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“EL ALBA” Bilingual School

Philosophy

Socrates

Plato

Aristotle

Any Elvir

10 A

Mrs. Geraldina Rivera

Siguatepeque, December 18th, 2019


Socrates
Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher considered to be the main source of Western
thought. He was condemned to death for his Socratic method of questioning.

Who Was Socrates?

Socrates was a scholar, teacher and philosopher born in ancient Greece. His Socratic
method laid the groundwork for Western systems of logic and philosophy.

When the political climate of Greece turned against him, Socrates was sentenced to death
by hemlock poisoning in 399 B.C. He accepted this judgment rather than fleeing into exile.

Early Years

Born circa 470 B.C. in Athens, Greece, Socrates's life is chronicled through only a few
sources: the dialogues of Plato and Xenophon and the plays of Aristophanes.

Because these writings had other purposes than reporting his life, it is likely none present
a completely accurate picture. However, collectively, they provide a unique and vivid
portrayal of Socrates's philosophy and personality.

Socrates was the son of Sophroniscus, an Athenian stonemason and sculptor, and
Phaenarete, a midwife. Because he wasn't from a noble family, he probably received a
basic Greek education and learned his father's craft at a young age. It's believed Socrates
worked as mason for many years before he devoted his life to philosophy.

Contemporaries differ in their account of how Socrates supported himself as a


philosopher. Both Xenophon and Aristophanes state Socrates received payment for
teaching, while Plato writes Socrates explicitly denied accepting payment, citing his
poverty as proof.

Socrates married Xanthippe, a younger woman, who bore him three sons: Lamprocles,
Sophroniscus and Menexenus. There is little known about her except for Xenophon's
characterization of Xanthippe as "undesirable."

He writes she was not happy with Socrates's second profession and complained that he
wasn’t supporting family as a philosopher.

Life in Athens
Athenian law required all able-bodied males serve as citizen soldiers, on call for duty from
ages 18 until 60. According to Plato, Socrates served in the armored infantry — known as
the hoplite — with shield, long spear and face mask.

He participated in three military campaigns during the Peloponnesian War, at Delium,


Amphipolis and Potidaea, where he saved the life of Alcibiades, a popular Athenian
general.

Socrates was known for his fortitude in battle and his fearlessness, a trait that stayed with
him throughout his life. After his trial, he compared his refusal to retreat from his legal
troubles to a soldier's refusal to retreat from battle when threatened with death.

Plato's Symposium provides the best details of Socrates' physical appearance. He was not
the ideal of Athenian masculinity. Short and stocky, with a snub nose and bulging eyes,
Socrates always seemed to appear to be staring.

However, Plato pointed out that in the eyes of his students, Socrates possessed a different
kind of attractiveness, not based on a physical ideal but on his brilliant debates and
penetrating thought.

Socrates always emphasized the importance of the mind over the relative unimportance of
the human body. This credo inspired Plato’s philosophy of dividing reality into two separate
realms, the world of the senses and the world of ideas, declaring that the latter was the
only important one.

Socrates' Death

Before Socrates' execution, friends offered to bribe the guards and rescue him so he could
flee into exile.

He declined, stating he wasn't afraid of death, felt he would be no better off if in exile and
said he was still a loyal citizen of Athens, willing to abide by its laws, even the ones that
condemned him to death.

Plato described Socrates' execution in his Phaedo dialogue: Socrates drank the hemlock
mixture without hesitation. Numbness slowly crept into his body until it reached his heart.
Shortly before his final breath, Socrates described his death as a release of the soul from
the body
Socratic Method

Socrates main contribution to Western philosophy is his method of inquiry that was called
after him Socratic method, sometimes also known as elenchus. According to the latter, a
statement can be considered true only if it cannot be proved wrong. The Socratic method
which is dialectic breaks down a problem into a series of questions which are then sought
to be answered. This method which is also used in scientific research by making a
hypothesis and then either proving it correct or false, is by some suggested to be first used
by Zeno of Elea (ca. 490-430 BCE) but it was Socrates who refined it and used it to solve
ethical questions.

The philosopher’s beliefs are difficult to distinguish from Plato’s. According to some, they
may have been reinterpreted by Plato but according to the others, the latter perhaps
completely adopted Socrates’ philosophical thoughts and that his beliefs actually reflect
those from Socrates. Thus the famous philosopher’s saying “I only know that I know
nothing” can be in a way also claimed for his life and work.

Socratic Debate and Basic Reasoning

The craft of Socratic debate is associated with basic reasoning because the ability to
debate a subject requires considered thought and reasoning. Socrates believed in the
need to examine the learning process itself and to work out how to go about it. Basic and
intelligent reasoning centers around what ought to be accepted or done about a topic.
Socratic debate adds the extra dimension of thought to basic reasoning by concentrating
on profundity and argument, and examining the reality or authenticity of thought. Socrates
contended that an absence of information isn’t necessarily bad, and students must try to
understand what they don’t know through the process of reasoning and basic thinking.

Basic reasoning and Socratic debate both look for significance and truth. Basic reasoning
allows a person to screen, evaluate, and maybe reconstitute or re-direct their reasoning.
Instructive reformer John Dewey defined this as an intelligent request “in which the scholar
turns a subject over in the psyche, giving it genuine and back-to-back consideration.”
Socratic debate allows an individual to engage in self-coordinated, restrained enquiry to
accomplish that objective

The paradox “I know that I know nothing” is introduced in Plato’s Apology and is an
indication of Socrates’ self-awareness, as he professes to his own lack of knowledge.
Socrates believed that in order to come to a conclusion, a person needed to approach it
with “thought, sense, judgment, viable knowledge, [and] prudence.” He also believed that
bad behavior was the result of ignorance, and those who made mistakes did so because
they knew no better.
The one thing Socrates did profess to know about was “the specialty of affection.” This is
related to the word erôtan, which means to ask questions, showing that Socrates linked
the ideas of love and posing questions about it.

I. Theory of Value: What knowledge and skills are worthwhile learning? What
are the goals of education?

Socrates believed that there were different kinds of knowledge, important and trivial. He
acknowledges that most of us know many "trivial" things. He states that the craftsman
possesses important knowledge, the practice of his craft, but this is important only to
himself, the craftsman. But this is not the important knowledge that Socrates is referring to.
The most important of all knowledge is "how best to live." He posits that this is not easily
answered, and most people live in shameful ignorance regarding matters of ethics and
morals. (Brickhouse & Smith 1, p.30)

Through his method of powerfully questioning his students, he seeks to guide them to
discover the subject matter rather than simply telling them what they need to know. The
goals of education are to know what you can; and, even more importantly, to know what
you do not know.

II. Theory of Knowledge: What is knowledge? How is it different from belief?


What is a mistake? A lie?

Socrates makes the claim there are two very different sorts of knowledge. One is ordinary
knowledge. This is of very specific (and ordinary) information. (Brickhouse & Smith 1,
p.118) He claims that to have such knowledge does not give the possessor of said
knowledge any expertise or wisdom worth mentioning.

The higher knowledge could possibly be described as definitional knowledge. Socrates is


extremely interested in defining words and concepts. He accepts the pursuit of definitional
knowledge as a priority to philosophical discussion. (Brickhouse & Smith 1, p.118)

Socrates devotes much thought to the concept of belief, through the use of logic. He spars
with students early in his career and later with his accusers, at his trial, on the nature of his
belief regarding the gods. To define belief, according to Socrates, was to use naturalistic
explanations for phenomena traditionally explained in terms of Divine Agency. (Brickhouse
& Smith 2, p. 181) His belief in the wisdom and goodness of gods is derived from human
logic and his natural skepticism.
Socrates quotes

“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”


― Socrates
“The unexamined life is not worth living.”
― Socrates
“I cannot teach anybody anything. I can only make them think”
― Socrates
“There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.”
― Socrates
“Be kind, for everyone you meet is fighting a hard battle.”
― Socrates
“Wonder is the beginning of wisdom.”
― Socrates
“Strong minds discuss ideas, average minds discuss events, weak minds discuss people.”
― Socrates

“To find yourself, think for yourself.”


― Socrates
“Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a vessel.”
― Socrates
“By all means marry; if you get a good wife, you’ll become happy; if you get a bad one,
you’ll become a philosopher.”
― Socrates
“He who is not contented with what he has, would not be contented with what he would
like to have.”
― Socrates

“Be slow to fall into friendship, but when you are in, continue firm and constant.”
― Socrates

“If you don't get what you want, you suffer; if you get what you don't want, you suffer; even
when you get exactly what you want, you still suffer because you can't hold on to it forever.
Your mind is your predicament. It wants to be free of change. Free of pain, free of the
obligations of life and death. But change is law and no amount of pretending will alter that
reality.”
― Socrates
Plato

Born circa 428 B.C.E., ancient Greek philosopher Plato was a student of Socrates and a
teacher of Aristotle. His writings explored justice, beauty and equality, and also contained
discussions in aesthetics, political philosophy, theology, cosmology, epistemology and the
philosophy of language. Plato founded the Academy in Athens, one of the first institutions
of higher learning in the Western world. He died in Athens circa 348 B.C.E.

Due to a lack of primary sources from the time period, much of Plato's life has been
constructed by scholars through his writings and the writings of contemporaries and
classical historians. Traditional history estimates Plato's birth was around 428 B.C.E., but
more modern scholars, tracing later events in his life, believe he was born between 424
and 423 B.C.E. Both of his parents came from the Greek aristocracy. Plato's father,
Ariston, descended from the kings of Athens and Messenia. His mother, Perictione, is said
to be related to the 6th century B.C.E. Greek statesman Solon.

Some scholars believe that Plato was named for his grandfather, Aristocles, following the
tradition of the naming the eldest son after the grandfather. But there is no conclusive
evidence of this, or that Plato was the eldest son in his family. Other historians claim that
"Plato" was a nickname, referring to his broad physical build. This too is possible, although
there is record that the name Plato was given to boys before Aristocles was born.

As with many young boys of his social class, Plato was probably taught by some of
Athens' finest educators. The curriculum would have featured the doctrines of Cratylus and
Pythagoras as well as Parmenides. These probably helped develop the foundation for
Plato's study of metaphysics (the study of nature) and epistemology (the study of
knowledge).

Plato's father died when he was young, and his mother remarried her uncle, Pyrilampes, a
Greek politician and ambassador to Persia. Plato is believed to have had two full brothers,
one sister and a half brother, though it is not certain where he falls in the birth order. Often,
members of Plato's family appeared in his dialogues. Historians believe this is an
indication of Plato's pride in his family lineage.

As a young man, Plato experienced two major events that set his course in life. One was
meeting the great Greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates's methods of dialogue and
debate impressed Plato so much that he soon he became a close associate and dedicated
his life to the question of virtue and the formation of a noble character. The other
significant event was the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, in which Plato
served for a brief time between 409 and 404 B.C.E. The defeat of Athens ended its
democracy, which the Spartans replaced with an oligarchy. Two of Plato's relatives,
Charmides and Critias, were prominent figures in the new government, part of the
notorious Thirty Tyrants whose brief rule severely reduced the rights of Athenian citizens.
After the oligarchy was overthrown and democracy was restored, Plato briefly considered
a career in politics, but the execution of Socrates in 399 B.C.E. soured him on this idea
and he turned to a life of study and philosophy.

After Socrates's death, Plato traveled for 12 years throughout the Mediterranean region,
studying mathematics with the Pythagoreans in Italy, and geometry, geology, astronomy
and religion in Egypt. During this time, or soon after, he began his extensive writing. There
is some debate among scholars on the order of these writings, but most believe they fall
into three distinct periods.

Early, Middle and Late Periods: An Overview

The first, or early, period occurs during Plato's travels (399-387 B.C.E.). The Apology of
Socrates seems to have been written shortly after Socrates's death. Other texts in this time
period include Protagoras, Euthyphro, Hippias Major and Minor and Ion. In these
dialogues, Plato attempts to convey Socrates's philosophy and teachings.

In the second, or middle, period, Plato writes in his own voice on the central ideals of
justice, courage, wisdom and moderation of the individual and society. The Republic was
written during this time with its exploration of just government ruled by philosopher kings.

In the third, or late, period, Socrates is relegated to a minor role and Plato takes a closer
look at his own early metaphysical ideas. He explores the role of art, including dance,
music, drama and architecture, as well as ethics and morality. In his writings on the Theory
of Forms, Plato suggests that the world of ideas is the only constant and that the perceived
world through our senses is deceptive and changeable.

Final Years

Plato's final years were spent at the Academy and with his writing. The circumstances
surrounding his death are clouded, though it is fairly certain that he died in Athens around
348 B.C.E., when he was in his early 80s. Some scholars suggest that he died while
attending a wedding, while others believe he died peacefully in his sleep.

His work covered a broad spectrum of interests and ideas: mathematics, science and
nature, morals and political theory. His beliefs on the importance of mathematics in
education have proven to be essential for understanding the entire universe.
I:Established the First University in Europe
In 399 BC, after Socrates was condemned to death, Plato left Athens. It is believed that he
traveled extensively during this period and returned 12 years later in 387 BC. There is no
record of the specific time that Plato’s school was established, but research suggests that
it was around the mid-380s BC.

The Akademia or the Academy was established outside the city limits of old Athens and
offered a wide range of subjects taught by experts in their field. The Academy was thought
to be the principal college in Europe and attracted scholars such as Eudoxus of Cnidus
and Theaetetus, both mathematicians, and Aristotle, the philosopher.

II:Insight into the Philosophical Teachings of Socrates


Socrates is credited as being one of the founders of Western philosophy. Even though
Socrates was highly regarded in his time, he didn’t record any of his lessons, and his ideas
are known only through the writings of his contemporaries such as Antisthenes and
Aristippus, or his students such as Xenophon and Plato.

The “exchanges” or early writings of Plato appear to be directly acquired from Socrates.
Plato’s teacher Socrates is, for the most part, the focal character in these works, with
subjects normally revolving around Socrates’ dialogues. The most well-known of the
Socratic dialogues is the Apology in which the character of Socrates defends his ideas
against the charges of the Athenian court.

III: Epistemology or Theory of Knowledge


Plato believed that genuine knowledge could be gained from the wider universe. For
example, in his Socratic exchange Meno, Plato explains how a child can discover
mathematical theories without prior knowledge of the world, reaching logical conclusions
by asking questions and considering alternative responses. Plato claimed that this was
possible due to the memory of past lives or through learning by examination instead of
perception. He suggested that knowledge is intrinsically present in an individual’s spirit and
has been concealed by their views and experiences of the real world.

In his work Republic, Plato demonstrates this theory of forms in a representation called
“The Allegory of the Cave
Plato, Love and Beauty:
The route to the Essences can be understood as the dialectic of love, as Plato so aptly
described in the Symposium.

– Indeed, the momentum toward love of beauty is in the eyes of the philosopher, a
powerful instrument of access to truth.

– Intellectualized and discipline, love is confused with the Dialectic, which embodies the
vitality and life.

What, indeed, that love?

– It is a lack, shortage, poverty, which we reported our incompleteness and our emptiness,
a yearning that we do not have an aspiration to beauty itself.

– Thanks to him we can, from bodily beauty and sensitive progress to the beauty of the
soul, then to the occupation and laws.

Finally, the ultimate step is the same idea of Beauty, in its purity and independence, which
may reach the philosopher

It is difficult to define this idea of Beauty.

– Forming a unity in itself, beyond the generation and corruption, it is characterized by the
absolute purity, transcendence in relation to sensitive and other “mortal nonsense” …

– … Beauty is the ultimate disembodiment, the brilliance, and splendor of that which
transcends the empirical and the absolutely concrete.
Plato Quotes
 “Be kind, for everyone you meet is fighting a harder battle.” ...
 “Every heart sings a song, incomplete, until another heart whispers back. ...
 “Wise men speak because they have something to say; fools because they have to say
something.”
 “We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when
men are afraid of the light.”
― Plato
 “Only the dead have seen the end of war.”
― Plato

 “The price good men pay for indifference to public affairs is to be ruled by evil men.”
― Plato
 “Do not train a child to learn by force or harshness; but direct them to it by what
amuses their minds, so that you may be better able to discover with accuracy the
peculiar bent of the genius of each.”
― Plato
 “The heaviest penalty for declining to rule is to be ruled by someone inferior to
yourself.”
― Plato
 “According to Greek mythology, humans were originally created with four arms, four
legs and a head with two faces. Fearing their power, Zeus split them into two
separate parts, condemning them to spend their lives in search of their other halves.”
― Plato
 “I am the wisest man alive, for I know one thing, and that is that I know nothing.”
― Plato
 “Never discourage anyone...who continually makes progress, no matter how slow.”
― Plato
 “Love is a serious mental disease.”
― Plato
 “One of the penalties of refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being
governed by your inferiors.”
― Plato
 “good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will
find a way around the laws”
― Plato
 “Ignorance, the root and stem of every evil.”
― Plato
Aristotle
Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, together with Socrates and Plato, laid much of the
groundwork for western philosophy.

Who Was Aristotle?

Aristotle (c. 384 B.C. to 322 B.C.) was an Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist who is
still considered one of the greatest thinkers in politics, psychology and ethics. When
Aristotle turned 17, he enrolled in Plato’s Academy. In 338, he began tutoring Alexander
the Great. In 335, Aristotle founded his own school, the Lyceum, in Athens, where he
spent most of the rest of his life studying, teaching and writing. Some of his most notable
works include Nichomachean Ethics, Politics, Metaphysics, Poetics and Prior Analytics.

Early Life, Family and Education

Aristotle was born circa 384 B.C. in Stagira, a small town on the northern coast of Greece
that was once a seaport.

Aristotle’s father, Nicomachus, was court physician to the Macedonian king Amyntas II.
Although Nicomachus died when Aristotle was just a young boy, Aristotle remained closely
affiliated with and influenced by the Macedonian court for the rest of his life. Little is known
about his mother, Phaestis; she is also believed to have died when Aristotle was young.

After Aristotle’s father died, Proxenus of Atarneus, who was married to Aristotle’s older
sister, Arimneste, became Aristotle’s guardian until he came of age. When Aristotle turned
17, Proxenus sent him to Athens to pursue a higher education. At the time, Athens was
considered the academic center of the universe. In Athens, Aristotle enrolled in Plato’s
Academy, Greek’s premier learning institution, and proved an exemplary scholar. Aristotle
maintained a relationship with Greek philosopher Plato, himself a student of Socrates, and
his academy for two decades. Plato died in 347 B.C. Because Aristotle had disagreed with
some of Plato’s philosophical treatises, Aristotle did not inherit the position of director of
the academy, as many imagined he would.

After Plato died, Aristotle’s friend Hermias, king of Atarneus and Assos in Mysia, invited
Aristotle to court.
Teaching

In 338 B.C., Aristotle went home to Macedonia to start tutoring King Phillip II’s son, the
then 13-year-old Alexander the Great. Phillip and Alexander both held Aristotle in high
esteem and ensured that the Macedonia court generously compensated him for his work.

In 335 B.C., after Alexander had succeeded his father as king and conquered Athens,
Aristotle went back to the city. In Athens, Plato’s Academy, now run by Xenocrates, was
still the leading influence on Greek thought. With Alexander’s permission, Aristotle started
his own school in Athens, called the Lyceum. On and off, Aristotle spent most of the
remainder of his life working as a teacher, researcher and writer at the Lyceum in Athens
until the death of his former student Alexander the Great.

Because Aristotle was known to walk around the school grounds while teaching, his
students, forced to follow him, were nicknamed the “Peripatetics,” meaning “people who
travel about.” Lyceum members researched subjects ranging from science and math to
philosophy and politics, and nearly everything in between. Art was also a popular area of
interest. Members of the Lyceum wrote up their findings in manuscripts. In so doing, they
built the school’s massive collection of written materials, which by ancient accounts was
credited as one of the first great libraries.

When Alexander the Great died suddenly in 323 B.C., the pro-Macedonian government
was overthrown, and in light of anti-Macedonia sentiment, Aristotle was charged with
impiety for his association with his former student and the Macedonian court. To avoid
being prosecuted and executed, he left Athens and fled to Chalcis on the island of
Euboea, where he would remain until his death a year later.

Death

In 322 B.C., just a year after he fled to Chalcis to escape prosecution under charges of
impiety, Aristotle contracted a disease of the digestive organs and died.

Legacy

In the century following Aristotle’s death, his works fell out of use, but they were revived
during the first century. Over time, they came to lay the foundation of more than seven
centuries of philosophy. Aristotle’s influence on Western thought in the humanities and
social sciences is largely considered unparalleled, with the exception of his teacher Plato’s
contributions, and Plato’s teacher Socrates before him. The two-millennia-strong academic
practice of interpreting and debating Aristotle’s philosophical works continues to endure.
Logic
Aristotle's writings on the general subject of logic were grouped by the later Peripatetics
under the name Organon, or instrument. From their perspective, logic and reasoning was
the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. Aristotle himself, however, uses
the term "logic" as equivalent to verbal reasoning. The Categories of Aristotle are
classifications of individual words (as opposed to sentences or propositions), and include
the following ten: substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, situation, condition,
action, passion. They seem to be arranged according to the order of the questions we would
ask in gaining knowledge of an object. For example, we ask, first, what a thing is, then how
great it is, next of what kind it is. Substance is always regarded as the most important of
these. Substances are further divided into first and second: first substances
are individual objects; second substances are the species in which first substances or
individuals inhere.

Metaphysics
Aristotle's editors gave the name "Metaphysics" to his works on first philosophy, either
because they went beyond or followed after his physical investigations. Aristotle begins by
sketching the history of philosophy. For Aristotle, philosophy arose historically after basic
necessities were secured. It grew out of a feeling of curiosity and wonder, to which religious
myth gave only provisional satisfaction. The earliest speculators (i.e. Thales, Anaximenes,
Anaximander) were philosophers of nature. The Pythagoreans succeeded these with
mathematical abstractions. The level of pure thought was reached partly in the Eleatic
philosophers (such as Parmenides) and Anaxagoras, but more completely in the work of
Socrates. Socrates' contribution was the expression of general conceptions in the form of
definitions, which he arrived at by induction and analogy. For Aristotle, the subject of
metaphysics deals with the first principles of scientific knowledge and the ultimate
conditions of all existence. More specifically, it deals with existence in its most fundamental
state (i.e. being as being), and the essential attributes of existence.

Philosophy of Nature
Aristotle sees the universe as a scale lying between the two extremes: form without matter
is on one end, and matter without form is on the other end. The passage of matter into form
must be shown in its various stages in the world of nature. To do this is the object of
Aristotle's physics, or philosophy of nature. It is important to keep in mind that the passage
from form to matter within nature is a movement towards ends or purposes. Everything in
nature has its end and function, and nothing is without its purpose. Everywhere we find
evidences of design and rational plan. No doctrine of physics can ignore the fundamental
notions of motion, space, and time.
Aristotle Quotes
 Knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom.”
 “It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without
accepting it.”
 “What is a friend? ...
 “Hope is a waking dream.”
 “Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.”
 “No great mind has ever existed without a touch of madness.”
― Aristotle
 “Happiness depends upon ourselves.”
― Aristotle
 “Anybody can become angry — that is easy, but to be angry with the right person
and to the right degree and at the right time and for the right purpose, and in the
right way — that is not within everybody's power and is not easy.”
― Aristotle
 “Excellence is never an accident. It is always the result of high intention, sincere
effort, and intelligent execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives -
choice, not chance, determines your destiny.”
― Aristotle
 “Wishing to be friends is quick work, but friendship is a slow ripening fruit.”
― Aristotle
 “Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of
human existence.”
― Aristotle
 “A friend to all is a friend to none.”
― Aristotle
 “Patience is bitter, but its fruit is sweet.”

 “Those who educate children well are more to be honored than they who produce
them; for these only gave them life, those the art of living well.”
― Aristotle

 “To perceive is to suffer.”


― Aristotle
 “He who has overcome his fears will truly be free.”
― Aristotle
 “Those who know, do. Those that understand, teach.”
― Aristotle
 “Pleasure in the job puts perfection in the work.”
― Aristotle
Webliography

 https://www.biography.com/scholar/socrates

 https://www.ancienthistorylists.com/people/top-contributions-socrates/

 https://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Socrates.html

 https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/275648.Socrates

 https://www.biography.com/scholar/plato

 https://www.ancienthistorylists.com/people/top-contributions-plato/

 https://study.com/academy/lesson/the-theory-of-forms-by-plato-definition-lesson-
quiz.html

 https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/879.Plato

 https://www.biography.com/scholar/aristotle

 https://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/

 https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/2192.Aristotle