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NUMBER E02-E01

REV. NO. 1
ENGINEERING STANDARD DATE JUN 2004
PAGE 1 OF 12

Power System and Equipment


Design Calculations

This document is issued by Engineering Standards Section, SABIC R&D Complex, PO Box 42503, Riyadh 11551, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The information contained in this document is the confidential property of SABIC. It can not be disclosed, copied or used for any purpose
without prior approval from SABIC. If you are not authorized to possess this document, please destroy it immediately.
NUMBER E02-E01
Power System and Equipment REV. NO. 1
Design Calculations DATE JUN 2004
ENGINEERING STANDARD PAGE 2 OF 12

CONTENTS

1. SCOPE ................................................................................................ 3
2. REFERENCES 3
3. GENERAL 3
4. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................ 4
4.1 Site Conditions 4
5. CALCULATION SOFTWARE 4
6. SEQUENCE OF WORK AND APPROVAL ......................................... 4
7. ELECTRICAL LOAD SUMMARY 4
8. LOAD FLOW STUDY 5
9. SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY ................................................................... 5
10. VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATIONS 6
11. TRANSIENT STABILITY STUDIES 6
12. RE-ACCELERATION STUDIES .......................................................... 6
13. LOAD SHEDDING STUDY 7
14. HARMONIC ANALYSIS 7
15. POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT ................................................... 7
16. EQUIPMENT AND CABLE SIZING 8
16.1 Definitions 8
16.2 Transformer Capacity ..................................................................... 8
16.3 Switchgear Rating 9
16.4 Motor Control Center (MCC) Bus Rating 10
16.5 Battery and Charger Capacities ................................................... 10
16.6 Uninterruptable Power Supply Capacities 10
16.7 Cable Sizing 10
16.8 Motor Sizing ..................................................................................11
16.9 Essential / Standby Generator Capacity 11
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1. Scope
This standard defines requirements and procedures for electrical system and equipment deign
calculations.

2. References
Reference is made in this standard to the following documents. The latest issues, amendments, and
supplements to these documents shall apply unless otherwise indicated.
SABIC Engineering Standards (SES)
E02-G01 Electrical System Design Criteria
E03-E01 Surge Protection
E11-S03 Bonding and Grounding
E12-S01 Batteries, Racks and Battery Chargers
E16-E01 Selection And Application of Capacitors for Power Factor Improvement
E20-E01 Lighting Design Requirements
Z01-G03 Metrification
Z01-G04 Measurement Units for Use in SABIC Projects
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
C57.12.10 Transformers - 230 kV and Below 833/958 Through 8333/10,417 kVA, Single-Phase,
and 750/862 Through 60,000/ 80,000/100,000 kVA, Three-Phase Without Load Tap Changing;
and 3750/ 4687 Through 60,000/ 80,000/100,000 kVA with Load Tap Changing -
Safety Requirements
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
141 Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants
399 Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power System Analysis
519 Recommended Practice and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
70 National Electrical Code

3. General
3.1 It is the intent of this practice to define requirements for electrical system calculations and calculations
required for selection and application of power system equipment. Other electrical design and equipment
application calculations are covered by separate standards.
3.2 Grounding system calculations shall be performed in accordance with SES E11-S03.
3.3 Battery and battery charger sizing calculations shall be performed in accordance with SES E12-S01.
3.4 Lighting calculations shall be performed in accordance with SES E20-E01.
3.5 Insulation coordination and determination of required insulation levels shall be in accordance with
SES E03-E01.
3.6 The electrical system and equipment design calculations meet all requirements of section 5.2 of
SES E02-G01.
3.7 Any conflict(s) between this standard, SES and industry standards, engineering drawings, and
contract documents shall be resolved at the discretion of SABIC.
3.8 All calculations and documents shall use SI units of measure in accordance with SES Z01-G04 and
Z01-G03.
3.9 The design calculations shall take into account sizing for 20% future capacity allowance, unless
directed otherwise by SABIC.
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4. Environmental Requirements
4.1 Site Conditions
4.1.1 Indoor Conditions
Temperature Range: Air-conditioned. 0 qC to 40 qC.
Relative Humidity: 10 to 100 percent.
4.1.2 Outdoor Conditions
Ambient Temperature Range: 1 qC to 50 qC.
Metallic surface temperatures reaching 75 qC due to solar radiation.
Corrosive desert atmosphere with blowing sand and dust.

5. Calculation Software
5.1 System calculations shall be made using a commercially available analysis program such as ETAP
(Electrical Transient Analysis Program) by OTI (Operational Technology Incorporated), EDSA (EDSA Micro
Corporation), or PTW (Power Tools) by SKM System Analysis, Inc.
5.2 Existing plants will normally have an established electrical system data base. In most cases the
calculations shall be made using the analysis program previously used for the plant. In all cases SABIC
shall approve the software package before calculations are performed.
5.3 Calculations shall be made in accordance with IEEE 141 and 399.
5.4 Calculation methods are related to the testing requirements for the equipment. Calculations for systems
using IEC are different than for systems using ANSI/NEMA equipment. Some programs are capable of
performing both type calculations but is important to select the appropriate mode of calculation.

6. Sequence of Work and Approval


6.1 Electrical system calculations for most projects are an iterative process. Sufficient data is not available
at the beginning of a project to make final calculations. However, calculations must be made early in the
project to properly specify the electrical equipment and to insure that use of large electrical drive motors is
feasible.
6.2 A number of preliminary calculations must be performed using various assumptions to arrive at an
over-all one line diagram. Once the over-all one line diagram has been selected these calculations must be
further refined using updated load estimates to allow procurement of major long-lead-time electrical
equipment.
6.3 As more information becomes available the calculations are updated and expanded to more detail
levels to define the electrical equipment at the secondary level.
6.4 The data base is continuously updated until at the completion of the project it accurately represents the
as built electrical system.
6.5 The Contractor must work closely with SABIC in performing the calculations and developing the
electrical power system design. SABIC shall approve the basis for calculations and approve the completed
work at each stage before the contractor proceeds to the next level.

7. Electrical Load Summary


7.1 There are actually three different types of load summaries required: (1) Main (or utility) Load,
(2) Essential or Stand-By Power and (3) UPS Power. Preparation of the main load summary and
maintenance of an accurate data base is the major task. The other load summaries do not have as many
loads or bus summaries.
7.2 The load summary can be produced using a custom data base or spread sheet developed specifically
for the project or the load summary tools contained in the master calculation package such as ETAP,
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EDSA, or PTW can be used. The load summary shall be electronically linked to the calculation data base
such that single entry of data is required. It is preferred that the load summary be electronically linked with
the mechanical equipment list and the electrical one line diagrams to permit single point data entry and
insure consistency between these documents.
7.3 The load summary shall contain the information and assumptions outlined below:
a. Equipment Number
b. Service
c. Status (operating or spare)
d. Mechanical Equipment Rated maximum kW and normal brake kW
e. Motor rated voltage, kW, efficiency and power factor at full, 3/4 and 1/2 load
f. Calculated motor load for mechanical equipment maximum and normal bake loads (kW, kVAR
and kVA)
g. Utility factor
h. Heating load kW
i. Lighting Load kW, kVAR and kVA
7.4 Preliminary load estimates shall use motor nameplate rating in kW and shall assume a power factor of
0.85. As actual driven equipment loads and motor data become available, the motor loads shall be
calculated from this data.
7.5 Spare motors shall not be included in the overall total load. However, spare motors shall be included in
the loads of buses, transformers, and feeders to which they contribute, in order to obtain the maximum
operating load on individual equipment. When both the operating motor and its spare would contribute to
the same load, if both were operating, only the operating motor shall be included in the load.
7.6 Lighting and receptacle transformer operating loads shall be included at 80% of the transformer kVA
rating. Substation transformers and load bus shall be sized to accommodate future load growth thus it is
appropriate to include these loads at the initial design value.
7.7 Intermittent short time loads such as motor operated valves shall not be included.

8. Load Flow Study


8.1 A load flow study shall be run immediately after completion of data entry as a first check on the
electrical system and to de-bug data in case errors were made. Once the system model has been
confirmed, system load flow cases can be run or other calculations such as short circuit analysis can be
started.
8.2 The load flow study is used to confirm that voltages and loading on different elements of the system
are within project parameters. For redundant systems the load flow shall be performed with one supply
interrupted to insure that the system will operate satisfactorily in this condition.
8.3 The load flow study provides information on the power factor of the circuits and buses of the electrical
system. Refer to Section 15.0 for information on how to use power factor information to improve the power
factor.

9. Short Circuit Study


9.1 Short circuit studies shall be run to determine preliminary equipment rating and confirm required
equipment ratings for purchase.
9.2 The secondary of the 480 volt transformers shall be modeled with motor load equivalent to the kVA
rating of the transformer.
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9.3 Buses with medium voltage motors shall be modeled with the actual motors at their nameplate rating
plus additional motors to represent the capacity provided for future additions.
9.4 Fault calculations for equipment selection shall be based on the system operating configuration that will
result in the maximum available fault current.
9.5 Standard transformers impedances shall be used; deviations must be approved by SABIC.
Transformers shall be modeled with maximum allowed negative impedance tolerance.
9.6 Unless otherwise approved by SABIC, the utility supply to the plant shall be modeled as an infinite bus
for short circuit calculations. (For motor starting the system shall modeled in its weakest configuration).

10. Voltage Drop Calculations


10.1 Voltage drop calculations shall be made for both steady state and motor starting. As indicated above,
the load flow study shall indicate steady state voltage at all buses.
10.2 The allowable voltage drops are based on the use of transformer taps to maintain 100% voltage at the
secondary terminals under normal loading conditions. Permissible steady state voltage drops shall be as
follows:
a. Medium Voltage Distribution System. The total voltage drop to motors or unit substation
transformers shall not exceed 5% under normal loading conditions.
b. Systems Rated 480 Volts and Below. The total voltage drop from the unit substation secondary
terminals to the utilization equipment shall not exceed 5%.
10.3 ‘Snap-shot’ voltage drop calculations are acceptable for most motors. Most calculation programs
provide for this type calculation as an adjunct to the load flow; It calculates the voltage at the instant the
switch is closed with out regard to any affect this lowering of the bus voltage might have on any other
operating loads.
10.4 For very large motors started on the bus with other motors, a transient stability program or dynamic
motor starting program shall be employed to recognize the effect on and from all loads on the bus.
10.5 The maximum acceptable voltage drops during motor starting are shown below. However in all cases
SABIC must approve the permissible voltage drop limits for each project and approve individual
calculations for motors larger than 2000 kW.
a. For motors on 480volt bus with other loads, the maximum drop on the bus shall be 5%. The
maximum drop to motor terminals shall be 15%.
b. For medium voltage motors on the same bus with other motors the maximum drop on the bus
shall be 15%. The maximum drop to motor terminals shall 20%. If solid state control devices are used
and the devices cannot accept 15% voltage drop, then the bus voltage drop shall be limited to 10%.
c. For motors on captive transformers, the voltage drop at the bus supplying the captive transformer
shall not exceed 10%. The voltage at motor terminals shall be at least 10% above the minimum value
required to accelerate the load.

11. Transient Stability Studies


11.1 In general transient stability studies are not required for plants supplied from the utility grid unless in
plant generation is to be operated in parallel with the utility, or as discussed for starting large motors. A
transient stability study shall also be performed if a fast bus transfer scheme is to be utilized.
11.2 Plants powered by one or more generators will require transient stability studies to insure that fault can
be cleared quickly enough to maintain system stability.

12. Re-acceleration Studies


12.1 Upon SABIC’s request, reacceleration studies shall be purchased to determine the impact of
automatically restarting designated process drive motors after a brief power interruption. Typically this
control would permit the motors to restart over some time range. The minimum for the range would be the
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time required for the internal voltage to decay and the maximum would depend upon process
considerations.
12.2 The re-acceleration study is made to determine whether the motors can restarted simultaneously. If
not, additional studies shall be made to establish group sizes and required time delay between groups.
12.3 This study is a specialized motor starting study with the motors starting simultaneous, modeled as an
equivalent single motor.

13. Load Shedding Study


13.1 The electric utility requires automatic load shedding in some regions to maintain stability for the
power grid in the event of a major power system upset condition. The Utility Company requires load
shedding in Jubail and Yanbu.
13.2 Upon SABIC’s request a load shedding study shall be preformed to determine how to provide the
required load reduction with the least impact on production. Normally the reduction is done by
under-frequency relaying in 2 or more steps. The utility will define the frequency for each step and the
percentage reduction for each step.

14. Harmonic Analysis


14.1 Harmonic currents and voltages have undesirable affects on operation of the electrical power system
including overheating of equipment and overvoltage failures. Aside from the undesirability from the owners
standpoint, the utility generally has strict limits on harmonics since they flow back into the power grid.
14.2 Harmonics are produced by rectifiers and frequency converters. The larger the loads are, the greater
problem they create, so special attention must be given to large adjustable frequency drives and
electrolytic process equipment.
14.3 The normal practice is to require the supplier of the largest harmonic producing load to perform a
harmonic study for the plant including all harmonic producing loads and calculating the affect on all buses.
14.4 This study shall be done in accordance with IEEE 519.
14.5 Harmonic filters can be installed to reduce the harmonics on the system. The design and supply of
the filters if required are normally included with the harmonic study.
14.6 Harmonic filters are of two types.
14.7 One or more tuned reactor/capacitor filters tuned to just below the harmonics with the highest values.
These are used mainly where there harmonic magnitudes are large.
14.8 For small levels of harmonics, such as variable speed drives on 480 V motor control centers,
programmable static harmonic filter are available. Placing the VFD at the 480 V level protects the
equipment at that level, and reduces the harmonic impact on the step-down transformer.

15. Power Factor Improvement


15.1 Power factor correction is important because low power factors increase voltage drop and sizes of
cables, breakers, transformers, etc.; and may violate utility requirements or contracts. Refer to
SES E02-G01 for the requirements for power factor correction.
15.2 Early load flow studies can indicate if power factor correction may be needed. As soon as the need
for correction is indicated, correction can be added to the study in the form of capacitors or utilization of
synchronous motor operating with leading power factor.
15.3 For detailed discussion of the application of capacitors for power factor improvement refer to
SES E16-E01.
15.4 As soon as synchronous motors are identified, their effect at both unity and leading power factor
should be studied.
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15.5 It should be understood that the existence of synchronous motors does not necessarily guarantee that
all power factor problems are resolved. The location and the size of the motor(s) will determine where and
how much the motor improves the power factor.
15.6 Once the system load has been firmed up, the load flow study will confirm that the desired correction
has been obtained and the effect on bus voltages and equipment loading. The computer programs
referenced in section 5.1 shall be used to run the load flow studies.
15.7 Power factor improvement can be studied by changing the following system parameters:
a. Adding capacitors to the system at different locations
b. Changing an induction motor to synchronous motor
c. Changing the power factor on a synchronous motor
d. Changing the loading on a motor
e. Changing the taps of a transformer
f. Changing the impedance of a transformer

16. Equipment and Cable Sizing


Electrical equipment and cables shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 70. In
addition, the following shall be applied when determining equipment ratings and cable sizes.
16.1 Definitions
16.1.1 Eight Hour Maximum Demand
The eight hour maximum demand of loads is defined as the greatest root-mean-square value of the load
during any eight hour period. It is the equivalent thermal aging load.
16.1.2 Fifteen Minute Maximum Demand
The fifteen minute maximum demand of loads is defined as the greatest average load which can occur for
a fifteen minute period.
16.1.3 Firm Load Data
Firm load data is the load data derived from actual equipment performance characteristics and duty cycles.
16.1.4 Adjusted Maximum Demand Based on Firm Load Data
The adjusted maximum demand based on firm load data is equal to 1.0 times maximum demand.
16.1.5 Load Factor
The load factor is to the ratio of the average load over a designated period of time to the peak load
occurring in that period.
16.1.6 Demand Factor
The demand factor is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the total
connected load of the system, or part of the system, under consideration.
16.2 Transformer Capacity
16.2.1 An eight hour maximum demand shall be the basis for selection of transformer capacity.
16.2.2 When synchronous motors with a leading power factor are connected to a bus, the resulting leading
kVAR shall be considered when calculating the transformer kVA capacity.
16.2.3 The initial design load connected to a transformer shall not exceed the following values:
a. The 55 qC, OA rating on 55/65 qC dual rated transformers (no forced cooling)
b. The 55 qC forced cooled rating on 55/65 qC transformers.
c. Ninety percent of the OA or forced cooled rating on transformers with a single temperature rise.
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16.2.4 Power transformers shall be specified with 55 qC average winding temperature rise by resistance
and suitable for operation with 65 qC average winding temperature rise by resistance and 80 qC
hottest-spot winding temperature. Transformer performance characteristics shall be based on the 55 qC
rise rating. Generally, an additional 12 percent capacity above the 55 qC rating is assigned by the
manufacturer for transformers operating at 65 qC with no decrease in life expectancy.
16.2.5 Radial System
Liquid-filled transformers installed as individual units supplying a radial type load, shall have self-cooled
ratings sufficient to supply the following:
a. In radial and primary selective substations, transformer self-cooled capacity shall be equal to or
greater than 1.15 times the adjusted maximum demand
b. Peak demand of one-hour duration or less shall not exceed 110% of the transformer 55 qC
self-cooled rating
c. The minimum transformer size for non-essential service shall be 750 kVA for units with a 480 V
secondary and 3750 kVA for units with 4160 V and above secondary
d. The minimum transformer size for essential service (MCC) shall be 300 kVA for units with 480 V
secondaries
16.2.6 Secondary-Selective Systems
Liquid-filled transformers installed in pairs so that either unit may supply the total load as when connected
in double ended switchgear shall have individual ratings sufficient to supply the following:
a. Maximum continuous demand without exceeding 100 percent of the self-cooled rating
b. Peak demand that exists for more than one hour but less than eight hours shall not exceed
110 percent of the individual transformer 55 qC self-cooled rating
c. Peak demand of one-hour duration or less shall not exceed 120 percent of the individual
transformer 55 qC self-cooled rating
d. The maximum demand shall be determined with the bus tie breaker closed
e. The minimum transformer size shall be 1000 kVA for units with a low voltage secondary and
5000 kVA for units with a medium voltage secondary
16.2.7 Captive transformers
Captive transformers for motors shall be thermally rated and mechanically braced for three repetitive
motor starting duty cycles. kVA and impedance shall be selected for starting the motor and for limiting the
voltage dip on the bus to which the transformer primary is connected.
16.2.8 Transformer impedance shall be in accordance with ANSI C52.10, Table 12 except for the
following:
a. To meet voltage drop limitations
b. To realize economics by the use of switchgear with lower interrupting ratings
16.3 Switchgear Rating
16.3.1 A 15 minute maximum demand shall be the basis for selecting switchgear continuous ratings.
16.3.2 The main breaker and the main bus of the switchgear shall have a current rating equal to or greater
than the highest current rating of the transformer that feeds the switchgear.
16.3.3 Bus tie circuit breakers in secondary selective and spot network substations shall be
interchangeable with the incoming breakers.
16.3.4 Each feeder breaker shall have a continuous current rating equal to the higher of the 15 minute
maximum of the feeder load or 100% of the full load currents plus 25% of largest motor current. Loads
shall include any provisions for future loads.
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16.3.5 Circuit breakers used to control a single motor shall have a continuous rating at least equal to 1.25
times the motor full load current.
16.3.6 Generator breakers shall have a continuous rating at least equal to 1.15 times the maximum
continuous generator rating.
16.3.7 Circuit breaker interrupting rating shall be adequate for the maximum short circuit level.
16.3.8 Switchgear momentary rating shall be at least adequate for the maximum short circuit level, with
estimated motor contribution, which would be expected when the transformer is loaded to its self cooled
rated capacity.
16.4 Motor Control Center (MCC) Bus Rating
16.4.1 480 V MCCs shall have a main buses rated for 1200 amperes continuous. The initial maximum
operating load shall not exceed 800 amperes. The maximum load shall equal the sum all the full loads of
normally operating motors, process heaters, air conditioners, lighting, heat tracing, etc.
16.4.2 4160 V MCCs shall have a main buses rated for 1200 amperes continuous or higher. The maximum
load shall equal the sum all the full loads of normally operating motors and process heaters.
16.5 Battery and Charger Capacities
16.5.1 The 125 VDC systems supplies control power to switchgear, Excitation power backup for
synchronous motors, MCC protective relays, annunciator, etc. The system is composed of dual, 100%
redundant battery chargers and 125 VDC battery bank.
16.5.2 The batteries are sized to provide power to trip the maximum number of breakers that might trip
once, after supplying power to indicating lights, relays, etc. for four hours with both battery chargers off. An
example would be a bus differential tripping the main breaker, the tie breaker, and all feeder breakers on
one bus.
16.5.3 Each battery is sized to recharge the fully discharged battery bank in 8 hours.
16.6 Uninterruptable Power Supply Capacities
16.6.1 The uninterruptable power supply (UPS) supplies power to distributive control system, instruments,
I/O loop power supplies, etc. The UPS is 100% redundant systems. The UPS has 480 V, 3 phase input,
120 V, single phase output.
16.6.2 The UPS batteries sized to provide for 100% output for 60 minutes after power to the battery
chargers is lost.
16.6.3 The battery charger is sized to recharge the batteries in six hours while the UPS is carrying 100%
load.
16.7 Cable Sizing
16.7.1 Cable sizing shall comply with the NEC. Conductor sizing shall take into account ambient
temperature, continuous operating load, non-continuous loads, spared loads, spared loads, future loads,
conduit fill, tray fill, tray covers, and other factors that may influence the allowable current rating.
16.7.2 For all cables other than transformer feeders, the eight hour maximum demand shall be the basis for
cable capacity calculation.
16.7.3 Transformer feeders shall have a capacity not less than the transformer fan-cooled rating. When a
feeder supplies more than one transformer, its rating shall be at least equal to the summation of the
fan-cooled ratings of all secondary selective and spot network substations plus the self-cooled rating of all
radial substation transformers supplied by the feeder.
16.7.4 Lighting feeders feeding lighting panels shall have a capacity not less than the maximum demand of
the load.
16.7.5 Lighting and power wire and cable shall be derated under any of the following conditions:
a. Outdoor ambient temperature of 50 qC
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b. More than three conductors in a raceway or cable


c. More than one cable in an underground duct bank or trench (paragraph 16.7.9)
d. More than one cable in a cable tray
e. Cables shall be sized to limit voltage drop
16.7.6 Motor branch circuit conductors shall be sized in accordance with Article 430 of the NEC.
16.7.7 Cable capacity for tray installation shall comply with the NEC including the effects of ambient
temperature and solar radiation.
16.7.8 Feeders rated above 600 volts shall be sized to withstand short circuit thermal stress without
damage to the feeders. The maximum short circuit level of the supply, times a 1.25 safety factor, and the
clearing time of the feeder protective device shall be used to determine this condition.
16.7.9 Power cables in underground conduit banks shall be derated in accordance with the
Neher-McGrath method in order not to exceed the conductor insulation temperature specified by the cable
manufacturer. Cable capacity calculation shall take into account the applicable de-rating factors, such as
for ambient temperature, soil thermal resistivity, depth of laying and grouped installation of cables.
a. For sizing of underground cables, use the following criteria:
Earth temperature = 35 qC

Earth thermal resistivity = 120 qC.cm/W

Selected backfill thermal resistivity = 120 qC.cm/W


Load factor = 1.0
16.7.10 Cable sizing calculations shall include the 20% future cables installed in the top positions of the
duct bank or trench. The rating shall be for the worst case location along the route, i.e., exiting the
substation, approaching another duct bank, road crossing, etc.
16.7.11 Medium and high-voltage cables shall be selected to coordinate with the maximum 1 second short
circuit rating of the connected equipment.
16.7.12 Medium-voltage feeders to load-center substations shall be sized for the maximum transformer
rating. This size shall include the transformer rating obtainable by forced-air cooling.
16.7.13 Services, feeders and branch circuits for power and lighting installations other than specified
above shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 70.
16.8 Motor Sizing
16.8.1 Refer to SES E02-G01 for selecting the motor voltage. Motors connected to captive transformers
may have voltages other than those shown based on a total system economic evaluation.
16.8.2 In general, large motors shall be synchronous type to correct the overall plant power factor to 0.9 or
better as required by SABIC.
16.9 Essential / Standby Generator Capacity
16.9.1 The essential/standby generator shall provide the source of standby power for critical electrical
loads when normal electrical power is not available. Critical loads are essential lighting, UPS, direct
current systems, and emergency shutdown.
16.9.2 The generator voltage shall be 480 V or 4160 V depending on the number of units serviced, size of
the loads, and the distances to the loads.
16.9.3 The system will employ a diesel driven generators unit sized to supply 100% of the essential power
system requirements. The generators shall be sized to start the largest motor on essential power while all
the rest of the essential loads are operating. The voltage dip at the bus of the essential power switchgear
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or motor control center shall not be greater than 15 percent when the largest motor on essential power is
started.
16.9.4 The systems motor control system and automatic transfer switch shall have a continuous current
rating equal to or greater than the generator’s rated output and a short circuit rating equal to the greater of
the available short circuit current from the generator or the normal power feed.