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Workshop on Green Communications

Dresden, Germany – June 2009

Green Communications –
Management Included
Dr. Douglas N. Zuckerman
Telcordia Technologies (Ret.)
NOMS 2008 - Salvador, BRAZIL - April 2008
“Outrageous Opinion” Session

Green Network Operations

and Management
Dr. Douglas N. Zuckerman
Telcordia Technologies (Ret.)
World Class Global Drivers
 It is cool to save the planet
 Current protocols are energy intensive –
not cool
 Other industries are “going green” (e.g.,
transportation, lodging, utilities) – why not
 Network Management can make a

We need a Green Protocol
 Selection criteria
 Reduce carbon footprint by at least 10%
 Backwards compatible with CMIP, SNMP and all
other protocols
 Freely available via open source (e.g., “back of
truck” and “off the shelf”)
 Two main contenders
 SIPP – Simple Integrated Protocol of Protocols
 SLURP – Simple Logical Ubiquitous
Reconfigurable Protocol

Uses refined “sipping tea” Uses powerful “slurping
paradigm soup” paradigm
Offers “protocol of Offers quasi-infinite set of
protocols” “reconfigurable” protocols
“Simple” is in the name “Simple” and “Logical” are in
the name
Batteries not included Batteries included

SIPP available 12/7 (e.g., as SLURP available 24/7 (e.g.,

at Starbucks) – with COFF- as at 7-11) - stand alone as
ee SLURP-ee

Next Steps
 SIPP vs. SLURP is our generation’s SNMP vs.
 IM 2009 (at least) must prepare to catalyze the
Green Protocol
 Include Technology Centers for SIPP & SLURP
 Invite key SIPP & SLURP experts to actively participate
 Plan for double number of attendees
 Encourage incredible SDOs to get involved in
standardizing the Green Protocol

 The NOMS/IM community can help save
the planet by creating a Green Protocol
 SIPP and SLURP hold the most promise
for our generation (and those to come…)
 This could be the biggest – and most
audacious – undertaking to hit NM since
 Are we up to it?
The views are solely that of the author and
have not had any peer (or even non-peer)
review. Real protocols were not used, and
any resemblance or relationship to such
was purely coincidental and unintentional.
Live animals were not used. Do not try at
[End of NOMS 2008 Presentation]

Industry Activities in Energy
Efficient Networking
 Have started to see entities such as the
Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF)
considering energy efficient networking
 The following slides were originally
presented at an OIF meeting by its
president (Hans-Martin Foisel)

Source: Optical Internetworking Forum 9

Motivation #1
 With the broadband initiatives of multiple carriers around the world
the power consumption in telecommunication increases significantly
 Power consumption and the related heat dissipation will become
more and more a critical factor of
 Communication networks

 IT facilities

 Data centers

 High performance network elements

 Efficient power design enable

 OPEX reductions

 Increase of performance/reliability

Motivation #2

Estimated distribution of global CO2 emissions from ICTs

Source: Source: Kumar, Rakesh and Mieritz, Lars (2007) “Conceptualizing “Green IT” and data
centre power and cooling issues”, Gartner Research Paper No. G00150322

Motivation #3
Magic formula to convince end customers

115 watts (Sleep mode, standby,..)

x 24 hours x 365 days
= 1000 Kwatt-hour (1 Mwatt-hour)
x € 0.10 = € 100
Source: ETSI Green Agenda

LCA: Life Cycle Assessment

Raw materials & Fabrication Use phase End of life

chemicals Transports Products energy consumption Collection /
Manufacturing & office Office & manufacturing sites Offices & stores treatment
sites Business travel Vehicle fleet Recycling of metals
Transports Landfill
Resource depletion

Source: Ericsson

Holistic Approach for Power Saving Opportunities for ICT in the Use
Access Network

Home Access Aggregation

Network Core Network

Content Server

Energy reduction
End devices solutions e.g. Power
High sharing ratio of pro- management based on
fessional servers; power usage, e.g. day – night
Power efficient end devi- Power adaptive access profiles, usage profiles
ces with significant lower network; guarantees management of servers
power consumption; always basic communi- based on usage; off-
intelligent sleep mode cations; adaptive power loading end devices from
(fast wake up); reduction control of components application/graphical pro-
of functions in the end based on communication cessing and content sto-
device, shifting functions requirements; power rage; optimized content
into the network  Thin efficient architecture and allocation among servers
Clients technology

Source: Piet Demeester

Power Consumption Reduction in Access Networks
WirelineAccess Network Technologies
NT APL Cabinet Office
First Mile

ADSL2/ 2+




xDSL Optical

Source: Christoph Lange et al., OFCNFOEC 2008, paper JWA105

Energy Efficient Networking #1
EU Standby Initiative:
 Code of Conduct for Data Centers
 Code of Conduct for Digital TV Services
 Code of Conduct on Energy Consumption of Broadband
Communication Equipment
 Code of Conduct on Efficiency of External Power Supplies
 Code of Conduct on AC Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)

 Formore information please see:


Energy Efficient Networking #2
Code of Conduct on Energy Consumption of Broadband
Equipment, Draft Version 3, Issue 11 – 23 June 2008, issued
by the European Commission, JRC, Institute for the
Environment and Sustainability, Renewable Energies Unit
 Total European consumption of up to 50 TWh per year can be
estimated for the year 2015
 With the implementation of this Code of Conduct the (max) electricity
consumption could be limited to 25 TWh per year, this is equivalent
to total saving of about € 7.5 Billions per year
 Code of Conduct covers customer premises (CPE, ONT) and
network (xDSL, OLT) equipment and sets targets for 2009..11
 For more information please see:

Energy Efficient Networking #3
Europe: Energy Efficiency Through ICT
First focus on three areas:
 Power grid
EC will encourage the ICT industry to cut its own emissions and create
products and services that can benefit the E.U.'s environmental
 Without widespread action, the E.U.'s energy use is expected to rise
25 percent by 2012
 For more information please see:

Energy Efficient Networking #4
Energy Star Initiative:
ENERGY STAR is a joint program of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy aiming at
saving money and protect the environment through energy efficient
products and practices
 Results are already adding up. Americans, with the help of
ENERGY STAR, saved enough energy in 2007 alone to avoid
greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to those from 27 million cars
— all while saving $16 billion on their utility bills
 Setup of programs for private homes and businesses
 Setup a cooperation with EC Standby Initiative

 For more information please see: http://www.energystar.gov/

Energy Efficiency and
Standardization Bodies
Energy Efficiency and Standardization
Energy efficiency is a topic which can be found at
every international standardization level, e.g.:

Source: http://www.leonardo-energy.org/drupal/standards-ETSI_ITUT

ITU Symposia on ICTs and Climate Change
 Kyoto, Japan, 15-16 April 2008, MIC
 London, UK, 17-18 June 2008, BT
 For more information please see: http://www.itu.int/ITU-

ITU-T SG15, Power saving tutorials, Feb 13-15, 2008; Strategic issues
for ITU-T:
 Assessment of existing and new ITU-T Rec. in the light of climate
 Identifying requirements for further ICT standardization work and
gaps in current portfolio of Rec.
 Setting target for reductions of greenhouse gases that can be
achieved by using ICTs, incl. through implementation of ITU-T Recs.

Source: ITU-T and Climate Change,

Dr Tim Kelly, Head, Standardization
Policy Division (ITU-T)

Energy Efficient Ethernet - IEEE P802.3az objectives
 Define a mechanism to reduce power consumption during periods of low
link utilization for the following PHYs
 100BASE-TX (Full Duplex)
 1000BASE-T (Full Duplex)
 Define a protocol to coordinate transitions to or from a lower level of power
 The link status should not change as a result of the transition
 No frames in transit shall be dropped or corrupted during the transition to
and from the lower level of power consumption
 The transition time to and from the lower level of power consumption
should be transparent to upper layer protocols and applications
 Any new twisted-pair and/or backplane PHY for EEE shall include legacy
compatible auto negotiation

IEEE: Energy Efficient Ethernet Roadmap

For more information please see: http://www.ieee802.org/3/az/index.html

 ETSI Green Agenda is one of the ETSI strategic topics for 2008
 ETSI will implement the ISO 14001:2004 and 14004:2004 standards
 ISO 14001 - The Environmental Management Standards
 ETSI Environmental Engineering (EE)
 'DTR/EE-00002 Work Item‘ TR 102 530, reduction of energy
consumption in telecommunications equipment and related
 'DTR/EE-00004' Work Item; TR 102 532, use of alternative energy
sources in telecommunication installations
 DTS/EE-00005' Work Item ; TS 102 533, Energy consumption in BB
Telecom Network Equipment
 'DTS/EE-00006' Work Item, Environmental consideration for
equipment installed in outdoor location
 ETSI Access, Terminals, Transmission and Multiplexing (ATTM)
 'DTR/ATTM-06002' Work Item: Power Optimization for xDSL
 For more information please see: www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-
Source: ETSI Green Agenda, Bernard Dugerdil

Network Interface, Power, and Protection Committee
 ATIS starts a “Green Initiative” beginning 2008
 “Green” activities are focused in NIPP; specific standards activities:
 Power consumption reduction through energy efficiency improvements.
Goal: Produce a document or suite of documents that may be used by
Service Providers to assess the true energy needs of telecom
 Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electronic
equipment (RoHS):
 Pb-Free Acceptance Criteria for Modules
 Pb-Free Acceptance Criteria for Pb-Free Assemblies
 Accelerated Pb-Free Robustness Check
 Reducing power consumption for DSL modems. Investigating methods
to reduce power consumption for DSL modems at both the network and
customer ends of the line
 For more information please see: http://www.atis.org/0050/index.asp

TIA:Green Initiative
 EIA starts a “Green Initiative” beginning 2008 –
 Highlights include:
 Key product compliance issues such as Take-back, Batteries, Restricted
Substances, Design for Environment and Packaging
 More than 1,500 pieces of legislation tracked from proposal through
 Coverage in all major regions of Europe, Asia Pacific, North America and South
 Accurate, up-to-date content provided by a wide range of internationally-based
legal and technical subject-matter experts.
 WEEE and RoHS expertise in Europe and other jurisdictions

 For more information please see: http://tiaonline.org/environment/

Positioning attempt of the OIF in the
Energy Efficient Network Activity Area
 “Green” strategy of the OIF
 Scan the OIF IAs with respect to the EEN aspects
 ASON/GMPLS control plane  increasing network efficiency 
increasing its energy efficiency; supports capability to chose the
most energy efficient network layer for transporting data;
 PLL: Energy efficient 40GE/100GE interface aspects, e.g.
comparison of multi-lane and serial interfaces, optical and
electrical interfaces, …  support and work on the most EEN
 MA&E activity

Source: OFC/NFOEC 2009 presentation by Bill St. Arnaud
PROMPT – Next Generation Internet to
Reduce Global Warming
 Research on router, optical, W/W-less and
distributed computing architectures,
applications, grids, clouds, Web services,
virtualization, dematerialization, remote
instrumentation and sensors, etc.
 Share infrastructure & maximize lower cost
power by “following wind & sun” networks.

Sources: GENI and Inocybe

Possible research areas
> Dynamic all optical networks with solar or wind powered optical repeaters

> Wireless mesh ad-hoc networks with mini-solar panels at nodes

> New shortest energy path Internet architectures with servers, computers
and storage collocated at remote renewable energy sites such as hydro
dams, windmill farms, etc

> Topology and architecture issues to stretch the network and move routers
and switches from major intersections

> New routing and resiliency architectures for wired and wireless networks
for massively disruptive topology changes due to setting sun or waning
winds that power routers and servers

> New stats and measurement analysis of bits per carbon (bpc) utilization,
optimized “carbon” routing tables, etc
Source: OFC/NFOEC 2009 presentation by Bill St. Arnaud
Cool Example: Switch Communications
 “SuperNAP” compound will house servers and storage
systems owned by many prominent companies in huge
computing compound
 407,000 square feet
 150 MVA Switch owned substation
 84 MVA of UPS supply
 30,000 tons of system plus system cooling
 4,5000,000 CFM
 30 cooling towers
 1,500 watts per sq. ft. density
 7,000+ cabinets
Ref: www.switchnap.com and http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/05/24/switch_supernap/

Switch Communications: Connectivity
 Connects enterprises to major carriers in Las Vegas hub
at greatly reduced costs


Zero mile, on-net, diverse, national fiber backbone gateways.

Lit services including DWDM, GigE, MPLS, POS, ATM, & Frame Relay.

Switch Communications: Cooling Systems
 Will use more power than three mega-casinos – to get power from
Hoover Dam and California power plants
 For more efficient cooling will use T-SCIF (Thermal Separate
Compartment in a Facility) – no raised floors

Colocation and energy efficient techniques reduce

costs while being green

Greening the Management
 Use “green” data center best practices for hardware and
networking configurations
 Optimize cooling requirements
 Minimize “Management Control Network” requirements
 “Power down” when not in use
 Develop more efficient protocols
 Optimize interactions with managed systems
 Simplify interactions
 Consider power requirements for “remote vs. central”
 Self healing networks may reduce truck rolls and save power
 Will emerging “control plane” networks save power?

Managing the Green
 Telecom industry has over 25 years experience with
OSS-based network operations and management
 Managing “network elements” (load balancing,
reservation scheduling, work force management, etc.)
can be generalized
 Use OSS approach to manage
 Home networks and appliances
 Power use determined by sensor networks (e.g., “smart grid”)
 Facilitate more time efficient and cost effective
 Trade off smaller facilities and less travel vs. more power while

 The communications industry has the knowledge,
experience and resources to enable a green world -> How
can IEEE Communications Society “energize” research,
development and deployment of green enablers?
 Standards will to continue evolve -> Will these help or
 Fundamental architecture transformations can have
profound impact -> Will “greenness” be a major driver or
incidental to other drivers (e.g., increasing ROI)?