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An automated irrigation and fertilizer system for efficient water
management and supplying fertilizer has been proposed in a limited
way. The parameters like soil moisture, humidity, temperature and
sensed values are displayed in the LCD. Climatic conditions will be
predicted for the upcoming 24 hours with the help of temperature
sensors.Farmers can access the information and condition of their
respective fields, atanytime and from anywhere by using GSM module.
Thereby, helps in reducing the manpower and time.

Agriculture is the backbone of all developed countries. It uses 85% of
all fresh water resources worldwide and this percentage continues to be
dominant in water consumption because of population growth and
increase in food demand. Due to this, efficient water management is the
main concern in many cropping arid and semi-arid areas. An
automated irrigation system is needed to optimize water use for
agricultural crops .And by using this we can supply fertilizers in
fields.The need of this automated system is to overcome over
irrigation,under irrigation as well as supplying fertilizers in an accurate
and limited way.Over irrigation causes because of poor distribution or
management of waste water chemicals which leads to water
pollution.By using more fertilizers soil can lose its fertility.And the yield
also becoming more contaminated day by day. Under irrigation leads to
build up toxic salts on the soil surfaces in areas with high evaporation.To
overcome these problems and to reduce the manpower this system has
been used.
Historical facts signified that though sprinkler irrigation system is known
since 1946, yet the farmers started adopting it in huge scale only since
1980s. It began in the hilly areas of Western Ghats in states of Kerala,
Tamil Nadu and Karnataka and in the North eastern states mainly for
plantation crops like coffee, tea, cardamom, rubber. Gradually it spreads
to the water scarcity and light soil states of Rajasthan and Haryana in
addition to the black soil area of Madhya Pradesh.
Nowadays agricultural field is facing lot of problems due to lack of water
resources. In order to help the farmers to overcome the difficulties, smart
irrigation system has been used. In this system, various sensors such as
soil moisture, light, temperature sensors are connected to the input pins
of Arduino microcontroller. The sensed values from the various sensors
are displayed in LCD.If the sensed value goes beyond the threshold
values set in the program, the pump will be automatically switched
ON/OFF by the relay circuit and it is connected to the driver circuit which
helps to switch the voltage. The farmer will be intimated about the
current field condition through GSM module and also updated in the web
page. By using this system, the farmer can access the details about the
condition of the field anywhere at any time.

The Microcontroller used here is Arduino UNO. The UNO is a
Microcontroller board based on ATMEGA 328P.The ATMEGA 328P has
32KB of flash memory for sorting code. Arduino is an open-source
electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software.
Arduino boards are able to read inputs-light on a sensor, a finger on a
button, or a Twitter message-and turn it into an output-activating a motor
turning on an LED, publishing something online.
. A Soil moisture sensor measures the quantity of water contained
in a material, such as soil on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. To obtain
an accurate measurement, a soil temperature sensor is also required for
calibration. When the Soil moisture value read by the sensor is above
the threshold value, low level (0V) will be the digital output and if it is
below the threshold level, high level (5V) will be the digital output. The
digital pin is used to directly read current soil moisture value to see if it is
above threshold or not. The threshold voltage can be regulated with help
of potentiometer.
Temperature sensor is a device to measure the temperature. The
TMP36 temperature sensor is an easy way to measure temperature
using Arduino. The sensor can measure a fairly wide range of
temperature, is fairly precise, and is very low cost, making it a popular

When the light falls below a certain level, the Arduino turns on a
couple of LEDs. A light dependent resistor, or photoresistor, is a sensor
whose resistance decreases as the amount of light falling on it
increases. When it is dark, the resistance of a photoresistor may be as
high as a few Mega ohms.
The ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is a self-contained SOC (system on
chip) with integrated TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol) protocol stack that can give any microcontroller access to any
Wi-Fi network. Each ESP8266 module comes pre-programmed
meaning, it can be simply hooked up to Arduino device to get Wi-Fi
ability. This module has a powerful enough on-boardingprocess and high
storage capacity that allows it to be integrated with the sensors and
other application specific devices.
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a standard
developed by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute
(ETSI) to describe protocols for second –generations (2G) digital cellular
networks used by mobile phones. GSM describes a digital, circuit-
switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony and also
expanded to include data communications, packet data transport via
GPRS (General Packet Radio Services). The longest distance the GSM
specifications supports in practical is 35 kilometres.

 In this technique there is a possibility of using soluble fertilizers
and chemicals.
 Sprinkling irrigation increases in yield.
 It is suitable for control of water application for frequent irrigation.
 It reduces soil erosion.
 By using this method we can save Water, time, money.
 It can free the farmer from the manual labour.

 High and constant energy requirement for operation.
 Cost of implementation is high.
 Lack of knowledge for farmers about present technology.
The main objective of this system is to make it more innovative, user
friendly, time saving and more efficient than the existing system.
Measuring the parameters such as soil moisture, humidity and the
temperature and automatic supplying of fertilizers make the farmers
work is easier than before. This system avoid weeds and any leafy
diseases by using this system. Due to the server updates farmers can
know about crop field nature at any time, anywhere from this world.