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Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro (November 30, 1863 – May 10, 1897)

 was a Filipino revolutionary leader and the president of the Tagalog Republic.
 He is often called "The Father of the Philippine Revolution".
 He was one of the founders and later Supremo (Supreme Leader) of the Kataas-
taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan or more
commonly known as "Katipunan", a movement which sought the independence
of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Philippine
Revolution. He was also one of the Filipino historical figures to be recommended
as a national hero of the Philippines.

Andres Bonifacio, the father of the Philippine Revolution, and once the Presidentof
the Supreme Council of the Katipunan, penned the Duties of the Sons of the People, a
list of the duties and responsibilities to be followed strictly by every member of the
organization. The rules constituted a decalogue, and embodied Bonifacio’s passionate

In admiration of Emilio Jacinto’s literary style, Bonifacio would later adopt Jacinto’s
Kartilya as the official teachings of the Katipunan. Similar to the Decalogue, the Kartilya
was written to introduce new recruits to the principles and values that should guide every
member of the organization.

Duties of the Sons of the People

1. Believe with a fervent heart in the Creator.

2. Reflect always that a sincere faith in him involves love and of one’s native land
because this shows true love for one’s fellows.
3. Engrave on the heart the conviction that do die for the liberation of the country
from enslavement is the highest honor and fortune.
4. In any endeavor, the realization of good aspirations depends on calmness,
perseverance, reason and hope.
5. Guard the instructions and plans of the KKK as you would guard your own honor.
6. Anyone who falls into danger whilst carrying out their duties should be supported
by all, and rescued even at the cost of life and riches.
7. Let each of us strive in the performance of our duty to set a good example for
others to follow.
8. Share whatever you can with whoever is needy.
9. Diligence in earning a livelihood is a true expression of love and affection for self,
spouse, children, and brothers or compatriots.
10. Believe absolutely that scoundrels and traitors will be punished and good deeds
will be rewarded. Believe, likewise, that the aims of the KKK are blessed by the
Creator, for the will of the people is also his will.

Emilio Jacinto (15 December 1875 – 16 April 1899)

 was a Filipino General during the Philippine Revolution.

 He was one of the highest-ranking officers in the Philippine Revolution and
was one of the highest-ranking officers of the revolutionary society Kataas-taasan,
Kagalang-galang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan, or simply and more
popularly called Katipunan, being a member of its Supreme Council.
 He was elected Secretary of State for the Haring Bayang Katagalugan, a
revolutionary government established during the outbreak of hostilities.
 He is popularly known in Philippine history textbooks as the Brains of the
Katipunan while some contend he should be rightfully recognized as the "Brains of
the Revolution" (Filipino: Utak ng Himagsikan, a title that is usually given
to Apolinario Mabini).
 Jacinto was present in the so-called Cry of Pugad Lawin (or Cry of
Balintawak) with Andrés Bonifacio, the Supremo (Supreme President) of the
Katipunan, and others of its members which signaled the start of the Revolution
against the Spanish colonial government in the islands.

The Kartilya ng Katipunan (English: Primer of the Katipunan) served as the

guidebook for new members of the organization, which laid out the group's rules and
principles. The first edition of the Kartilya was written by Andres Bonifacio. Emilio
Jacinto later wrote a revised Decalogue. The Decalogue, originally titled Katungkulang
Gagawin ng mga Z. Ll. B. (Duties of the Sons of the People), was never published
because Bonifacio believed that Jacinto's Kartilya was superior to what he had made.

The Kartilya is the best-known of all Katipunan texts. Making manifest the KKK’s
principles and teachings, it was printed as a small pamphlet for new members. Bonifacio,
the story goes, had originally intended that his “Decalogue” should be printed and handed
to new recruits, but he then read Jacinto’s Kartilya and decided it was superior. The two
texts, though, are not really comparable. Bonifacio seeks only to enumerate the duties of
Katipunan members, Jacinto coaches his primer, four times as long, rather as statement
of aspirations and ethical values. Bonifacio lists ten obligations; Jacinto presents twelve
“guiding principles” and fourteen “teachings”.


The Philippine Declaration of Independence occurred in Kawit, Cavite on 12 June

1898 where Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the
sovereignty and independence of the Philippine islands from Spanish colonization after
the latter was defeated at the Battle of Manila Bay on 1 May 1898 during the Spanish-
American War. It was declared a national holiday and was witnessed by thousands of
people who gathered in Kawit to witness the historic event.

The declaration, however, was not recognized by the United States or Spain, as
the Spanish government ceded the Philippines (and other Spanish colonial territories) to
the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris signed on 10 December 1898 in
consideration for an indemnity for Spanish expenses and assets lost.
The Act of the Declaration of Independence was prepared and written by Ambrosio
Rianzares Bautista in Spanish, who also read the said declaration. A passage in the
Declaration reminds one of another passage in the American Declaration of
Independence. The Philippine Declaration was signed by ninety-eight persons, among
them an American army officer who witnessed the proclamation. The Act declared that
the Filipinos “are and have the right to be free and independent,” and that the nation from
”this day commences to have a life of its own, with every political tie between Filipinas
and Spain severed and annulled”.

The event saw the National Flag of the Philippines, designed by General Aguinaldo
and made in Hongkong by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo and Delfina
Herboza unfurled for the first time. This was followed by the performance of the “Marcha
Filipina Magdalo” now known as “Lupang Hinirang”, the National Anthem. The composer,
Julian Felipe. was a music teacher from Cavite. The lyrics to the anthem were sourced a
year after from the poem of Jose Palma entitled “Filipinas”.
General Aguinaldo explained the symbolism of the Filipino flag. Each of the three
colors has an appropriate meaning:
a. the lower red stripe represents patriotism and valor
b. the upper blue stripe signifies peace, truth and justice
c. the white triangle stands for equality
The three stars indicate the three geographical areas of Luzon, Visayas and
Mindanao. The eight rays of the sun refer to first eight provinces of Manila, Bulacan,
Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, Batangas and Cavite which took up arms
against Spain and were placed under martial law by the Spaniards at the start of the
Philippine Revolution in 1896.

Apolinario Mabini y Maranan (July 23, 1864 – May 13, 1903)

 was a Filipino revolutionary leader, educator, lawyer, and statesman who served
first as a legal and constitutional adviser to the Revolutionary Government, and
then as the first Prime Minister of the Philippines upon the establishment of
the First Philippine Republic.
 He is regarded as the "utak ng himagsikan" or "brain of the revolution".

Two of his works, El Verdadero Decalogo (The True Decalogue, June 24, 1898),
and Programa Constitucional dela Republica Filipina (The Constitutional Program of the
Philippine Republic, 1898) became instrumental in the drafting of what would eventually
be known as the Malolos Constitution.

Mabini performed all his revolutionary and governmental activities despite having
lost the use of both his legs to polio shortly before the Philippine Revolution of 1896.
Mabini's role in Philippine history saw him confronting first Spanish colonial rule in the
opening days of the Philippine Revolution, and then American colonial rule in the days of
the Philippine–American War.

The latter saw Mabini captured and exiled to Guam by American colonial
authorities, allowed to return only two months before his eventual death in May 1903.


The Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng

Bayan("Supreme and Venerable Association of the Children of the
Nation", Spanish: Suprema y Venerable Asociación de los Hijos del Pueblo), also known
as Katipunan or KKK was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish
colonialism Filipinos in Manila in 1892; its primary goal was to gain independence
from Spain through a revolution.

Documents discovered in the 21st century suggest that the society had been
organized as early as January 1892 but may not have become active until July 7 of the
same year; that was the date that Filipino writer José Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan.

Founded by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa and
others, the Katipunan was a secret organization until it was discovered in 1896. This
discovery led to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution.

The Tagalog word "katipunan", literally meaning 'association' or 'assembly', comes

from the root word "tipon", a Tagalog word meaning "gathering". Being a secret
organization, its members were subjected to the utmost secrecy and were expected to
abide by the rules established by the society. Aspiring applicants were given standard
initiation rites in order to become members of the society. At first, membership in the
Katipunan was only open to male Filipinos; later, women were accepted into the society.
The Katipunan had its own publication, Kalayaan (Liberty) which issued its first and last
printing in March 1896. Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, and
Filipino literature was expanded by some of its prominent members.

In planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted Rizal for his full-fledged support for
the Katipunan in exchange for a promise to rescue Rizal from his detention. In May 1896,
a delegation was sent to Emperor Meiji of Japan in order to solicit funds and military arms.
The Katipunan's existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities after a member named
Teodoro Patiño revealed the Katipunan's illegal activities to his sister, and finally to the
mother portress of the Mandaluyong Orphanage. Days after the Spanish authorities
learned of the existence of the secret society, on August 1896, Bonifacio and his men
tore up their cédulas during the Cry of Balintawak that started the Philippine Revolution
of 1896.

The Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were, effectively, successor

organizations of La Liga Filipina, founded by José Rizal (Who himself was inspired by the
martyrdom of his predecessors, the nationalist Priests: Gomez, Burgos and Zamora).
This organization was part of the late 19th century Propaganda Movement in
the Philippines. The founders of the Katipunan were Deodato Arrellano, Teodoro
Plata, Valentin Diaz, Ladislao Diwa, Andres Bonifacio, and Jose Dizon. Katipunan
founders Bonifacio, Diwa, and Plata were all members of La Liga and were influenced by
the nationalistic ideals of the Propaganda Movement in Spain.

Any person who wished to join the Katipunan was subjected to certain initiation
rites, resembling those of Masonic rites, to test his courage, patriotism and loyalty. New
recruits underwent the initiation rite three at a time so that no member knew more than
two other members of the society. The neophyte was first blindfolded and then led into a
dimly lighted room with black curtains where his folded cloth was removed from his eyes.
Inside the candle-lit room, they would be brought to a table adorned with a skull and a
bolo. There, they would condemn the abuses of the Spanish government and vow to fight
colonial oppression.

As a result of the fateful experiences he encountered in Cavite, Bonifacio planned

to return to Montalban and San Mateo. On their way to Montalban, he and his followers
passed by Limbon, Indang – a place in Cavite where food was scarce and people were
tightfisted. At this point, Severino de las Alas turned his back against Bonifacio. The
angered Bonifacio responded with threats and words that were wrongly interpreted by the
people of Indang. The people sought the help of Aguinaldo, who immediately ordered
the arrest of Bonifacio.

On 27 April 1897, skirmishes took place between the forces of Bonifacio and
Aguinaldo. In the said scuffle, Ciriaco was killed, while Procopio and the Supremo were
caught. Andres Bonifacio was stabbed in the neck, weakening him and soaking him in
blood. The next day, the prisoners were brought to Indang Tribunal, then to Naic. Within
the day, Gen. Mariano Noriel created the tribunal that eventually tried and convicted the
Bonifacio brothers of sedition, and sentenced them to death. Surprised by the decision of
the tribunal, Aguinaldo commutated the verdict. He recommended the Bonifacio brothers
be exiled to an isolated island also found in Cavite. However, Gen. Noriel and Gen. Pio
del Pilar dissuaded him, arguing that by reducing the sentence, the Revolutionary
Government of the Philippines would once again be at stake. Aguinaldo, in the end,
changed his mind and signed the death sentence of the Bonifacio brothers.

On 10 May 1897, Procopio and Andres were shot at Mount Nagpatong, near Mount
Buntis in Maragondon, Cavite. This event ended the short life of the Supremo. His
educational attainment and military expertise may not have been equal to that of other
heroes but his love for the country was absolute. His name will always be revered and
serve as the battle cry of Filipinos who yearn for freedom oppression and injustice.