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# ECE 562 Fall 2010

## September 12, 2010

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT 2
Reading: Text, Sections 3.3, 2.5, 2.6
Due Date: September 21, 2010 (in class)

f1(t) f2(t)

1 1
2 2

0 4 t 0 2 4 t
− 21

f3(t)

1
2

0 1 3 4 t
− 21

## (a) Show that these waveforms are orthonormal.

(b) Express the following waveform s(t) as a linear combination of fn (t), n = 1, 2, 3.
s(t)

1
2
1
4

0 1 2 3 4 t
− 14
− 12

2. Gram-Schmidt. Determine an orthonormal basis for the span of the following four
signals:

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V.V. Veeravalli, 2010 1
s1(t) s2(t)

2 2

0 3 t 1 t

s4(t)
s3(t)

2
0 1 3 t
−2
2 t

3. Signal Spaces as Vector Spaces. Let {fℓ (t)}nℓ=1 be an orthonormal basis for S
(a) Suppose s(t) ∈ S has the representation in terms of this basis as:
n
X
s(t) = sℓ fℓ (t)
ℓ=1

## and define the column vector s = [s1 s2 · · · sn ]⊤ . Show that

n
X p
ksk = |sℓ |2 = s† s = ksk
ℓ=1

## (b) Now suppose sk (t), sm (t) ∈ S and let

sk = [sk,1 sk,2 · · · sk,n ]⊤ sm = [sm,1 sm,2 · · · sm,n ]⊤ .
Show that n
X
hsk , sm i = sk,ℓ s∗m,ℓ = s†m sk = hsk , sm i
ℓ=1

(c) Show that the distance dkm between two signals sk (t) and sm (t) is given in terms
of their energies and correlation coefficient as:
 p  12
dkm = Ek + Em − 2 Ek Em Re[ρk,m ]

4. Simplex Signal Set. Consider a set of M orthogonal signal waveforms {sm (t)}M
m=1 that
have energy E. Define a new set of M waveforms as
M
1 X
s′m (t) = sm (t) − sℓ (t) , m = 1, 2, . . . , M .
M ℓ=1
1

Show that the M signal waveforms have equal energy, given by 1 − M
E, and are
equally correlated, with correlation coefficients ρkm = − M1−1

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5. Signal Constellation Optimization. Consider the signal constellation shown below

## (a) Show that the measure of goodness ζ is given by

(
12
2 if a > a∗
ζ = 1+a 2

6(a −a 2+1)
1+a2
if a ≤ a∗
√ √
with a∗ = ( 2 + 6)/2
(b) Maximize ζ(a) over a ≥ 1 to find the best constellation.
(c) Compare the result in (b) with ζ for 8-ary PAM.

## 6. Compare 8-PSK and 8-QAM in terms of their measures of goodness.

7. Let s1 (t), s2 (t), . . . , sM (t) be equal energy signals. Show that the measure of goodness
ζ for this signal set is the same under the following two cases: (i) ρkm = 0 for k 6= m,
and (ii) Re[ρkm ] = 0, for k 6= m. Find this ζ as a function of M.

## 8. Frequency Shift Keying: Consider the FSK signal set

sm (t) = E ej2π(m−1)∆f t pTs (t)

Show that
ρkm = sinc[Ts (k − m)∆f ] ejπTs (k−m)∆f
and that
Re{ρkm } = sinc[2Ts (k − m)∆f ] .

## Σ = (ΣI + ΣQ ) + j(ΣQI − ΣIQ )

and
Σ̌ = (ΣI − ΣQ ) + j(ΣQI + ΣIQ )

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