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douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 1

This print-out should have 25 questions. r is


Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page – find all choices 4 Q 4 r3
qin = ρ π r3 = π r3 = Q 3 ,
before answering. 3 4 3 R
π R3
3
001 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
so the total flux through the surface is
Consider the sphere of radius R charged uni-
formly throughout its volume, shown in the Q r3
figure below. Φ= .
ǫ0 R3
Q is the total
charge inside R
002 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
the sphere
Find the electric field at radius r .
p
Q R2
1. E = k
r r4
Q r2
Find the total flux passing through the 2. E = k
R4
Gaussian surface (a spherical shell) with ra- QR
dius r. 3. E = k 3
r
Q R
  Q
1. Φ = 4. E = k
ǫ0 r r
Q r2
  Q
2. Φ = 5. E = k 2
ǫ0 R3 r
Q R2
  Q R2
3. Φ = 6. E = k
ǫ0 r 3 r3
Q Qr
4. Φ = 7. E = k 3 correct
ǫ0 R
Q  r 3 Q
5. Φ = correct 8. E = k
ǫ0 R R
Q  r 2 Q
6. Φ = 9. E = k 2
ǫ0 R R
 3 Q r2
Q R 10. E = k
7. Φ = R3
ǫ0 r
Q Explanation:
8. Φ = From Gauss’ law,
ǫ0 r
 2
Q R E · 4 π r2 = Φ ,
9. Φ =
ǫ0 r
Qr so the electric field is
10. Φ =
ǫ0 R Φ Q r3 1
Explanation: E= =
4 π r2 ǫ0 R3 4 π r 2
Gauss’ law states that Qr
=
~ = qin = Φ .
I
~ · dA
E 4 π ǫ0 R3
ǫ0 kQr
The net charge inside the sphere of radius = .
R3
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 2
1

003 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points r2

R radius

0 R r
G.
Q 1

r2

Consider a solid conducting sphere of ra- 0 R r


dius R and total charge Q. Which diagram
describes the E(r) vs r (electric field vs radial
distance) function for the sphere? 1. M
S.
1 2. P
∝ 2
r
3. L

4. G correct

0 R r
5. S
P.
1

r
Explanation:
1 Because the charge distribution is spheri-
∝ 2
r cally symmetric, select a spherical Gaussian
surface of radius r and surface area 4 π r 2 con-
centric with the sphere. The electric field due
to the conducting sphere is directed radially
r outward by symmetry and is therefore normal
0 R to the surface at every point and E~ is parallel
M. ~ at each point.
to dA
There is no charge within the Gaussian sur-
face, so E = 0 for r < R .
1
∝ For the region outside the conducting
r2 sphere,

0 R r I I I
L. ~ ~
ΦE = E · dA = E dA = E dA
 qin
= E 4 π r2 =
ǫ0
qin Q
E= 2
= for r > R .
4 π ǫ0 r 4 π ǫ0 r 2
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 3
1 1
∝ ∝
r2 r2

E
G. L.

0 R r 0 R r

004 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points 005 10.0 points


Which diagram describes the E(r) vs r A large flat sheet of charge has a charge per
(electric field vs radial distance) function if unit area of 4.2 µC/m2 .
the sphere is non-conducting and it is uni- Find the electric field intensity just above
formly charged, throughout its volume ? the surface of the sheet, measured from its
midpoint. The permittivity of free space is
1. M 8.8542 × 10−12 C2 /N · m2 .

2. G Correct answer: 2.37176 × 105 N/C.

3. L correct Explanation:

4. S
Explanation: Let : σ = 4.2 µC/m2 = 4.2 × 10−6 C/m2 , and
Select a spherical Gaussian surface of radius −12 2 2
ǫ0 = 8.8542 × 10 C /N · m .
r and volume V ′ , where r < R, concentric
with the uniformly charged non-conducting
sphere. The charge qin within the Gaussian By Gauss’ law,
surface of the volume V ′ is less than Q; from
Q
the volume charge density ρ ≡ ,
~ = Q.
I
V ~ · dA
E
ǫ0
 
′ 4 3
qin = ρ V = ρ πr .
3
Applying Gauss’ law, for r < R, Place a Gaussian surface consisting of a right
circular cylinder which “straddles” the sheet,
 qen with the axis of the cylinder perpendicular to
I I
E dA = E dA = E 4 π r 2 = the sheet. The total flux through the cylinder
ǫ0
4 is due solely to the flux through the faces (or
ρ π r3 ends) of the cylinder, and the electric field is
qen 3 ρ
E= 2
= 2
= r. constant across these faces. If each face has
4 π ǫ0 r 4 π ǫ0 r 3 ǫ0 an area A and surface charge density σ, then
3Q 1 Gauss’ Law becomes
ρ= 3
by definition and k = , so
4πR 4 π ǫ0
4 3Q kQ σA
E= k 3
πr = 3 r. 2EA =
3 4πR R ǫ0
In the region outside the uniformly charged σ
E=
non-conducting sphere, we have the same con- 2 ǫ0
ditions as for the conducting sphere when ap- 4.2 × 10−6 C/m2
plying Gauss’ law, so =
2 (8.8542 × 10−12 C2 /N · m2 )
Q
E= . = 2.37176 × 105 N/C .
4 π ǫ0 r 2
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 4
along the positive x-axis also, since the charge
006 10.0 points is negative. Therefore, the magnitudes add
Two uniformly charged conducting plates and we get
are parallel to each other. They each have
area A. Plate #1 has a positive charge Q Q 3Q 2Q
Egap = + = .
while plate #2 has a charge −3 Q. 2 ǫ0 A 2 ǫ0 A ǫ0 A
+Q −3 Q
y 007 10.0 points
Two large, parallel, insulating plates are
charged uniformly with the same positive
x
P areal charge density +σ, which is the charge
per unit area.
What is the magnitude of the resultant elec-
tric field E? The permittivity of free space
#1 #2 1
ǫ0 = .
Find the magnitude of the electric field at 4 π ke
a point P in the gap. Assume that the sepa-
1. Zero everywhere
ration between the plates is very small com-
pared to the dimensions of the plates. 2σ
2. Zero between the plates, outside
ǫ0
~Pk = 3Q
1. kE σ
2 ǫ0 A 3. Zero between the plates, outside cor-
ǫ0
~Pk = Q
2. kE
rect
ǫ0 A
2σ 2σ
~ P k = 2 Q correct
3. kE
4.
ǫ0
between the plates,
ǫ0
outside
ǫ0 A σ
5. Zero between the plates, outside
~Pk = 5Q
4. kE 2 ǫ0
ǫ0 A σ
6. between the plates, zero outside
~Pk = Q
5. kE
2 ǫ0
ǫ0 σ
7. between the plates, zero outside
ǫ0
~Pk = 3Q
6. kE
ǫ0 A 2σ
8. between the plates, zero outside
~Pk = 0 ǫ0
7. kE σ σ
9. between the plates, outside
Q 2 ǫ0 2 ǫ0
~Pk =
8. kE σ
3 ǫ0 A 10. everywhere
ǫ0
~Pk = Q
9. kE
2 ǫ0 A Explanation:
Each plate produces a constant electric field
~Pk = 4Q
10. kE σ
ǫ0 A of E = directed away from the plate for
2 ǫ0
positive charge density, and toward the plate
Explanation: for negative charge density. Between the two
The electric field generated by plate #1 at plates, the two fields cancel each other so that
Q Enet = 0. Outside the two plates, the fields
P is E1 = directed along the positive
2 ǫ0 A add together, so that
x-axis. The field generated by plate #2 has
3Q σ
a magnitude E2 = and it is directed Enet = .
2 ǫ0 A ǫ0
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 5
be treated as a point charge and
008 (part 1 of 3) 10.0 points q q1
EA (4 π a2 ) = encl =
A solid conducting sphere of radius R1 and ǫ0 ǫ0
total charge q1 is enclosed by a conducting 1 q1 q1
shell with an inner radius R2 and outer radius EA = 2
=k 2.
4 π ǫ0 a a
R3 and total charge q2 .
009 (part 2 of 3) 10.0 points
q2 Find the total flux emanating through the
S Gaussian surface S through the point C.
q1 + q2
q1 1. ΦS = correct
ǫ0
R1 −q1
O 2. ΦS =
ǫ0
R2 q2
A 3. ΦS =
ǫ0
R3 C q2 − q1
4. ΦS =
ǫ0
q1 + q2
5. ΦS =
Find the electric field at A. OA = a and ǫ0 c
OC = c. −(q1 + q2 )
6. ΦS =
k (q1 + q2 ) ǫ0
1. EP = q1 − q2
a2 7. ΦS =
k (q1 + q2 ) ǫ0
2. EP = −q2
a 8. ΦS =
q1 ǫ0
3. EP = q1
k a2 9. ΦS =
q2 ǫ0
4. EP = q1 q2
k a2 10. ΦS =
ǫ0 c
5. EP = 0 Explanation:
k q1 The enclosed charge is q1 + q2 , so the flux is
6. EP = q1 + q2
a ΦS = .
k q1 ǫ0
7. EP = correct
a2 010 (part 3 of 3) 10.0 points
k q1 Find the surface charge density on the outer
8. EP =
R1 surface of the shell.
k q1 q2
9. EP = 1. σ =
R12 4 π R22
k q2 q2
10. EP = 2. σ =
a2 4 π R32 ǫ0
q1
3. σ =
4 π R12
Explanation: q1
4. σ =
Consider a spherical Gaussian surface 4 π R12 ǫ0
through the point A. A is outside of the q2
5. σ =
sphere, so the enclosed charge qencl = q1 can 4 π R32
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 6
usual cylindrical surface results in E(2A) =
q2 − q1
6. σ = (σ2A)/ε0.
4 π R32 ǫ0
q2 − q1 012 10.0 points
7. σ =
4 π R32 Find the greatest surface charge density that
q1 + q2 can exist on a conductor before dielectric
8. σ =
4 π R32 ǫ0 breakdown of the air occurs.
q1 + q2 The dielectric strength of the air is 3 ×
9. σ = correct
4 π R32 106 V/m and permittivity of free space is
q2 8.85 × 10−12 C2 /N · m2 .
10. σ =
4 π R22 ǫ0
1. σmax = 106.2 µC/m2
Explanation:
Inside the conductor the electric field is 2. σmax = 159.3 µC/m2
zero, so the charge on the inner surface of the
shell is q2′ = −q1 , the charge on the outer 3. σmax = 53.1 µC/m2
surface is q2′′ = q2 − q2′ = q2 + q1 , and the
charge density is 4. σmax = 79.65 µC/m2
q2′′ q1 + q2
σ= 2
= . 5. σmax = 132.75 µC/m2
4 π R3 4 π R32
6. σmax = 26.55 µC/m2 correct
011 10.0 points
A net positive charge Q is placed on a large, Explanation:
thin conducting plate of area A. The area of
the edges of the plate is completely negligible Let : Eb = 3 × 106 V/m and
by comparison.
ǫ0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C2 /N · m2 .
In electric equilibrium, find the charge den-
sity σ on each surface and the magnitude of The electric field due to a surface charge den-
~ outside the plate.
the electric field |E| sity σ is
σ
Q E= ,
1. σ = and ~ =0
|E| ǫ0
2A so the maximum surface charge density is
Q ~ = σ
2. σ = and |E| σmax = ǫ0 Eb
A 2 E0
Q ~ = σ = (8.85 × 10−12 C2 /N · m2 )
3. σ = and |E|  6
2A 2 E0

6 10 µC
× (3 × 10 V/m)
Q ~ =0 C
4. σ = and |E|
A
= 26.55 µC/m2 .
Q ~ = σ
5. σ = and |E|
A E0
Q 013 10.0 points
6. σ = and ~ = σ correct
|E|
2A E0 The difference in potential between the accel-
erating plates of a TV set is about 26 kV. The
Explanation:
distance between these plates is 1.7 cm.
The total area of the two surfaces is 2 A , so
Q Find the magnitude of the uniform electric
σ= ~ =
. The electric field is therefore |E| field in this region.
2A
σ
. In other words, Gauss’s law applied to the
E0 Correct answer: 1.52941 × 106 N/C.
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 7
Explanation:
Let : s = 5.2% = 0.052 ,
Let : ∆V = 26 kV = 26000 V and c = 2.998 × 108 m/s ,
d = 1.7 cm = 0.017 m . me = 9.109 × 10−31 kg , and
qe = −1.602 × 10−19 C .
The potential is
The final speed of the electron is
∆V = E d v = 0.052 c = 0.052 2.998 × 108 m/s

∆V 26000 J/C
E= = = 1.55896 × 107 m/s ,
d 0.017 m
= 1.52941 × 106 N/C . so by conservation of energy

014 10.0 points ∆U = −∆K = −(Kf − Ki ) = −Kf


An electron transfers across a potential differ- 1
qe ∆V = − me v 2
ence of 8.9 × 105 V. 2
What energy must it be given to accomplish v2
∆V = −me
this? 2 qe

= − 9.109 × 10−31 kg
Correct answer: 1.42594 × 10−13 J. 2
1.55896 × 107 m/s
Explanation: ×
2 (−1.602 × 10−19 C)
= 690.952 V .
5
Let : V = 8.9 × 10 V and
qe = 1.60218 × 10−19 C .
016 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Three point charges −q, −2q and q are located
The potential difference is
at the corners of an equilateral triangle of side
∆E a.
∆V = −2 q
q
E = qe V ̂
= 1.60218 × 10−19 C (8.9 × 105 V)

ı̂
a

= 1.42594 × 10−13 J .

015 10.0 points 60◦


Through what potential difference would an
electron need to be accelerated for it to +q P −q
achieve a speed of 5.2% of the speed of light Remove −q to infinity. What is the work
(2.998 × 108 m/s), starting from rest? The done (against the electric force due to 2q and
mass of an electron is 9.109 × 10−31 kg and q) in bringing in charge −q from the infinity to
the elemental charge is 1.602 × 10−19 C. Ig- the point bottom right vertex of the triangle?
nore special relativity.
q2
1. U = 4 k
Correct answer: 690.952 V. a
Explanation: 2. U = 0
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 8

q2 q2
3. U = −k 5. U = 2 k
a a
q2 6. U = 0
4. U = 3 k
a
q2 q2
5. U = k correct 7. U = k
a a
q2 q2
6. U = −2 k 8. U = −2 k
a a
q2 Explanation:
7. U = −3 k The electric energies for the three pairs of
a
2
point charges are
q
8. U = 2 k
a
Explanation: q1 q2 q2
U12 = k = 2k ,
a a
q1 q3 q2
Let : q1 = −q , U13 =k = −k , and
a a
q2 = −2 q , and q2 q3 q2
q3 = q . U23 =k = −2 k ,
a a
and the potential energy produced by q2 so the total electric energy is
and q3 at the bottom right vertex of the tri-
angle is
q2
q2 q3 q U = U12 + U13 + U23 = −k .
V =k +k = −k a
a a a
and the potential energy of q1 at point the 018 10.0 points
bottom right vertex is The distance between the K+ and Cl− ions in
KCl is 2.8 × 10−10 m.
q2
U = q1 V = k , Find the energy required to separate the
a two ions to an infinite distance apart, assum-
so in order to bring q1 from the infinity to the ing them to be point charges initially at rest.
bottom right vertex of the triangle, the work The elemental charge is 1.6 × 10−19 C and the
U needs to be done. Coulomb constant is 8.99 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .

017 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points 1. 709.1 eV


What is the total electric energy stored in the
triangular system? 2. 4.37 eV
q2 3. 101.3 eV
1. U = −k correct
a
q2 4. 6.77 eV
2. U = 3 k
a
q2 5. 5.14 eV correct
3. U = −3 k
a
2
6. 8.91 eV
q
4. U = 4 k , Explanation:
a
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 9

where a = 14 V/m2 , b = −15 V/m, and


c = 54 V.
Let : q = 1.6 × 10−19 C , Determine the electric field at x = 2 m.
k = 8.99 × 109 N · m2 /C2 , and
d = 2.8 × 10−10 m . Correct answer: −41 V/m.
Explanation:
The energy is

W = ∆K + ∆U = 0 − Ui Let : a = 14 V/m2 ,
k (−e)e k q2 b = −15 V/m ,
=− = c = 54 V , and
d d
(8.99 × 109 N · m2 /C2 ) x = 2 m.
=
2.8 × 10−10 m   The electric field is
1 eV dV
× (1.6 × 10−19 C)2 E=− = −2 a x − b , so
1.6 × 10−19 J dx
= 5.14 eV .
E2 m = −2 (14 V/m2 )(2 m) − (−15 V/m)
= −41 V/m .
019 10.0 points
What is the radial component of the electric
field Er associated with the potential 021 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Determine the position where the electric field
a is zero.
V = ,
r2
Correct answer: 0.535714 m.
where a is a constant?
Explanation:
a The position x where E = 0 may be ob-
1. Er =
r tained from
2a
2. Er = 3 correct E = −2 a x − b = 0
r b −15 V/m
2a x=− =− = 0.535714 m .
3. Er = 2a 2 (14 V/m2 )
r
2a 022 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
4. Er = − 3
r Consider two “solid” conducting spheres with
2a radii r1 = 8 R and r2 = 7 R , separated by a
5. Er = −
r large distance so that the field and the poten-
Explanation: tial at the surface of sphere #1 only depends
a on the charge on #1 and the corresponding
The potential is V = 2 = a r −2 , so the
r quantities on #2 only depend on the charge
electric field is on #2. Place an equal amount of charge on
∂V 2a both spheres: q1 = q2 = Q .
Er = − = −a (−2 r −3 ) = 3 . r1
∂r r r2

020 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


The electric potential in a certain region is
#1 Q Q #2
V = a x2 + b x + c,
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 10
Now “connect” the two spheres with a wire. 1
V2
There will be a flow of charge through the wire r2 r1 8R 8
= = = = .
until equilibrium is established. 1 r2 7R 7
V1
r1 r2 r1

023 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


What is the charge q1 on sphere #1?
#1 q1 q2 #2 15
1. q1 = Q
E2 16
What is the ratio of the electric fields at
E1 2. q1 = Q
the “surfaces” of the two spheres once equi-
librium has been reached? 14
3. q1 = Q
E2 7 15
1. = 15
E1 16 4. q1 = Q
E2 7 14
2. = 7
E1 8 5. q1 = Q
E2 49 15
3. = 15
E1 64 6. q1 = Q
E2 49 8
4. = 8
E1 128 7. q1 = Q
15
E2
5. =1 16
E1 8. q1 = Q correct
15
E2 8
6. = correct 15
E1 7 9. q1 = Q
7
E2 64
7. = Explanation:
E1 49
E2 49 With equilibrium established via the con-
8. = necting wire, the potentials are the same, so
E1 32
E2 7
9. =
E1 4 q1 q2
k =k
Explanation: r1 r2
From Gauss’ law, for a conducting sphere r2 7R 7
q2 = q1 = q1 = q1 .
of radius R with charge q, r1 8R 8
q
E(r) = k 2 , r ≥ R , and
r The total charge of the system remains
q constant; i.e., from the initial condition
V (r) = k , r ≤ R .
r q1 = q2 = Q, the total charge is
After equilibrium has been established, the
ends of the wire are at the same potential, so q1 + q2 = 2 Q
V2 = V1 and 7
q1 + q1 = 2 Q
8
q2 q2 1 15
k k q1 = 2 Q
E2 r22 r2 r2 8
= q1 =
E1 k 2 q1 1 16
k q1 = Q.
r1 r1 r1 15
douglas (jed3339) – Homework 04 – yao – (54790) 11

024 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


Find the maximum net charge that can be
placed on a spherical conductor of radius
68 cm before dielectric breakdown of the air
occurs. The dielectric strength of the air is
3 × 106 V/m and the Coulomb constant is
8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .

Correct answer: 154.347 µC.


Explanation:

Let : R = 68 cm = 0.68 m ,
Eb = 3 × 106 V/m , and
k = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .

We want to find Qmax such that


k Qmax
Eb =
R2
Eb R 2
Qmax =
k
(3 × 106 V/m) (0.68 m)2
=
8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2
106 µC
×
C
= 154.347 µC .

025 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


What is the magnitude of the potential of the
sphere when it carries this maximum charge?

Correct answer: 2040 kV.


Explanation:
Because the charge could be postive or neg-
ative, so the potential of the sphere could be:
k Qmax
Vmax = ±
R
(8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 )

0.68 m 
kV
× (0.000154347 C)
1000 V
= ± 2040 kV .