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LOGARITHMIC

FUNCTION
I can
Recall exponential functions
Define logarithms;
Change exponential form to logarithmic
form vice versa;
Graph logarithmic function;
Describe the characteristic of the graph of
the logarithmic function;
Compare the characteristics of the graph
of an exponential function to logarithmic
function
Exponential functions
f x   2 x

Let’s look at the graph of


this function by plotting
x 2x some points.
8
3 8 7
2 4 6
5
1 2 4
3
0 1 2
1
-1 1/2
-2 1/4 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
-2
-3
-3 1/8 -4
-5
-6
-7
Characteristics of the graph of an
exponential function

1. The domain is the set of all real


numbers.

2. The range is the set of positive


real numbers.

3. The y – intercept of the graph is 1.


4. The x – axis is an asymptote of
the graph.

5. The function is one – to – one .


What is the inverse of the
exponential function

f x   2 x
y2 x

x2 y
y  log 2 x
The logarithmic function to the base a, where a > 0 and a  1
is defined:

x = logay if and only if y = a x


logarithmic
form exponential
form
When you convert an exponential to log form, notice that the
exponent in the exponential becomes what the log is equal to.

Convert to log form: 16  4 2 log 416  2


Convert to exponential form: 1
3
1
log 2  3 2 
8 8
Change to logarithmic form

1. 8 = 23 1og 2 8  3
2. 104 =10,000 1og1010000  4
1
3. 5– 1 = 1/5 1og 5  1
5
Change to exponential form

1.
1og 216  4 24 =16
2
2. 1og 1 36  2 1
   36
6 6
1
3.
1og 8 2  1
3 8 2
3
Change the following logarithmic
form to exponential form or
vice versa

1. log327 = 3 4. 5-2 = 1
25
2. log27 729 = 2 6
 1
1 5.    64
3. log5 = -3 6
125
LOGS = EXPONENTS
With this in mind, we can answer questions about the log:

This is asking for an exponent. What


log 2 16  4 exponent do you put on the base of 2 to
get 16? (2 to the what is 16?)
1 What exponent do you put on the base of
log 3  2 3 to get 1/9? (hint: think negative)
9
log 4 1  0
What exponent do you put on the base of
4 to get 1?
1 When working with logs, re-write any
2 
1 radicals as rational exponents.
log 3
log 33 3 What exponent do you put on the base of
2 3 to get 3 to the 1/2? (hint: think rational)
Logarithmic functions
x2 y
y  log 2 x
Let’s look at the graph of
x 2y this function by plotting
some points. 8
8 3 7
6
4 2 5
4
2 1 3
2
1 0 1
1/2 -1 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1/4 -2 -2
-3
-3 1/8 -4
-5
-6
-7
Group 1 Group 3
y = 3x log3 x = y

Group 2 Group 4
x
 1
y =   log1/2 x = -y
2
Exponential Graph Logarithmic Graph

Graphs of
inverse
functions are
reflected about
the line y = x
Characteristics about the Characteristics about the
Graph of an Exponential Graph of a Log Function
Function f x   b x b > 1 f x   log b x where b > 1
1. Domain is all real numbers 1. Range is all real numbers
2. Range is positive real 2. Domain is positive real
numbers numbers
3. There are no x intercepts
3. There are no y intercepts
because there is no x value
that you can put in the
function to make it = 0
4. The x intercept is always
4. The y intercept is always
(1,0) (x’s and y’s trade places)
(0,1) because b 0 = 1
5. The x-axis is a horizontal 5. The y-axis is a vertical
asymptote for asymptote
x-
6. The function is one to one 6. The function is one to one
Sketch the graphs of the
following functions.

1. y = log5x 3. y = log7x

2. y = log1/4x 4. y = log1/6x