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To determine central deflection of simply supported beam by a

concentrated load at the mid-point & hence determine the Modulus of


Elasticity of the material of the beam.

1. Problem Statement:
2. Objectives:
The main objectives of this experiment are:
 To determine the central deflection at the mid-point.
 To determine the Modulus of Elasticity.

3. Apparatus:
Deflection of beam apparatus, Hanger, Weights, Meter rod, Dial indicator Vernier
Calipers

4. Diagram:
The picture of the apparatus is pasted below:

Fig # 01: Apparatus for Simply Supported Beam

5. Procedure:
The procedure is:
 Measure the length of the beam.
 Note the least count of the beam which is written on the dial.
 Measure the height and breadth of the beam.
 Load must be applied at the mid-point (Concentrated load which is only at one point).
 Apply the load and note the reading of loading and unloading.
 Calculate the Central Deflection and calculate W/δc.
 Take at least five readings.

6. Theory:

Modulus of Elasticity:
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object
or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is
applied to it. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stress–strain curve in
the elastic deformation region. A stiffer material will have a higher elastic modulus. An elastic
modulus has the form:
E = Stress/Strain

Beams:
“Beams” are structural members supporting loads applied at various points along the
members. A beam undergoes bending by the loads applied perpendicular to their axis of the
structure. Beams are of various types.
Simply Supported Beam:
If the supports are at the ends such that one of them is pin and other is roller then such a
beam is called simply supported beam. The supports can be considered as simple wedges at
the ends.
Consider a simply supported beam AB of length “L” and carrying a point load “W” at the
center of beam C.
The maximum deflection for simply supported beam will occur at half the distance from
either support (mid-point).
Simply Supported Beam:
Let:
Deflection of beam at any point along the length of the beam
δc = Central deflection of beam
x = Variable distance from end B.
From the symmetry of the figure, we find that the reaction at A is:
RA = RB = W/2
The maximum deflection (Yc) at x = L/2 is given by:
WL 3
δc=
48 EI
L 3/48 I
).
¿ E=(W /δc) ¿

Where:
E = Modulus of elasticity for the material of beam
I = Moment of inertia of the beam

7. Material Used:
The material used in simply supported beam is made up of steel and Aluminium and both of
them have different physical properties.

8. Formula Used:
The formula used for the calculation / Modulus of Elasticity is:
3
W L
Modulus of Elasticity=E=( )( ) ….. (1)
δc 48 I

9. Observations & Calculations:


Least count of the dial indicator = 0.001 in
 1 inch = 2.54 cm
Least count of the Vernier Caliper = 0.1 cm = 0.039 in
Effective load of the beam = L = 36 in
Breadth of the Beam = b = 2.6cm = 1.02 in
Height of the beam = h = 0.6 cm = 0.23 in
1
Moment of Inertia = I = b ×h3 = 0.00134 ¿ 4
12

10. Table:
No. of Effective Central Deflection – δc W W L3
Obs.
load
(in)
δc E= ( )
(
δc 48 I
)

(lb) (lb/inch) (psi)


Loading Unloading Average
0.2 23 24 0.0235 8.5 6
1. 7.99× 1 0
2. 1 51 52 0.0515 19.41 18.24 ×1 06
1.5 75 77 0.076 19.73 6
3. 18.54 ×1 0
6
4. 2 105 106 0.1055 18.95 17.81× 10
2.5 131 131 0.131 19.08 6
5. 17.93× 1 0

11. Results & Conclusions:


The value for modulus of elasticity of Aluminium beam is measured by the
given formula. It has been noted that by increasing the value of maximum deflection, modulus of
elasticity of Aluminium decreases.

12. Comments:
The value of Modulus of Elasticity for Aluminium beam was varied too
much may be due to human error or instrumental error

13.References:
[1] https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/modulus%20of%20elasticity

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beam_(structure)