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Weights and Measurements
Learning Outcomes

Students will be able to

 Know different ways to measure and weigh
ingredients in the kitchen
 Know different abbreviations used for weights
and measurements in cookery
 Know how to read and convert the recipe
 Which are the three major sources through

which food can get contaminated in the kitchen?

 Which chemical compound is found in green


 How fires can be prevented in the kitchen?

 What are the guidelines for sick employees?


To produce quality cooked and baked

products, it is important to measure

ingredients accurately

A written record of ingredients and preparation

steps needed to make a particular dish.

Standardized recipes help to:

Ensure consistent quality and quantity

Reduce costs by eliminating waste

Give exact information about a dish

Yield/ Portion

Yield: total number of portions

Portion: serving size for 1 person

1) Read the entire recipe.

2) Determine the yield.

3) Determine ingredients needed.

4) Determine equipment needed.

5) Determine preparation techniques used

6) Determine time needed for preparation.


When the yield of a recipe is not the same as

the amount of product needed


 A recipe produces 96 portions, but a

chef needs 250 portions for a party.

Cost Per Portion

 The conversion of a recipe will impact the cost of

the recipe

 The cost per portion however remains the same.


If a recipe for 24 costs 50 Rps per portion, the

increasing the recipe for 36 would not change

the price per portion.


Recipe can be used as a baseline then convert the

recipe to change its YIELD.


You have a recipe for 6 people but want to make it

for 3 people instead.

Step 1: Calculate the conversion factor

Step 2: Multiply each ingredient by the

conversion factor

The process of calculating new amounts for

each ingredient in a recipe when the total

amount of food the recipe makes is changed

Scaling Based on Yield

The most easy example of scaling a recipe is

doubling the yield

Simply multiply all ingredients by 2

2 cups of milk becomes 4 cups of

½ cup flour becomes 1 cup of flour

Scaling Factor

The number that each ingredient amount in a

recipe is multiplied by when the recipe yield is


SF = Desired Yield / Original Yield

Scaling based on Availability

 A recipe may be scaled based on the

availability of one ingredient


 A recipe may require 20 pounds of ground beef

but only 15 pounds of ground beef is available.

A foodservice worker needs to know how

to adjust all of the other ingredients to

account for the available amount of the

key ingredient.
SF = Available Amount / Original Amount

Beef stew recipe calls for 15 lbs of beef but

needs to be made with 12 lbs of beef:

SF = 12 lbs / 15 lbs

=> SF = 0.8

Volume: mL, L

Weight: g, kg

Temperature: Degrees Celsius


Volume: tsp, tbsp, cup, pint, quart

Weight: oz, lb

Temperature: degrees Fahrenheit

Stick method:

Items that are packaged and have the

measurements on the wrapper can be cut right on

the wrapper itself

Dry measuring cup method:

Fill the measuring cup to the top and level off

with a scraper.

Use the same technique with a spoon

Some people decide to make ingredient

substitutions because:

a)They dont have the ingredient

b)They want to make it healthier


d)Dont like an ingredient

 Some recipes are easier to change than others

 For example: salads, stir fried foods, soups,

and stews can be changed easily

 Muffins, custards, pies, etc. can be harder to

substitute because it can change the chemical

formula and make the recipe not turn out right

Measuring Dry Ingredients
 Never measure while holding measuring cup

over mixing bowl

 Flour & sugar can be spooned into cup

 Others must be packed (brown sugar) but only if

specified in recipe
 Level off top of the cup using straight edge

of spatula.

 Pour into mixture.

 If needed, use rubber scraper to make sure

all ingredient is emptied out

Measuring Liquid Ingredients
 Set measuring cup on level surface

 Carefully pour liquid into cup

 Bend down to check at eye level for accurate


 Add more or pour off excess until top is at

desired measurement mark

 Pour into mixture.

 If needed, use rubber scraper to make sure

cup is empty

 For small amounts, use measuring spoons

Measuring Fats

 Can be measured several in different ways:

 Stick method Butter/margarine Crisco

 Dry measuring cup method

 Packing in cup
New Amounts

 It may be necessary to convert some of the new

amounts to different units of measure

 Makes for more efficient measuring


 A recipe that once called for 1 tbsp oil, now calls

for 8 tbsp of oil.

 Convert to new unit 8 tbsp/1 x 1 fl oz/2 tbsp = 4

fl oz

 Fl oz can then be converted to cups 4 fl oz/1 x 1

c/8 fl oz = ½ cup
Additional Concerns

 Some measurements will not easily adjust such

as 3.7 cups.

 Measurement will need to be adjusted to 3 ¾

cups (3.75 cups).

 Nested (graduated) measuring cups are used

for dry ingredients.

 Measuring spoons are used – a regular spoon

just isn't the correct tool.

 For liquid ingredients, a clear glass or plastic

cup with a pouring spout is required.

 5 Graduated measuring cups are made in 1/4

cup, 1/3 cup, 1/2 cup, 1 cup, and 2 cup sizes.

 Typical customary set – ¼ c., 1/3 c., ½ c.. 1 c.

 Typical metric set – 50-mL, 125-mL, 250- mL

 Measuring spoons usually range from 1/8

teaspoon, 1/4 teaspoon, 1/2 teaspoon, 1

teaspoon, and 1 tablespoon.

 Metric set – 1-mL, 2-mL, 5-mL, 15-mL, 25-mL

 Flour:

 Stir flour in the storage container or bag.

 Using a large spoon, lightly spoon flour from the

container into the measuring cup.

 Do not shake the cup and do not pack the flour.

 Using the back of a knife or flat blade spatula,

level off the flour even with the top edge of the

measuring cup.

 Don't use the measuring cup to scoop the flour

out of the container.

 One cup of correctly measured flour should weigh

about 112 grams.

Brown sugar:

This needs to be packed into the measuring cup.

The sugar should retain the shape of the cup

when it is dropped into the other ingredients.

 Shortening and solid fats: Butter and

margarine have measuring amounts marked on

the sides of the paper wrapping.

 One quarter pound stick of butter or margarine

equals 1/2 cup.

Liquid Ingredients
 Liquids need to be measured at eye level.

Using the liquid measuring cup, pour the liquid

into the cup.

 Then bend over so you are on the same level

with the measuring marks.

 The liquid should be right at the mark, not above or


Liquid ingredients in spoons:

 Make sure that you don't measure small amounts of

liquid ingredients over the mixing bowl.

 It's just too easy to spill, and you don't want 2

teaspoons of almond extract when the recipe only

calls for 1 teaspoon.

 Chopped ingredients: Pay close attention to

whether or not an ingredient is to be chopped,

diced or minced, and whether they are measured

before chopping or after.

 Then the foods are placed in the measuring cup

so the top is level with the surface.

To use a food scale

 Place empty container on scale

 Adjust scale to read zero

 Add food to container until scale shows

desired amount
Commonly used Terms


Tsp or t

Tablespoon- Tbsp or T

Cup- C
Fluid ounce- fl oz

Pint- pt

Quart- qt

Gal- gallon

lb- pound

Sm- small

Lg- large

Pkg- package
Students’ Participation

1. A recipe makes 24 cookies. You want to

change the recipe yield to 84 cookies.

2. A soup recipe makes 8 gallons of soup. You

only need 3 gallons of soup.

3. A potato salad recipe makes 4 pounds of

potato salad, but you need 80 pounds.