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Русский English

Этот файл является иллюстрацией к пособию Метод главных компонент (PCA), в


котором рассмотрен пример применения PCA для решения задачи исследования
данных.

Все вычисления производятся внутри рабочих книг Excel с помощью функций листа
(worksheet functions) аналогично стандартным функциям, таким, как, например,
МУМНОЖ.

Предполагается, что читатель имеет базовые навыки работы в среде Excel, умеет
проводить простейшие матричные вычисления с использованием функций листа.

Для наглядности и удобства использования, некоторым областям в рабочей книге


присвоены имена, например Xraw, Xauto, и т.д, расшифрованные на листе 'Layout'.

Русский English
This workbook is an illustration to tutorial Principal Component Analysis (in Russian) that
considers the application of PCA to data analysis.

All calculations are performed in the Excel workbooks using worksheet functions which
are similar to the standard Excel functions, such as MMULT.

It is supposed that a reader has an experience in working within Excel environment and
familiar with basic principles of array calculations by means of standard worksheet
functions.

For convenience all data ranges (Sheet Data) are named, e.g.Xraw, Xauto, etc. Detaila
are explained in sheet Layout.
Метод главных компонент
Метод главных компонент
Layout
Number of objects I= 32
Number of variables J= 12

Raw data Scores matrix


1 ... J 1 ... A 1 ... 4
1 1 1

... Xraw ... Tscores ... Tscores4

I I I

Autoscaled data Loadings matrix


1 ... J 1 ... A 1 ... 4
1 1 1

... Pload ... Pload4


... Xauto
J J

I
... A

... A
Raw Data
Height Weight Hair Shoes Age Income Beer Wine Sex Strength Region
1 MN 198 92 -1 48 48 45 420 115 -1 98 -1
2 MN 184 84 -1 44 33 33 350 102 -1 92 -1
3 MN 183 83 -1 44 37 34 320 98 -1 91 -1
4 MN 182 80 -1 42 35 30 398 65 -1 85 -1
5 MN 180 80 -1 43 36 30 388 63 -1 84 -1
6 MN 183 81 -1 42 37 35 345 45 -1 90 -1
7 MN 180 82 -1 44 43 37 355 82 -1 88 -1
8 MN 180 81 -1 44 46 42 362 90 -1 86 -1
9 MS 185 82 -1 45 26 16 295 180 -1 92 1
10 MS 187 84 -1 46 27 16.5 299 178 -1 95 1
11 MS 177 65 -1 41 26 18 209 160 -1 86 1
12 MS 180 72 -1 43 33 19 236 175 -1 85 1
13 MS 181 75 -1 43 42 31 198 161 -1 83 1
14 MS 176 68 -1 42 50 36 195 177 -1 82 1
15 MS 175 67 1 42 55 38 185 187 -1 80 1
16 MS 178 75 -1 42 30 24 203 208 -1 81 1
17 FN 166 47 -1 36 32 28 270 78 1 75 -1
18 FN 170 60 1 38 23 20 312 99 1 81 -1
19 FN 172 64 1 39 24 22 308 91 1 82 -1
20 FN 169 51 1 36 24 23 250 89 1 78 -1
21 FN 168 52 1 37 27 23.5 260 86 1 78 -1
22 FN 157 47 1 36 32 32 235 92 1 70 -1
23 FN 164 50 1 38 41 34 255 134 1 76 -1
24 FN 162 49 1 37 40 34 265 124 1 75 -1
25 FS 168 50 1 37 49 34 170 162 1 76 1
26 FS 166 49 1 36 21 14 150 245 1 75 1
27 FS 158 46 1 34 30 18 120 120 1 70 1
28 FS 163 50 1 36 18 11 143 136 1 75 1
29 FS 162 50 1 36 20 11.5 133 146 1 74 1
30 FS 165 51 1 36 36 26 121 129 1 76 1
31 FS 161 48 1 35 41 31.5 116 196 1 75 1
32 FS 160 48 1 35 40 31 118 198 1 74 1
mean 173.1 64.5 0.0 39.9 34.4 27.4 249.5 131.6 0.0 81.5 0.0
STD 10.1 15.2 1.0 3.9 9.5 8.9 90.6 49.5 1.0 7.3 1.0

Autoscaled Data
Height Weight Hair Shoes Age Income Beer Wine Sex Strength Region
1 MN 2.47 1.81 -0.98 2.08 1.43 1.97 1.88 -0.34 -0.98 2.25 -0.98
2 MN 1.08 1.29 -0.98 1.05 -0.15 0.62 1.11 -0.60 -0.98 1.43 -0.98
3 MN 0.98 1.22 -0.98 1.05 0.27 0.73 0.78 -0.68 -0.98 1.30 -0.98
4 MN 0.88 1.02 -0.98 0.54 0.06 0.29 1.64 -1.35 -0.98 0.48 -0.98
5 MN 0.68 1.02 -0.98 0.79 0.16 0.29 1.53 -1.39 -0.98 0.34 -0.98
6 MN 0.98 1.09 -0.98 0.54 0.27 0.85 1.05 -1.75 -0.98 1.16 -0.98
7 MN 0.68 1.15 -0.98 1.05 0.90 1.07 1.16 -1.00 -0.98 0.89 -0.98
8 MN 0.68 1.09 -0.98 1.05 1.21 1.63 1.24 -0.84 -0.98 0.61 -0.98
9 MS 1.18 1.15 -0.98 1.31 -0.89 -1.28 0.50 0.98 -0.98 1.43 0.98
10 MS 1.38 1.29 -0.98 1.56 -0.78 -1.22 0.55 0.94 -0.98 1.84 0.98
11 MS 0.39 0.03 -0.98 0.28 -0.89 -1.06 -0.45 0.57 -0.98 0.61 0.98
12 MS 0.68 0.50 -0.98 0.79 -0.15 -0.94 -0.15 0.88 -0.98 0.48 0.98
13 MS 0.78 0.69 -0.98 0.79 0.79 0.40 -0.57 0.59 -0.98 0.20 0.98
14 MS 0.29 0.23 -0.98 0.54 1.64 0.96 -0.60 0.92 -0.98 0.07 0.98
15 MS 0.19 0.17 0.98 0.54 2.16 1.18 -0.71 1.12 -0.98 -0.20 0.98
16 MS 0.48 0.69 -0.98 0.54 -0.47 -0.38 -0.51 1.54 -0.98 -0.07 0.98
17 FN -0.71 -1.15 -0.98 -1.00 -0.26 0.06 0.23 -1.08 0.98 -0.89 -0.98
18 FN -0.31 -0.29 0.98 -0.49 -1.20 -0.83 0.69 -0.66 0.98 -0.07 -0.98
19 FN -0.11 -0.03 0.98 -0.23 -1.10 -0.61 0.65 -0.82 0.98 0.07 -0.98
20 FN -0.41 -0.89 0.98 -1.00 -1.10 -0.50 0.01 -0.86 0.98 -0.48 -0.98
21 FN -0.51 -0.82 0.98 -0.75 -0.78 -0.44 0.12 -0.92 0.98 -0.48 -0.98
22 FN -1.60 -1.15 0.98 -1.00 -0.26 0.51 -0.16 -0.80 0.98 -1.57 -0.98
23 FN -0.91 -0.95 0.98 -0.49 0.69 0.73 0.06 0.05 0.98 -0.75 -0.98
24 FN -1.11 -1.02 0.98 -0.75 0.58 0.73 0.17 -0.15 0.98 -0.89 -0.98
25 FS -0.51 -0.95 0.98 -0.75 1.53 0.73 -0.88 0.61 0.98 -0.75 0.98
26 FS -0.71 -1.02 0.98 -1.00 -1.41 -1.50 -1.10 2.29 0.98 -0.89 0.98
27 FS -1.50 -1.22 0.98 -1.52 -0.47 -1.06 -1.43 -0.23 0.98 -1.57 0.98
28 FS -1.01 -0.95 0.98 -1.00 -1.73 -1.84 -1.18 0.09 0.98 -0.89 0.98
29 FS -1.11 -0.95 0.98 -1.00 -1.52 -1.78 -1.29 0.29 0.98 -1.02 0.98
30 FS -0.81 -0.89 0.98 -1.00 0.16 -0.16 -1.42 -0.05 0.98 -0.75 0.98
31 FS -1.21 -1.08 0.98 -1.26 0.69 0.45 -1.47 1.30 0.98 -0.89 0.98
32 FS -1.31 -1.08 0.98 -1.26 0.58 0.40 -1.45 1.34 0.98 -1.02 0.98
mean 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
STD 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
IQ
100 100 100
130
Weight Weight
127 a)
140 1
90 90
129
105
109 329 10 10
9 3
2
80 8 7
5 46 80 6 78
113
109
16 13 13
16
119
12 12
120 70 70
115 14
15 1514
105 19 11 11 19
96
60 18 60 18
105
118
112 21 21
110 50 29 30 2526 20
28
2423 50 302928 25 20
2324
22 32
31 17 32 26
31 22 17
102 27 27
Height
98
100 40 40
127 150 160 170 180 190 200 100 200 300 4
101
108
135 45 1
250 Wine
26 Income
123
119
c) 8
102 40
132 16
200 32
31 7
126 14
15
120 910 35 6
14 12 3 24
23 25
129 2
25 1311 22
115.1 31
3213
150 29 30 45
12.2
28 23 17
30
27 24
1 30
25
100 18
3 2
20 21 16
2220 19 8 19
IQ 21 7
17 20 18
-1.24 12
54 11 27
1.22
50
0.98 6 910
15
2.04 26
1.14 Beer
-0.83 2829
0 10
-0.50
100 200 300 400 10 20 30 40 50
-0.17
-0.50
0.32
0.40
-0.01
-0.83
-1.57 350.0
Mean & STD
-0.83
0.24
300.0
-0.26
-0.42
-1.08 250.0
-1.41

200.0

150.0

100.0
Mean & STD
300.0

250.0

-1.24
200.0
0.98
-1.16
-0.59 150.0
1.63
0.65
100.0
0.32
-1.08
1.39 50.0
0.89
0.40
1.14 0.0
Variables
Height

Weight

IQ
Shoes
Hair

Beer

Sex
Age

Income

Wine

Strength

Region
0.0
1.0
Weight
b)
1

10 2
9 3 6 78 54

13
16
12

1514
11 19
18

2021
8 25
26 2324
22 17
Beer

200 300 400

1
Income
8 d)
15
7
14
6
3 24
23 25
2
22 31
3213
45
17
30

20 21 16
19
18
12
11 27
910
26
Age
2829

20 30 40 50 60
Sex

Strength

Region

Variables
IQ
PCA
T Scores
PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 PC8 PC9 PC10 PC11 PC12
1 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Height
2 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Weight
3 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Hair
4 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Shoes
5 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Age
6 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Income
7 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Beer
8 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Wine
9 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Sex
10 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Strength
11 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### Region
12 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### IQ
13 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
14 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
15 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
16 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
17 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
18 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
19 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
20 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
21 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
22 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
23 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
24 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
25 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
26 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
27 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
28 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
29 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
30 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
31 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
32 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
P Loadings
PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 PC8 PC9 PC10 PC11 PC12
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ###
PCA
T Scores
PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 PC8 PC9 PC10 PC11 PC12
1 -5.333 -0.677 -1.067 -1.101 1.060 -0.017 0.563 0.085 0.280 0.078 0.109 0.133 Height
2 -3.114 -0.293 0.671 1.310 0.435 0.119 0.109 -0.456 -0.088 -0.034 0.051 -0.009 Weight
3 -2.997 -0.360 0.212 1.117 0.204 -0.017 0.120 -0.469 -0.149 -0.018 0.184 -0.208 Hair
4 -2.591 -0.928 0.863 2.321 -0.095 -0.076 -0.270 0.306 0.240 -0.192 -0.168 0.005 Shoes
5 -2.588 -1.037 0.686 1.461 -0.347 -0.098 -0.447 0.345 0.083 0.021 -0.043 -0.005 Age
6 -3.027 -1.400 0.284 -0.440 -0.633 -0.538 0.252 -0.343 0.042 -0.132 -0.247 0.020 Income
7 -3.095 -1.069 -0.472 -0.144 -0.304 -0.059 -0.147 -0.025 -0.217 0.150 -0.077 -0.088 Beer
8 -3.113 -1.181 -1.068 0.242 -0.232 0.141 -0.211 -0.008 -0.038 0.203 -0.060 0.087 Wine
9 -2.130 2.356 1.503 -0.858 0.284 0.070 0.020 0.246 -0.171 0.095 -0.123 0.060 Sex
10 -2.510 2.525 1.542 -0.105 0.653 -0.087 0.222 0.228 -0.305 0.078 0.024 0.035 Strength
11 -0.463 1.992 1.090 0.206 -0.617 0.084 0.138 -0.186 -0.202 -0.421 0.069 0.174 Region
12 -1.098 2.094 0.496 -0.198 -0.376 0.127 -0.126 0.299 -0.071 -0.122 0.112 -0.115 IQ
13 -1.438 1.527 -1.059 -0.788 -0.734 -0.124 0.015 -0.060 0.264 0.185 0.156 -0.057
14 -1.137 1.241 -2.200 -1.404 -0.953 0.200 0.033 0.063 -0.075 -0.002 -0.058 -0.009
15 -0.334 1.034 -2.931 -0.866 0.420 -0.654 -0.781 0.037 0.016 -0.283 0.060 -0.004
16 -0.652 2.360 0.125 0.055 -0.334 0.674 -0.398 -0.283 0.359 0.192 -0.007 -0.007
17 1.084 -1.845 0.409 0.123 -1.323 0.872 0.704 0.328 0.032 -0.029 0.078 -0.026
18 0.981 -1.434 1.645 -0.526 0.714 -0.035 -0.096 0.127 -0.005 0.003 -0.124 -0.053
19 0.567 -1.551 1.474 -1.154 0.677 -0.234 -0.047 0.031 0.068 0.213 -0.058 -0.052
20 1.663 -1.762 1.122 -1.394 0.018 -0.081 0.085 -0.218 0.224 -0.284 0.028 0.004
21 1.486 -1.813 0.904 -1.208 0.070 -0.147 -0.003 -0.023 0.043 -0.160 0.109 -0.034 T'T=
22 2.464 -2.040 -0.222 1.202 -0.140 0.268 -0.491 -0.185 -0.091 0.166 0.191 0.233
23 1.396 -1.736 -1.130 -1.041 0.367 0.487 -0.170 0.133 -0.220 -0.007 0.123 -0.074
24 1.622 -1.894 -0.992 -0.419 0.287 0.463 -0.204 0.141 -0.225 -0.048 -0.033 0.015
25 2.005 0.344 -2.085 1.549 0.603 -0.377 0.509 0.471 0.105 -0.061 0.070 0.020
26 3.335 1.956 0.851 0.063 0.884 0.897 -0.141 -0.048 0.252 -0.128 -0.057 -0.046
27 3.711 0.147 0.195 0.279 -0.774 -0.624 -0.091 0.120 0.002 0.081 -0.114 -0.074
28 3.207 0.630 1.602 -1.358 -0.420 -0.480 -0.057 -0.047 -0.001 0.168 -0.026 0.112
29 3.423 1.021 1.482 1.036 0.016 -0.395 -0.084 -0.024 -0.035 0.124 0.177 -0.027
30 2.615 0.320 -0.600 0.784 -0.038 -0.789 0.455 -0.109 0.045 0.093 0.108 -0.007
31 2.958 0.688 -1.728 0.267 0.268 0.181 0.320 -0.246 -0.082 0.016 -0.249 -0.012
32 3.102 0.788 -1.603 0.988 0.359 0.249 0.220 -0.232 -0.078 0.055 -0.203 0.009

l 199.32 69.519 50.149 30.938 9.8785 5.1221 3.0812 1.7048 0.8509 0.7483 0.4712 0.2172

l 0= 372 P'P=
P Loadings
PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 PC8 PC9 PC10 PC11 PC12
-0.375 0.135 0.072 -0.074 0.186 -0.124 0.268 0.118 0.729 -0.307 0.255 -0.065
-0.381 0.111 0.068 0.033 0.100 -0.192 -0.224 -0.219 0.190 0.572 -0.415 -0.395
0.338 -0.150 -0.079 -0.114 0.660 -0.489 -0.368 -0.081 0.041 -0.140 0.007 0.078
-0.378 0.151 0.001 -0.066 0.152 -0.031 -0.234 0.171 -0.280 0.376 0.685 0.183
-0.143 -0.061 -0.720 0.055 -0.029 -0.165 0.043 0.435 -0.174 -0.134 -0.036 -0.430
-0.190 -0.287 -0.586 0.085 0.063 0.137 0.129 -0.434 0.180 0.167 -0.038 0.492
-0.325 -0.308 0.188 0.040 0.231 0.239 -0.170 0.567 -0.015 -0.049 -0.420 0.350
0.124 0.554 -0.212 -0.125 0.415 0.638 -0.120 -0.040 0.024 -0.054 -0.095 -0.093
0.352 -0.232 0.052 -0.051 0.313 0.098 0.580 0.254 0.078 0.529 0.084 -0.124
-0.365 0.112 0.135 -0.081 0.336 -0.160 0.512 -0.258 -0.530 -0.232 -0.165 -0.001
0.144 0.595 -0.130 -0.022 -0.151 -0.402 0.161 0.265 0.050 0.180 -0.255 0.476
0.044 0.123 0.062 0.969 0.180 -0.010 0.024 0.001 -0.006 -0.033 0.076 -0.010

PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 PC8 PC9 PC10 PC11 PC12
PC1 199.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC2 0.00 69.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC3 0.00 0.00 50.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC4 0.00 0.00 0.00 30.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.88 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC9 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.85 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.00 0.00
PC11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.47 0.00
PC12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22

PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 PC8 PC9 PC10 PC11 PC12
PC1 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC2 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC3 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC4 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC9 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PC10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00
PC11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00
PC12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00
N PC1 PC2
1 -5.333 -0.677
3.000
2 -3.114 -0.293 PC2
3 -2.997 -0.360
4 -2.591 -0.928 10
9 16
5 -2.588 -1.037
12
6 -3.027 -1.400 11 26
7 -3.095 -1.069
8 -3.113 -1.181 13
9 -2.130 2.356 14
10 -2.510 2.525 15 29
11 -0.463 1.992 32
31
28
12 -1.098 2.094 PC1
13 -1.438 1.527 25 30
14 -1.137 1.241 27
15 -0.334 1.034
-6.000 23 6.000
16 -0.652 2.360
17 1.084 -1.845 1
18 0.981 -1.434 4
19 0.567 -1.551 7 5
8
20 1.663 -1.762 6 18
21 1.486 -1.813 19
2320
22 2.464 -2.040 1721
24
23 1.396 -1.736 -2.000
24 1.622 -1.894
25 2.005 0.344
26 3.335 1.956
27 3.711 0.147
28 3.207 0.630
29 3.423 1.021
30 2.615 0.320
31 2.958 0.688
32 3.102 0.788
N PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 Age Income
28 3.207 0.630 1.602 -1.358 18 11
29 3.423 1.021 1.482 1.036 20 11.5
26 3.335 1.956 0.851 0.063 21 14 3.000
9 -2.130 2.356 1.503 -0.858 26 16
PC4
10 -2.510 2.525 1.542 -0.105 27 16.5
11 -0.463 1.992 1.090 0.206 26 18 1
27 3.711 0.147 0.195 0.279 30 18 2.000
12 -1.098 2.094 0.496 -0.198 33 19
18 0.981 -1.434 1.645 -0.526 23 20 26
19 0.567 -1.551 1.474 -1.154 24 22
17
22
20 1.663 -1.762 1.122 -1.394 24 23 21 23
19 1.000
21 1.486 -1.813 0.904 -1.208 27 23.5
14
16 -0.652 2.360 0.125 0.055 30 24
30 2.615 0.320 -0.600 0.784 36 26
17 1.084 -1.845 0.409 0.123 32 28 20 31 7
0.000 13 15 3
4 -2.591 -0.928 0.863 2.321 35 30
29 8 1.0
5 -2.588 -1.037 0.686 1.461 36 30 -3.000 -2.000 -1.000 0.000
25 27
13 -1.438 1.527 -1.059 -0.788 42 31
32 3.102 0.788 -1.603 0.988 40 31 18
30
31 2.958 0.688 -1.728 0.267 41 31.5 24 -1.000
32
22 2.464 -2.040 -0.222 1.202 32 32
2 -3.114 -0.293 0.671 1.310 33 33 28
3 -2.997 -0.360 0.212 1.117 37 34
23 1.396 -1.736 -1.130 -1.041 41 34 -2.000
24 1.622 -1.894 -0.992 -0.419 40 34
25 2.005 0.344 -2.085 1.549 49 34
6 -3.027 -1.400 0.284 -0.440 37 35
14 -1.137 1.241 -2.200 -1.404 50 36
7 -3.095 -1.069 -0.472 -0.144 43 37
15 -0.334 1.034 -2.931 -0.866 55 38
8 -3.113 -1.181 -1.068 0.242 46 42
1 -5.333 -0.677 -1.067 -1.101 48 45
3.000
PC4

16
2.000

17
22
21 23
19 1.000 2
14
PC3
20 31 7 6
0.000 13 15 3
29 8 1.000 5
0 -1.000 0.000 2.000
25 27 9
18 4
24 -1.000
32 10
12
11 1

-2.000
PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4
Height -0.375 0.135 0.072 -0.074
Weight -0.381 0.111 0.068 0.033
Hair 0.338 -0.150 -0.079 -0.114
Shoes -0.378 0.151 0.001 -0.066
Age -0.143 -0.061 -0.720 0.055
Income -0.190 -0.287 -0.586 0.085
Beer -0.325 -0.308 0.188 0.040
Wine 0.124 0.554 -0.212 -0.125
Sex 0.352 -0.232 0.052 -0.051
Strength -0.365 0.112 0.135 -0.081
Region 0.144 0.595 -0.130 -0.022
IQ 0.044 0.123 0.062 0.969

0.600
PC2 11 1.200
PC4
8

12

1
4
2 12
10 PC1
PC3
5 6
-0.400 0.400 2 7
5 11
-0.800 1 10 0.400
8 4 9
3 3

9
6
7 -0.310 -0.500
1.200
PC4

12

PC3
2 7
11
1 10 0.400
8 4 9
3

-0.500
Residuals. 4 PCs
Height Weight Hair Shoes Age Income Beer Wine Sex StrengRegion IQ
1 0.559 -0.036 0.505 0.094 -0.087 0.225 0.186 0.338 0.734 0.440 0.024 0.208
2 0.001 0.042 0.226 0.004 -0.204 0.228 -0.170 0.257 0.076 0.347 -0.244 0.085
3 -0.026 0.066 0.118 0.046 -0.091 0.090 -0.390 0.078 0.033 0.307 -0.285 0.057
4 0.146 0.003 0.085 -0.150 0.124 -0.164 0.258 -0.036 -0.213 -0.292 0.105 -0.030
5 -0.088 0.057 -0.045 0.068 0.144 -0.225 0.182 -0.162 -0.275 -0.460 0.128 -0.076
6 -0.017 0.086 -0.200 -0.424 -0.021 0.072 -0.396 -0.593 -0.281 0.141 0.313 -0.118
7 -0.310 0.130 -0.153 0.034 0.060 -0.090 -0.076 -0.143 -0.126 -0.069 0.034 -0.067
8 -0.229 0.098 -0.167 0.070 -0.085 0.053 0.058 0.005 -0.095 -0.224 0.034 -0.060
9 -0.110 0.006 0.110 0.089 0.084 -0.057 0.289 0.147 0.189 0.120 0.066 0.039
10 -0.024 -0.054 0.353 0.226 0.131 -0.066 0.225 0.163 0.398 0.428 0.042 0.125
11 -0.122 -0.445 -0.419 -0.183 -0.057 0.047 -0.196 -0.216 -0.406 0.091 0.012 -0.090
12 -0.063 -0.183 -0.282 0.050 0.189 -0.246 0.055 -0.067 -0.149 -0.241 -0.044 -0.058
13 0.055 0.073 -0.443 -0.030 -0.036 0.009 -0.334 -0.396 -0.110 -0.412 0.127 -0.126
14 -0.254 -0.143 -0.748 -0.169 0.042 -0.072 -0.120 -0.270 -0.254 -0.302 0.092 -0.177
15 0.069 0.152 0.922 0.202 0.113 -0.228 0.082 -0.140 -0.519 -0.117 0.016 0.078
16 -0.085 0.171 -0.393 -0.061 -0.327 0.237 -0.023 0.350 -0.212 -0.584 -0.309 -0.086
17 -0.072 -0.563 -1.581 -0.307 0.073 -0.030 -0.072 -0.093 0.160 -0.331 0.014 -0.223
18 0.094 0.145 0.507 0.061 0.064 -0.049 0.279 0.297 0.194 0.186 -0.069 0.118
19 0.119 0.296 0.544 0.138 0.015 0.016 0.121 0.137 0.289 0.157 0.024 0.112
20 0.268 -0.087 0.087 -0.202 -0.082 0.090 -0.153 -0.027 -0.139 0.062 -0.060 0.016
21 0.138 -0.074 0.143 0.008 0.037 -0.046 -0.082 -0.061 -0.068 0.048 -0.029 0.028
22 -0.297 -0.008 -0.034 0.315 -0.255 0.164 0.005 0.128 -0.282 -0.316 -0.127 -0.033
23 -0.144 -0.115 0.044 0.233 0.026 -0.071 0.232 0.468 0.096 0.022 -0.322 0.069
24 -0.200 -0.108 0.026 0.126 0.008 -0.046 0.317 0.432 0.005 0.017 -0.229 0.043
25 0.462 -0.136 0.371 0.064 0.251 -0.137 0.209 -0.073 0.547 0.349 0.253 0.132
26 0.221 -0.025 0.226 -0.035 -0.205 0.185 0.425 0.981 0.223 -0.001 -0.548 0.146
27 -0.124 0.160 -0.200 -0.118 0.199 -0.217 -0.227 -0.700 -0.283 -0.238 0.393 -0.146
28 -0.106 0.135 -0.033 0.022 -0.001 0.004 -0.187 -0.489 -0.151 -0.116 0.325 -0.081
29 0.010 0.103 0.217 0.203 0.045 -0.059 -0.179 -0.256 -0.007 -0.007 0.099 0.015
30 0.232 0.089 0.191 -0.011 0.082 0.011 -0.389 -0.583 0.210 0.311 0.356 0.017
31 -0.044 0.076 -0.018 -0.226 -0.104 0.181 0.012 0.221 0.207 0.369 -0.071 0.035
32 -0.058 0.087 0.041 -0.139 -0.133 0.193 0.060 0.304 0.210 0.315 -0.119 0.050

ERV= 0.941 TRV= 0.057

400.00
l
1.000
350.00

300.00
0.800

250.00

0.600 TRV
200.00
p ERV
150.00 0.400

100.00
300.00
0.800

250.00

0.600 TRV
200.00
p ERV
150.00 0.400

100.00

0.200
50.00
PC PC
0.00 0.000
0 4 8 12 0 4 8 12
vi
1.561
0.434
0.376
0.304
0.458
0.952
0.202
0.172
0.203
0.636
0.694
0.309
0.690
0.963
1.299
0.970
3.122
0.554
0.572
0.193
0.068
0.494
0.487
0.412
1.007
1.694
1.036
0.454
0.212
0.865
0.337
0.343

v0= 0.690

PC l TRV ERV
0 372.00 0.969 0.000
1 199.32 0.450 0.536
2 69.52 0.269 0.723
3 50.15 0.138 0.857
4 30.94 0.057 0.941
5 9.88 0.032 0.967
6 5.12 0.018 0.981
7 3.08 0.010 0.989
TRV 8 1.70 0.006 0.994

p ERV
TRV
ERV 9 0.85 0.004 0.996
p 10 0.75 0.002 0.998
11 0.47 0.001 0.999
12 0.22 0.000 1.000

PC

8 12

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