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*Text Information

-a non fiction writing written with intention of informing the reader about a specific topic.

*Characteristics of text information and media

-A text is any media product we wish to examine
-A text is effortful to comprehend
-A text has its limitations too
-Images can communicate everything at once


-allows the reader to identify the over all topic of the text and understand the main idea

-allow the reader to identify specific topics and also divide the text into sections

*Bold print and Italic

-use to signal the reader that the word id important

*Chart tables and Graphs

-use to organize large amounts of information to small space

-helps the reader to understand the information in a visual way

-use to explain the illustration


brochure, magazines, text book and information manual, news paper article, encyclopedia

- documentary, news article, interviews, advertisement, images

- books, magazines, news paper, article

- printed materials are already available on a variety of topics and in many different formats

they are the adjustable to many purposes and maybe used in in any lighted environment

-they are easily transported to another place with out the aid of machine or electricity

 To bring in a better communication and understanding between the general public and government
 To help the people know what is happening in the country about the economy, social and political

TEXT has limitations
-The most obvious drawback of text as knowledge building and communication tool is that it lacks the
inherent expressiveness of speech.
-A transcript may accurately may record the spoken words, but the strategic and emotive qualities and
impact of speech are diminished in the page

*New information
-informational text contributes to readers understandings of a wide range of topics
*Varying formats
-reading informational text provides students exposure to content presented. This exposure presents
text variety and offers.
Example: graphs, chart, primary sources, brochures, manuals and other documents
*Analytical thinking
-reading information in presentations other than narrative requires that readers practice different skills
of interpretation and analysis.
- kids want to know the how and why behind things. That’s why informational text is necessary as it
feeds kids one by one information to what is happening around them
*Visual Text
-Is text that we view
-The images work together to create a meaningful patterns, symbols, ideas and messages for the
-The words and images work together to create meaning. examples: film, video games, picture books

Selection criteria for text information

-The news should be shocking or surprising
-It should be fresh
-The news should be involve well-known person in the public eye
-Time publication

*People Media
-Refers to persons that are involved in the use, analysis, evaluation and production of media and
-People as Media and People in Media

*Importance of People Media

-In every step of the development of technology and other types of media, People Media was present,
they made the existence of all types of media possible. They were the transmitters of information , they were
the information sources, before all of the other media was made available.

-They are the MEDIA itself
-The person serves as the medium for another person to learn or acquire new knowledge

1. Opinion Leaders
-Highly exposed to and actively using media
-Source of variable interpretations of message for lower end media users
-They interpret the media content based on their views and biases, and these interpretations are then
passed on their opinion followers, who are assumed to have less frequent exposure or contact with media.
-You become as effective opinion leader when you are able to influence your followers to produce
educated opinion and make informed choices.

2. Citizen Journalism
-Also known as “public”, “participatory”, or “street” journalism.
-People w/out professional training can use the tools of modern technology and internet to create,
augment or fact-check media on their own or in collaboration with others.

3. Social Journalism
-Social journalists are essentially professional journalist or “paid and unpaid contributors and readers”
-Open publishing where readers intentionally or unwillingly contribute content just by sharing through
their online social accounts.

4. Crowdsourcing
-Also called as “collective mobilization”.
-The practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large
group of people and especially from the online community.

*People in Media
-Media practitioners
-Provide information coming from their expert knowledge or first-hand experience of events
-People in media are those involved in the media forms that they are primarily engage in- print,
broadcast, film, new media, and gaming

*Types of Journalist by Medium

-Print Journalists
-Broadcast Journalists
-Multimedia Journalist


1. Journalism
-Provides information, current events, ideas, opinions

2. Advertising
-Introduces the different products and services available in the market.

3. Public Relation
-Provides information about their clients to the target audience or the general public.

Positive and Negative Effects of Media and Information on Individual and Society
*Positive Effects
-Awareness- People are provided with the latest information about health, business, government,
education, and other areas of life in a very fast and convenient way.

*Negative Effects
-Leads to addiction and cyberbullying
-Use of kids to unhealthy networking sites


*Learners will be able to:
-define visual information and visual media (SSHS);
-discuss the purpose and importance of visual media (SSHS);
-describe the different dimensions of visual information and media (MIL-11/12VIM-IVc-7)
-discuss the elements of visual design (SSHS);
-comprehend how visual information and media is/are formally and informally produced, organized
and disseminated (MIL11/12-VIM-IVc- 8)
-evaluate the reliability and validity of visual information and media and its/ their sources using
selection criteria (MIL11/12-VIM-IVc-9).

*Examples of Visual Media

-Data Visualization (charts and graphs)
-Comic Strips/Cartoons
-Visual Note-Taking

*Purpose of Visual Information

-create meaning
-facilitate retention
-gain attention


*Web Graphics (JPEG)
-The most web friendly image format. Great for images when your need to keep the size small

*Web Graphics, Animation, Clip art (GIF)

-GIF is the worst choice for web graphics. Great for clip art

*Print Graphics (TIFF)

-The best and only choice for professionals when images are intended for print
*Web Graphics/Logos and Line Art (PNG)
-PNGs are great for web graphics. If you want to keep the size small, but still retain the image quality,
use PNG.
*Print Graphics (BMP)
-Large and uncompressed, but images are rich in color, high in quality, simple and compatible in all
windows OS and programs. Also called raster or paint images.


-describes a shape or outline
-create texture and can be thick or thin. May be actual, implied, vertical, horizontal, diagonal, or
contour lines
-a geometric or organic area that stands out from the space next to or around it, or because of
differences in value, color, or texture.
-the degree of light and dark in a design
-contrast between black and white and all the tones in between
-way a surface feels or is perceived to feel
-illusion of the surfaces peaks and valleys, resulting in a feeling of smoothness or roughness in objects
-determined by its hue (name of color), intensity (purity of the hue), and value (lightness or darkness
of hue)
-used for emphasis, or may elicit emotions from viewers
-a figure having volume and thickness
-an illusion of a 3-dimensional object can be implied with the use of light and shading
-can be viewed from many angles


1. Consistency
-Consistency of margins, typeface, typestyle, and colors is necessary, especially in slide presentations
or documents that are more than one page.
2. Center of Interest
-an area that first attracts attention in a composition
-important objects or elements in a composition
-can be achieved by contrast of values, more colors, and placement
3. Balance
-visual equality in shape, form, value, color, etc.
-can be symmetrical and evenly or asymmetrical and unevenly balanced
4. Harmony
-brings together a composition with similar units
-notice how similar harmony is to unity (some sources list both terms)
5. Contrast
-offers some change in value creating a visual discord in a composition
-shows the difference between shapes and can be used as a background to bring objects out and
forward in a design. Can also be used to create an area of emphasis
6. Directional Movement
-a visual flow through the composition
-can be the suggestion of motion in a design as you move from object to object by way placement and
7. Rhythm
-a movement in which some elements recur regularly
-like a dance, it will have a flow of objects that will seem to be like the beat of music
8. Perspective
-created through the arrangement of objects in two dimensional space to look like they appear in real
-learned meaning of the relationship between different objects seen in space
9. Dominance
-gives interest, counteracting confusion and monotony
-can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis