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Bolt – is a threaded fastener designed to pass through holes in the mating members and to be secured

by tightening a nut from the end opposite the head of the bolt.

Screw – is a threaded fastener designed to be inserted through a hole in one member to be joined and
into a threaded hole in the mating member.

Types of Bolts

1. Machine Bolt

2. Eye Bolt

3. Stud Bolt

4. Stove Bolt

5. U Bolt

6. Carriage Bolt

Types of Screws

1. Cap Screw

2. Machine Screw

3. Set Screw

4. Power Screw

The Screw thread

A screw thread is a helical structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force.

The differences between American and British thread forms became a painful problem during the
Second World War, Especially in the manufacturing and repairing airplane engines. In 1948
representatives of Britain, Canada and the United States agreed on a Unified Standard.

Stresses Induceed in Bolts

1. Shear Stress

𝑆𝑠 =16𝑇 𝜋𝐷𝑖3

2. Tensile Stress

𝑆𝑡 = 𝐹𝑎 𝐴𝑟 = 𝐹𝑎 𝐴𝑠

3. Compression Stress
𝑆𝑐 =𝐹𝑎𝜋 4 (𝐷𝑜2 − 𝐷𝑖2)

4. Shear Stress

𝑆𝑠 = 𝐹𝑎 𝜋𝐷𝑖𝑡𝑁𝑇

5. For Practical Design

A. From Vallance

𝑆𝑤 = 𝐶𝐴𝑟0.418

B. From Faires

𝑆𝑑 =𝑆𝑦 6𝐴𝑠0.50

6. Applied Load

A. From Vallance

𝐹𝑎 = 𝐶𝐴𝑟1.418

B. From Faires

𝐹 𝑒 =𝑆𝑦 6𝐴𝑠1.50

7. Working Strength of the Bolt

𝑊 = [0.55𝑑2 − 0.25𝑑]

8. Bolt Spacing

𝑍 =𝜋𝐷𝑏𝑐 𝑁𝑇

9. Bolt Circle Diameter

𝐷𝑏𝑐 = 𝐷𝑖 + 2𝐷𝑏

10. Depth Tap

A. For Brittle Materials

ℎ = 1.5 𝐷

B. For Steel (Vallance)

ℎ = 1.25 𝐷

C. For Steel/ Wrought Iron (Faires)


ℎ=𝐷

11. Initial Torque

A. From Vallance

𝑇 = 0.20𝐹𝑎𝐷

B. From faires

𝑇 = 0.20𝐹𝑖𝐷 𝑇 = 0.15𝐹𝑖𝐷

12. Initial Tension

𝐹𝑖 = 16000 𝐷

13. Bolt Elongation

𝛿𝑏 = (𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑑)(𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑛𝑠)

1. A set screw is necessary to fasten a pulley to a 2 in. Shaft while transmit 3 hp and rotates at 150 rpm?
What is the typical size of set screw in practice?

A. ¾ C. 1/4 B. ½ D. 3/8

Solution:

𝑃 =𝐷𝑛𝑑2.3 50ℎ𝑝/𝑠𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤 3 =2(150)(𝑑2.3) 50 𝑑 = 0.74 𝑖𝑛

2. Compute how many 3/8 inch diameter set screws required to transmit 3 Hp at a shaft speed of 1000
rpm. The shaft diameter is 1 inch.

A. 5 C. 2
B.3 D. 1

Solution: Solving for the power transmitted over the screw:

𝑃 =𝐷𝑛𝑑2.3 50ℎ𝑝/𝑠𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤

𝑃 =1(1000)(3 8)2.350= 2.096ℎ𝑝 𝑠𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤

: Solving for the power transmitted over the screw:

𝑃 =𝐷𝑛𝑑2.3 50=1(1000)(3 8)2.3

50 𝑃 = 2.096 ℎ𝑝/𝑠𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑤

3. The cylinder head of a 10 in. X 18 in. Freon compressor is attached by 10 stud bolts made of SAE grade
5. The cylinder pressure is 200 psi. What size of stud bolts should be used if SAE grade 5 (1/4” – ¾” has
the following stresses; Sp=85ksi, Su=120ksi, Sy=88ksi?

𝐴.0.2255 𝑖𝑛.2 𝐶.0.3455 𝑖𝑛.2 𝐵.0.2345 𝑖𝑛.2


𝐷.0.3345 𝑖𝑛.2

Solution: The force on the cylinder head (F):

𝐹 𝑒 =(𝐴𝑠)3/2 6

𝐴𝑠 = (6𝐹 𝑒 𝑆𝑦) 2/3= ( 6 𝑥 1571 88,000) 2/3

= 0.2255 𝑖𝑛.2

4. The cylinder head of a 10 in. x 18 in. Freon compressor is attached by 10 stud bolts made of SAE grade
5. The cylinder pressure is 200 psi. What is the approximate tightening torque should be used to induce
a tightening stress (𝑆𝑖) of 0.90 times the proof stress if the diameter of the bolt is 5/8 in. and the
coefficient of collar friction c=0.2?

𝐴.0.2255 𝑖𝑛.2 𝐶.0.3455 𝑖𝑛.2 𝐵.0.2345 𝑖𝑛.2


𝐷.0.3345 𝑖𝑛.2

Solution:

For tightening torque (T): 𝑇 = 𝑐𝐷𝐹𝑖 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒: 𝐹𝑖 = 𝐴𝑆𝑖

𝑇 = 0.20 (5 8 )(0.226)[(0.90)(85,000)] = 2161 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑙𝑏𝑓

𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟 ∶ 𝑇 = 2161 𝑖𝑛 − 𝑙𝑏

5. The root diameter of a double square thread is 0.55 inch. The screw has a pitch of 0.2 inch. Find the
number of thread per inch

A. 2 threads/inch C. 12 threads/inch B. 5 threads/inch D. 1.5 threads/inch


Solution: The number of threads per inch: TPI

𝑇𝑃𝐼 =1 𝑃=1 0.2= 5 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑠/𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ

6. A turnbuckle has M10 x 1.5 threads. The coefficient of friction for the threads is 0.20 and the basic
pitch diameter is 9.026 mm. Assuming that neither rod turns as the turnbuckle is tightened, what is the
external torque needed to produce a force of 2,500 N on the rods? (Metric threads are considered as V-
type).

A. 5.48 N-m C. 6.48 N-m

B. 4.48 N-m D. 7.48 N-m

Solution:

𝑇 = 𝑊𝐷𝑚 2[0.866𝐿 + 𝑓𝐷𝑚 0.866𝐷𝑚 − 𝑓𝐿](2) → 𝑁𝑜𝑡𝑒:𝐿 = (1.0)(1.5) = 1.5

𝑇 = 2500(9.026) 2[0.866(1.5) + 0.2(9.026) 0.866(9.026) − 0.2(1.5)](2)

𝑇 = 6.48 𝑁 − 𝑚

7. Calculate the length of a nut such that the shearing failure of the threads shall equal the tensile failure
load of the bolt when the shearing strength is 70 percent of the tensile strength. Assume pitch diameter
of the threads to be the same as the bolt diameter. A. 0.714 d C. 0.741 d B. 0.417 d D. 0.471 d

Solution:

0.70𝜋𝑑ℎ𝑆𝑡 = 𝜋𝑑2 4

𝑆𝑇 0.70[𝑛𝑝 2] =𝑑 4

0.70[𝐿 2] =𝑑 4 𝐿 = 0.714𝑑

8. The root diameter of a double square thread is 0.55 in. The screw has a pitch of 0.20 in. Compute the
outside diameter.

A. 0.57 in C. 0.50 in B. 0.75 in D. 0.85 in

Solution:

𝐷𝑜 = 𝐷𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑡 + 2( 1 2)𝑝 = 0.55 + 2( 1 2)(0.20)

𝐷𝑜 = 0.75 𝑖𝑛

9. The root diameter of a double square thread is 0.55 in. The screw has a pitch of 0.20 in. Compute the
number of threads per inch

A. 4 C. 2 B. 5 D. 10
Solution:

𝑇𝑃𝐼 = 1 𝑝=1 0.20= 5

10. The root diameter of a double square thread is 0.55 in. The screw has a pitch of 0.20 in. Compute
the lead.

A. 0.40 C. 0.20 B. 0.80 D. 0.30

Solution:

𝐿 = 2𝑝 → 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑜𝑢𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑠𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑

𝐿 = 2(0.20) = 0.40

11. What is the working strength of 1 inch bolt which is screwed up tightly in packed joint when the
allowable working stress is 13000 psi.

A. 3700 lb C. 3450 lb B. 3900 lb D. 3650 lb

Solution: From machinery’s Handbook:

𝑊 = 𝑆1 = (0.55𝑑2 − 0.26𝑑) 𝑊 = (13000)[0.55(1)2 − 0.25(1)] 𝑊 = 3,900 𝑙𝑏

11. A flanged bolt coupling consists of ten steel ½ − 𝑖𝑛.-diameter bolts spaced evenly around a bolt circle
14 𝑖𝑛. in diameter. Determine the torque capacity of the coupling if the allowable shearing stress in the
bolts is 6000 𝑝𝑠𝑖.

𝑇 = 𝑃𝑅𝑛 = 𝐴𝑇𝑅𝑛 =1 4𝜋𝑑2𝑇𝑅𝑛

𝑇 =1 4(1 2 ) 2(6000)(7)(10)

𝑇 = 26250𝜋𝑙𝑏.𝑖𝑛

𝑇 = 6872.23𝑙𝑏.𝑓𝑡

12. A flanged bolt coupling consists of eight 10 − 𝑚𝑚𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 steel bolts on a bolt circle 400 𝑚𝑚 in
diameter, and six 10 − 𝑚𝑚 − 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 steel bolts on a concentric bolt circle 300 𝑚𝑚 in diameter, as
shown in Fig. 3-7. What torque can be applied without exceeding a shearing stress of 60 𝑀𝑃𝑎 in the
bolts?

For one bolt in the outer circle:

𝑃1 = 𝐴𝑡 =(102) 4(60)

𝑃1 = 1500𝜋𝑁
𝐹𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑙𝑒: 𝑃1 𝑅1 = 𝑃2 𝑅2

1500𝜋 200=𝑃2 150 𝑃2 = 1125𝜋𝑁

𝑇 = 𝑃1𝑅1𝑛1 + 𝑃2𝑅2𝑛2 𝑇 = 1500(200)(8) + 1125𝜋(150)(6) 𝑇 = 3412,500𝜋𝑁 ⋅ 𝑚𝑚 𝑇 = 3.4125𝜋𝑘𝑁 ⋅ 𝑚 =


10.72𝑘𝑁 ⋅ 𝑚

13. A torque of 700 𝑙𝑏𝑓𝑡 is to be carried by a flanged bolt coupling that consists of eight ½ − 𝑖𝑛.-diameter
steel bolts on a circle of diameter 12 𝑖𝑛. and 𝑠𝑖𝑥 ½ − 𝑖𝑛.-diameter steel bolts on a circle of diameter 9 𝑖𝑛.
Determine the shearing stress in the bolts.

𝑃1 𝑅1=𝑃2 𝑅2

𝐴𝑡1 6=𝐴𝑡2 4.5

𝑡2=0.75𝑡1

T=𝑃1𝑅1𝑛1 +𝑃2𝑅2𝑛2

700(12)=1 4𝜋(1 2 )2𝑡1(6)(8) + 1 4𝜋(1 2 )2𝑡2(4.5)(6)

8400=3𝜋𝑡1 + 1.6875(0.75𝑡1)

8400=13.4𝑡1

𝑡1=626.87Psi -> bolts in the outer circle

𝑡2=0.75(626.87) = 470.15Psi ->bolts in the inner circle

14. Determine the number of 10 − 𝑚𝑚-diameter steel bolts that must be used on the 400𝑚𝑚 bolt circle
of the coupling described in Prob. 328 to increase the torque capacity to 14 𝑘𝑁.𝑚.

𝑇 = 𝑃1𝑅1𝑛1 +𝑃2𝑅2𝑛2

14(10002) = 1500(200)1+ 1125𝜋(150)(6)

𝑛1=11.48 say 12 bolts

15. A flanged bolt coupling consists of six ½ -in. steel bolts evenly spaced around a bolt circle 12 in. in
diameter, and four ¾ -in. aluminum bolts on a concentric bolt circle 8 in. in diameter. What torque can
be applied without exceeding 9000 psi in the steel or 6000 psi in the aluminum? Assume Gst = 12 × 106
psi and Gal = 4 × 106 psi.

T = (PRn)st + (PRn)al

T = (AtRn)st + (AtRn)al
T =1 4π( 1 2) 2Tst(6)(6) +1 4π( 3 4) 2Tal(4)(4)

T = 2.25πTst + 2.25πTal

T = 2.25π(Tst + Tal)Equation (1)

(T GR )st = ( T GR )al

Tst (12x106)(6)=Tal (4x106)(4)

Tst=9 2Tal equation (2a)

Tal=2 9Tst equation (2b)

Equations (1) and (2a)

T = 2.25π(9 2Tal + Tal) = 12.375πTal

T= 12.375π(6000) = 74 250π lb.in

T = 233.26 Kip.in

Equations (1) and (2b)

𝑇 = 2.25(𝑇𝑠𝑡 +2 9𝑇𝑠𝑡) = 2.75𝜋𝑇𝑠𝑡

𝑇 = 2.25(9000) = 24 750𝜋 𝑙𝑏.𝑖𝑛

𝑇 = 77.75 𝐾𝑖𝑝.𝑖𝑛

𝑈𝑠𝑒 𝑇 = 77.75 𝐾𝑖𝑛.𝑖𝑛