Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 45

HMEF 5083

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY

ASSIGNMENT

Name of Student : JANCY A/P VINCENT


Semester : JANUARY 2014
Name of Programme : Master in Education (MED)
Name of Lecturer : Dr. LOW SUAN NEO
Date of Submission : 9 MARCH 2014

i
Page

Contents ii
PART A Write an essay, describing four emerging technologies today 1
that can be used for educational purposes and discuss how
these emerging technologies can be used to engage students
as active agents in the learning process. In addition, explain
how these emerging technologies will affect education.
Include a suitable title for your essay.

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Emerging Technologies 3

2.0 Active Learning 3


3.0 Types Of Emerging Technologies 5
3.1 Mobile Learning 5
3.2 Blog 7
3.3 An Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) 9
3.4 Gamification 11
4.0 Effect of Emerging Technologies on Education 12

5.0 Conclusions 16

PART B Prepare a technology-enhanced lesson plan for a subject in a 18


primary school using Gagne’s Instructional Design Theory.

1.0 INTRODUCTION 18

2.0 TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LESSON PLAN 19

3.0 DISCUSSION 24

3.1 Rationale of the Choice of Web Resources 24


3.2 Rationale of the Choice of Activities 27
3.3 Rationale of the Choice of Technology Tools 27
3.3.1 Power Point 27
3.3.2 Web Sites 27
3.4 Activities that Promotes Higher Order Thinking 28
Skills

4.0 CONCLUSION 28

References 29
Appendix 30

ii
PART A:

Write an essay, describing four emerging technologies today that can be used for

educational purposes and discuss how these emerging technologies can be used to

engage students as active agents in the learning process. In addition, explain how

these emerging technologies will affect education. Include a suitable title for your

essay.

_____________________________________________________________________

Emerging Technologies for Teaching and Learning

1.0 Introduction

Technology is a big part of our life and something we as humans adapt to easily.

We have come to accept that life lived through computer systems is natural. Gadgets

and other electronic devices not only help us with our everyday lives but they connect

us to each other in ways we couldn’t even have imagined a few years ago. Technology

has become coexistent with our reality and we have created new realities inside these

machines. We represent ourselves online. We create new lives that can take their own

course. Online reality is becoming, more and more, our lived reality.

Every new technology is bringing us closer to a life that is more and more lived

digitally. Twenty years ago, none could have even dreamed of the possibilities of

personal smart phones or tablet device. Our lives are constantly being changed by

connection with newer technologies. Using new NFC-based smart phones, we will be

able to pay without ever touching our wallets. There are devices that tell us what to

wear or what’s the weather will be like and all we need to do is ask. With the speed of

progress over the last five years, can we imagine how things will look like ten years

from now? How is technology going to shape our reality? Will it be through more

1
advanced forms of the digital reality we have created? How are we going to interact

with our world? More and more technological companies understand that their survival

in the market depends on innovation. Technological changes are coming quickly and

their response to those changes must be swift.

In the same way, the lives of students have also taken a leap towards easiness.

When we talk about technology in education the first and foremost advancement is the

computer and internet. If a student has the Encyclopedia of Britannica or Microsoft’s

Encarta Encyclopedia on his/her computer, he rarely finds himself in a library or even

on the internet. But for those who don’t have these encyclopedias have the entire world

of internet information at their finger-tips. Internet in its simplest form enables one to

access emails; this too is a source of information especially for those who are in contact

with their teachers and need constant aid.

Education means considerably more than just teaching a student to read, write,

and manipulate numbers. Computers, the Internet, and advanced electronic devices are

becoming essential in everyday life and have changed the way information is gathered.

How this new technology is utilized in the curriculum and managed by teachers will

have an important role to play in widening the resource and knowledge base for all

students. Technology affects the way teachers teach and students learn.

Educational technologies include not only the Internet, which provides access

to university websites directly tied to courses as well as to resources around the world,

but also innovations in recording, collaborating, and responding technologies that offer

enhanced environments for scholarly interaction and intellectual pursuit. These

technologies are valuable when they serve the larger educational goals of the university:

to create active learners who not only master the content of their chosen fields, but also

develop techniques and modes of critical thought.

2
1.1 Emerging Technologies

Emerging technologies are defined as “tools, concepts, innovations and

advancements utilized in diverse educational settings to serve varied education-related

purposes’’ (Valentino, 2010). Today, there are numerous emerging technologies that

are free and web-based. What makes these tools valuable is not only their easy

availability but also their potential to support meaningful learning, as well as increased

collaboration, interaction and active participation. In addition to this promise, “the

emerging technologies can also reduce the digital divide - groups with particular

learning difficulties can be assisted through access to learning activities which suit their

learning styles, preference and/or learning need” (Millea, Green, & Putland, 2005).

Emerging technology is an innovative technology that is reshaping the nature

of education. Computer and network based technologies now hold great potential for

increasing the access to information as well as a means of promoting learning. Schools

and classrooms never before had such universal access to information. Technologies

are transforming classrooms into more engaging, collaborative and productive learning

environments in which instructions can be customized to student’s specific needs,

interests and learning styles. It is also redefining the way educators teach as well as the

role they serve – from being the sole source of information to being a guide, facilitator

and coach in the learning process.

2.0 Active Learning

Defining "active learning" is a bit problematic. The term means different thing

to different people, while for some the very concept is redundant since it is impossible

to learn anything passively. Certainly this is true, but it doesn't get us very far toward

understanding active learning and how it can be applied in classrooms.

3
We might think of active learning as an approach to instruction in which

students engage the material they study through reading, writing, talking, listening, and

reflecting. Active learning stands in contrast to "standard" modes of instruction in

which teachers do most of the talking and students are passive.

Think of the difference between a jar that's filled and a lamp that's lit. In the

former case, liquid is poured into an empty vessel–apt metaphors for the traditional

educational paradigm in which students sits passively in a classroom and absorb the

knowledge transmitted by an expert. A growing body of research has made it clear,

however, that the overall quality of teaching and learning is improved when students

have ample opportunities to clarify, question, apply, and consolidate new knowledge. In

this case, instructors create opportunities for students to engage new material, serving as

guides to help them understand and apply information. They help "light the lamp" of

student learning.

Students and their learning needs are at the center of active learning. There are

any number of teaching strategies that can be employed to actively engage students in

the learning process, including group discussions, problem solving, case studies, role

plays, journal writing and structured learning groups. The benefits to using such

activities are many. They include improved critical thinking skills, increased retention

and transfer of new information, increased motivation, and improved interpersonal

skills.

Using active learning does not mean abandoning the lecture format, but it

does take class time. Lecturers who use active learning pause frequently during the

period–once every fifteen minutes or so–to give students a few minutes to work with the

information they're providing. They may ask students to respond to a question, to

summarize important concepts in writing, or compare notes with a partner. For some

4
lecture-based classes, using active learning may be a bit more challenging because of

class size or room limitations such as fixed seating. Breaking students into groups under

these circumstances may not be possible, but other strategies such as individual writing

or paired activities are quite possible and lead to good results.

3.0 Types of Emerging Technologies

3.1 Mobile Learning

Mobile learning or m-learning is set to be the next big wave in education. It

offers enormous potential as a tool to be used in situations where learners are

geographically dispersed, to promote collaborative learning, to engage learners with

content, as an alternative to books or computers, as an alternative to attending campus

lectures and for ‘just-in-time’ delivery of information. Once limited to making and

receiving calls, mobile phones today are evolving into educational platforms for

information access and learning. With mobile technology, we can “push” and “pull”

information and deliver learning to any one at any time and at any place. It provides

learning on-the-go or just-in-time learning.

Advances in mobile technologies have enabled educators to send instructional

messages in flexible ways. With new technologies including mobile computers, Pocket

PCs, Apple iPhones, Android phones, and tablets, instructors and students can

communicate through voice and image as well as text. Using mobile devices for

educational purposes is becoming a common expectation of learners (Lan & Huang,

2012). According to Yamaguchi (2005), m-learning is a form learning which leverages

on the mobile device’s portability and affordability.

We also explored students' learning practices with mobile technologies and

focused on the interactions among technologies, contents, and pedagogies. The results

5
indicate that learners need more access to academic-friendly devices, such as tablets,

and additional support to integrate mobile technologies for learning. The findings also

help clarify future directions of faculty development. Instructors must gain knowledge

of these innovative technologies and integrate them into the curriculum with sound

facilitation and assessment strategies, as well as be able to support the mobile practices

of students

As a new technology, performance-centered educational systems have a strong

potential to help students mastering job-related skills and to perform the task at hand

with minimum support provided by others. One medium through which this support

and information can be provided is a mobile device. Mobile technologies offer the

opportunity to embed learning in a natural environment. An experience using

performance centered mobile learning to enhance active, fieldwork education and the

investigation of its impact on students learning.

Students used it in and out of the classrooms and remarked that they understood

the content better and were more motivated to do well, when using the application. The

instructors also agreed with this observation and added that the students were also better

prepared for classes. That mobile learning device can have to enrich the learning

process for students. They are versatile, motivating and active learning tools. Students

learning difference benefit greatly from mobile learning as such opportunities allow

them to feel more like their peers and foster a sense of normalcy.

Students with autism spectrum disorders and others who may have difficulty

speaking can use the applications library symbols and text-to-speech conversions to

communicate easily and naturally with others. This type of assistive application helps

broaden student’s horizons both in and out of the classrooms. To maximize

effectiveness, education has to be active, engaging and customized. Students must have

6
universal access to mobile technologies that will enable critical thinking, differentiation

and problem solving. Students are more engaged and motivated to learn when they use

mobile devices and research shows that academic performance can improve.

3.2 Blog

As the Internet becomes an increasingly pervasive and persistent influence in

people's lives, the phenomenon of the blog stands out as a fine example of the way in

which the Web enables individual participation in the marketplace of ideas. Teachers

have picked up on the creative use of this Internet technology and put the blog to work

in the classroom. The education blog can be a powerful and effective technology tool

for students and teachers alike.

Blog (sometimes referred to as a weblog) is a Web publishing tool that allows

authors to quickly and easily self-publish text, artwork, links to other blogs or Web sites,

and a whole array of other content. Blogs are set-up like conventional Web sites, with

navigation links, and other standard Web site features. Blogs have one standard

characteristic, however: the posting. Blog postings are text entries, similar to a diary or

journal, which include a posting date and may include comments by people other than

the author, photos, links, or other digital media. Postings are often short and frequently

updated. They appear in reverse chronological order and can include archived entries.

Although blogs have been around for years, they have recently gained in popularity and

consequently have received more media coverage. Blogs work well for students

because they can be worked on at virtually any time, in any place with an Internet-

enabled computer. Hence, they can be used by computer savvy teachers to create a

classroom that extends beyond the boundaries of the school yard.

7
In addition to providing teachers with an excellent tool for communicating with

students, there are numerous educational benefits of blogs. Class blogs can serve as a

portal to foster a community of learners. As they are easy to create and update

efficiently, they can be used to inform students of class requirements, post handouts,

notices, and homework assignments, or act as a question and answer board. Blogs

provide a space where teachers and students can work to further develop writing or

other skills with the advantage of an instant audience. Teachers can offer instructional

tips, and students can practice and benefit from peer review. They also make online

mentoring possible. For example, a class of older students can help a class of younger

students develop more confidence in their writing skills.

Students can also participate in cooperative learning activities that require them

to relay research findings, ideas, or suggestions. Blogs present, organize, and protect

student work as digital portfolios. As older entries are archived, developing skills and

progress may be analyzed more conveniently. Additionally, as students realize their

efforts will be published, they are typically more motivated to produce better writing.

Teachers and peers may conference with a student individually on a developing work,

and expert or peer mentoring advice can be easily kept for future reference.

3.3 An Interactive Whiteboard (IWB)

The introduction of the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) has transformed

classroom teaching and exceeds the limitations of the traditional whiteboard or

chalkboard (Coyle et al, 2010). Many classrooms are accustomed to this style of lesson

delivery. Although a growing number of classrooms are becoming familiar with lessons

being projected onto a screen via a computer.

8
The IWB has the same properties as a computer hooked up to a data projector;

however the main advantage of this type of technology is the teacher’s ability to control

the information by touching the whiteboard. By using either a finger or an IWB pen,

the information on the whiteboard can be manipulated, moved around, hidden, revealed

or enlarged (Dudeney & Hockly 2008,). The teacher is not constrained by the

limitations of manipulating their lesson via a computer thus; they can deliver the lesson

and invite learners to participate with the IWB during the tasks thereby giving them a

sense of active participation during the activity.

In addition to this, the IWB also allows immediate access to the Internet and

offers an abundance of resources of interactive activities that incorporate all the macro

skills (Coyle et al., 2010). One of the main advantages of IWB’s in the classroom is the

increase in learner motivation (Higgins 2007). Bell (1998) found that learners “were

more involved, attentive and motivated when lessons were offered using the board

rather than using other teaching methods” (Kaufman, 2009). Kaufman (2009) also

recognizes the flexibility that the technology offers teachers enabling them to access

previous lessons, print materials from the board which in turn maximizes instructional

time and give greater opportunity for teachable moments.

The nature of the software enables teachers to present concepts and ideas in new

ways and therefore deepen the learners understanding (Higgins 2007). Current research

also indicates that teachers designing lessons for IWB tend to create structured tasks

that involve the learner and therefore keep them on-task and maintain interest (Kaufman,

2009).

All of the teachers felt that the whiteboard did improve student engagement

during the lesson taught using a whiteboard. Most of the teachers attributed this to the

students being able to see the information, touch the board, and, in some cases, being

9
able to hear sounds. That instruction delivered using a whiteboard was interesting,

relevant, and appealing and involving .All of these are characteristics that contribute to

increased student engagement.

The interactive whiteboards limited opportunities for distraction by focusing

students’ attention on lessons Visual and tactile lessons led to multisensory engagement

in the learning process and enhanced language lessons when teachers used visual aids

to reinforce vocabulary and grammar lessons. Student engagement significantly

increased when an interactive whiteboard was used in conjunction with a classroom

audio system. Interactive whiteboards have the potential to fulfill legislative mandates

while serving as technological instructional tools which have positive effects on student

engagement as evidenced by their at-task behavior in the classroom. The visual impact

and interactive nature of whiteboards may involve students in ways that increase their

at-task behaviors due to their engagement in instruction. This has usefulness for

teachers in the areas of maintaining student focus and attention, retention of course

material, and for classroom management issues.

Consequently, they respond well to teaching strategies that use collaboration,

interactivity and problem-solving. Whiteboard use can incorporate these strategies in

ways that engage students more fully in lessons, foster greater enthusiasm for learning,

and increase student motivation.

3.4 Gamification

The idea of using games for learning is not new. This is customary especially

in the case of direct interaction between teacher and student. Transposing this into a

digital form of teaching and learning might become an issue. Our proposed solution

when confronted with this problem is attempting to gamify the e-learning process.

10
Gamification, defined as the use of game mechanics, dynamics, and frameworks

to promote desired behaviors, has found its way into domains like marketing, politics,

health and fitness, with analysts predicting that it will become a multi-billion dollar

industry by 2015 (MacMillan, 2011). Some visionaries, like game designer Jesse Schell,

envision a kind of gamepocalypse, a hypothetical future in which everything in daily

life becomes gamified, from brushing one’s teeth to exercise (Schell, 2010).

Gamification (Deterding et al, 2011) is the use of game-play mechanics for non-

game applications. Any application, task, process or context can theoretically be

gamified. Gamification’s main goal is to rise the engagement of users by using game-

like techniques such as scoreboards and personalized fast feedback (Flatla et al, 2011)

making people feel more ownership and purpose when engaging with tasks (Pavlus,

2010).

By incorporating game elements into work activities we wish to raise

motivation (Shneiderman, 2004) but, in order to do so, we need to pay attention to the

integration of tasks and exercises within the game design (Von Ahn and Dabbish,

2008). Creating gamers for learning employ costly resources. A simpler yet still

efficient approach is to use gamification in order to make the content more attractive

and engage users.

By using gamification in e-learning we wish to trigger a more efficient and

engaging learning behavior. B.J. Fogg argues that people respond to computers as they

were persons, especially when gaming (Fogg, 2002). In order to change or trigger a

certain behavior students need to be motivated and at the same time have the ability to

solve the challenges.

11
Gamification also implies a social game and interaction with other participants.

Fogg explains that when people perceive social presence, they naturally respond in

social ways and have feelings like empathy or anger, or following social rules such as

taking turns (Fogg, 2002).

Gamification does not imply creating a game. It means makes education more

fun and engaging, without undermining its credibility. Gamification helps students gain

motivation towards studying, and because of the positive feedback they get pushed

forwards and become more interested and stimulated to learn. Gamification can

constitute a powerful boost to determine them to study or read more.

Intuition suggests that gamification may be able to motivate students to learn

better and to care more about school. Making the case for gamification, however,

requires more than intuition. We must clearly define what is meant by gamification,

evaluate it for its benefits and drawbacks, explore current implementations and future

possibilities, and better understand the theoretical rational.

4.0 Effect of Emerging Technologies on education

Some researches show the positive effects on the applications of technologies

in the classroom. Combining education and technology creates a more stimulating

learning environment. In order to accomplish higher order thinking skills such as

critical and independent thinking, the application of technology and improved

motivation and attitudes, technology must be integrated into the everyday curriculum.

In contrast with traditional classrooms, the mobile learning enables the teacher

and students to concentrate on teaching and learning itself rather than spend too much

time and effort on tedious tasks. It helps the teacher to monitor, easily, each student’s

learning status for further guidance, engages students in learning activities, facilitates

12
students’ group collaboration and empowers the teacher and students to apply

technologies to a variety of traditional and innovative learning and teaching activities.

It is delightful to see the change in students from passive learners to active

participants, and to see their voluntary engagement in the learning process. The use of

m-learning activities in this class reveals the power of the m-Learning system as

persuasive technologies (Fogg, 2003), that is, technologies can be used to change

people’s thoughts, feelings and actions. It has also produced results that align with the

engaged learning model (Wang & Kang, 2006), which promotes engaging students in

learning from all three aspects—cognitive, social and emotive.

Meanwhile, the course content revealed itself to be well-suited for text-based

interactions that explored language usage in its traditional and colloquial/idiomatic

forms. The practice of situational dialogues effectively simulated real-time dialogues

in which students had limited time to recall and enter the appropriate word.

Blogging can allow children to teach others. When a child can write a blog

about something they have learned, it shows that they truly know the information and

understand how it relates to real life. Blogging can allow student to be creative. Not

every student will like to sing or draw or dance. Blogging allows children who like to

write a chance to do so and let their opinions be heard. While blogging may have some

negative aspects; I think that even those can be turned into positive things. Children can

be taught that there is a time to use abbreviations and slang and there is a time to be

more diligent in their writing.

The students have a positive perception of the IWB. There is also a perception

that the use of IWBs will positively affect student achievement (Slay et al., 2008).

Schuck and Kearney (2007) state that lessons using IWBs were perceived as “better

13
than” other class work. They relate this to the fact that IWBs can be perceived as easy

to use, visual, interactive, immediate, and matching the students’ digital culture. Lastly,

students are aware of a teacher’s confidence and ability using an IWB (Slay et al., 2008).

If teachers lack confidence and ability, perceptions can change, and IWBs can be

perceived as just another presentational ‘gimmick’ (Glover et al., 2005b).

IWBs offer the opportunity to better match learning to different student learning

styles. These learning styles include the kinesthetic, visual, audio, active, and verbal-

social. There are, however, to date no absolute properties of an IWB have been

identified that would allow one to predict the effects they have on teach (Armstrong et

al., 2005), and the use of IWBs alone cannot lead to enhanced teach (Glover et al.,

2007). In fact, it is not clear as to how IWB use might affect learning outcomes or

concept development (Schuck & Kearney, 2007).

Some research suggests that the real impact of IWBs may lie in the affective

domain, not the cognitive domain (Schroeder, 2007). While the cognitive domain

focuses on knowledge and comprehension, the affective domain focuses on the learners’

motivation, attention, emotions, self-concept, self-esteem, and social interaction in the

learning environment. It is this type of learning that could be more important to learning

and achievement (Weimer, 2001). It may be that IWBs can add a social dimension to

learning where students can share knowledge publicly and learn by making mistakes

together (Smith et al., 2006).

The extent to which there is interaction with the IWB influences the effects of

the IWB on motivation, attention, and behavior. It has been noted that at the enhanced

interactivity stage, behavior problems can be overcome (Glover 2005). If students

interact with the board themselves, motivation and attention can also be increased. This

visual appeal is noted as one of the main contributors to motivation (Smith et al., 2006).

14
Teachers can also benefit from the motivational effect of IWBs as some have reported

that the technology has renewed part of their enthusiasm for teaching (Schuck &

Kearney, 2007).

Effective game-based learning presents a student with a series of individualized

tasks tailored to a predetermined goal. After completing a task, the student is rewarded

with a new learning opportunity: the ability to ‘level-up’ and play another

game. Gamified learning also incentivizes the efforts of the student with

achievement rather than an abstract grade on a worksheet. Consequently, the student’s

perspective of learning is transformed as the feedback on student’s schoolwork

becomes more tangible and exciting in the gamified situation

Jane McGonagall explains: “A game is an opportunity to focus our energy, with

relentless optimism, at something we’re good at (or getting better at) and enjoy. In other

words, game play is the direct emotional opposite of depression.” In game-based

learning, students are encouraged to set clear goals, persevere when faced with an

intellectual challenge, and of course, celebrate their achievements! Moreover, digital

gaming tools like the iPad provide students with the resources to take control of their

learning experience and truly own and love the outcome of their work. Effectively

incorporating the ‘gamification’ mentality into the classroom has the capability to boost

student achievement and even more importantly, promote a desire to learn.

One of the biggest problems faced by educators today is maintaining an engaged

and motivated class of students. Gamification of education shows that students respond

better to the positive and immediate feedback that they receive in a learning

game. Also, oftentimes the difficulty of the level increases as the student continues

playing, effectively captivating the student’s attention while challenging her at the same

time.

15
In a study on the value of a gamification of education conducted in 2009, one

student remarked, ‘it [the game] is more enjoyable and active. You never get bored as

in traditional teaching because you concentrate on a goal.” In a ‘gamified’ education,

people learn by doing, thus removing the abstract, outdated elements of traditional

learning methods of

5.0 Conclusions

Technology has made a huge impact on people’s lives. This impact has affected

every aspect of society. It has also had an impact on the current student population. It

has made our world increasingly complex which has changed the requirements for

people entering into the work force. This change has made it necessary to create

learning environments which support higher level thinking skill development.

Technology integration has also been shown to help create more authentic learning

environments where the students are more motivated to attend, have a greater chance

of communication and collaboration and have more opportunities to use higher order

thinking and problem solving skills connected to real world applications.

The potential of new and emerging technologies and imagined the contributions

they may bring to educational pursuits. These new technologies will increase our access

to information and to other people, prompting new ways of learning and new

understanding. Teachers will need to ensure that students not only learn but also learn

how to learn. This ability will be their competitive advantage in the information era.

With regards to the effectiveness of technology use in teaching and learning,

should not focus on media or technology but pedagogical effectiveness. In other words,

“practitioners should adhere to their time-tested instructional design strategies,

regardless of the medium they choose”

16
17
References

Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O'Hara, K., and Dixon, D. (2011) Gamification.
using - design elements in non-gaming contexts. In Proceedings of CHI
Extended Abstracts, 2425-2428

Deterding, S., Khaled, R., Nacke, L., Dixon, D. (2011) Gamification: Toward a
Definition, CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop Proceedings, Vancouver, BC,
Canada

Flatla, D., Gutwin, C., Nacke, L., Bateman, S., Mandryk, R. (2011) Calibration
Games: Making Calibration Tasks Enjoyable by Adding Motivating Game
ElementsUIST 2011, Santa Barbara, California

Fogg, B.J. (2009) A behavior model for persuasive design, Proceedings of the 4th
International Conference on Persuasive Technology, April 26-29, 2009,
Claremont, California

Higgins, S, Beauchamp, G & Miller, D, (2007): Reviewing the literature on interactive


whiteboards, Learning media and technology, Vol 32, no 3, pp 213-225,
University Of Wollongong e-readings. Accessed online 12/09/11

Kaufman, D, 2009, How does the use of Interactive Whiteboards Affect Teaching and
Learning? Distance learning, Vol 6, Issue 2, pp 23-33. University Of
Wollongong e-readings

Pavlus, J. (2010) The Game of Life. Scientific American, 303, 43-44

Shneiderman, B. (2004) Designing for Fun: How Can We Design User Interfaces to
Be More Fun? Interactions, 11(5), 48-50

Solvie, P. (2007). Leaping out of our skins: Postmodern considerations in use of an


electronic whiteboard to foster critical engagement in early literacy lessons.
Educational
Philosophy & Theory, 39(7), 737-754

Wood, R., & Ashfield, J. (2008). The use of the interactive whiteboard for creative
teaching and learning in literacy and mathematics: A case study. British
Journal Educational Technology, 39(1), 84-96.

Wall, K., Higgins, S., & Smith, H. (2005). ‘The visual helps me understand the
complicated
things’: Pupil views of teaching and learning with interactive whiteboards.
British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(5), 851-867.
Yamaguchi, T., 2005. Vocabulary learning with a mobile phone. Program of the 10th
Anniversary Conference of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics,
Edinburgh, UK.

1
PART B

Prepare a technology-enhanced lesson plan for a subject in a primary school using


Gagne’s Instructional Design Theory.
_____________________________________________________________________

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Gagne (1985) identifies three major elements of Instructional design Theory.
They are taxanomy of leaning outcomes, internal and external conditions and nine
events of instructions. The five major categories in taxanomy of learning outcomes are
verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes.
According to Norton and Wilburg (1998), the examples of five major categories in
taxanomy of learning outcomes are:

1) Verbal information: learning the alphabet.


2) Intellectual skills : addition and subtraction
3) Cognitive strategies: inductive & deductive reasoning; exploring the action of a
magnet.
4) Attitudes : how one feels about reading a book
5) Motor skills : fastening buttons.

They are two distinguish types of conditions, namely internal and external. The
internal conditions can be described as "states" and include attention, motivation and
recall. The external conditions can be thought of as factors surrounding one's behaviour,
and include the arrangement and timing of stimulus events. Thus, the phases of learning
include:

1) Phase I: receiving the stimulus situation


2) Phase II: stage of acquisition
3) Phase III: storage
4) Phase IV: retrieval

In addition, the theory outlines nine instructional events and corresponding


cognitive processes:

18
(1) Gaining attention (reception)
(2) Informing learners of the objective (expectancy)
(3) Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)
(4) Presenting the stimulus (selective perception)
(5) Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding)
(6) Eliciting performance (responding)
(7) Providing feedback (reinforcement)
(8) Assessing performance (retrieval)
(9) Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization).

These events should satisfy or provide the necessary conditions for learning and serve
as the basis for designing instruction and selecting appropriate media (Gagne, Briggs
& Wager, 1992).

I choose the pupils of 5 Beta as the class for designing my lesson plan as I am
the Mathematics teacher for this class. Hence, I know their pace of mastering
knowledge. The activities in the technology-enhanced lesson plan are planned
according to the pupils’ pace of learning.

2.0 TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED LESSON PLAN

Subject : Economics

Class : 5 Beta

No. of Pupils : 27/27

Background information : The pupils are consisted of 24 Malays and 3 Indians.


They are made up of 10 boys and 17 girls. Majority of
them stay nearby the school area which is in an urban
location.

Date : 20 January 2014

Day : Monday

19
Time (Duration) : 11.05am - 12.05pm (1 hour)

Topic : Decimals

Subtopic : Multiplication of Decimal Numbers

Learning objectives : Multiply decimal numbers up to three decimal places


with a whole number.

Previous knowledge : Pupils have learnt to:

(i) Add decimal numbers up to three decimal


places.
(ii) Subtract decimal numbers up to three decimal
places.
(iii) Multiply decimal numbers up to three decimal
places.

Learning outcomes : At the end of the lesson, pupils are able to solve problems
involving multiplication of decimal numbers by answering at
least 3 out of 5 questions correctly.

Teaching aids : Supported technology tools (computer, Liquid Crystal


Display (LCD) Projector, screen, amplifier), Power
Point Presentations (PPT) 1, 2 & 3, and worksheets 1 & 2
and websites.

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS):


To identify, decision making, conditional reasoning, sequencing, to solve problems, to
apply knowledge and to recall.

Values: Pay attention, active participation, dare to try, and hardworking.

20
Events Instructional Strategy Teaching & Learning Objectives Notes / Remarks
Gain Introduce the lesson by reviewing 1. Students sit and listen closely as Teaching aids:
Attention previous lesson by question. Quickly the teacher goes through this Power Point Presentation I,
introduction.
(5 mins) review the previous lesson with supported technology tools.
2. Teacher and students enter into a
prepares a new material. discussion about the posed
http://www.teach- question. HOTS:
3. Students listen and the participate
nology.com/worksheets/math/add/deci To identify
in the activity.
mals/10.html 4. Teacher provides a situation using
This can be shown on a projector Power Point Presentation (PPT) Values:
relating to today’s learning.
system through the use of the linked Pay attention and active
5. Pupils study the situation and
directly to your laptop. guess the topic. participation
A Problem Solving Situation for 6. Teacher begins today’s topic when
guessing today’s topic. pupils are able to identify today’s
learning objectives by saying,
“problem solving” and “multiply a
Example of the situation is modified decimal number with a whole
from a PPT downloaded from: number”.

http://www.authorstream.com/Present
ation/afabbro-69040-real-life-
applications-decimals-math-add-
subtract-multiply-divide-application-
education-ppt-powerpoint/

(Refer Appendix A & B)


Objectives Discuss the Multiply decimal numbers 1. Teacher refers students to Question Teaching aids:
(10 mins) up to three decimal places with a for the lesson which is posted on the Power Point Presentation
whole number board. II, supported technology
Pupils identify the 3 important steps of 2. The title of this lesson essentially tools.
problem solving: serves as the Question as it directly
(a) What are given? relates to the objective HOTS:
(b) What is asked for? 3. Teacher revises with pupils on the To solve problem, decision
(c) Operation? three simple steps regarding making, conditional
problem solving. reasoning, sequencing.
Solving problems: 4. With the aid of PPT and supported
(a) Mathematical sentence technology tools, teacher guides Values:
(b) Standard written method pupils to today’s learning skill. Pay attention and active
(c) Answer in sentence form. 5. Pupils are guided to identify the participation
three important steps of problem
(Refer Appendix C) solving.

21
Prior Discuss the multiplication of decimals. 1. The teacher will quickly review Teaching aids:
Knowledge Distinguish between add and subtract prior knowledge concepts from the Power Point Presentation
previous lesson
(5 mins) multiplication. II, supported technology
2. Upon identifying, pupils are
guided to solve the problem using tools.
Mathematical sentence, standard
written method and the final
HOTS:
answer in the form of a sentence.
3. By raising their hands, students To solve problem, decision
will participate in classroom making, conditional
discussion of concepts.
reasoning, sequencing.
4. Step 1-4 are recalling and revising
on the steps in problem solving.
5. Teacher then provides another Values:
situation for pupils to solve it in Pay attention and active
their respective draft book.
6. Teacher guides pupils who are in participation
need of help.
7. Discussion on the solution of the
situation.

Content After discussing multiply decimals 1. The teacher provides the interactive Teaching aids:
(5 mins) read and refer to text book. learning environment for content Power Point Presentation
delivery.
II, supported and text book
2. Students should be attentive and
engaged in classroom activities.
3. Students listen as the teacher reads Values:
the book
Pay attention and active
participation
Guided Quiz Game (Group Activity): 1. Teacher explains the rules to the Teaching aids:
Practice Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? pupils in playing this game. Power Point Presentation
(10 mins)  There are 15 questions in total. 2. Pupils discuss and try out the III, supported technology
 Every question has different values. solution in group. tools.
 The first group to solve the question 3. The first group to solve a question
correctly will be given the mark correctly will be given the ‘value’. HOTS:
according to the value of question. 4. The chance will be given to other To apply knowledge
group if the first trying group
This PPT template are retrieve answers wrongly. Values:
from: 5. At the end of the game, teacher will Active participation, pay
award the first three achieving attention, dare to try.
http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/ppt-
groups.
games/
6. Teacher discusses with pupils on the
solution steps for every questions
upon finishing the game.
(Refer Appendix D)

22
Independent Pupils do worksheet individually 1. Teacher distributes worksheet for Teaching aids:
Practice under teacher’s guidance pupils to try on. Worksheet 1.
(10 mins) 2. Pupils do worksheet individually
(Refer Appendix E) under teacher’s guidance. HOTS:
3. Teacher walks around, checks and To apply knowledge
guides pupils in need of help.
Values:
Hardworking
Feedback Gather the classroom back together to 1. Teacher roams the room, listening HOTS:
(5 mins) talk with them about what they to student responses and answering To apply knowledge
questions.
learned, what went well, what didn’t,
2. The teacher addresses confusions or
etc. misunderstandings about the lesson. Values:
Active participation, pay
attention, dares to try.
Assessment Ongoing assessment is already 1. Teacher evaluates (formally or Teaching aids:
somewhat embedded in this lesson. informally) and notes on checklist
( 5 mins) Worksheet 1.
of skills while working with
students.
2. Students share and discover HOTS:
together while working on tasks To apply knowledge
associated with the lesson plan.
3. Student should be able to answer
the relevant test item(s) on an Values:
upcoming quiz or test. Hardworking

Closure Summarization: 1. Teacher recalls with pupils on Teaching aids:


(5 mins)  Recalls of today’s lesson. today’s topic. Worksheet 2.
 Homework 2. Pupils answer orally.
(Worksheet 2) 3. Teacher distributes worksheet 2 for HOTS:
pupils to do as homework. To recall, to summarize.
(Refer Appendix F)

Values:
Hardworking

SUMMARY
Learning theory, Gagne was very suitable for learning in the classroom. There
are 9 levels of teaching and learning the above taken into consideration in the process
of teaching and learning. This lesson plan also emphasizes the response and praise when
the answer right. From this lesson plan the teacher also boosted memory again.
Teachers were stimulating the students ' memory of past learning. Students are able to
distinguish which information material and filter out any information. This is made easy

23
the process of encoding information to be kept in memory for a long time. In this lesson
plan also has seen the stage on the learning process of students provided worksheet or
questions to complete using a formula. So it's obvious that learning could be applied in
Gagne learning in school. In view of his is sequentially from easy level to a level that
is difficult.

1.0 DISCUSSION

3.1 Rationale of the Choice of Web Resources

I made refer to a web resource when choosing a problem solving situation for

the pupils to guess today’s leaning skill. Based on the situation provided, I modify it

according to our Malaysian context that pupils are familiar with. Example of the

question found is “If gasoline sells for $1.35 per gallon, what is the cost of 9 gallons of

gasoline?” (Retrieved from http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/afabbro-

69040-real-life-applications-decimals-math-add-subtract-multiply-divide-application-

education-ppt-powerpoint/ ). I modify the question to a situation pupils are familiar

with, so that it will minimize their problem in understanding the question.

Author STREAM is a platform for sharing PowerPoint presentations on the

Internet. Author STREAM makes it easier to share your PowerPoint slideshows

through blogs, websites, on YouTube and even via iPod. What's best is that it's all

FREE! Just sign-up, upload presentations and start sharing.

Upload as many Presentations as you want. Once uploaded, you get a unique

URL for your presentation and a code to embed your presentation in blog or site. The

embedded presentation plays as a Flash slideshow and the viewers do not need to have

PowerPoint software.

24
Your presentations will also be available to be downloaded in iTunes. Your

viewers can then sync their iPods and have your presentations available even when they

are not online!

As a viewer, you can now download PowerPoint files if their respective authors

have given their permission to do so. This is a great feature for those who like

presentations and want to use a slide or two to enrich their own.

At author STREAM, we believe that you should have control over who can see

your uploaded PowerPoint. While uploading your PowerPoint you can use the

publishing settings to control who can see it on author STREAM. Author STREAM

protects your private content, and makes sure that it is seen only by you and the people

whom you handpick. Your private presentations don't show in the search results, or in

your public profile.

Other websites that students can refer to learn more about topic are:

http://www.mathsisfun.com/multiplying-decimals.htm. This websites offer

mathematics in an enjoyable and easy-to-learn manner, because they believe that

mathematics is fun. This websites is interesting and well organized based on topics.

They also provide dictionary, worksheets, games and puzzles which make students

more understand about a topic.

http://interactivesites.weebly.com/ These activities work great with your SMART

board or interactive whiteboard for whole group or small group instruction or use in the

computer lab or at home for individual learning.

http://www.mathgoodies.com/

Math Goodies is our free math help portal featuring interactive

lessons, worksheets, and homework help. A pioneer of interactive instruction, our

25
goodies have received rave reviews from the media. Today, they have hundreds of

instructional resources for educators, students and parents.

I choose Who Wants to Be a Millionaire as a quiz game for pupils. I obtained

the template for this game from http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/ppt-games/.

It is an empty power point template that let educators to fill in questions. With

the animation and sound effects in all slides, this will boost pupils’ attention in trying

out the questions. Hence, this will enhance pupils’ involvement in answering problem

solving questions.

3.2 Rationale of the Choice of Activities

The individual activity in Step 1 is actually a recalling of the previously learned

knowledge. This is because, my pupils had learned about the steps in synthesizing a

problem solving question in their previously learned skills such as, problems solving

involving addition and subtraction of whole numbers. Thus, when they are asked about

the three important steps in problem solving, they might ponder for a while, and then

provide respond upon retrieving the prior knowledge.

The group activity I choose in Step 2, named Who Wants to Be a Millionaire is

an attention and interest capturing quiz. The visual and audio effect will capture pupils’

interest and intrigue them to further solving the questions shown in the Power Point

Presentations. Besides, this is a Mathematical quiz set for the purpose of competition

among the groups of pupils. Hence, pupils in respective groups have to cooperate

among themselves to solve the problems. At the end of the quiz, there will be a

discussion held on the solutions for the questions.

26
3.3 Rationale of the Choice of Technological Tools.

3.3.1 Why Teachers Use PowerPoint

Slide presentation software such as PowerPoint has become an ingrained part

of many instructional settings, particularly in large classes and in courses more

geared toward information exchange than skill development. PowerPoint can be a

highly effective tool to aid learning, but if not used carefully, may instead disengage

students and actually hinder learning

Potential benefits of using presentation graphics include:

 Engaging multiple learning styles


 Increasing visual impact
 Improving audience focus
 Providing annotations and highlights
 Analyzing and synthesizing complexities
 Enriching curriculum with interdisciplinary
 Increasing spontaneity and interactivity
 Increasing wonder

3.3.2 Why Teachers Use Web sites

This is especially beneficial for those who live in rural areas taht only have one

or two educatiobal facilities. One major advantage is that allows anyone, anywhere, to

study anything. A second major advantage is that some types of web-based learning

allow students to progress at their own pace. This is not true of virtual classrooms that

are conducted in real-time. However, many web-based learning packages are offered in

modules, which students work through individually, at their own pace. Moreover, an

electronic forum enables students to meet with teachers in one-on-one sessions. The

ability to work through the material at the student’s own pace is a dramatic advantage

over traditional teaching methods.

27
Technology can offer schools from a low-socio economic background a chance

at giving their students some equality in their education . Using technology can make

classroom practice more interactive (if you have something like a SmartBoard in your

room) and can encourage kids to continue their learning at home (looking up something

online from a lesson during the day). The teacher is able to provide links that may be

useful for students.

Technology allows more communication for students and parents - kids who

are too nervous to ask questions in class can email a teacher or ask for extra feedback

on an essay

Makes teaching efficient, in that there is less paper and organising and collating

of notes. This helps the school work towards environmental sustainability and

consciousness. Less photocopies and more online/USB.

3.4 Activities that Promotes Higher Order Thinking Skills

In my point of view, all of the activities planned beginning from set induction

to closure is promoting higher order thinking skill of the pupils. This mainly due to the

reason that the learning skill for this lesson plan is problem solving of multiplying

decimal numbers with a whole number. Based on the given questions, pupils will have

to understand and synthesize its situation according to the three important steps of

problem solving, which are what are given, what is asked for, and the operation.

4.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, Gagne's instructional design theory provides a great deal of

valuable information to teachers. This is a very systematic theory in aiding educators

to plan a technology-enhanced lesson holistically. This theory has provided a perfect

guideline for me to plan a lesson which captures the interest of pupils in learning. By

28
understanding the background information, knowledge background and pace of

learning of my pupils, I can plan my lesson that suits them the best. Hence, the chosen

activities and selected web resources in conducting this lesson will inevitably promotes

the pupils’ higher order thinking skills in solving Mathematical problems. In spite of

this, the main purpose of designing this technology-enhance lesson plan is to make

learning Mathematics an enjoyable experience for my pupils, whereby they will fully

indulge especially in Step 2. The animation and sound effects of the quiz game (Who

Wants to Be a Millionaire) will intrigue their interest to try on the questions in the game

template. For this lesson plan carry out successfully, I will use Gagne's instructional

design theory as a guideline in planning any of my future lesson.

REFRERENCES

Gagne, R. M., (1985). The conditions of learning and theory of instruction. New
York: CBS College Publishing.

Power Point Games. (2013, February 15). Who wants to be a millionaire [Power Point
Slides]. Retrieved from http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/ppt-games/

29
APPENDIX A

30
APPENDIX B

31
APPENDIX C

32
33
34
APPENDIX D

35
36
37
38
39
40
APPENDIX E

Name:___________________
Class: 5 ( )
Solve Problems Involving Multiplication of Decimals:
1.) The cost of a table is RM 295.65. Joshua bought 12
tables. How much did he pay?

2.) Aida has RM48.75. Fatin has 3 times more money than
Aida. How much money does Fatin have?

3.) The mass of a packet of sugar is 0.345 kg. Jonathan


bought 12 packets. What is the mass of sugar he
bought?

4.) A jug of water was poured equally into 14 glasses. If


each glass contained 1.26 liter of water, how much water
was in the jug?

5.) The price of a pencil case is RM7.85. May Ling wants to


buy 21 pencil cases. How much does May Ling have to
pay?

41
APPENDIX F

Name:___________________
Class: 5 ( )
Solve Problems Involving Multiplication of Decimals:
1.) In a festive season, Ahmad and his siblings make ketupat from
green ribbons to decorate their house. How much ribbons is
needed to make 25 ketupats, if each ketupat needs 1.643 meter
of ribbons?

2.) Joyce needs 0.765kg of flour to bake a cake. How much flour is
needed to bake 7 cakes?

3.) A liter of orange juice costs RM1.99. Xin Yee buys 5 litres of the
juice. How much does it cost?

4.) The distance from Wendy’s house to school is 1.653km. What is


the distance Wendy takes to school from her house walk in five
days?

5.) Each sport house is given 24.641 meter of white tape to tie
around its tent. The track needs 34 more white tape than each
sport house. How much white tape is needed for the track?

42

Оценить