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Computational Aero-acoustics

via Direct Simulation


OpenFOAM Workshop 2015
June 29 – July 2
Ann-Arbor, MI, USA
Thomas Schumacher - Engys
Eugene de Villiers - Engys
Christof Hinterberger - Faurecia

info@engys.com | Tel: +49 (0)381 2550758 | Fax: +49 (0)381 3756998 | www.engys.com
Content
• Solver Assessment
• Application: Muffler
• Application: Side mirror
• Conclusions &
Future Developments

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Solver Assessment
• Objective:
 Evaluate acoustic wave propagation in compressible flow
solver (rhoPimpleFoam)
 Verify physics, test effect of solver settings, discretisation
schemes, mesh, boundary conditions, etc.
• Verification cases:
 1D Tube
 2D Box with periodic thermal forcing
 3D Cube with aggressive mesh refinement
 Effect of convection in non –stationary flows
 Viability of actuated boundary conditions

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Solver Assessment | 2D Box
Setup
• Domain: 0.5x0.5x0.0025m square outlet
 Periodic sinusoidal energy source y
@5000 Hz
 Source amplitude ~140 dB (200 Pa)
 Air @ 1 Bar, 300K : c = 347.7 m/s
 Boundaries: symmetry + outlet pulse source

• Mesh resolution: Baseline 2.5 mm, x

 27.76 elements per wave


 @ 5000 Hz, c = 347.7 m/s

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Solver Assessment | 2D Box
Results
• Default run time: 1.5e-3 s
• All graphs reporting at t = 1.25e-3 s

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Solver Assessment | 2D Box
Basic Verification
• Wave amplitude decay
 Energy, E of 2D wave
decays  1/r
 Wave amplitude  sqrt(E)

• Wave transmission speed


 Measured distance from origin 0.391 +/- 0.0025 m
 Measured speed of sound: 355.4 +/- 2.3 m/s
 Theoretical speed of sound: 347.7 m/s

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Solver Assessment | Summary
• More than 100 variants of 5 test cases simulated
• Best practices:
 Acoustic CFL < 0.5
 Cells per wave period > 10
 LES/DES turbulence modelling
 Travin Hybrid Convection
 Adiabatic thermodynamics
 Midpoint for Rhie-Chow
• Solver modifications required:
 IDDES model consistency
 Adaptive convection discretisation

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Content
• Solver Assessment
• Application: Muffler
• Application: Side mirror
• Conclusions &
Future Developments

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Application | Muffler
• Predict noise generated by a
muffler
• Dt = 2E-6s
• Run for 0.2s overall
• Porous media setup for
muffling material
• Record data at predefined
microphone locations to
compare CFD with tests

With kind permission of Dr.-Ing. C. Hinterberger (Faurecia)


© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015
Application | Muffler
Internal CAA: Mesh
• Automatic hex-dominant
parallel meshing with
custom base mesh

Non-reflective
outer boundary

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Application | Muffler
Internal CAA: Acoustic Pressure Waves

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Application | Muffler
Internal CAA: Sound Pressure Level
SPL dB(A)
110
OpenFOAM
HELYX-Core (ENGYS)
100
90 Measurement at cold flow bench

80
70
dB(A)

60
50
40
30
20
10 100 Hz 1000 10000

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Application | Muffler
Internal CAA: SPL ⅓-Octave-Bands

Whistling noise at
very high frequencies!

Might be improved
with finer mesh

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Content
• Solver Assessment
• Application: Muffler
• Application: Side mirror
• Conclusions &
Future Developments

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Application | Side Mirror
External CAA: Overview
• ASX SUV model @ 100 km/hr
• Multiple probes (microphones)
distributed on side window
(experimental comparison not shown)
• Acoustic signal range between
250 Hz and 5000 Hz

With kind permission of Dr. Okutsu (MMC)


© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015
Application | Side Mirror
External CAA: Mesh
• Automatic hex-dominant
parallel meshing with best
practices for external aero
• Added localised mesh
around side-window area
refinements to resolve all
frequencies of interest
• Employed original STL
geometry without need for
cleaning or preparation

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Application | Side Mirror
External CAA: PFL ⅓-Octave-Bands

fm ≈ 500 Hz fm ≈ 4000 Hz

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Application | Side Mirror
External CAA: Pressure f = 250 to 750 Hz
Aerodynamic pressure
fluctuations travelling at ~30m/s

Acoustic Wavelength @ 750 Hz  l ≈ 45 cm

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Application | Side Mirror
External CAA: Pressure f = 4000 to 5000 Hz
Aerodynamic pressure
fluctuations travelling at ~30m/s

Acoustic waves travelling


at the speed of sound

Acoustic Wavelength @ 5000 Hz  l ≈ 7 cm

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Content
• Solver Assessment
• Application: Muffler
• Application: Side mirror
• Conclusions &
Future Developments

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015


Conclusions & Future Developments
• Best practices and solver enhancements provide credible
CAA capability within current framework
• Could benefit from several enhancements
 Enhance existing low Mach compressible solver
 Mitigate noise generated by poor quality elements
 Reduced computation cost (explicit?)
• Alternative: APE (Acoustic Perturbation Equations)
 Potentially significantly faster due to larger flow time-step and
sub-cycling of low cost APE equations
 Direct control of sound source terms (masking of known bad
cells can be applied, etc)
 Cannot capture resonance
© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015
Questions?

© 2015 ENGYS (www.engys.com). OFW 2015

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