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Conference Paper · December 2018

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Correlation Between Students Learning Styles and Their Learning Achievement

Roswita M. Aboe

Lecturer English Education Education Study Program Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Khairun University

Abstract

Every individual has their own learning style. Learning styles that are commonly known are three, namely Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. The characteristics of each learning style make it easier for students to receive and process information or teaching material presented in front of the class in teaching and learning activities. By understanding the characteristics and learning styles of each student, it will be easier for the teacher to integrate teaching patterns through various techniques and approaches. This study aims to determine the most dominant student learning styles and their correlation with their academic achievement. Data were collected from 75 students of the English language education program, the Teacher Training and Education Faculty, Khairun Ternate University. The respondents consisted of 15 men and 60 women. Student learning style analysis using a questionnaire developed by Reid (1987). While student academic achievement is obtained from the results of the current semester study. To analyze learning styles for academic achievement, Pearson correlation coefficients analysis was used with the SPSS ver16.0 application. Data analysis shows that the most dominant learning style is Kinesthetic. While from the results of the Pearson correlation coefficient analysis there is a positive relationship between Visual and Auditory learning styles on student academic achievement. Interestingly, the kinestethic learning style found to be dominant among the three types of learning turned out to have a low correlation with student achievement. Even so, the impact of these three types of learning style variables is significant towards student academic achievement.

Keywords: Learning Style, Academic Achievement, Correlation

BACKGROUND

One of the ways students absorb information in learning is to understand the learning methods given by the teacher. The way students learn differs from one individual to another. There are those who absorb learning material through notes, material that is heard, and there are those who prefer practicum in the laboratory and so forth. Mastery of methods and strategies for teaching lecturers has a big influence on students in absorbing information and subject matter. In connection with various variations of student learning styles, not all learning methods must be similar from one another.

In principle, it is very important for the instructor to use a combination of teaching methods or strategies so that individuals with various unique characters can learn and receive teaching material well.

In general students can learn well when they see the importance of information presented in class. If students are not interested in the material performed, they will not learn it. As explained by Gilakjani "Students learn best by the information presented in the classroom. When the materials are not in their favor, they will not learn it '(Gilakjani, 2012)

To achieve learning goals, it is very important for the instructor to use a combination of teaching and facilitating methods that provide stimuli and interactivity for students. Students learn through various ways. There are three general types of learning styles in general, namely visual, kinesthetic and auditory, Students with visual type learning by looking at graphics, or images. Auditory students choose listening or audio material, whether the lecture material is delivered through lectures by reading. While learning for kinesthetic types are more in practical way. Students can choose one, two and even three learning models. With different types of learning it is important for teachers to integrate into the curriculum various activities that complement and are related to this learning model. Everyone can participate and be able to capture the subjects collected. According to Cuaresma (2008, in Gilakjani, 2012), to help students learn, we must give choices about how to teach so students can find possible learning information.

Based on the uniqueness of students as individuals, each has a learning style that is different from each other. Experts value each different individual, organize, analyze and process information and experience in different ways (Rezaeinejad et.al, 2015). To understand each class, not all students have the same level of information. Student's learning style that becomes a capable factor or not makes it capable of learning material according to its abilities. Knowing and understanding each learning style is believed to maximize students' learning.

What happens now is teaching staff both teachers and lecturers who apply instructional learning models that are different from student learning styles. As stated by Felder & Henriques (1995, in Rezaeinejad, 2015) there is evidence of discrepancies between student learning models and teacher instructional models that have a negative impact on classroom learning. There are numerous teachers or teaching staffs that are the products of the traditional education system, and apparently they have less awareness of the learning styles of each student. Consequently, teachers only apply learning models that are limited to their comfort zones. Though there are various methods or models of teaching that can involve students both those who have a tendency to write or pay attention, those who like to listen to material or who usually do learning activities with practicum.

Even though there are some students who have multiple intelligence in the classroom, the ideal of learning goal will not be achieved if most students do not understand the methods and teaching material from a teacher. Some students who have been labeled 'incapable' may not be due to their lack of intelligence but because there are other factors including: their starting point of learning is different from the others, they have teachers who are not dynamic, they are overlooked in important times of learning, already labeled 'incapable'. For example in learning English, most students become less confident so that they are rarely

involved in learning groups or individuals (Lia Herawaty, 2010). Thus it can be concluded that multiple intelligence and student learning styles are very closely related.

Learning and understanding teaching material varies from one individual to another. Thus students' learning styles also differ between them. While Celce-Murcia (2001) defines learning styles as a general approach, for example, a type of learner who is global or analytical, auditory or visual. Learning styles are cognitive, affective, social and psychological behavioral characteristics that are indicators of how students receive, interact and respond to the learning environment (Vaishnav, 2013). Learning styles can be referred to as a series of factors, habits and behaviors that can facilitate learning for an individual in certain situations. It can be said that learning styles are the ability of students to receive and process information in learning situations (Vaishnav, 2013). Students believe in their ability to participate well in classroom learning tasks where their success in learning is influenced by the way the teacher presents the material to students and the learning steps that involve students in learning.

Individual learning styles affect the way individuals learn and how to study well (Linguaedge, 2008) in other words a student has its own habits, how to absorb information and understand learning material. According to Reid (1987) three types of learners based on their learning styles include:

Visual type learner. This type of learning with material that can be seen directly (visual) for example reading or viewing pictures and films. Visual type students are very able to remember teacher instructions when they see material directly as written on the board. Sometimes the visual type even like to sit at the front when studying in class. They also record information from the material presented by the teacher.

Auditory type learners learn by relying on their hearing or auditory. Like lectures or through a tape recorder. When the teacher gives verbal instructions, this type of learner likes to record what has been learned or discussed. On many occasions, there are auditory learners who can close their eyes when learning. In the process they record what is conveyed by the teacher or hear the material. Besides that they like to learn by reading aloud in class so that they quickly store information. However, the written teaching material is not much that can be absorbed.

Types of kinesthetic learners love to learn with direct practice experience. Where they are physically involved and actively participate. This type likes to move around and likes various types of class activities. Most types of learners of this style find it difficult to focus on learning targets if the teaching material is not in the form of practice or practicum. One example of learning activities that are liked by this type is role play or role playing and practice in the laboratory.

The way students learn influences their final results in learning material. This final result is called achievement. Learning Achievement (academic) is the achievement of the level or achievement of a business because of tasks, or skills and expertise obtained through education or academic levels (Chaplin, 2006). In addition, academic achievement is also described as the results obtained based on impressions that result in changes in the individual as the end of learning activities. It can be mentioned academic achievement is a change in terms of behavioral skills or skills that increase during the learning process (Djamarah, 2004). In addition, Suryabrata (1998) added academic achievement as an educational assessment to

the extent to which students learn and practice intentionally. Where the manifestation of the results of the teaching and learning process can be either oral or written solutions and direct skills and problem solving can be measured or assessed using standardized tests (Sobur, 1996). From this explanation it can be concluded that learning achievement is an assessment of the teaching and learning process that is measured using standardized tests.

Based on the above background the researchers conducted a study of investigating student learning styles and their impact on the achievement of their academic achievements in learning English. The purpose of this study was to find out the dominant student learning style and its effect on student academic achievement.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research method

This type of research is descriptive research where this study explains the position of the variables under study and the relationship between one variable with another variable (Sugiyono, 2008). The approach used in this study is a quantitative approach in which emphasizes the testing of hypotheses, and the measurement process through data through statistical tests and relationships between variables. In this study the Pearson product Moment statistical co-efficient correlation was applied and identified the impact of the relationship between learning styles on student achievement described using the SPSS count (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) or Statistical Package for Science. social Sciences. The research procedure includes data collection activities through the VAK Learning Style questionnaire (Reid, 1999) and data collection on student learning outcomes, then data is processed statistically. This research is a population research in a type of descriptive research, namely a research effort with the aim of explaining the influence between research variables, namely the independent variable (X), namely the learning style with variable (Y) namely academic achievement. In this study the researcher wanted to investigate and find out whether there was an effect of Visual, Auditorial, Kinesthetic Learning styles on the academic achievement of students of the English Language Education Study Program at the University of Khairun, in Ternate City.

Population and Samples

The population in this study were students of the English education study program at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Khairun University. They consist of 499 students spread out in all level starting from year 2011/2013, 2012/2013, 2013/2014, and 2014/2015. While the sample of this study was 75 students of English education study program (15% of the total population), this sample was taken using stratified random sampling (Sugiyono, 2008) where considering the selection of respondents with representation from each year of the class.

Data collection technique

The technique of collecting data was done through several stages:

Documentation

Data collection by selecting documents or archives related to the object of research. By using documentation the author can collect the necessary research data such as university data and departments and study programs, the number of students and the results of student academic achievement in the form of achievement indexes, students of the 2015-2016 school year

Observation

Observation method is used to obtain data in the form of methods used by students in the teaching and learning process, so that data can be obtained directly about the presence or absence of learning styles used by students.

Questionnaire (Questionnaire)

Questionnaire is a technique of data collection carried out by giving a set of questions or written statements to the respondent to answer Sugiyono (2008: 142). Data through questionnaires adapted from VAK Learning Style taken form Reid (1999)

RESEARCH FINDING

The following are the results of the analysis of 75 respondents from students of the English language education program at the Department of Language and Art Education at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education at Khairun University. From 15 questionnaire questions adapted from Reid (1999) data obtained 20% of students have auditory learning styles, while 35% of them have Visual learning styles, and the remaining 45% have Kinesthetic learning styles. The results of this data show that the student's dominant learning style is kinesthetic. This information showed that students have a tendency to learn with activities that involve physical interaction. With this tendency the instructors must adapt the teaching method by making various methods that make it easier for students to absorb learning material in their own ways. Understanding and knowing the learning styles of each individual will help students effectively both inside and outside the classroom.

Pearson Product Moment Test Results

Learning styles towards student learning achievement

X

and outside the classroom. Pearson Product Moment Test Results Learning styles towards student learning achievement X

Y

and outside the classroom. Pearson Product Moment Test Results Learning styles towards student learning achievement X
Based on the SPSS ver16.0 count for "r" product moment can be seen r c

Based on the SPSS ver16.0 count for "r" product moment can be seen

r count = 0.391> r table 0.227 where the results of r count are greater than r table of 0.164 or by 16% so that it can be explained that student achievement is influenced by their learning styles by 16%. The rest is influenced by other factors.

Analysis results per each learning style are obtainedas follow:

Visual

per each learning style are obtainedas follow: Visual From the data of the visual learning style
per each learning style are obtainedas follow: Visual From the data of the visual learning style

From the data of the visual learning style analysis (the number of N = respondents 26 people) there is a value of r count = 0.832> r table 0.388 so that there is a significant relationship between visual learning styles towards their academic achievement of (0.444) or 44%.

Auditory

Auditory The results of auditory data analysis (Number of N = respondents 15 people) there is
Auditory The results of auditory data analysis (Number of N = respondents 15 people) there is

The results of auditory data analysis (Number of N = respondents 15 people) there is a value of r count = 0.909> r table 0.514 meaning that there is a significant correlation of 0.395 or 40% between auditory learning styles to the results of student academic achievement.

Kinesthetic

to the results of student academic achievement. Kinesthetic The number of N = Repsonden is 34
to the results of student academic achievement. Kinesthetic The number of N = Repsonden is 34

The number of N = Repsonden is 34 people with a value of r count = 0.346> r table 0.339 there is almost very little correlation (0.007 or 1%) between kinesthetic learning styles towards student academic performance.

DISCUSSION

From the overall analysis data in finding the correlation between student learning styles and student academic achievement there is a significant influence of 16%. So that it can be said that learning styles affect the final value of student academic achievement. Although most are influenced by other factors. For types of visual and auditory learners there is a strong correlation between their learning styles towards academic achievement. Where the relationship between visual student learning styles influences their learning outcomes by 44%. As for the auditory type there is 40% influence of learning styles and academic achievement. Of the total respondents who have a tendency towards kinesthetic learning types it turns out that only 1% has an influence between learning styles and their academic achievement. Thus it can be concluded that there is a positive relationship between student learning styles towards their academic achievement. It is from this data that teachers or teaching staff can integrate teaching patterns by considering individual learning styles so that they can accommodate individuals according to the way they learn and how they absorb learning information to the fullest. The pattern of the teaching approach can be varied according to the needs of students and their type of learning. As there are four skills and learning skills in English through reading, writing, literacy and speaking, these three types or styles of learning have the opportunity to learn optimally depending on the teacher / lecturer who provides material by considering individual learning styles in a comprehensive manner.

CONCLUSION

Based on the results of the above research, the conclusions drawn are that there is a significant correlation (16%) between student learning styles toward their academic achievement. The dominant learning style of students is kinesthetic with a significance value of 1%, they tend to have more than one learning style. Depends on the material obtained in the teaching and learning process. This study also proves some previous findings that there is a positive influence between learning styles and student academic achievement.

REFERENCES

Djamarah, S. B. (2004). Psikologi Belajar. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Gilakjani, A. P. (2012). Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic Learning Styles and Their Impacts on English Language Teaching. Journal of Studies in Education , 2 (1), 104-113. L. R., G. (1992). Educational Research Competencies for Analysis and Application. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Lia Herawaty, I. S. (2010). Teaching Mixed Ability Class. Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional. Linguaedge. (2008). Learners Styles and Strategies. In 50-Hour TESOL Certificate Course:

Learning Modules (pp. 1-8). America: http://www.linguaedge.com. Maria Rezaeinejad, A. A. (2015). The Study of Learning Styleand Its Relationship with Educational Achievemnt among Iranian High School Students. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences , 199, 218-22.

Putri, A. W. (2013). Pengaruh Gaya Belajar Siswa (Visual, Kinestetik, Dan Auditorial) Pada Mata Pelajaran Mengelola Peralatan Kantor Terhadap Hasil Belajar. Jurnal Unesa , 1-

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Slameto. (1988). Belajar dan Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhinya. Jakarta: Bina Aksara. Sugiyono. ( 2008). Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Bandung: Alfabeta. Vaishnav, R. S. (2013). Learning Style and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students. Voice of Research , 1 (4), 1-4.