for the controlled feature? The answer is that its true position exists only in space. ‘When functional gages are made to check coaxial relationships such as these, true position is simulated in the gage. We know the gage is not perfect, but it is a simulation of a perfectly coaxial relationship between the controlled feature and the datum feature, Consider a produced part that fits into this functional gage (two coaxial holes, one a 8.590 and one a @1.000). True position is simulated at the center of this gage shown in FIG. 15-19, In FIG. 15-18, if either feature was made at MMC and the other was rot, the feature made perfectly uniform and exactly at its MMC could be viewed as the one with its axis at true position, That means that if the controlled feature was made uniformly perfect at a diameter of .590 but datum feature A was made at (for example) a diameter of .995, then the controlled feature would be at true position--but the datum feature would not By that same logic, if datum feature A was made uniformly perfect at a diameter of 1,000, we could say it was at true position if the controlled feature 396 Chapter 15 FIG. 15-19 was made at less than MMC. In FIG. 15-19, if this is the functional gage and true position is atthe center of the gage, any diameter made at its MMC (if the Produced part fits into the gage) has its center at true position (the center of, the gage) ‘As the drawing states, when both the datum feature and the controlled feature are made at MMC, there is no allowed error of coaxiality. However, as either or both depart from MMC (within size limits), a deviation in coaxialty is allowed. This deviation is equal to the sum of the two features’ eparture from MMC. In other words, ifthe controlled feature was made at a diameter of 580 (or 010 from MMC) and the datum feature was made at a diameter of 996 (or 004 from MMC), the allowed out-of-position (coaxiality) error between the two features would be a diameter of 014 (.007 radially) This type of one-for-one allowed shift and additional eccentricity of the tolerance zone as the datum feature departs from MMC is possible only because of the simple geometry of coaxial features (and, in the case of the illustration shown, the simplicity of one feature controlled to one datum feature). It should be noted that non-coaxial features with more than one controlled feature and/or more than one datum feature of size effect a more complex geometry. In these situations, as the datum feature or features of size depart from MMC, the effect on the patterns of the controlled features is often mote difficult to discern and, in fact, may not be as simple to calculate as a Location one-for-one allowed shift in their tolerance zones from the datum axis or centerplane. Instead, they receive their shift as a pattern (group). controlled features shift because the datum feature's departure from MMC allows it, the controlled holes or shafts must all shift the same amount and in the same direction. Datum Controlled ‘Allowed Feature Size Within a Diameter Eccentricity 1.000 590 000 000 1,000 589 001 (0005 1.000 587 003, 01s 1,000 580 010 (00s 1.000 515 ols (0075 1.000 ‘570 020 010 999 570 021 ‘010s 998, 570 022 oll 995 ‘570 025 0125 992 ‘570 028 O14 990 570 030 15 995 580 ois 0075 998, 588 004 002 994 582 O14 007 FIG. 15-20 POSITIONAL COAXIALITY #.990-1.000 #1.990-2,000 D] e020 ©. 397 ‘Allowed. If the 398 Chapter 15, ‘As has been discussed, in the kind of situation shown in FIG, 15-20, as the controlled feature departs from MMC to LMC, the positional tolerance zone constructed about the datum axis grows from a diameter of .020 to a ‘maximum diameter of .030, Should the datum feature in that situation be made perfectly cylindrical and at its MMC (a diameter of 1,000), then it can be assumed that the datum feature axis and the datum axis are the same (occupy the same position in space). In that case, the farthest the controlled feature axis could be located from the datum axis and the datum feature axis would be .015 radially, FIG. 15-21 CONTROLLED FEATURE TOLERANCE ZONE Possible position of controlled feature gxis. may lle 0 ‘maximum af “015 radially from the datum feoture axe. Controled feature tolerance ‘Datum axe ond datum tecture zone, ¢ diameter of 030 with coxis (when datum feature is feature mode ot LMC. made perfectly cylindrical and ot MMC). If, however, the datum feature is produced at less than MMC, a zone is created about the datum axis in which the datum feature axis may shift away from the datum axis. For the example shown, the shift zone would have a ‘maximum diameter of 010 when the datum feature is produced at LMC (a diameter of 990) ‘When these two types of zones exist on the same part, the result is that both the controlled feature axis and the datum feature axis may move away from the datum axis within their respective zones. Consequently, they may move away from one another a maximum of the sum of the radii of their zones Location 399 FIG. 15-22 DATUM FEATURE SHIFT (DISPLACEMENT FROM DATUM AXIS) ZONE. Possie position of datum feoture ots, R may deport ftom the pasion of Be. dtu ‘One a: maximum of 003 radial Dotum feature axis tolerance ‘whieh the catum feature axis moy shift may from the datum ex.” Tis one {g'a moximum of O10 when oti feature Te made at Lic {As shown in FIG. 15-23, both zones are constructed about the datum axis. Ifthe zones were at their maximum sizes (because the features are produced at LMC), the controlled feature axis could liea maximum of .015 radially from the #500 #.005, 4X 6.250 4.004 Although the simultaneous requirement and gaging rule states that use of the same planar datum features in the same order of precedence for patterns with different size features automatically makes them part of the same pattern and stops one pattern from moving away from the other to within more than 462 Chapter 15, the stated datum-to-pattern tolerance, we often have need to also keep the holes within those patterns to be considered locked together to within a smaller feature-to-feature tolerance. If one chooses not {0 use notes or to ‘make one of the features within a pattern, or even the entire pattern of features, a datum, the method in FIG. 15-58 is one that is recommended. ‘These five holes are considered one pattern of features not only in the datum- {o-pattern relationship but also in their feature-to-feature relationship and are tobe gaged as such, In FIG. 15-59, a simultaneous requirement is created when the same datum features are used in the same order of precedence in multiple feature control frames on the same part. If one or more of the datum features is @ datum feature of size, the same material condition symbol must also be used after the datum feature(s) of size to invoke the simultaneous requirement. A local note with the words "Simultaneous Requirement” under the feature control frame is also sometimes used. This means that all features within the simultaneous requirement are tied together as one pattern of features. As the datum features of size depart from their MMC (or virtual condition as applicable), all features within the pattern are allowed a movement (a shift) However, they must move/shift as a group, all in the same direction. In FIG. 15-60, a simultaneous requirement is created when the same datum features are used in the same order of precedence in multiple feature control frames on the same part. If one or more of the datum features is a datum feature of size, the same material condition symbol must also be used after the datum feature(s) of size to invoke the simultaneous requirement. A simultaneous requirement means that the same set-up or gage must be used to inspect all tolerance zones simultaneously that are part of the simultaneous requirement. In this case, the requirement applies in both views. If one of the tolerance zones refines the tolerance given in another control, a portion of the larger tolerance zone may be rendered unusable. Such is the case with the profile zones given in FIG. 15-60. Location 463 FIG. 15-59 SIMULTANEOUS REQUIREMENT o{ele25/e8) Simultaneous Requirement Means this: XN de dtr feature B the pater ot Srowth in ony rection A simultaneous requirement is created when the same datum featres ae vcd in the fame oxder of precedence in multiple feature contol frames onthe same part. If one ‘x more ofthe datum features isa Catum feature of sie. the same mate condition Spmbol must alto be used afer the datum features) of size to invoke the SXmultancousrequitement A local note withthe words “Simultancous Requirement Under the featur contol fame i also sometimes used. This mean tha al features ‘within the simultaneous requuement are ed tgeer as one pattem of features At ‘he datum feats of size depar from their MMC (or virtual condition, as aplicable). all Teaures witha the pater are allowed a movement (ashi). However. hey must Imovelshift a group al in the same direction 464 Chapter 15 FIG, 15-60 SIMULTANEOUS REQUIREMENT RFS CieeN | / BiSine oH{eezs/Ae| \ Means this: Unable portion of tl, zone Hite £0°9.25 an och en Sarees (fo, |) ea sezeyp ol. cepsreres LL eee frees (LT Of || Se oh pias (Ta taleonce sone ‘A simultaneous requirement is created when the same datum features are used in the ‘same order of precedence in muluiple feature contol frames on the same part. If one ‘or more ofthe datum features is a datum feature of siz, the same material condition symbol must also be used after the datum feature(s) of size to invoke the ‘simultaneous requitement. A simultaneous fequirement means thatthe same set-up or ‘gage must be used to inspect all tolerance zones simultaneously that are part of the Simultaneous requirement. In this case, the requirement apples in both views. If one of the tolerance zones refines the tolerance given in another control, a portion of the Targer tolerance zone may be rendered unusable. Such is the case with the profile zones given in the drawing on this page. Location 465 FIG. 15-61 + DIFFERENTIATION OF COAXIAL HOLES COMPOSITE POSITIONAL TOLERANCING LARGE DATUM-TO-PATTERN TOLERANCE + SMALLER FEATURE-TO-FEATURE TOLERANCE ‘* ZERO COAXIALITY TOLERANCE AT MMC. ax 0 $38 | 6.108) 9.010) TWOICATED a et le) | 2x 0:$4§ motcareo 2 Blox @po) 2x INDIMOUALLY Unless otherwise specified, when a hole or other feature is completely interrupted, it becomes more than one feature. In the example given above, 466 Chapter 15 there are three holes designated as Y and two designated as Z. There are five holes, not three. Once this is realized, it becomes a simple procedure to give them different geometric requirements if desirable. ‘The three holes indicated Y may move from true position to datum A, B and C to within a diameter of .168 if produced at MMC--more, if made larger than the MMC of 390. Still, if they move, they must do most of their ‘movement as a group because, as the second tier feature-to-feature tolerance shows, they may only move away from their desired hole-to-hole relationship to within a diameter of .010 per hole if produced at MMC. Perpendicularity to A is also refined to within this smaller tolerance by repeating datum feature A in the lower tier of the feature control frame. Datum feature B is not repeated, but if it had been, the pattern rotation would have also been refined, ‘Two of the Y holes have been made datum feature D, each to be used individually (independently), to mark the desired location of the holes indicated Z. These Z holes are to be perfectly coaxial to their respective datum axis D if the feature D and the Z hole are made at MMC. Since perfect, coaxiality is not possible, produced holes should be made at some other size within size limits to allow an additional tolerance of coaxiality Chapter 16 A LOGICAL APPROACH TO PART TOLERANCING Section 16.1 LINEAR SEGMENTED THINKING Example:_A Crankshaft Sub- Assembly Linear segmented thinking isthe conscious act of defining a part (or parts that interact with one another) one element ata time. This is done by asking questions about the parts that are basically how the part features physically act or interact, One must focus on the feature one is defining, thinking in depth about it only and relating it only to features that have been defined prior toi If nothing else has been defined because itis first, then that feature can only be considered for a form contol In this way, one works one’s way through a part definition as though through a story, leaving no doubt as to the beginning, middle and end. I is possible that one part may interact with several components and would, therefore, have several stories to tell, but each would follow the same rules of definition, If the stories relate to one another because they have common components, such as common datums, or one defines controlled features Within one story that become the datums for the next, then the stories must be imerrelated with a specific sequence of events If this sequence of events also describes a viable manufacturing sequence, then one has created a well-defined, fully-functional and easily-producible product-the goal ofthe tolerancing engineer. For example, see FIG. 16-1 This is a crankshaft sub-assembly. It will be used to demonstrate this process. Notice how the parts within the assembly interact. For this exercise, pretend nothing else exists other than what you see here. Once the pars are designed for geometric configuration and features sized, as shown here, one must ask, "What do I do first?” 468 Chapter 16 FIG. 16-1 ‘Assembly Detail drawing callouts Se y= crokaot c Coupling Fia. 16-2 Detail drawing callouts Meus ongsg90 r 250-254 R Yi | -Ssa- ba (CRANKSHAFT COUPLING Another word for “first” is "primary". We must first choose the primary datum feature on both parts. In order to do this, we must ask two questions 1) When the parts assemble, what surfaces need the most physical contact? A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing 469 2) What surfaces/features actually will create the angle at which the subsequently related part features will function? ‘These two questions are important because if a planar surface, for example, needs a minimum of 3 high points of contac, and itis not chosen as a primary datum feature, its chances of receiving such contact and bearing the Joad when bolts are tightened diminish greatly. The chances of some other unsuitable feature, such as a shaft or the bolts, being side loaded, increase ‘Also, the primary datum feature creates the angle at which features controlled to it are created. Whether this angle is one of perpendiculaity, parallelism or angularity is determined by which datum feature is chosen as primary. Sometimes a primary datum feature does double duty and controls not only angle but also distance/location, But make no mistake; it always, atthe lest, creates the angle of the features controlled to it So, we must look to the assembly drawing to see what surfaces must seat and what features must clear/mate with one another. Its clear thatthe center diameters mate but need not touch. They need not contact; therefore, they do not create the angle, The seating surfaces will be given names through the use ofthe datum feature symbol, We will call one datum feature A andits seating surface datum feature C. These are the beginnings of the geometric definition of each piece, the beginning of the story of eack--the primary datum feature from which other features will take their angle and the angle at which each part will rotate. If they were not chosen as primary, in a worst case situation, the part surfaces would not seat at assembly. If one were to look at surfaces A and C, a point of contact would be seen to touch, but not three. The surfaces would be at an angle to each other, the threads of the bolts visible through the seam. If more force was then applied to the bolts in an attempt to close the gap, side loading of the bolts and/or the central external diameter would occur. This could cause them to fatigue, break or strip. This isa mistake we will avoid, by making A and C primary datums. We must focus our attention on these surfaces and ask ourselves what is expected of them. They must seat on one another without rocking too much Has either been controlled with a surface form tolerance? Though not flamboyantly evident, one has, Datum feature A has, in combination with its ‘opposing side, been given a size tolerance. Since no flaness tolerance appears directly in a feature control frame on datum feature A, under Rule #1 in ANSI Y145, the size tolerance controls the surface form. Datum feature A must be flat to within the difference between 25.0 and 254. A tolerance of flatness of 0.4 has been imposed on datum feature A. a0 Chapter 16 We must look to the size limits we will give to the features that will be subsequently controlled to datum feature A. Since this is a tightly toleranced part with tightly controlled features, it is logical that the primary datum feature have a tight enough tolerance to make it sufficiently reliable from which to orient and measure these subsequent features. Since 0.4 is not sufficient to limit the rock when compared to the tolerances given these features of size, we should tighten it. We could simply tighten the size tolerance between datum feature A and the opposing size of the part. In this situation, however, it would be more cost effective to leave that alone and refine the flatness of datum feature A with a feature control frame tolerance This tolerance must take into consideration the balance between a perfectly fat, impossible-to-produce surface and one that is so out-of-flat as to endanger functionality but cost very little to produce. One must discuss with ‘manufacturing personnel the capability and cost to produce a certain amount of flatness on the surface and weigh that against the overall product cost and functional requirements, It does no good to produce a part no one can afford to buy. In this case, let us assume the balance of all these requirements led us toa flatness tolerance of 0.01 and apply it to both datum features A and C. If they are primary, the first element in the creation of the geometric definition of each part, we must then choose a second, or secondary, datum feature for each. The secondary datum feature should create a plane or an axis from which to locate subsequent features. The secondary datum feature should be functional and representative of a mating feature or alignment feature. The central diameters that interface/mate fulfill these criteria, We will name them datum features B and D. Datum feature B goes into/mates with datum feature D. ‘A geometric control must be considered for datum features B and D. Let us contemplate datum feature B. It must be considered for form control. But currently, the form is being controlled by Rule #1 in ANSI Y14.5. If produced at 50.00 (the maximum material condition), the diameter must be perfect in roundness, straightness and taper (cylindricity). The same is required of its counterpart mating datum feature D at a size of 50.06. Since 50.00 with perfect form will fit into 50.06 with perfect form, the form control is sufficient and there is no reason to refine it So, we must look for another suitable control. Some might suggest position or concentricity or runout, but this is not possible at this stage of creation/part definition. Since only datum feature A exists at this time on the part as the first defined feature and we are now defining datum feature B, the A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing a ‘only interrelationship B may share is with A, This relationship is one of angle, not location. The angle is one of simple perpendicularity of an axis, (that of datum feature B) to a plane (that formed by datum feature A). So, datum feature B is assigned a perpendicularity control back to A. The control [L]ZO.03 @JA] can be read, "The axis may be out of per- pendicularity 0.03 millimeters if produced at maximum material condition to datum plane A" or "Perpendicularity within 0.03 is to be held for a diameter that mates while the part is seated on datum A", ‘The tolerance has been calculated using the fixed fastener formula of the maximum material condition of the hole (50.06) minus the maximum material condition of the shaft (50.00) equaling the geometric tolerance (0.06) to be divided between the ‘mating features. If one of the features is more difficult to make perpendicular than the other, then the tolerance is divided unevenly, giving a greater portion of the tolerance to the one most difficult. In this case, we have determined they are approximately equal in difficulty, so the 0.06 has been divided equally and datum feature B assigned half (0.03). What you do to one feature fon one part, you attempt to do to its counterpart feature on the other. So. datum feature D is assigned a similar control using the counterpart of datum feature A (which is datum feature C) from which to hold its perpendicularty Fig. 16-3 seme asnoeaw SIP as0.08-5010 44087-50.00 Giseser (L]seh) a a Fiean o a CRANKSHAFT ‘couPuNG ame tet 006 an Now that the datum features primary and secondary have been chosen, assigned and geometrically controlled and interrelated on each part, we can determine if any other datums are necessary. In this example, we are only going to take the dimensioning and tolerancing up to the point where the ‘crankshaft and coupling will bolt together; therefore, the bolt holes are the only remaining features to be defined. If the holes are defined to existing datums, that will be sufficient to stop all degrees of freedom for these features except pattern rotation around the axes of either datum B or D. Since no distinguishing features, such as keyways or flats-on-the-periphery exist on these parts, it will not be necessary to create a datum feature to stop this pattern rotation. Therefore, sufficient datum features exist to complete the exercise, ‘AL this point, since the bolt holes have not been defined, we have accomplished the following with existing controls: 1) The flatness controls on datum features A and C will allow these surfaces to seat on one another without rocking too much, 2) The perpendicularity controls on datum features B and D will allow B to insert into D. These, in tandem with the flatness controls, assure us this will happen while datum features A and C seat without rocking too muck, Now, in order to bolt the parts together, we must define the bolt circle as 1 basic diameter from hole to hole; or, as an equivalent alternative, we may give a basic dimension from the center of datums B and D to each hole. The holes are then ready to be toleranced in a feature control frame from the existing datums. To start, we will look at the clearance holes, The four 8.66 - 8.90 holes need to be given a tolerance for (1) their angle from the primary datum A and (2) their distance from the secondary datum B. Since a geometric characteristic symbol like concentricity or runout would assume the controlled holes individually share the same axis as datum B. these controls are not suitable. The axis of datum B is shared by the imaginary bolt circle of the hole pattern, but that is not what is being toleranced, The language described in Y14.5 tolerances real features--not imaginary things. The holes are real and a distance from the axis of B. The basic diameter of the bolt circle is an imaginary target from which each of the hholes may stray. The feature control frame we are about to create will define the allowed tolerance of the deviation from the perfect angle and location the hholes may experience, A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing 473 Position is a geometric characteristic strong enough to control angle and distance from the existing datums and more appropriate than any of the others. Therefore, position will be used. A statement such as, "Position of diameters that mate while the partis seated on datum feature A and the holes are centered about the axis of datum feature B while B spins” is constructed through the use of geometric symbology. Or, an equivalent statement, such as "The axes of these holes may be out-of:perfect position a certain amount if they mate at maximum material condition to datum A for perpendicularity and B for location regardless of the size of datum feature B” is constructed with the same symbology. For example: 4 X @8.66 - 8.90 $1 S0.22 OAs O] oston OFM aTMIME AT a pens Tocation RFS Gatlany OB What is done to one set of features is attempted for the counterpart set of features with which they interface, Therefore, the M8 threaded holes get a similar control, such as: Ms [6] Go.44 @Jclo | The threaded holes don't receive a one-for-one bonus tolerance for positional tolerance as do the clearance holes because of the centering effect as the pitch diameters of the threaded holes and screws engage. Although some additional play or bonus tolerance exists as the pitch diameters of the screws shrink and the pitch diameters of the holes grow, it is a small amount and difficult to quantify. Therefore, the threaded holes are at a disadvantage to the clearance holes. For this reason, we have assigned more of the available geometric tolerance to the threaded features. For example: MMC Holes = 8,66 MMC Screws = 8.00 Geo Tol. to 0.66 be divided ‘Threaded Holes = 0.44 as Chapter 16 ‘The tolerance assigned to the threaded holes must now be put into a cylindrical zone that resides outside of the part, As is discussed in the section of this book on fixed fastener situations for threaded holes, the tolerance zone is projected to the position in space which represents the portion of the body of the screw which is not threaded into the tapped hole. Since in this situation the heads of the screws will rest on the top of the mating part, the positional tolerance zone is projected a minimum of the maximum thickness of that part, which is 25.4. The portion of the tolerancing discussed may look like FIG. 164, ‘A good drawing is easy to follow. It is like a map with a point of ori 2 destination and specific interconnected features/pathways to get you there. You never feel lost reading it because one control feeds directly into the next ‘until completion of the product definition. These steps are best created by focusing as much attention on the features you are defining at that moment, ‘making certain they are complete and correct, Only when you are certain that step is finished and your direction is correct do you move on to define the next feature or pattern A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing as FiG. 16-4 Detall drawing callouts 4x #n66-8.90: Z - (L[eo@e] [Leo @)) rc % & S[e02 Ob) 06-50.10 = ‘CRANKSHAFT ‘COUPLING $0.08 = uc in Tol fo be divided 476 Chapter 16 Section 16.2 REFINING FUNCTIONAL GEOMETRIC CONTROLS TO BE MORE COST EFFECTIVE FIG. 16-5 assemby pero ete droning cout re A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing “7 ‘The problem of defining a part in a functional manner is compounded by the ever present fear that when such a definition is founded, it will be difficult to produce and, therefore, prohibitively expensive. This problem can often be solved by simply taking it on in a wwo-step approach: Step I: Create a functional definition that ties down everything within an equal tolerance to all datums in the control Step 2: Disassociate the less important relationships in each control from the tight tolerance that makes the controlled features function. Some- times two controls are less costly than one. “The assembly drawing shows «wo separate components interacting with the part to be toleranced, Datum features have already been chosen, Some are good, while others are mediocre, We will work with these to show how to ‘eventually disassociate the tight tolerances that make the features mate/function from the datums simply meant to keep the features being controlled on the part. Looser tolerances will eventually be assigned to the datums of lesser functional importance. But this will not occur until we have found an initial part definition and are ready to refine and optimize it Let us say the partis received by the machinist as a rough casting. The surfaces that serve as seating surfaces will be machined first and subsequently used on which o stabilize the part while machining other features. Looking at how the component parts seat on our part, we should ask what surfaces need the most contact. These surfaces will serve as primary datums and. if possible, machined first. For example, one interfacing part seats on datum feature A and one on datum feature C. If we wish them to be machined, we ‘must give them an appropriate geometric contol to impart that knowledge to the machi Likewise, we must decide if we wish to imply a machining sequence. IF not, both datum features A and C will be given a flatness control and the tolerance on the perpendicularity relationship they share relegated to the general angular tolerance note on the drawing that usually resides with the tile block tolerances. If, instead, an implied machining sequence is desired, one of the datum features (ether A or C) will be given a flatness control and the other a perpendicularity control back to the one that has been made flat In this case, we will give datum feature A a flatness control and make datum feature C perpendicular to A. Although the machinist has the latitude to improvise, this symbology, once on the drawing, implies a sequence of evens 478 Chapter 16 Datum feature A will be machined first, then datum feature C will be ‘machined perpendicular to A, ‘We must then decide what will be implied as machined next. Since datum feature B touches no surface on either of the interfacing parts, we will not machine it, nor give it a feature control frame tolerance. It will simply comply with the title block's "Unless otherwise specified, all angles are equal to plus or minus one degree” tolerance. (The plus or minus one degree is given as an example only. Each part is equipped with suitable default tolerances to cover one's anatomy.) In the preliminary geometric controls given, not machining @ rough cast surface like datum feature B and subsequently invoking it as an origin of measurement will cause some consternation. However, refining controls given in step 2 (the optimization) will divorce tight tolerances from this datum feature The central hole called datum feature D plays an important role in allowing cone of the component parts to mate with the part we are defining. Since the 3 hole pattern of threaded holes works directly with and will be subsequently defined and measured from datum D, we will define D next. There are usually a couple of options in each product definition. We can measure from the outside of the part and work our way into the internal features, o we can begin withthe internal features and work our way out, defining the extemal features from the internal. In this instance, we will do alittle of both. We will measure datum feature D from the established outside datum surfaces and then measure the 3 threaded holes from datum D. As you can see, we are focusing our attention on only the one component part that interfaces with datum feature D and the 3 threaded holes first. When that is finished, we will switch our attention tothe 2 clearance holes that will te our part tothe larger part that seats on datum feature A Since this first control for datum feature D is only a gross geometric definition, we will choose an all-encompassing control. Positioning the hole will allow us to use datums that give ita tolerance on its angle and location. It is a diameter that mates while seated on datum feature C. And tote it loosely 10 the desired locaton on the part, we will use datum features A and B. Since datum feature A is machined and B is not, we will push B as far back inthe control as possible. This will make B a tertiary datum feature, requiring only 1 point of high point contact, The control reads 950.00 - 50.08 [6] So @jcja]s) A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing a9 ‘The zero positional tolerance was necessary because itis known that the shaft that inserts into datum feature D has a virtual condition of 50.00. Remember, this is only a preliminary control and will be refined. The ‘efining control must also keep in mind that datum feature D can use only the features that have been defined prior to it and none that will be subsequently defined from it. For the refinement, we must recognize a much larger tolerance can be used to some of the datums than from others. In this example problem, we will use a diameter of 1 millimeter of tolerance to the datum features that are relatively unimportant to the function of the feature being controlled. Since the purpose of this larger tolerance is to lower part cost, make the features more producible and protect wall thickness, calculations must be performed to determine that this feature, and those controlled to it, do not break out/endanger part integrity and wall thickness. This technique is discussed in the section on wall thickness calculations and will not be discussed here, The formulas given in that section can also be worked in reverse, a desired wall thickness decided on and inserted as the final minimum wall thickness answer. Then, the formula is worked from that end forward to calculate the positional tolerance that gives that result, ‘The chosen preliminary geometric control says, "The axis may be out of position a diameter of zero if the hole is produced at maximum material condition to datum C for perpendicularity and datums A and B for location" Since the maximum material condition symbol is most often used on features that mate, saying as the holes grow and shafts shrink they are easier to fit together and, therefore, may be less geometrically perfect, the circled M can often be read, if used in a positional control, as "Position of a feature that mates” In this case, a diameter is being positioned, so the control can be read, "Position of a diameter that mates" and, when the datums are added, "Position of a diameter that mates while the partis seated against C and the diameter located from A and B". The refining control will first loosen all relationships (0 a diameter of one millimeter, then refine the important functional relationship(s) back to the original tighter geometric tolerance (in this case, zero at MMC), For example: 950.00-50.08 91@|clale eo@Ic| 480 Chapter 16 ‘The only surface that is contacted (at this stage of the part definition) by the mating component part that interfaces with datum feature D is datum feature C. Therefore, itis the only relationship that must be held to within the tighter functional/mating tolerance of zero at MMC. Since the relationship between D and C is one of perpendicularity only, that is the appropriate symbology for the refining control. It says, "Perpendicularity to within zero at MMC of a diameter that mates while the partis seated on datum feature C or "The axis may be out of perpendicularty zero if the hole is produced at ‘maximum material condition (50.00) to datum plane C”. This feature (datum feature D) has been defined, then optimized in its definition. We are ‘now ready (0 move on and define the 3 hole pattern ina similar manner. The 3 hole pattern, when properly defined, will complete our journey in defining the features of our part necessary 10 allow it to mate with one of the ‘other component parts. The 3 holes must keep the proper 90mm bolt circle distance and 1200 angles from each other, as well as a relationship to datums selected; therefore, the position geometric characteristic is chosen, These are iameters which will need cylindrical tolerance zones to encompass their axes therefore, the diameter symbol will be included in the feature control frame. ‘These controlled axes are generated by pitch diameters that mate and. although the amount of additional (bonus) tolerance gained is small (not one- for-one like a clearance hole derives) and not easily quantifiable, it exists (as the pitch diameter of the hole increases) and makes part assembly easier, so the maximum material condition symbol will be included. The mating component part seats on datum feature C; therefore, this surface needs more contact than any other with this component part To achieve that, surface C will be the primary datum feature. The 3 hole pattern works directly with datum feature D and must maintain a direct interrelationship with D in order to assemble, Therefore, the datum axis D will act as the origin of measurement in both the X and ¥ planes for the 3 hole pattern. In other words, datum feature D will act as the secondary datum feature but will generate two planes at 900 to one another from which the 3 holes will be measured. With datum features C and D in the control, three mutually perpendicular planes exist, But, because two of these planes are generated by an axis at the center of a hole, the two planes have orientation only to one another and datum plane C. Unless we are willing to relegate the rotation tolerance of the 3 holes, as a pattern, around the axis of D to the A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing 41 angular tolerance in the drawing’s general tolerance note (in the drawing’s title block), we must include another datum feature. ‘This datum feature will generate a plane that will give the two planes of datum axis D an orientation and, consequently, orient the 3 hole pattern to be measured from that axis and along its crossing planes, This will control the rotation of the pattern to the datum plane generated by this third datum feature (fourth datum plane). With the given datum features, either A or B ‘may be chosen to serve this purpose; but, since A is a machined surface and B isnot, A seems the beter choice. Iti flatter and, therefore, more repeatable. ‘This plane receives 2 points of high point contact when the part is set up for measurement of the 3 hole pattern. The holes are not measured from datum plane A but rather from datum axis D while along planes that are perpendicular to datum plane C and atthe appropriate angle to datum plane A. Datum feature D, being a datum feature of size that mates at the same time (with the same component part) as the 3 holes, will receive a maximum ‘material condition modifier. This will allow a patter shift of the 3 holes. as a ‘group, as datum feature D grows from its maximum material condition, as long as D maintains its perpendicularity to datum plane C. ‘Any pattern shift gained by the growth of D is negated by an equal departure of D from perfect perpendicularity to datum plane C. So, strictly speaking, the pattern shift of the 3 hole pattern away from the center of D is gained as datum feature D grows outside of its virtual condition envelope which is a 50 millimeter diameter cylinder that is perfectly perpendicular to datum plane C. The preliminary control will appear as follows: 3X MB ete. [6]F0.02 @]c]O@JA) The tolerance of 40.02 was simply derived through the use of the fixed fastener formula. Since the clearance holes in the mating component have a maximum material condition of 8.04 diameter, and the maximum material condition of the bolt is 8.00 millimeters, the tolerance to be divided between related threaded and clearance holes on each partis the difference of 0.04, In this case, we have chosen to divide the tolerance equally and give each threaded hole half of the available geometric tolerance, which is 0.02 However, in many cases where the clearance holes have a large size tolerance that is potentially available 10 them as positional bonus tolerance, a larger portion of the total geometric tolerance than just half should be considered for 492 Chapter 16 the threaded features. Even though the threaded features have a maximum material condition symbol next to their geometric tolerance, the centering ‘effect of a threaded feature tends to negate most of its bonus tolerance. The threaded features may need more than half of the total original geometric tolerance to be divided between them and the clearance holes to even things out and make the threaded holes more producible. They start out at a distinct disadvantage to the clearance holes in the area of potential bonus tolerance. The tolerance zones must not be inside of the threaded holes but rather projected outside of the part entirely at a height above the part that reflects hhow far the body of the mating screws protrude above the surface of datum plane C. In this case, since the head of the bolt will rest on the top of the ‘mating part, that height of the projected tolerance zone happens to also be the maximum thickness of the mating part (25.4), To accomplish this, the feature ‘control frame is changed to appear as below: 3X MB b]D0.02@ O©25.4|C DSA This may be read a number of ways. For example: "The axes of the holes’ pitch diameters may be out of position to one another a diameter of 0.02 if produced at maximum material condition while the zones are projected above and perpendicular to datum plane C 25.4 millimeters and located from datum axis D if datum feature D is produced at maximum material congition/virtwal condition while the hole pattern is properly oriented to datum plane A." Another possible reading is: "Position of diameters to one another (within 0.02 per hole) that mate, with all ,olerance zones projected above datum C 25.4 millimeters, while the part is seated on C, the holes located from D while D mates and the hole pattern properly angled from A.” This preliminarily completes the definition of the 3 threaded holes sufficiently to allow them to mate with their interfacing component part, However, this definition can be improved for ease of manufacture by loosening the rotational relationships to datum plane A. The component part that seats on datum C, whose pin inserts into datum feature D and whose clearance holes align with our threaded holes, doesn’t have much to do with datum A, If more rotation of the 3 hole pattern were allowed, it would not affect the part function at all, Yet, if we simply eliminate datum A from the control, the threaded hole pattern's angular relationship to it would be controlled by the title block's general tolerance note for all otherwise untoleranced angles. It is possible that that tolerance may be inappropriate A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing 483 too tight or loose. If one wishes to specify a certain tolerance that is different ‘and cannot be ignored, it may be done by defining the relationship of the hole pattern in two levels of control. Let us speculate we have calculated an allowed pattern rotation (0 datum A that would be most appropriate at a diameter of 1 millimeter, Yet, all other interrelated tolerances must be held as tightly as before. We may state this as follows: 3X MB b1D1G 625 ACOA] b|F0.02@ ©25.4|c0@ ‘The order of the datums in the upper level control is important, A rotational datum such as A can be misconstrued as a locational datum unless it follows sufficient datums that have already given the controlled features location in both the X and Y directions. The 3 hole pattern may now rotate around the axis of datum D as a unit within stationary tolerance zones of diameters of Imm, But they may not depart individually from their basic defined relationships to one another, datum C, or datum D more than a diameter of 0.02 per hole. The control is now optimized--cost effective and functional. It also may shed some perspective on the myth some hold to be trve~that two geometric controls are more expensive than one. As has been shown here, that simply is not factual. ‘We can now switch our attention tothe other mating component and the 2 clearance holes on our part that will help bind the parts together. The 804 8.07 holes must be at least held 88mm apart and perpendicular to the seating surface A. Since the holes must reside within the confines of our part, the pattern must be related to datums that represent the part, There are many options, but to begin we will create @ general preliminary statement using half of the available geometric tolerance available to holes on both paris. Let us assume an 8mm shaft or screw. Half the available geometric tolerance would be 0.02. (8.04 - 8,00 = 0.04 and 0104 divided by 2 equals 0.02) Again, the same considerations mentioned when tolerancing the 3 threaded holes should be considered--saving a greater tolerance for the threaded holes, when appropriate, because of their disadvantage (o clearance holes in gaining ‘quantities of bonus tolerance. Once the tolerance is calculated, the preliminary control could appear as 2X 08.04 - 8.07 [6] So.02 @JAlc]a] or a4 Chapter 16 2X 08.04 - 8.07 D]Do.0z@JAlclo@)] or 2X 08.04 - 8.07 b]Do0.02 @JAlCO® ‘The choice between datums B and D is most difficult. At this stage of the definition, datum B looks unattractive because of the tight geometric tolerance and the roughness and resultant non-repeatability of a high point plane formed by the cast surface B. Although datum feature D doesn't have a roughness problem, if used, it would require centering the 2 hole pattern to datum hole D. Centering can be difficult and slow without fixtures; and, since the 2 holes have litte to do with D, it may not be worth the trouble. The 2 holes have liule to do with datum feature B either. But, if B is used, it would require only a rail to push the surface against co establish a high point plane. Still, the surface is rough and what is the high point one time may crumble and not be the high point at the next manufacturing or measurement procedure, If D is used, the maximum material condition symbol may be used after it or the regardless of feature size symbol stated or implied Although the correct syntax would be D regardless of feature size, since functionally the size of hole D has nothing to do with the location of the 2 hholes, before using the RFS concept one should ask, "Will the MMC concept hhurt the par’s functionality?” In this case, the use of the MMC concept after datum D in the control would allow an additional shift of the 2 hole pattern to ‘one side or the other a maximum of half of the actual growth of D. Since the size tolerance of D is so small (50,00 - 50.08), the additional side shift of the hole pattern of half of 0.08 seems safe in terms of potential damage to wall thickness integrity. Cost savings are also small, but fixturing and gaging may be simpler if MMC is used over Ri Having considered all the possibilities, we choose, Let us say we choose B over D because the next step of optimizing the control will divorce the tight tolerance from B and replace it with a liberal tolerance. So, we will use a control that states, "Position of diameters (to one another to within 0.02 per hhole) that mate while the partis seated on A and the pattern is measured from CC and B.” or “The hole axes may be out-of-position a diameter of 0.02 if the holes are produced at maximum material condition holding perpendicularity to datum A and location/distance from datums C and B." A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing sas Datum A is the obvious choice as primary because it is the surface that reeds the most contact, the seating surface in the interrclationship between our part and the component part that uses the 2 hole pattern. Datum C is chosen lover B because itis a flatter, machined surface and B is not, Still, the control can be refined by allowing a larger tolerance for the less important relationships than for the important ones. ‘The component mating part interacts directly with each of the 2 holes and datum feature A, but does not touch or aliga with either C or B. Therefore, the relationship (tolerance) can bbe loosened to C and B, Let us assume a wall thickness calculation and other considerations will allow this looser tolerance to be a diameter of Imm for holes produced at a diameter of 8.04, The control may now appear as 2X 08.04 - 8.07 DlAlcla} [0.02 6] 4] It is important that the lower level refining control use position as the geometric characteristic symbol. Perpendicularity would not be a strong enough symbol {0 maintain the 88mm dimension between the holes. So our lower level control can be read, "Position of diameters (to within @ 0.02 per hole) to one another, if produced at maximum material condition, while the part is seated on A" or “The axes of these holes may be out-of-position to one another and out-of perpendicularity to datum plane A a diameter of 0.02 per hole if produced at maximum material condition’. Even at this level of tefinement, some of the produced parts would function under the worst possible conditions but still be in violation of the features’ size limits ‘Therefore, a further refinement is possible, One may ask, “What is the smallest clearance hole an &mm bolt that has been threaded into a hole allowed 2 positional tolerance of a diameter of 0.02mm (the amount we reserved for the threaded holes on the mating component part) could hope to fit withit If the answer to that question is 8.02mm, then the control can be stated as 2X 8.02 - 8.07 [@]Go.98 @]alcla] le] So@]al This refinement has the advantage of maintaining the same wall thick- nesses and worst mating boundaries as the previous controls, while allowing the inspectors to accept more of the produced functional parts. This should reduce the overall cost of the accepted parts. Should the holes be produced at 446 Chapter 16 8.04 (the old MMC), the bonus positional tolerance gained would again raise the upper level positional tolerance to a diameter of Imm and the lower level Positional tolerance to a diameter of 0,02mm. So, things have changed for the better in terms of functional produced parts accepted as within limits by inspection, but have remained the same in the functional worst case boundaries ‘created for wall thickness calculations and mating conditions. In summary, a part can be defined in logical steps, sequential in their description of features, based on interrelationships, one built on another, presupposing the existence of one feature while defining the next logical interdependent feature or pattern. ‘The following example shows a somewhat preliminarily complete version of the folerancing procedures discussed in this section. FIG. 16-6 Det droving catout (Slscx@py A Logical Approach to Part Tolerancing 487 Section 16.3 IMPLYING A MANUFACTURING SEQUENCE ON COMPLEX PART CONFIGURATIONS Using Compound Pattern Datums and Profile ‘The part in FIG. 16-7 mates with a similarly amoeba-shaped cavity that contains 7 pins/shafts. These shafts insert into the holes on this part while the cavity entirely encompasses the outer periphery of the external amoeba. ‘The manufacturing facility has requested we create a series of feature control frames that suggest a manufacturing sequence. The part will be punched out of a blank rectangular piece of sheet metal in three separate presses, Each press will either punch out one of the hole patterns or the ‘outside periphery’s profile. The manufacturing sequence will be suggested by the datums, or lack thereof, in each feature control frame, If a control uses