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CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER 2-STRENGTH OF
CONCRETE

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Concrete

 Is one of the most common construction


material.
 Is used in a wide variety applications ranging
from piles, multi-storey buildings, dams,
foundations, pavements, storage tanks,
bridges, and many other structures.
 Is one of the most economical materials of
construction, very versatile in nature and
application.
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Concrete Constituents

 Cement
 Fine aggregate
 Coarse aggregate
 Water
 Admixtures – chemical and pozzolanic

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Raw Materials

GGBFS
OPC Graded
Superplasticizer Sand

Figure: Materials used in producing slag cement grout

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Casting of Concrete

Figure: Casting of cementitious mix cubes

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Important Properties of Concrete

 Compressive strength
 Durability
 Impermeability
 Resistance to environmental or chemicals
attacks
 Abrasion resistance

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Types of Concrete

Based on aggregate:
 Lightweight concrete

 Normal weight concrete

 Heavyweight concrete

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Based on Strength

 Normal strength concrete (0 to 50 MPa)


 High-strength concrete (51 to 80 MPa)
 Very high-strength concrete (greater than 80
MPa)

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Based on Construction

 In-situ concrete
 Precast concrete
 Pre-stressed concrete

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Hydration Process of Cement

 Cement + H2O C-S-H gel + Ca (OH)2


 It is an exothermic process where heat is
liberated (heat of hydration).
 The silicates, C3S and C2S are the most
important compounds, which are responsible
for the strength of hydrated cement paste
 C3S provides the early strength and liberated
higher heat of hydration.

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Hydration Process of Cement Cont.

 C2S reacts slowly, provide later strength, highly


chemical resistance (sulphate, chloride)
 C3A is undesirable, contribute little or nothing to the
strength of cement except at early ages, and when
hardened cement paste is attacked by sulphates,
the formation of sulphoaluminate (AS3) may cause
disruption/ separation.
 When AS3 combined with Portlandite (Ca(OH)2),
formed an ettringate (Calcium sulfoaluminate
hydrate – C6AS3H32) and monosulfate (calcium
aluminate sulfate hydrate –C4ASH11).

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Hydration Process of Cement Cont.

 C4AF does not affect the behaviour of cement


hydration significantly.
 However, it reacts with gypsum (calcium
sulfate –CSH2) to form calcium sulphoferrite
and its presence may accelerate the
hydration of silicates.

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Development of Structure in Cement Paste

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Cement Hydration Products

 The products of the reaction between cement


and water are termed 'hydration products.' In
concrete (or mortar or other cementitious
materials) made using Portland cement only
as the cementitious material there are four
main types of hydration product:

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Cement Hydration Products Cont.

1. Calcium silicate hydrate: this is the main


hydration product and is the main source of
concrete strength and cohesiveness. It is
often abbreviated, using cement chemists'
notation, to 'C-S-H,' the dashes indicating
that no strict ratio of SiO2 to CaO is inferred.
The Si/Ca ratio is somewhat variable but
typically approximately 0.45-0.50.

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Cement Hydration Products Cont.

2.Calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH)2: often


abbreviated, using cement chemists'
notation, to 'CH.' CH is formed mainly from
alite (C3S) hydration. Alite has a Ca:Si ratio of
3:1 and C-S-H has a Ca/Si ratio of
approximately 2:1, so excess lime is available
from alite hydration and this produces CH.

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Cement Hydration Products Cont.

3.Ettringite: ettringite is present as rod-like


crystals in the early stages of cement
hydration. The chemical formula for ettringite
is [Ca3Al(OH)6.12H2O]2.2H2O] or, mixing
cement notation and normal chemistry
notation, C3A.3CaSO4.32H2O.

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Cement Hydration Products Cont.

 4. Monosulfate: monosulfate tends to occur


in the later stages of hydration, after a few
days. Usually, it replaces ettringite, either
fully or partly. The chemical formula for
monosulfate is C3A.CaSO4.12H2O. Both
ettringite and monosulfate are compounds of
C3A, CaSO4 (anhydrite) and water, in
different proportions.

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Determination of the compound composition
from chemical analysis (Bogue Equation)
 Applicable to Portland cement with an
Alumina/ Iron Oxide (A/ F) ratio 0.64 or
higher.
 A/F ratio less than 0.64, refer to ASTM C 150
 %C3S= 4.071C – 7.600S – 6.718A – 1.430F
– 2.850 š
 %C2S= 2.867S – 0.7544C3S
 %C3A= 2.650A – 1.692F
 %C4AF= 3.043F

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Tutorial: Cement Compound Composition

 Oxide compound (XRF):


 Cement 1:
 S= silica oxide = 21.1%
 A= Alumina= 6.2%
 F= iron oxide= 2.9%
 C= Calcium oxide= 65%
 Š = Sulfur= 2.0%
 So,
 %C3S=4.071 (65) – 7.600(21.1) – 6.718(6.2) – 1.430(2.9) –
2.850 (2) = 52.8%
 %C2S= 2.867(21.1) – 0.7544 (52.8) = 20.7%
 %C3A= 2.650(6.2) – 1.692(2.9) = 11.5%
 %C4AF= 3.043(2.9) = 8.8%

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Microstructure- C-S-H Gels

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Microstructure- Calcium Hydroxide

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Microstructure- Ettringite

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Microstructure of Cement Mortar
Pore

Sand
Particle

C-S-H

Cement
Grain

Calcium
Hydroxide

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Microstructure of Cement Paste

Fig. View of the microstructure of a 100-day old w:c 0.30 cement paste,
cured at room temperature.

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Microstructure of Cement Paste

Fig. An area from a 7-day old w:c 0.45 cement paste,


showing details of the porous groundmass and CH deposits.

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Microstructure of Concrete

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Water to Cement Ratio

 The ratio of weight of water to weight of


cement used in the mix
 Weight of water= water added + free water
 Water-cement ratio will have an effect on
strength and durability of concrete
 When concrete fully compacted, its strength
is taken to be inversely proportional to the
water/cement ratio

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Law/ Rule of Rene Feret (1896)

 Strength of concrete relate to the volumes of water,


cement and air.
 fc = K (c/ (c + w + a))2

 Where,
 fc = strength of concrete,
 c = absolute volumetric proportions of cement
 w = absolute volumetric proportions of water
 a = absolute volumetric proportions of air
 K = constant
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Abram’s Law

 Assuming full compaction, and at a given age


and normal temperature, strength of concrete
can be taken to be inversely proportional to
the water-cement ratio

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Water to Cement Ratio

 At a given degree of hydration, the water


cement ratio determines the porosity of the
cement paste (gel pores, capillary pores and
entrapped air).
 Lower w/c ratio will increase concrete
strength due to lower porosity.
 With an increase in age, the degree of
hydration generally increases so that strength
increases.
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Water to Cement Ratio

The strength of concrete results from:


 The strength of the mortar (water to cement ratio)

 The bond between the mortar and the coarse


aggregate (cement to aggregate ratio; grading,
surface texture, shape of aggregate particles)
 The strength and stiffness of the coarse aggregate
particles, e.g. ability to resist the stresses applied to
it.
 Well distribution of cement-aggregates particles
(reduce voids in concrete)

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Water to Cement Ratio Cont.

 One of the most important factors affecting


the strength and durability of concrete.
 W/C ratio for normal strength concrete –
0.45-0.6
 W/C ratio for high strength concrete – less
than 0.45.
 W/C ratio will also affect the workability of
concrete.

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Water-Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength
Relationship (after ACI, 2000)

Water-cement ratio by weight


28-Day Compressive Strength in
MPa (psi)
Non-Air-Entrained Air-Entrained

41.4 (6000) 0.41 -

34.5 (5000) 0.48 0.40

27.6 (4000) 0.57 0.48

20.7 (3000) 0.68 0.59

13.8 (2000) 0.82 0.74

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CHAPTER 2- CONCRETE
PROPERTIES

FRESH PROPERTIES

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Fresh Properties of Concrete

 Workability
 Consistency
 Segregation
 Bleedings
 Setting Time

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Workability

 The amount of work required in mixing,


placing, and compacting the fresh concrete
without segregation

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Factors Affecting Workability

 Water content
 Cement content and fineness
 Aggregate type and grading
 Size of aggregates
 Aggregate-cement ratio
 Admixtures
 Weather/ temperature

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Factors Affecting Workability Cont.

 Higher water content will increase the inter-


particle lubrication. Hence increasing the
workability of fresh concrete.
 Fineness of cement is of minor influence on
workability.
 Higher cement content increases the
workability (W/C)
 Finer particles require more water to wet their
larger specific surface.
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Factors Affecting Workability Cont.

 Irregular shape and rougher texture of an


angular aggregate demand more water than
rounded aggregate.
 For a constant w/c ratio, the workability
increases as the aggregate-cement ratio is
reduced because the amount of water
relative to the total surface of solids is
increased.

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Factors Affecting Workability Cont.

 The use of chemical admixture increases the


workability of concrete.
 Fly ash also known to increase the
workability due to its spherical shape.
 Higher temperature reduces workability and
increases the slump loss.

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Workability Tests

 Slump test
 Compacting factor test
 Vebe test

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Slump Test Apparatus

 Large pan
 Trowel to mix concrete mixture
 Steel tamping rod
 Slump cone
 Ruler
 Concrete (Cement, water, sand &
aggregates).

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Slump Test

 The mould for the slump test is a frustum of a


cone, 300mm high. The base of 200mm
diameter is placed on a smooth surface with
the smaller opening of 100mm diameter at
the top.
 The container is filled with concrete in three
layers.
 Each layer is tapped 25 times with a standard
16mm diameter steel rod, rounded at the
end.
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Slump Test Cont.

 The top surface is leveled using trowel.


 The mould must be firmly held against its
base during the entire operation.
 The cone is slowly lifted upward, and the
unsupported concrete will slump.
 The decrease in the height of the center of
the slump concrete is called SLUMP
(measured in mm)

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Testing Procedures

Slump Cone Tamping Procedure Removing Cone Height Measurement

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Types of Slump of Concrete

 True slump – accept.


 Shear slump – need to redo the test,
indication of lack of cohesion of the mix.
 Collapse - reject

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Types of Slump

True Zero Collapsed Shear

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Comparison of Equations Relating
Yield Stress to Slump

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Slump Ranges for Specific
Applications (after ACI, 2000)
Slump
Type of Construction
(mm) (inches)

Reinforced foundation walls and footings 25 - 75 1-3

Plain footings, caissons and substructure


25 - 75 1-3
walls

Beams and reinforced walls 25 - 100 1-4

Building columns 25 - 100 1-4

Pavements and slabs 25 - 75 1-3

Mass concrete 25 - 50 1-2

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Testing of Concrete- Fresh Properties

Figure: Vicat needle apparatus


Figure: Flow cone
Slump Test

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Compacting Factor Test

 The degree of compaction, called the


compacting factor, is measured by the
density ratio.
 Density ratio – The ratio of the density
actually achieved in the test to the density of
the same concrete fully compacted

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Compacting Factor Test

 Compacting factor = Uncompacted concrete


Compacted concrete

Value = maximum is one (1)

Example: concrete A – 0.8


concrete B – 0.6

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Vebe Test

 Slump test is performed inside the container.


 The disc rider is placed on top of the unsupported
concrete.
 The vibrating machine is switch on and the concrete
will be compacted inside the container.
 Compaction is complete when the transparent rider
is totally covered with concrete.
 The time taken for the whole process is known as
VEBE TIME.

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Vebe Test Example

 Concrete A – Vebe time is 10 seconds


 Concrete B – Vebe time is 7 seconds

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Glass Plate
Rider

Vebe Consistometer (ASTM C1170)


Vebe Consistometer conforms to ASTM C1170 for determining
the consistency and density of concrete. The unit is comprised of
a vibrating table, swing arm with guide sleeve for the 50 lb
surcharge weight and a test mold.

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Factors Affecting Consistency and
Workability of Fresh Concrete
 Water content – higher water content will increase
the workability.
 Fineness of cement-workability decreases as the
fineness increases.
 Chemical admixture-increase workability
 Pozzolanic admixture- PFA increase workability.
 Aggregates-depends on the shapes and sizes of
aggregates.
 Temperature-higher temperature reduces workability

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Segregation

 Is defined as the tendency for separation of


large and fine particles in a fresh concrete
mix (Coarse aggregates fall to bottom).
 Results in a non-homogeneous mix that
affects the strength and durability of the
hardened concrete.
 Segregation is one of the causes of pores
and honeycombed surface.

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Segregation Cont.

 Segregation occurs due to:


 Dry mix
 Very wet mix
 Coarser mix

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Types of Segregation

 During placing and compaction- concrete mix


contains too many coarse aggregate.
 Cement paste segregate from concrete mix-
the mix is too wet.

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Effect of Segregation

 Lower compressive strength


 Lack on durability

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Methods to minimize segregation

 Concrete has good workability.


 Concrete not over compacted.
 Correct placing of concrete.
 Nearby construction (piling) should be
avoided

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Bleeding

 Is defined as the process of separation of water


from the fresh concrete.
 Happens when the concrete mix does not possess
the proper consistency that makes it unable to hold
the mixing water.
 Bleeding results in the movement of water and the
finer particles to the top of the form and produces a
non-homogeneous mix.
 Over vibration, over troweling and lean / poor mixes
(less cement) increases the potential for bleeding.

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Effect of Bleeding

 Weaker concrete.
 Causing fine cracks below large aggregate
particles.

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Minimize Bleeding

 Reduce water content.


 Increase finer particles in the mix.
 Use air-entrainment admixture.
 Proper compaction.

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CONCRETE PROPERTIES

HARDENED PROPERTIES

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Coarse Aggregate Requirements

 In general, large dense graded aggregates provide


the most economical mix.
 Large aggregates minimize the amount of water
required and, therefore, reduce the amount of
cement required per cubic meter of mix.
 Round aggregates require less water than angular
aggregates for an equal workability.
 The maximum allowable aggregate size is limited by
the dimensions of the structure and the capabilities
of the construction equipment.

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The Size limits of Aggregates

Situation Maximum Aggregate


Size
Form dimensions 1/5 of minimum clear
distance
Clear space between ¾ of minimum clear space
reinforcement or pre-
stressing tendons
Clear space between ¾ of minimum clear space
reinforcement and form
Unreinforced slab 1/3 of thickness
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Sample Problem

 A structure is to be built with concrete with a


minimum dimension of 0.2m, minimum space
between rebars of 40mm, and minimum
cover over rebars of 40mm. Two types of
aggregate are locally available, with
maximum sizes of 19mm and 25mm,
respectively. If both types of aggregate have
essentially the same cost, which one is more
suitable for this structure?

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Solution

 25mm < (1/5) (200mm) minimum dimensions


 25mm < (3/4) (40mm) rebar spacing
 25mm < (3/4) (40mm) rebar cover

 Therefore, both sizes satisfy the dimension


requirements. However, 25mm aggregate is
more suitable, because it will produce more
economical concrete mix.

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Influence of Properties of Coarse
Aggregate on Strength
 Vertical cracking in a specimen subjected to uni-axial compression
starts under a load equal to 50 to 70% of the ultimate load.
 The stress at which the cracks develop depends largely on the
properties of the coarse aggregate.
 Smooth gravel leads to cracking at lower stresses than rough and
angular crushed rock, as mechanical bond is influenced by the surface
properties as well as the shape of coarse aggregate.
 Entirely smooth coarse aggregate led to a lower compressive strength,
typically by 10%, than when roughed.
 For water/ cement ratios below 0.40, the use of crushed aggregate has
resulted in strengths up to 38% higher than when gravel is used.
 With an increase in the water/ cement ratio, the influence of aggregate
falls off, presumably because the strength of the hydrated cement paste
itself become paramount (main).
 At water/ cement ratio of 0.65, no difference in the strengths of
concretes made with crushed rock and gravel has been observed.

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Aggregate-cement paste interface
 Interface zone or transition zone.
 The microstructure of the interface zone: The surface of the
aggregate is covered with a layer of orientated crystalline
Ca(OH)2, about 0.5 µm thick, behind which there is a layer of C-
S-H of about the same thickness, this is referred to as a duplex
film.
 Moving further away from the aggregate, there is a main
interface zone, some 50µm thick, containing products of
hydration of cement with larger crystals of Ca(OH)2 but without
any unhydrated cement.
 The significance of the above distribution is twofold.
 First, the complete hydration of cement indicates that the
water/cement ratio at the interface is higher than elsewhere.
 Second, the presence of large crystals of Ca(OH)2 indicates that
the porosity at the interface is higher than elsewhere.

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Aggregate-cement paste interface Cont.

 The strength of the interface zone can increase with time in


consequence of a secondary reaction between the Ca(OH)2
present there and pozzolana.
 Silica fume, which is very much finer than cement particles, is
particularly effective.
 Although the interface zone of primary interest is that at the
surface of coarse aggregate particles, such a zone is also formed
around the fine aggregate particles.
 The mineralogical characteristics of the fine aggregate affect the
microstructure of the transition zone: in the case of limestone,
there is chemical reaction between the limestone and the cement
paste and, consequently, a dense interface zone is formed.
 More generally, the interface between the cement paste and the
coarse aggregate is a zone of stress concentrations arising from
the difference in the modulus of elasticity and the poison’s ratio
of the two materials.

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Effect of Age and Temperature on
Strength of Concrete
 In concrete practice, the strength of concrete is
traditionally characterized by the 28-day value.
 Higher fineness and higher C3S content of Portland
cements – higher rate of hydration
 Low water/cement ratio gain strength, expressed as
a percentage of long-term strength, more rapidly
than mixes with higher water/cement ratios.
 In a hot climate the early strength gain is high and
the ratio of the 28-day to 7-day strengths tends to be
lower than in cooler weather.

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Effect of Age and Temperature on
Strength of Concrete Cont.
 The strength is a function of summation of
time interval x temperature, and this
summation is called maturity.
 Maturity is measured in degree C-hours or
degree C-days.
 Below -120C, concrete does not appear to
gain strength with time.
 ASTM C 1074-93 provides for the
development and use of a maturity function.
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Relation between compressive and tensile
strengths
 Compressive strength- commonly considered in structural
design.
 For some purposes the tensile strength is of interest, e.g. design
of highway, airfield slabs, shear strength and resistance to
cracking.
 The two strengths no direct proportionality, the ratio of the two
strengths depending on the general level of strength of the
concrete.
 If compressive strength, fc, increases, the tensile strength, ft,
also increases but at a decreasing rate.
 Ft/ fc ratio is affected by crushed coarse aggregate, properties of
fine aggregate, grading of aggregate and age.
 The tensile strength of concrete can be measured by radically
different tests, namely flexure, direct tension, and splitting, and
the resulting values of strength are not the same.

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Relation between compressive and tensile
strengths Cont.
 The relation between the splitting tensile strength and the
compressive strength – by standard size cylinders.
 The relation between the splitting tensile strength and the flexural
strength – by standard size prisms.
 The tensile strength is more sensitive to in adequate curing than
the compressive strength, possibly because the effects of non-
uniform shrinkage of flexure test beams are very serious.
 Lightweight concrete conforms broadly to the pattern of the
relation between ft and fc for ordinary concrete.
 At very low strengths (say, 2 MPa), the ratio ft/ fc can be as high
as 0.30.
 A number of empirical formulae connecting ft and fc have been
suggested, many of them of the type: ft= k(fc)n. where k and n
are coefficients. Value of n between ½ and ¾ have been
suggested.

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Relation between compressive and tensile
strengths Cont.
 Probably the best fit overall is given by the
expression:
 Ft= 0.3(fc)2/3
 Where ft is the splitting tensile strength, and
fc is the compressive strength of cylinders,
both in MPa.

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Bond between concrete and reinforcement
 In a structure, the bond strength involves not only the properties
of the concrete but also other factors, include the geometry of the
reinforcement and of the structures such as the thickness of
cover to the reinforcement, the state of the surface of the steel,
coating by galvanizing or by epoxy.
 Design formulae for bond strength usually express it as being
proportional to the square root of compressive strength.
 Bond strength of deformed steel bars has been shown to
increase with an increase in compressive strength, albeit /
although at a decreasing rate, for concrete strengths up to about
95 MPa.
 A rise in temperature reduces the bond strength of concrete: at
200 to 300 degree celcius, there may be a loss of one-half of the
bond strength at room temperature.

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TESTING OF CONCRETE

HARDENED CONCRETE TESTING-


DESTRUCTIVE TESTS

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Testing of Concrete – Compressive
Strength (BS 1881: Part 116)
Compressive Strength for concrete cube:
fci = Fi / Aci

 where:
 fci = the compressive strength, MPa
 Fi = the maximum load, in Newton
 Aci = the cross-sectional area which the load
is applied, mm2

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Testing of Concrete – Flexural Strength/
Modulus of Rupture (ASTM C 78)
R = 3PL/2BD2 (Center point loading)
R = PL/BD2 (Third Point Loading)
 Where:
 R = modulus of rupture/ flexural strength, MPa
 P = maximum applied load indicated by the testing
machine, N
 L = span length, mm
 B = average width of specimen, mm
 D = average depth of specimen, mm

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Testing of Concrete – Splitting Tensile
(Indirect Tensile) Strength (ASTM C 496)
 Splitting Tensile of Concrete:

•Where P is the maximum load at failure in N


(psi), and l and d are the length and diameter of
the cylindrical specimen, in mm (in.)
•Typically splitting tensile strength of normal
concrete is varies from 2.5 MPa to 3.1 MPa.
•Normally about 10% of compressive strength

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Destructive Testing of Concrete- Flexural
Strength

Figure: Flexural test beam

Figure: Center-point Figure: Third Point


flexural testing device flexural testing
device

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Cylinder for Compressive Strength Test

Testing can also be


Test specimens are usually A typical test cylinder done on smaller
formed in 150 mm diameter x
samples such as this
300 mm tall (6 inch diameter x
100 mm (4 inch)
12 inch tall) cylinders.
diameter PCC core.

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Cylinder for Compressive Strength Test
Cont.

Laboratory procedures usually call


for the test cylinders to be cured in Hydraulic compression testing device.
controlled, moist conditions for a
specified amount of time. Field
PCC strength may vary from test
PCC strength because of this.

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Destructive Testing of Concrete-
Compressive and Flexural

Figure: TONIPAC setup for Figure: TONIPAC setup for


compressive strength test of flexural strength test of
cube prism

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Destructive Testing of Concrete- Splitting
Tensile (Indirect-Tensile) Strength (ASTM
C 496)

Set up of split tensile Specimen after Top view of fracture


test fracture specimen

Specimen size of 150mm diameter x


300mm height

6/22/2015 Prepared by Ir Dr Lim SK 99


Coring Test Example
 A 100 mm core drilled horizontally from a concrete pile with 20mm maximum
aggregate size contains one no. 20 mm reinforcing bar normal to the core axis and
located at 35 mm from one end. The details of core sample as follow:
 Length before capping = 110mm
 Length after capping = 120 mm
 Weight of core = 1907.5 gram
 Maximum crushing load = 160 kN
 D = 2.5 for core drilled horizontally; 2.3 for cores drilled vertically

 Calculate,
 Measured core compressive strength,
 Estimated in-situ cube strength (core without steel),
 Corrected Estimated in-situ cube strength (core with one bar only),
 Estimated potential cube strength based on concrete society (25)
 Formula given:
 [ D/ (1.5 + 1/ λ] x measured core compressive strength
 [ 1.0 + (1.5 Φr d / Φc l) ] x estimated in-situ cube strength (core
without steel)
 [ 3.0/ (1.5 + 1/ λ] x measured core compressive strength for vertically
core
 [ 3.25/ (1.5 + 1/ λ] x measured core compressive strength for horizontally core

6/22/2015 Prepared by Ir Dr Lim SK 100


Solution of Coring Test
 Measured core compressive strength = 160 x 1000/ (3.142 x
100/ 4) = 20.5 N/ mm2.
 Λ = core length after capping/ diameter ratio = 120/ 100 = 1.2
 Estimated in-situ cube strength (core without steel) = [ 2.5/ (1.5 +
1/ 1.2)] x 20.5 = 22 N/ mm2 for horizontal core
 Corrected Estimated in-situ cube strength (core with one bar
only) = [1.0 + 1.5(20)(35)/ (100)(110)] x 22 = 24.1 N/mm2
 Estimated potential cube strength based on concrete society (25)
= [ 3.25/ (1.5 + 1/ (1.2)] x 20.5 = 28.55 N/ mm2 for horizontally
core.

6/22/2015 Prepared by Ir Dr Lim SK 101


TESTING OF CONCRETE

HARDENED CONCRETE TESTING-


NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS (NDT)

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Non-Destructive Test- Schmidt Rebound
Hammer

Digital Rebound Number

Rebound Hammer to
determine the hardness value
of concrete (ASTM C 805)
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Non-Destructive Test- Ultrasonic Pulse
Velocity

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Non-Destructive Test- Ultrasonic Pulse
Velocity Cont’

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Non-Destructive Test- Ultrasonic Pulse
Velocity Cont’

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Non-Destructive Test- Windsor Probe
(ASTM C 803)

Gold Probe- for density


< 2003 kg/m3
Silver Probe- for density
>2003 kg/m3

6/22/2015 Prepared by Ir Dr Lim SK 116


Non-Destructive Test- Windsor Probe
(ASTM C 803) Cont’

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Non-Destructive Test- Windsor Probe
(ASTM C 803) Cont’

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Non-Destructive Test- Windsor Probe
(ASTM C 803) Cont’

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Non-Destructive Test- Windsor Probe
(ASTM C 803) Cont’

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