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1

1.1 & 1.2 Properties of the Ism—Status

We stated that the ism has 4 properties: status, number gender, and type. We will be discussing status
in this session.

Status is all about what a word is doing in the sentence. There are three kinds of Statuses:

1. Doer Status ( ‫ رفع‬Raf’)

2. Detail Status (‫ نصب‬Nasb)

3. After “of” status (‫ جر‬Jarr)

1. Doer status is given to the Doer of the Fi’l and answers the question, who did the Fi’l? In the
sentence: He ate his lunch. “He” did the eating, and is considered the doer.

2. Detail Status refers to details of the Fi’l and answers additional questions related to the Fi’l like
who, what, where, when, why, and how. For example:

He ate his lunch quickly outside yesterday.

What did he eat? Lunch


When did he eat? Yesterday
Where did he eat? Outside
How did he eat? Quickly

All of these words are considered details of the Fi’l.

3. After “of” status words don’t answer questions related to the Fi’l itself. It’s easy to spot these
words in cases like: Messenger of Allah SWT . Sometimes, the word “of” isn’t as obvious and the
words need to be rearranged so you can spot it. For example: “his lunch” can be rephrased to say:
lunch of his. The word after “of” is now clear.
2

EXERCISES:

A. In the following sentences, circle the doer of the Fi’l ‫فعل‬, underline the details of the Fi’l ‫فعل‬, and box words

that are after “of” status (the words in bold are Fi’l ‫فعل‬, so they don’t get any of these labels).
1. a. The kids played in the room with a bat.

b. They broke the lamp.

c. Their mother yelled at them.

2. a. The kids opened a lemonade stand in the summer.

b. The grown-ups bought all the lemonade.

c. The teenagers stole their money.

3. a. His alarm clock rang loudly.

b. He hit the “snooze” button repeatedly.

c. He got stuck in traffic.

B. Now, make questions out of the bold following words that reflect the word’s role in the sentence:

1. a. The kids played in the room with a bat.

Kids: ____________________________

In the room: ______________________

Bat: ____________________________

b. They broke the lamp.

They: ___________________________

The lamp: ________________________

c. Their mother yelled at them.

Mother: _________________________

At them: ________________________
3

Their: ___________________________

2. a. The kids opened a lemonade stand in the summer.

Kids: _________________________________

Lemonade stand: _______________________

In the summer: _________________________

b. The grown-ups bought all the lemonade.

Grown-ups: ____________________________

Lemonade: _____________________________

c. The teenagers stole their money.

Teenagers: ____________________________

Money: _______________________________

Their: ________________________________

3. a. The alarm clock rang loudly.

Alarm clock: __________________________

Loudly: ______________________________

b. He hit the “snooze” button repeatedly.

He: _________________________________

“Snooze” button: ______________________

Repeatedly: ___________________________

c. He got stuck in traffic.

He: _________________________________

In traffic: _____________________________
4

ANSWER KEY:

Section A:

1. a. The kids played in the room with a bat.

b. They broke the lamp.

c. Their mother yelled at them.

2. a. The kids opened a lemonade stand in the summer.

b. The grown-ups bought all the lemonade.

c. The teenagers stole their money.

3. His alarm clock rang loudly.

He hit the “snooze” button repeatedly.

He got stuck in traffic.

Section B:

1. Kids: Who played? ; In the room: Where did they play? ; Bat: What did they play with?

They: Who broke the lamp? ; The lamp: What did they break?

Mother: Who yelled? ; At them: Yelled at who? ; Their: Mother of whose?

2. Kids: Who opened a lemonade stand? ; Lemonade stand: What did they open? ; In the summer: When

was it opened?

Grown-ups: Who bought the lemonade? ; Lemonade: What was bought?

Teenagers: Who stole? ; Money: What did the teenagers steal? ; Their: Money of whose?

3. Alarm clock: What rang? ; Loudly: How did it ring?

He: Who hit?; “Snooze” button: What did he hit? ; Repeatedly: How did he hit it?

He: Who got stuck?; In traffic: Where did he get stuck?


1

1.3 Properties of the Ism—Status (Ending Sounds Practice)

In the previous session, we learned that there are three kinds of Status:

1. Doer Status (which we are now calling Raf’ ‫) رفع‬

ْ )
2. Detail Status (which we are now calling Nasb ‫نصب‬

3. After “of” Status (which we are now calling Jarr ‫) جر‬

We noted that English identifies the doer based on the sentence sequence. In other words, if we say,
‘Bob helped Joe,’ then Bob is the doer. If we say, ‘Joe helped Bob,’ then Joe is the doer. In Arabic, on
the other hand, it isn’t the sequence that tells us who the doer is. Rather, it’s the way a word sounds at
the end that determines whether it’s the doer (R), the detail (N), or after ‘of’ (J).

The following are the ending sounds for each of the statuses we’ve learned:

Raf’ : ُ(u) or ُ(un) ending

Nasb: ُ (a) or ُ (an) ending

Jarr: ُ (i) or ُ (in) ending


‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪ by looking at the ending sounds:‬جر ‪ْ or Jarr‬‬


‫‪,‬نصب ‪ , Nasb‬رفع’ ‪State whether each of the red words is either Raf‬‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن عي‬ ‫هل أتاك حديث الغاشية (‪)١‬وجوه ي ْومئذ خاشعة (‪)٢‬عامل ناصبة (‪)٣‬ت ْصل نارا حامية (‪)٤‬ت ْسقى م‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ن ضريع (‪)٦‬ال ي ْسمن وال ي ْغني م ْ‬


‫ن جوع (‪)٧‬وجوه ي ْومئذ ناعمة (‪)٨‬لسعِيا راضية‬ ‫آنية (‪)٥‬ليْس لهْ طعام إال م ْ‬

‫(‪)٩‬ف جنة عالية (‪)١١‬ال ت ْسمع فِيا الغية (‪)١١‬‬

‫ْشكون (‪)١‬ينزل الْمالئكة بالروح م ْ‬


‫ن أ ْمره عل م ْ‬
‫ن يشاء م ْ‬
‫ن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أت أ ْمر الل فال ت ْستعجلوه س ْبحانه وتعال عما ي‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫عباده أ ْن أ ْنذروا أنه ال إل إال أنا فاتقون (‪)٢‬خلق السماوات و ْ‬
‫األرض بالحق تعال عما يْشكون (‪)٣‬خلق‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ن نطفة فإذا هو خصي مبي (‪)٤‬واألنعام خلقها لك ْم فِيا دفء ومنافع ومْنا تأكلون (‪)٥‬ولك ْم‬‫اإلنسان م‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫فِيا َجال حي تريحون وحي تْسحون (‪)٦‬وتحمل أثقالك ْم إل بل ل ْم تكونوا بالغيه إال بشق األنفس إن‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ربك ْم لرءوف رحي (‪)٧‬والخ ْيل والبغال والحمي لَتكبوها وزينة ويخلق ما ال تعلمون (‪)٨‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أل ْم تر ك ْيف فعل ربك بأ ْصحاب الفيل (‪)١‬أل ْم يجعل ك ْيدهْ ف تضليل (‪)٢‬وأ ْرسل عل ِْي ْم طيا أبابيل (‪)٣‬ت ْرمِي ْم‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن سجيل (‪)٤‬فجعله كع ْصف مأكول (‪)٥‬‬
‫بحجارة م ْ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن عي‬ ‫هل أتاك حديث الغاشية (‪)١‬وجوه ي ْومئذ خاشعة (‪)٢‬عامل ناصبة (‪)٣‬ت ْصل نارا حامية (‪)٤‬ت ْسقى م‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ن ضريع (‪)٦‬ال ي ْسمن وال ي ْغني م ْ‬


‫ن جوع (‪)٧‬وجوه ي ْومئذ ناعمة (‪)٨‬لسعِيا راضية‬ ‫آنية (‪)٥‬ليْس لهْ طعام إال م ْ‬
‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬

‫(‪)٩‬ف جنة عالية (‪)١١‬ال ت ْسمع فِيا الغية (‪)١١‬‬


‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬

‫ْشكون (‪)١‬ينزل الْمالئكة بالروح م ْ‬


‫ن أ ْمره عل م ْ‬
‫ن يشاء م ْ‬
‫ن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أت أ ْمر الل فال ت ْستعجلوه س ْبحانه وتعال عما ي‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫عباده أ ْن أ ْنذروا أنه ال إل إال أنا فاتقون (‪)٢‬خلق السماوات و ْ‬
‫األرض بالحق تعال عما يْشكون (‪)٣‬خلق‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ن نطفة فإذا هو خصي مبي (‪)٤‬واألنعام خلقها لك ْم فِيا دفء ومنافع ومْنا تأكلون (‪)٥‬ولك ْم‬‫اإلنسان م‬
‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫فِيا َجال حي تريحون وحي تْسحون (‪)٦‬وتحمل أثقالك ْم إل بل ل ْم تكونوا بالغيه إال بشق األنفس إن‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ربك ْم لرءوف رحي (‪)٧‬والخ ْيل والبغال والحمي لَتكبوها وزينة ويخلق ما ال تعلمون (‪)٨‬‬
‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أل ْم تر ك ْيف فعل ربك بأ ْصحاب الفيل (‪)١‬أل ْم يجعل ك ْيدهْ ف تضليل (‪)٢‬وأ ْرسل عل ِْي ْم طيا أبابيل (‪)٣‬ت ْرمِي ْم‬
‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن سجيل (‪)٤‬فجعله كع ْصف مأكول (‪)٥‬‬
‫بحجارة م ْ‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬
1

1.5 Properties of the Ism—Status (Pair Combinations)

We’ve learned how to tell the status of a word using ending sounds (U/UN for Raf’, A/AN for Nasb, and I/IN for
ٌ
Jarr). So if we looked at the word ‫ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬, we would say that ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ً
is Raf’, ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬ is Nasb, and ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
ٍ is Jarr.

Now, if we wanted to talk about two Muslims, we would add some letters at the end of the word and wouldn’t
use the U/UN, A/AN, and I/IN sounds we learned before. Look at the column at the left to see what I mean:

(2R) ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ٌ ‫ﻣ‬


‫ﺴﻠﻢ‬ Raf’

ْ
(2N) ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ً
‫ﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬‫ ﻣ‬Nasb

ْ
(2J) ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻢ‬
ٍ ‫ﻣ‬ Jarr

ْ ْ
When you add one of these endings, ‫ ان‬,‫ ﻳﻦ‬, ‫ ﻳﻦ‬, it means ‘two Muslims’. When you add ‫ان‬, it’s ‘two Muslims’

ْ ْ
in Raf’ form (or 2R), when you add ‫ﻳﻦ‬, it’s ‘two Muslims’ in Nasb form (2N), and when you add ‫ﻳﻦ‬, it’s ‘two

ْ
Muslims’ in Jarr form (2J). You may have noticed that 2N and 2J look the same and end with ‫ﻳﻦ‬. So how do you

know when the word is Nasb and when it’s Jarr? After learning some more Arabic, you’ll be able to tell the
difference between the two. For now, go through the exercises below to become more familiar with these new
ending combinations.
2

EXERCISES:

A. How would you say the underlined words in Arabic? Think of the job each word is playing to figure out
its status.

1. Pen (‫)ﻗﻠﻢ‬ 2. Student (‫)ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬

a. The pen broke. ________________ a. The two students studied. ________________

b. I found a pen. ________________ b. I met two students. ________________

c. The two pens write well. ________________ c. The book of the student ________________

d. She gave him two pens. ________________ d. The student passed. ________________

e. The two pens’ erasers are new.________________ e. Two students’ grades ________________

3. Messenger (‫)رﺳﻮل‬ 4. Muslim (‫)ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬

a. Two messengers came. ________________ a. A Muslim travelled. ________________

b. They followed a messenger. ________________ b. I met a Muslim. ________________

c. The messenger taught. ________________ c. Two Muslims travelled. ________________

d. The call of the messenger ________________ d. I met two Muslims. ________________

e. The call of two messengers ________________ e. The religion of a Muslim is Islam.

________________

B. What is the Status of the following words? Circle all that may apply.

ْ ْ
ٌ‫ﺎء‬ ً
‫ﺷﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬#‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻗ ْﺮﻧﲔ‬ ‫وا( ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺒﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺢ‬
R N J R N J R N J R N J R N J R N J R N J R N J
3

ANSWER KEY:

Section A:

ٌ
1. a) doer status; ‫ﻗﻠﻢ‬ ً
b) detail status; ‫ﻗﻠﻤﺎ‬ c) doer status (pair); ‫ﻗﻠﻤﺎن‬
ْ ْ
d) detail status (pair); ‫ﻗﻠﻤﲔ‬ e) after ‘of’ status (pair); ‫ﻗﻠﻤﲔ‬
ْ
2. a) doer status (pair); ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎن‬ b) detail status (pair); ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﲔ‬ c) after ‘of’ status; ‫ﺎﻟﺐ‬
ٍ ‫ﻃ‬ َ
ٌ ْ
d) doer status; ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬ e) after ‘of’ status (pair); ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﲔ‬
ً ٌ
3. a) doer status (pair); ‫رﺳﻮﻻن‬ b) detail status; ‫رﺳﻮﻻ‬ c) doer status; ‫رﺳﻮل‬
ْ
d) after ‘of’ status; ‫رﺳﻮل‬
ٍ e) after ‘of’ status (pair); ‫رﺳﻮﻟﲔ‬

ٌ ً
4. a) doer status; ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ b) detail status; ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬ c) doer status (pair); ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬
ْ
d) detail status (pair); ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ e) after ‘of’ status; ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
ٍ

Section B:

ْ ْ
ٌ‫ﺎء‬
َ
ً
‫ﺷﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬#‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺘﺎن‬ ‫َﻗ ْﺮ َﻧﲔ‬ ‫وا( ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺒﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺢ‬
َ َ َ َ َ
R N N / J R N / J N / J R N
1

1.6 Properties of the Ism—Status (People Plural Combinations)

In the past, we learned that if we add a single harakah, or one sound, to the end of a singular word, we
can determine if it’s Raf’, Nasb, or Jarr status. These are known as ending sounds. If we add a few letters
to the end of the word (as we did to make words pair in the previous session), that’s called an ending
combination. Today, we will learn another set of ending combinations: the people plural combinations.

‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ٌ
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
ْ
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ً
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬
ْ
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
ٍ

When an ‫ اﺳﻢ‬ism ends with an ‫ ون‬or and ‫ﻳﻦ‬, it’s talking about a group of people. This combination is
never used for anything that doesn’t have a brain. In the Quran, you will see this set of combinations
used for angels and jinn, as well.

Note: Whenever you are trying to determine the status of an ‫ اﺳﻢ‬ism, you have to ask yourself, ‘Is this
an ending sound or an ending combination?’ You should ALWAYS check for ending combinations first.
Once you’ve decided that it’s an ending combination, you can’t judge it as an ending sound. If you can’t
find a combination, then look for ending sounds.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪In the following list below, see if you can tell the status of each of the red words. Make sure to check for‬‬
‫‪combinations first.‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻓﺌﺘﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔ ٍﺲ واﺣﺪ ٍة‬

‫‪ .3‬إذا ﺟﺎءك اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮن‬

‫اﻟﺼﺎدﻗﲔ واﻟﻘﺎﻧﺘﲔ واﻟﻤﻨﻔﻘﲔ‬


‫‪ .4‬و *‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .5‬واﻟﺮاﺳﺨﻮن ﰲ اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫*‬
‫ْ ْ ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬ﻓﻮق اﺛﻨﺘﲔ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻛﺎﻓﺮة‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬إ *ن ﰲ ذﻟﻚ ﻟﻌﱪ ًة ﻷو‪ 8‬اﻷ ْﺑﺼﺎر‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺂر‬
‫‪ .9‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﻀ *ٍ‬
‫‪ .10‬واﻟ *‬
‫=ان‬

‫ﲑ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .11‬ﻋﺬاب ﻳﻮ ٍم ﻛﺒ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .12‬ﻫﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن اﺧﺘﺼﻤﻮا ﰲ ر *‪ْ E‬ﻢ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬و‪ F‬ﻣ‪H‬ﺿﻮن‬

‫ﲔ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .14‬ﻣﻦ ﻃ ٍ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .15‬أﺟ ًﻼ و أﺟﻞ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .16‬ﻃﺎ‪M‬ﻔﺘﲔ‬

‫‪ .17‬ﺑﺎﻟﺤ *ﻖ‬

‫‪ .18‬ﺑﺬﻧﻮ‪ْ E‬ﻢ‬

‫‪ .19‬اﻟﻤﻜ *ﺬﺑﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .20‬اﻟﻤﻠ‪Q‬ﲔ‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. Ending Combination: Pair, Nasb or Jarr


2. Ending Sounds: Jarr (first word), Jarr (second word)
3. Ending Combination: People Plural, Raf’
4. Ending Combination: People Plural, Nasb or Jarr
5. Ending Combination: People Plural, Raf’
6. Ending Combination: Pair, Nasb or Jarr
7. Ending Sound: Raf’
8. Ending Sound: Nasb
9. Ending Sound: Nasb (first word), Jarr (second word)
10. Ending Combination: Pair, Raf’
11. Ending Sound: Nasb (first word), Jarr (second word), Jarr (third word)
12. Ending Combination: Pair, Raf’
13. Ending Combination: People Plural, Raf’
14. Ending Sound: Jarr
15. Ending Sound: Raf’
16. Ending Combination: Pair, Nasb or Jarr
17. Ending Sound: Jarr
18. Ending Sound: Jarr
19. Ending Combination: People Plural, Nasb or Jarr
20. Ending Combination: Pair, Nasb or Jarr
1

1.8 Properties of the Ism—Status (Feminine Plural Combinations)

So far, we have learned three ways of telling Status:

ٌ
1. Ending Sounds:ِ َ ُ ٍ ً ◌
ْ ْ
2. Pair Combinations (AANI AYNI AYNI as in ‫)ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎن ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬

3. People Plural Combinations (OONA EENA EENA as in ‫)ﻣﺴﻠﻤﻮن ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬

The last set of combinations we learned today is the feminine plural combination. Here’s an example we
covered in class:
ٌ ٌ
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬ (Raf’)
ْ ً
‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬ (Nasb)
ْ
‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤ ٍﺔ‬ (Jarr)

Here, you haven’t learned anything new (it’s


ْ
just putting on ending sounds or ‫ ان‬and ‫)ﻳﻦ‬

ٌ
The last column has the new combination: the addition of the ‫ ات‬and ‫ات‬
ٍ . You may have noticed that the Nasb
and Jarr versions for all the combinations look the same, and that’s also true here with the feminine plural
combination.

Just a note of caution, though:

ٌ These endings look like ending sounds! A common mistake is to not recognize the ‫ ات‬ending
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬
as a combination and label the status of these words as you would an ending sound. If you
‫ت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬
made this mistake, you would say that ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬
ٍ is Jarr although, in reality, it could be Nasb
‫ت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬
or Jarr from the feminine plural chart.

If you see ‫ ال‬at the beginning of a word, you will not see any tanween at the end. When you see

something like ‫ اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬or ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬, you still have the ‫ ات‬combination going on, so don’t mistaken it
as an ending sound when you’re trying to determine the status.
2

EXERCISES:

A. See if you can tell the status of every red word in the following Quranic passage. Be sure to check for
combinations first.

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
ً ‫(ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻐﲑات ﺻ ْﺒ‬٢) ‫ﺣﺎ‬
ً‫ْﻌﺎ‬4 ‫(ﻓﻮﺳﻄﻦ ﺑﻪ‬٤) ‫(ﻓﺄﺛ ْﺮن ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘ ًﻌﺎ‬٣) ‫ﺤﺎ‬ ً ‫واﻟﻌﺎدﻳﺎت ﺿ ْﺒ‬
ً ‫(ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻮرﻳﺎت ﻗﺪ‬١) ‫ﺤﺎ‬

ْ ٌ ْ ْ
‫(أﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ إذا‬٨) ‫ﺐ اﻟﺨﲑ ﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ٧
ٌ
‫ﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻬ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ذ‬ = ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ٦ ٌ ‫ْﺴﺎن ﻟﺮﺑﻪ ﻟ;ﻨ‬8‫(إن اﻹ‬٥)
‫ﻮد‬
6 6 ( ) 6 ( ) 6 6

ٌ ْ ْ
(١١) ‫ ٍﺬ ﻟﺨﺒﲑ‬S‫ ْﻢ ﻳ ْﻮﻣ‬Q ‫ ْﻢ‬Q6 ‫ن ر‬6 ‫(إ‬١٠) ‫اﻟﺼﺪور‬
6 ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﺼ‬
6 ‫ﺣ‬ ‫و‬ ( ٩) ‫ﻮر‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺜﺮ ﻣﺎ ﰲ اﻟ‬

ٌ
B. Read the ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ chart on page 6 in the 201 Handout Packet. The first two charts cover all the combinations
we have learned in class. Try to see if you can run through both charts using the following words. The
answer key is attached to this handout.

ٌ ‫ﻣ ْﺆﻣ‬ ٌ ْ
‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ‬ ‫ر ٌس‬6 ‫ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫‪Section A:‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺣﺎ )‪(٢‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻐﲑات ﺻ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ )‪(٣‬ﻓﺄﺛ ْﺮن ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘ ًﻌﺎ )‪(٤‬ﻓﻮﺳﻄﻦ ﺑﻪ ‪ً ْ4‬ﻌﺎ )‪(٥‬إ ‪6‬ن‬ ‫واﻟﻌﺎدﻳﺎت ﺿ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ )‪(١‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻮرﻳﺎت ﻗﺪ ً‬

‫اﻹ‪ْ8‬ﺴﺎن ﻟﺮﺑﻪ ﻟ;ﻨ ٌ‬


‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N/J‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N/J‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N/J‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﺐ اﻟﺨﲑ ﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ )‪(٨‬أﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ إذا ﺑﻌﺜﺮ ﻣﺎ ﰲ‬
‫‪6‬‬ ‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻧ‬‫‪6‬‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬‫(‬ ‫‪٧‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻴﺪ‬‫ﻬ‬ ‫ﺸ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫=‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻧ‬‫‪6‬‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ‫(‬‫‪٦‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻮد‬ ‫‪6‬‬
‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اﻟﺼﺪور )‪(١٠‬إ ‪6‬ن ر‪ْ Q‬ﻢ ‪ْ Q‬ﻢ ﻳ ْﻮﻣ‪ٍ S‬ﺬ ﻟﺨﺒﲑ )‪(١١‬‬
‫‪6‬‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﺼ‬
‫‪6‬‬ ‫ﺣ‬ ‫و‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫ﻮر‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻘ‬ ‫اﻟ‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫(‬ ‫)‬
‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬
‫‪Section B:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬ر ٌس‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮون‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬ر ًﺳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮً ا‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬ر ٍس‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٍﺮ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬


‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮات‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳ ًﺔ‬ ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ًة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍة‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺆﻣ ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬


‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪون‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪان‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨًﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑ ًﺪا‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑ ٍﺪ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬


‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪات‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ًﺔ‬ ‫ات‬
‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ًة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ات‬
‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ٍة‬
1

1.9 Properties of the Ism—Comprehensive Notes and Introduction to Light & Heavy

Here is what your notes should look like regarding everything we’ve covered so far:

An ‫ اﺳﻢ‬has 4 properties (Status, Number, Gender, and Type)

1. Status
A. Forms of Status
ٌ ْ ْ
(after ‘of’) ‫ﺟﺮ‬ ٌ ‫ﻧﺼ‬
(detail) ‫ﺐ‬ (doer) ‫رﻓ ٌﻊ‬

B. How to tell Status

a. By Ending Sounds:

‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬


U / UN = R
A / AN = N
ْ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ًﻤﺎ‬
I / IN = J
b. By Ending Combinations
ْ
i. Pair Combinations ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٍﻢ‬
AANI = 2R

ٌ ٌ
AYNI = 2N
AYNI = 2J ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬
ْ
ْ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ًﺔ‬
ii. People Plural
Combinations ‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴ ﻠ ﻤ‬
ْ ْ
‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴ ﻠ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ٍﺔ‬
OONA = Pl.R
EENA = Pl.N
EENa = Pl.J
iii. Feminine Plural Combinations
AATUN = Pl.F.R
AATIN = Pl.F.N
AATIN = Pl.F.J

C. Pronouns are weird (leave this in your notes for now. We’ll come back to this later.)
2

All the words in the chart above (pg.6 of the 201 Handout) are considered FAT or HEAVY. When you say the
chart out loud, you’ll notice that all of the words end in an ‘n’ sound, even if they don’t have a ‫ ن‬at the end.

To make a word light, and not HEAVY, the extra ‘n’ sound is taken off. If you see a double accent on words such
ْ ‫ ﻣ‬or ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ‬, you can lighten them by reducing them to single accents like ‫ ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬and ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ‬. Another way
as ‫ﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ٍ َ َ
ْ ‫ ﻣ‬and
you can lighten a word is by removing the extra ‫ ن‬from its ending combination. In cases like ‫ﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬
َ
ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻣ" َﻗﲔ‬, the light versions would be ‫ ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮ‬and ‫ ﻣ" َﻗ ْﻲ‬, respectively.
َ َ

Here is light version of the chart on pg.6:

‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬


َ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬
َ َ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬
َ

‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬


َ َ َ َ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘ ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ َﺔ‬
َ َ َ َ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘ ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬
َ َ َ َ

For the feminine plural column, I didn’t take the ‫ ت‬off. I’m only concerned about removing the extra ‘n’ sound,

not ‫ت‬.
3

EXERCISES:

A. Try the following exercises to see if you can recognize which words in red are LIGHT and HEAVY. If the
word is HEAVY, how would you make it light?

‫ اﻟﻨَﺎس‬.1
Note: You don’t ask if a word is LIGHT or HEAVY if the
word has an ‫ ال‬on it.
ْ
‫ ﻓﺌﺘﲔ‬.2

‫ اﻟﺼﺎدﻗﲔ‬.3

‫ﲔ‬
ٍ ‫ ﻃ‬.4
‫ آﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬.5

‫ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬.6

‫ ﻣﻘﻴﻤﻲ اﻟﺼﻼة‬.7

‫ اﻟﻤﻜﺬﺑﲔ‬.8
ٌ
‫ آﻳﺎت‬.9

‫ ﻋﻤ ٍﺪ‬.10

‫ان‬9‫ اﻟﻮا‬.11
ْ
‫ اﻟﺤﻤﺪ‬.12

‫ﻳﻦ‬9‫ ﻳ ْﻮم ا‬.13

‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ ﺻﺎﻟﺤ‬.14

‫ رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬.15

‫ اﻟﺴﺪس‬.16

‫ﻳﻦ‬9‫ ﺧﺎ‬.17
ْ
‫ اﻟﻤ"ق‬. 18
ْ
‫ ﻧﻔ ٍﺲ‬.19

‫ واﺣﺪة‬.20
4

ANSWER KEY:

(H = HEAVY ; L = light; if the light/HEAVY question isn’t asked of this word = NA)

1. NA

2. H (L = ‫ﺘ ْﻲ‬C‫) ﻓ‬

3. NA

4. H (L = ‫)ﻃﲔ‬

5. H (L = ‫)آﺧﺮي‬

6. L

7. L

8. NA

9. H (L = ‫)آﻳﺎت‬

10. H (L = ‫)ﻋﻤﺪ‬

11. NA

12. NA

13. L

14. H (L = ‫)ﺻﺎﻟﺤﺎت‬

15. L

16. NA

17. H (L = ‫ي‬9‫)ﺧﺎ‬

18. NA
ْ
19. H (L = ‫) ﻧﻔﺲ‬

20. L
1

1.11 Properties of the Ism—Light and Heavy (Notes and Practice)

Here are a few notes we made in class about light and heavy status that we can refer back to later once we learn
more Arabic:

• ْ ‫ون ﻳﻦ‬, etc).


Normally, a word should have HEAVY status (with ٍ ً ٌ◌, ‫ﻳﻦ ان‬,
• Light isms are suspicious…if a word is light, it needs to have a reason to be so. There are four reasons
that a word can be light:

1. ________________
2. ________________
3. ________________
4. ________________

Although we didn’t mention them in class, a word must have one of these four reasons in order to be light. We’ll
learn what these four reasons are later.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪Are the red words light or heavy‬‬

‫ﻮم )‪ْ ((٢٠‬ﺸﻬﺪه اﻟْﻤﻘﺮﺑﻮن )‪(٢١‬إن ْ‬


‫اﻷﺑﺮار ﻟﻔﻲ ﻧﻌ ٍ‪(٢٢) 1‬ﻋ‪ 4‬اﻷرا‪6‬ﻚ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ أ ْدراك ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻮن )‪(١٩‬ﻛﺘ ٌ‬
‫ﺎب ﻣ ْﺮﻗ ٌ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻀﺮة اﻟﻨﻌ‪ْ ((٢٤) 1‬ﺴﻘ ْﻮن ﻣ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻮم )‪(٢٥‬ﺧﺘﺎﻣﻪ ﻣ ْﺴﻚ وﰲ ذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻴﻖ ﻣﺨﺘ ٍ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ﺣ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮون )‪(٢٣‬ﺗ;ف ﰲ وﺟﻮﻫ@ ﻧ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻓ ْﻠﻴﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ اﻟْﻤﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮن )‪(٢٦‬وﻣﺰاﺟﻪ ﻣ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ‪ْ P‬ﺴﻨ ٍ‪(٢٧) 1‬ﻋ ْﻴﻨًﺎ (‪R‬ب ‪S‬ﺎ اﻟﻤﻘﺮﺑﻮن )‪(٢٨‬إن ا‪U‬ﻳﻦ أﺟﺮﻣﻮا ﻛﺎﻧﻮا‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ا‪U‬ﻳﻦ آﻣﻨﻮا ﻳﻀﺤﻜﻮن )‪(٢٩‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫اﺳﺘ ْﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟْ ْ‬
‫;وة‬ ‫ﻛﺮاه ﰲ ا‪Z‬ﻳﻦ ﻗ ْﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ اﻟﺮ ْﺷﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟْﻐﻲ ﻓﻤ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻳﻜﻔ ْﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻏﻮت وﻳ ْﺆﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻓﻘﺪ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻻإ‬

‫ْ‬
‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎم ‪h‬ﺎ واﷲ ‪ٌ j‬‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻴﻊ ﻋﻠ‪(٢٥٦) ٌ1‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺛﻘﻰ ﻻ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ﻮم )‪ْ ((٢٠‬ﺸﻬﺪه اﻟْﻤﻘﺮﺑﻮن )‪(٢١‬إن ْ‬


‫اﻷﺑﺮار ﻟﻔﻲ ﻧﻌ ٍ‪(٢٢) 1‬ﻋ‪ 4‬اﻷرا‪6‬ﻚ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ أ ْدراك ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻮن )‪(١٩‬ﻛﺘ ٌ‬
‫ﺎب ﻣ ْﺮﻗ ٌ‬
‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻮم )‪(٢٥‬ﺧﺘﺎﻣﻪ ﻣ ْﺴﻚ وﰲ ذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻴﻖ ﻣﺨﺘ ٍ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮون )‪(٢٣‬ﺗ;ف ﰲ وﺟﻮﻫ@ ﻧﻀﺮة اﻟﻨﻌ‪((٢٤) 1‬ﺴﻘﻮن ﻣﻦ رﺣ ٍ‬
‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻓ ْﻠﻴﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ اﻟْﻤﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮن )‪(٢٦‬وﻣﺰاﺟﻪ ﻣ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ‪ْ P‬ﺴﻨ ٍ‪(٢٧) 1‬ﻋ ْﻴﻨًﺎ (‪R‬ب ‪S‬ﺎ اﻟﻤﻘﺮﺑﻮن )‪(٢٨‬إن ا‪U‬ﻳﻦ أﺟﺮﻣﻮا ﻛﺎﻧﻮا‬
‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬
‫‪H‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ا‪U‬ﻳﻦ آﻣﻨﻮا ﻳﻀﺤﻜﻮن )‪(٢٩‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻛﺮاه ﰲ ا‪Z‬ﻳﻦ ﻗ ْﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ اﻟﺮ ْﺷﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟْﻐﻲ ﻓﻤ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻏﻮت وﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻓﻘﺪ اﺳﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟ;وة‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻻإ‬
‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎم ‪h‬ﺎ واﷲ ‪ٌ j‬‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻴﻊ ﻋﻠ‪(٢٥٦) ٌ1‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺛﻘﻰ ﻻ‬
‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬
1

1.12 Properties of the Ism—Flexibility

Overview of Status:

1. Forms (R, N, J)
2. How to Tell Status (Ending Sounds, Ending Combinations)
3. Light or Heavy (normally, a word is heavy and must have a reason to be light)
4. Flexibility

In class today, we covered our last lesson on status, the flexibility of a word, and took the following
notes:

Flexibility:

1. Flexible (most words)


2. Non-Flexible (few words)
3. Partly Flexible (special words)

1. Flexible words: Most words in Arabic are like play dough—you can bend them however you want.
You can take a word like ٌ‫ م ْس ِلم‬and bend it to be ٌ‫م ْس ِل ًما‬, or bend it again and turn it into ٌ‫م ْس ِلم‬. We
ُ ُ ُ
can bend them however we want, in terms of status. All words on pg.6, and any word consistent
with the endings on pg.6, are flexible words.
2. Non-flexible words: There are a few words in Arabic that sound the same whether you say them in
Raf, Nasb, or Jarr status, and will not change at all. Words that sound like they end in an alif behave
ْ ْ
this way, such as: ‫ك ِريٌا‬
َ ‫ه َدى ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌحسنىٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ َهذا ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌيحيىٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌز‬
ُ
َ َ َ َ ُ
3. Partly Flexible words: While fully flexible words look different in their Raf’, Nasb, or Jarr status, and
Non-flexible words look the same regardless of their status, partly flexible words have a slightly
different way of showing their status. I’ve listed the Raf’, Nasb, and Jarr versions of a fully-flexible
word (‫هود‬
ُ ( and a partly flexible word (‫)يوسف‬:

ٌ ‫ود‬
ٌ ‫ه‬ُ ٌ ٌ‫هودًا‬
ُ ٌ‫هود‬
ُ

ٌ ٌ‫ف‬
َ ‫وس‬
ٌ ‫ٌي‬ ٌ‫ف‬
ٌ َ ‫وس‬
ٌ ‫ي‬ ٌ‫ف‬
ُ ‫وس‬
ٌ ‫ي‬
ُ ُ ُ ُ ُ ُ
2

Do you notice the differences? ‫ يوسف‬isn’t heavy in any status, and Its Jarr version looks just like its

Nasb version. This is because a partly flexible must always be light, and cannot take an ‘i’ or ‫كرسة‬
sound. Remember than lightness means that a word cannot have double accents like ‘un,’ ‘an,’ or
‘in,’ nor can its combination end with a ‫ن‬.

In class, we limited our discussion to two kinds of partly flexibles: names of places and non-Arab
names. There are four Arab Prophets: ٌ‫محمدٌص‬,‫شع ْيب‬ ٌ ٌ, ‫هود‬
ُ , and ‫صالِح‬.
َُ َ
These names will not be
considered partly-flexible because they are Arabs. All other names of prophets, therefore, will be
considered non-Arab. This eliminates the guessing game for you. Otherwise, you would have been
left in the dark wondering which are Arab in the Quran and which aren’t.
3

EXERCISES:

A. Use the following as a guide to make the Raf’, Nasb, and Jarr versions of each of the following words.
The answer key is attached.

ٌ‫حا ٌصالِح‬ً ‫صالحٌصال‬


َ ِ َ ِ َ
(fully flexible)

ْ ْ ْ
ٌ ‫( يع ُقوبٌيع ُقوبٌيع ُق‬partly flexible because he’s not Arab)
‫وب‬
َ َ َ َ ُ َ

ْ ْ
‫يونُس‬ ‫ائيل‬
ِ ‫ِإس َر‬ ‫ِإ ْسحاق‬ ‫اعيل‬
ِ ‫ْس‬
َ ‫ِإ‬ ‫مح َمد‬
ُ َ َ ُ
‫فِ ْرع ْون‬ ‫موىس‬ ‫َهارون‬ ‫شع ْيب‬ ‫هود‬
َ ُ ُ َُ ُ

B. Using the translation as a clue, tell whether the words in red are partly flexible:

ٌ ٌ‫اهي‬ ْ
ِ ‫ ِم َّلٌَ ِإبر‬.1
The nation of Ibraheem
َ َ
‫الص ََل ٌِة‬
َ ٌَ‫ مُ ِقي‬.2
The establisher of prayer

ْ ‫ أ‬.3
َ‫ي‬
ٌ ‫جرٌالعا ِم ِل‬
َ ُ َ
The reward of the workers

ٌ ٌ‫الكتاب‬
ُ َ ِ
The book
.4
ْ
ٌ ‫ َتقوى‬.5
Taqwa
َ
ٌ‫اسخُون‬
ِ ‫الر‬
The well-grounded ones
َ َ
.6

ٌ ‫ داو‬.7
‫ود‬
Dawood
ُُ َ
ْ ْ
ٌ ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫ أَه َلٌيث ِر‬.8
The people of Yathrib
َ َ
ٌ ٌ‫ات‬
ِ ‫الش َهو‬ٌ‫ حب‬.9
The love of desires
َ َ ُ ُ
ْ
ٌ ‫اس‬
ٌ ‫ ِإلي‬.10
Ilyaas
َ َ
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫‪Section A:‬‬

‫مح َمدٌمح َم ًداٌمح َمدٌ‬


‫ُ َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اع َ ٌ‬
‫يل‬ ‫ْس ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ٌإ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫يل‬
‫َ‬ ‫اع‬‫ِ‬ ‫ْس‬
‫َ‬ ‫إ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫يل‬
‫ُ‬ ‫اع‬
‫ِ‬ ‫ْس‬
‫ِإ َ‬

‫اقٌ‬
‫ح َ‬ ‫إ ْسحاقٌإ ْسحاقٌإ ْس‬
‫ِ َ ُِ َ َ ِ َ‬
‫يلٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ائ َ‬
‫يلٌ ِإسر ِ‬
‫ائ َ‬
‫يل ٌِإسر ِ‬
‫ائ ُ‬
‫ِإسر ِ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫يونُسٌيونُسٌيونُسٌ‬
‫ُ ُ ُ َ ُ َ‬
‫ٌهودٌ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ٌهودا ُ‬
‫هود ُ‬
‫ُ‬

‫ٌشع ْيبٌ‬ ‫ٌشع ْي ًبا‬ ‫شع ْيب‬


‫َُ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫َُ‬
‫ٌهارونٌ‬ ‫هارونٌهارون‬
‫َ ُ ُ َ ُ َ َ ُ َ‬
‫موىسٌموىسٌموىسٌ‬
‫ُ َ ُ َ ُ َ‬
‫فِ ْرع ْونٌفِ ْرع ْونٌفِ ْرع ْونٌ‬
‫َ ُ َ َ َ َ‬

‫‪Section B:‬‬ ‫)‪(FF = Fully Flexible; NF = Non-Flexible; PF = Partly Flexible‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪PF‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪3.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪5.‬‬ ‫‪NF‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪7.‬‬ ‫‪PF‬‬
‫‪8.‬‬ ‫‪PF‬‬
‫‪9.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪10.‬‬ ‫‪PF‬‬
1

2.1 Properties of the Ism—Introduction to Number

There is a lot of overlap between the study of status and number, so you will have to do very little work
in understanding this lesson. Just as Isms in Arabic have status, they also have number which tells you if
the word is singular, pair or plural. The ending sounds and ending combinations we learned in status can
also help you distinguish between words that are singular and words that are not. The following list
outlines the notes we took on number and how to tell if a word belongs to that number category:

Number:

1. Singular (ES)
2. Pair (EC)
3. People Plural (EC)
4. Feminine Plural (EC)
5. Human Broken Plurals (ES)
6. Non-human Broken Plurals (ES)

Words that end in ending combinations may be pair or plural (depending on the combination). You may
have noticed that ending sounds may be used to tell if a word is singular or a broken plural. This creates
a problem: how do you know if you’re looking at a singular word or a broken plural? That’s where
vocabulary comes in—you need to know what the word means, and that will be the deciding factor.

What is a broken plural, anyway? Broken plurals exist in English, as well. Normally, to make a word
plural in English, you can add an ‘s’ at the end (‘book’ becomes ‘books,’ ‘car’ becomes ‘cars, ‘house’
becomes ‘houses,’ etc). Any plural that doesn’t simply take an ‘s’ to become a plural is considered a
broken plural. Geese, teeth, and mice are examples of broken plurals in English because they aren’t
predictable and need to be learned on a case-by-case basis. Arabic broken plurals are simply defined as
any plurals that don’t end with a plural combination: pair (aani, ayni), people plural (oona, eena) or
feminine plural (aatun, aatin). Common examples of Arabic broken plurals you may have heard are
‫( ﻛﻔﺎر‬the plural of ‫)ﻛﺎﻓﺮ‬, ‫( رﺳﻞ‬the plural of ‫)رﺳﻮل‬, and ‫( ﻛﺘﺐ‬the plural of ‫)ﻛﺘﺎب‬.
2

EXERCISES:

What is the number of each of the red words below? How can you tell?

‫ﲔ‬ ْ
ٍ ‫ ﻣﻦ ﻃ‬.1
From clay

‫ ﻣ َﻼﻗﻮن‬.2
Those who will meet
َ
ْ
‫ﻃﺎ َﻔﺘﲔ‬
Two groups
َ َ
.3
ْ
‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﺿ‬ ‫ ﻣ‬.4
The ones who ignore
َ
‫ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ‬.5
The truth
َ
Drink ٌ‫ ﺷﺮاب‬.6
َ َ
ْ
‫اﷲ‬
َ ‫ َوﻋﺪ‬.7
The promise of Allah

‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ﻜ ﺬﺑ‬
َ ‫ اﻟﻤ‬.8
The ones who deliberately ignore

ْ
‫ﲔ‬- َ ‫اﻟﻤ َﻠ‬
The two angels
َ
.9

‫ آﻳﺎت‬.10
Miraculous signs
َ
ٌ ْ
‫ ﻣﺆﻣﻨَﺎت‬.11
Believing women

‫ ﺟﻨَﺘﺎن‬.12
Two gardens
َ َ
‫ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬
Two arguers
َ َ
.13

‫ﲔ‬ ْ ‫ أ‬.14
َ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠ‬ ‫ﺟﺮ‬ َ
The reward of the workers
َ
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﺘ‬
The subservient ones
َ .15
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. Sing, ES
2. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
3. Pair, EC (Pair Comb)
4. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
5. Sing, ES
6. Sing, ES
7. Sing, ES
8. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
9. Pair, EC (Pair Comb)
10. Plrl, EC (Fem Plrl Comb)
11. Plrl, EC (Fem Plrl Comb)
12. Pair, EC (Pair Comb)
13. Pair, EC (Pair Comb)
14. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
15. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
2.1 SURAH KAHF AYAH 1
Learning Objectives - Review the grammar of the first ayah of Surah Kahf

Lesson Review

There are 3 goals of this unit:

1. Memorize the first 10 ayaat


2. Know every word in these ayaat, and what each one means
3. Know how to apply all the grammar learned in Unit 1 to these 10 ayaat

We will now begin with the first ayah:

‫ح ح ح‬ ‫ح ح‬ ‫ح ح َ َ ح ح‬
َ )١(َ‫لَلََعّوجَا‬
َ ‫ّيَأنزلَََعََعب ّد َه َّالكّتابََول َمََيع‬
َ ‫لِلَّاَّل‬
َ ّ ََ‫اَْلمد‬
Praise and gratitude is for Allah who sent down upon His slave the book, and He did not make in it any
crookedness.

‫ح ح‬
Grammar Meaning Word

‫رفع‬, singular, masculine, proper Praise and gratitude َ‫اَْلمد‬


‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬
Review the ‫ حرفَجر‬chart from Appendix A
for َ‫ّل‬
‫ح‬
‫ جر( َمر حور‬status) َ
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, proper
Allah ّ‫الِل‬
َ

‫َ ح‬
Ism Mowsool
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, proper
Review the 7 reasons for something to be
the One who َ ‫اَّل‬
‫ّي‬
proper from Appendix B

1
© BayyinahTV
َ‫( فعلَماض‬past tense ‫)فعل‬ ‫ح‬
‫ح‬
Review the ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for َ‫ أنزل‬from He sent down َ‫أنزل‬
Appendix C
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬ upon َ‫َع‬
‫ح‬
‫ جر( َمر حور‬status)
‫ح‬
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf) slave of َ‫عب ّد‬
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, proper
‫( مضافَإ ّ حَله‬mudhaaf ilayh)
‫ح‬
‫ جر( َمر حور‬status) of His ّ ‫َه‬
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, proper
‫( مفع حول‬detail)
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, proper ‫ح‬
‫ح‬ the book َ‫الكّتاب‬
Review the four types of ‫ مفع حول‬from
Appendix D
‫حرف‬ and َ‫و‬
َ‫ل حم‬
Lightest harf
Review the lightest harf chart from did not
Appendix E
Lightest ‫فعلَمضارّع‬ ‫ح ح‬
‫ح‬
Review the lightest ‫ فعلَمضارع‬chart for َ‫َيعل‬ He makes َ ‫َيع‬
‫ل‬
from Appendix F
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬ in َ‫ل‬
‫ح‬
‫ جر( َمر حور‬status) it َ‫ه‬
‫( مفع حول‬detail) crookedness (confusion,
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common evil) ‫عّوجا‬
something that is bent

2
© BayyinahTV
Appendix

A. Review the ‫ حرفَجر‬chart:

َ‫ّب‬ with
َ‫ت‬ I swear by (only for Allah)
َ‫ك‬ like
َ‫ل‬ for
َ‫و‬ I swear by
‫ح‬
َ‫مّن‬ from
َ‫ّ ح‬
‫ف‬ in
‫ح‬
َ‫عن‬ about
َ‫َع‬ upon/on
َ
َ ‫ح‬
‫ّت‬ until
َ‫إّل‬ to

B. The seven reasons for something to be proper:

1. Proper names
a. Names of people or places
2. Words withَ‫ال‬
a. ‫َال‬means ‘the’
b. Words with ‫ ال‬cannot have tanween: َ‫ مسلم‬becomes َ‫املسلم‬
3. Pronouns
4. Pointers
5. Ism Mowsool
‫َ ح‬ ‫َ ح َ ح‬
a. Examples: ‫ّي‬
َ ‫اَّل‬, َ‫اَّلّين‬, ‫ت‬
َ ّ ‫ال‬, etc.
6. The one being called (‫)يا‬
a. In Arabic we use ‫ يا‬to call someone. It means ‘hey!’ The word after it will
always be proper.
7. If the ‫ اسم‬after ‘of’ is proper, then the ‫ اسم‬before ‘of’ is proper

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‫ح‬
C. The َ‫ فعلَماض‬chart for َ‫أنزل‬:

Plural Dual Singular


‫ح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ح‬
‫ه حَمَأنزل حوا‬ َ‫هماَأنزل‬ َ‫هوََأنزل‬ 3rd Person

‫ح ح‬
They all (m) sent down. Both of them (m) sent down. He sent down.
‫ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
َ‫ه ََنَأنزلن‬ ‫هماَأنزَلا‬ َ‫هَأنزلت‬
َّ

‫ح ح ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬
They all (f) sent down. Both of them (f) sent down. She sent down.
‫أنت حَمَأنزَل حَم‬ ‫أنتماَأنزَلما‬ َ‫أنتََأنزلت‬ 2nd Person

‫ح َ ح ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬
You all (m) sent down. You two (m) sent down. You (m) sent down.
ََ ‫تَأنزل‬
‫ت‬ َ ‫أن‬ ‫أنتماَأنزَلما‬ َ‫ت‬
ّ ‫تَأنزل‬
َ ّ ‫أن‬

‫ح ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
You all (f) sent down. You two (f) sent down. You (f) sent down.
‫َنحنََأنزْلا‬ َ‫أناَأنزلت‬ 1st Person

We sent down. I sent down.

‫ح‬
D. The four types of ‫’مفع حول‬s:
1. َ‫مفعولَب ّ ّه‬: a detail about who or what the action was done to
a. Example:
i. I ate chicken.
1. The ‫ مفعولَب ّ َّه‬is chicken because it answers the question ‘what
did I eat?’
‫ح‬
2. ‫مفعولَفّي َّه‬: a detail about when or where the action was done
a. Example:
i. I woke up in my room.
‫ح‬
1. The ‫ مفعولَفّي َّه‬is in my room because it answers the question
‘where did I wake up?’
2. at home because it answers the question ‘where did I eat?’
3. َ‫مفعولَل‬: detail why the action was done
a. Example: I ate because I was hungry.
i. The َ‫ مفعولَل‬is because I was hungry because it answers the question
‘why did I eat?’
4. ‫مفعولَحال‬: how the action was done
a. Example: I studied quietly.

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i. The ‫ مفعولَحال‬is quietly because it answers the question ‘how did I
study?’

E. Review the lightest harf chart:


‫ح‬
َ‫إّن‬ if
‫ل حَم‬ did not
َ
‫لما‬ not yet
‫ح‬
َ‫ف‬
‫ل‬ so should
‫ح‬
‫و َل‬ and should
َ‫ّل‬ should

‫ح‬
F. Review the lightest ‫ارع‬
ّ ‫ فعلَمض‬chart for َ‫َيعل‬:

Plural Dual Singular


‫ح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
‫ه حَمََيعل حوا‬ َ‫هماََيعل‬ َ‫هوَََيعل‬ 3rd Person

‫ح ح‬
They all (m) make. Both of them (m) make. He makes.
‫ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
َ‫ه ََنََيعلن‬ َ‫هماََتعل‬ َ‫هََتعل‬
َّ
They all (f) make. Both of them (f) make. She makes.
‫ح ح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬
‫أنت حَمََتعل حوا‬
‫ح‬
َ ‫أنتماََتع‬
‫ل‬ َ‫أنتَََتعل‬ 2nd Person

‫ح َ ح ح‬
You all (m) make. You two (m) make. You (m) make.
‫ح‬
‫ح‬ ‫تََتحع ّ ح‬ ‫ح‬
َ‫تََتعلن‬
َ ‫أن‬ َ ‫أنتماََتع‬
‫ل‬ َ‫ل‬ َ ّ ‫أن‬
You all (f) make. You two (f) make. You (f) make.
‫ح ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
َ ‫َنحنَََنع‬
‫ل‬ َ‫أناَأجعل‬ 1st Person

We make. I make.

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1

2.2 Properties of the Ism—Number cont’d.

We’re almost done with our study of number. So far, your notes should look like this:

Number:

1. Singular (ES)
2. Pair (EC)
3. People Plural (EC)
4. Feminine Plural (EC)
5. Human Broken Plurals (ES)
6. Non-human Broken Plurals (ES)

There’s only one crazy rule in Arabic that we’ll have to get used to: Arabs treat non-human broken
plurals like a ‘she.’

This is weird on two levels: the broken plural you’re talking about may have nothing to do with a girl and
the word is plural in meaning, but the Arabs treat it as a ‘she’ (singular and feminine), anyway. For
example, an Arab would say:

Fatimah bought four books. She read each of her quickly. After finishing, she returned all of her
to the store, even though she liked her very much.

In English, it would have been:

Fatimah bought four books. She read each of them quickly. After finishing, she returned all of
them to the store, even though she liked them very much.

You’ll get used to this rule as you practice identifying non-human broken plurals.
2

EXERCISES:

Broken Plurals: Tell the Number and Gender of the word

‫ ﻗﻠﻮ ْﻢ‬.1
Their hearts

ْ ْ
‫ﻌ‬
Their hearing
.2
Their eyes ْ ‫ أ ْﺑﺼﺎر‬.3
Punishment ٌ ‫ ﻋﺬ‬.4
‫اب‬

‫ اﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎء‬.5
The fools

‫ﺎت‬ٍ ‫ ﻇﻠﻤ‬.6
Darknesses

ٌ
# .7
Deaf people

ْ
‫ ٌﻢ‬$‫ ﺑ‬.8
Mute people

Blind people ٌ ‫ ﻋ ْﻤ‬.9


‫ﻲ‬
ْ
‫ أﺻﺎﺑﻌ‬.10
Their fingers

‫ ﺷﻬﺪاءﻛ ْﻢ‬.11
Your witnesses

‫ اﻟﺤﺠﺎرة‬.12
The rocks

‫ اﻟﻨﺎس‬.13
The people

ٌ
‫ ﺟﻨﺎت‬.14
Gardens

Spouses ٌ ‫ أ ْزو‬.15
‫اج‬
ْ
‫ اﻷ ﺎء‬.16
The names

‫ اﻟﺴﻤﺎوات‬.17
The skies

‫ أﺑﺎرﻳﻖ‬.18
Goblets

Backs ٌ ‫ ﻇﻬ‬.19
‫ﻮر‬
Heads ٌ ‫ رؤ‬.20
‫وس‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. S, F
2. S, M
3. S, F
4. S, M
5. S, F or PL,M (human broken plural)
6. PL, F
7. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
8. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
9. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
10. S, F
11. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
12. S, F
13. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
14. PL, F
15. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
16. S, F
17. S, F
18. S, F
19. S, F
20. S, F
1

3.1 Properties of the Ism—Gender (Fake Feminine)

In English, we say that something is a ‘he,’ ‘she,’ or ‘it.’ ‘It’ does not exist in Arabic. In Arabic, everything
has a gender, a masculine or feminine gender. Something we would call an ‘it’ in English is given a fake
gender in Arabic. How do you know what the gender of a word is? Here’s a good rule of thumb:

Pretend that all words are masculine unless you find certain clues to make the word feminine.

By this logic, it would only make sense to study the feminine since everything else will be considered
masculine.

There are two kinds of feminine in Arabic:

1. Real Feminine
2. Fake Feminine

1. Real Feminine is just another word for female. Real feminine words will be considered feminine
ٌ ٌ ْ
whether the word is in Arabic or not. ‫( أم‬mom), ‫( ا ْﻣﺮأة‬woman/wife), ‫( أﺧﺖ‬sister), ‫( ﺧﺎل‬maternal

ٌ
aunt), ‫( ﻋﻤﺔ‬paternal aunt), ‫ ﺣ ْﺴﻨﻰ‬Husna, ‫ ﻋﺎ ﺸﺔ‬Ayesha, etc are examples of real feminine.

2. Fake Feminine: There are 3 kinds of fake feminine. We only covered one of them in class today:

a. If a word ends with ‫ ة‬, ‫ ٰى‬, or ‫ آء‬, chances are that the word is feminine.

ْ ٌ ْ ٌ ٌ ْ
‫( ر ﺔ‬mercy), ‫( ﻣﻐﻔﺮة‬forgiveness), ‫( ﺻﻼة‬prayer), ‫( ﻗﻴﺎﻣﺔ‬resurrection), ‫( ('ى‬good news),

ْ ْ
‫( ﻛﱪى‬greater/greatest), ‫( ﺑ ْﻴﻀﺂء‬white), ‫( ز ْرﻗﺂء‬blue), ‫( ﺧﻀﺮآء‬green), etc are all considered

fake feminine.

ْ ْ
However, ‫ﻋﺒ ْﻴﺪة‬, ‫ﻃﻠﺤﺔ‬, 4‫ ﻣﻮ‬, and ‫ ﻳﺤﻴﻰ‬are men’s names even though they end with ‫ ة‬or ‫ى‬
ٰ .

Since they already have a real gender, they’re not considered fake feminine.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Tell the Status, Number, and Gender:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻟ ْﻴ‪ً9‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻃﺎ ﻔﺘﲔ‬

‫‪ .3‬وﺑﻨﺎﺗ? ْﻢ‬

‫‪ .4‬اﻟ?ﺘﺎب‬

‫‪ .5‬آﻳﺎت‬

‫‪ .6‬ﺟﻨ ًﺔ‬

‫‪ .7‬اﻟﻤﺘﻘﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬اﻟﺼ‪D‬ى‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .9‬ﻣﻔﻠﺤﻮن‬
‫‪ .10‬ﻋﺬ ٌ‬
‫اب‬

‫ﺎت‬
‫‪ .11‬ﻇﻠﻤ ٍ‬

‫‪ .12‬اﻟﺤﺠﺎرة‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻋ ْﻴﻨﲔ‬

‫‪ .14‬اﻟﻮا‪K‬ان‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .15‬اﻷﻗﺮﺑﻮن‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. N, S, F
2. N/J, PAIR, F
3. R, PL, F
4. R, S, M
5. R, PL, F
6. N, S, F
7. N/J, PL, M
8. R/N/J, S, F
9. R, PL, M
10. R, S, M
11. N/J, PL, F
12. R, S, F
13. N/J, PAIR, F
14. R, PAIR, M
15. R, PL, M
1

3.2 Properties of the Ism—Gender (Feminine because the Arabs said so)

There are 3 kinds of Fake Feminine:

1. Words that end with ‫ ة‬, ‫ى‬


ٰ , or ‫آء‬

2. Broken Plurals
3. Feminine because the Arabs said so

1. Words that end with ‫ ة‬, ‫ى‬


ٰ , or ‫ آء‬: We discussed this category in the previous session. You can look at

the last video if you need a review.


2. Broken Plurals: Human broken plurals are sometimes considered feminine, while non-human broken
plurals are always considered fake feminine. When the Arabs want to say something like ‘I bought a
lot of books. I read each of them quickly,’ the Arab would say, ‘I bought a lot of books. I read each of
her quickly.’
3. Feminine because the Arabs said so: The words on pg.12 of the 201 Handout are considered fake
feminine. The story on that page will help you remember all of them. In addition to these words,
body parts that come in two’s are also considered fake feminine. I’m listing a few of them below:

ٌ ٌ ْ ٌ ٌ ْ
‫( ﻳﺪ‬hand), ‫ﺟﻞ‬ ‫( ر‬foot), ‫( ﺷﻔﺔ‬lip), ‫( أذ ٌن‬ear), ‫( ﻋﲔ‬eye)

You will be able to recognize fake feminine words more easily as you go through some practice
exercises.
2

EXERCISES:

Tell the Status, Number, and Gender:

‫ ﺣﺠﻮر‬.1
Protections

‫ أ َ ْﻳﻤﺎن‬.2
Oaths
َ
ْ
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ ﻣﺤﺼﻨ‬.3
The ones that are married

‫ﻴ َﺌﺎﺗ' ْﻢ‬# ‫ ﺳ‬.4


Your mistakes
َ
ْ
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ ﻣ)ﺿ‬.5
Those who ignore

‫ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎل‬.6
Men
َ #
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ ﻣ َﺴﺎﻓﺤ‬.7
Fornicators

‫ﻳﻀﺔ‬
َ ‫اﻟﻔﺮ‬
The obligation
َ .8
‫ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬.9
Outcome
َ َ
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ َﻗﺎﻧﺘ‬.10
The subservient ones

ْ
‫'ﲔ‬ َ ‫اﻟﻤ َﻠ‬
The two angels
َ
.11

‫ ﺗﺠﺎر ًة‬.12
Trade
َ َ
ْ
‫ ﻣ َﺌﺘﲔ‬.13
Two hundred
َ
ً
‫ﻃ ْﻮﻻ‬
Means
َ .14
ْ
‫ﺴﺎن‬9‫ اﻹ‬.15
The person
َ
‫ ﺳﻨَﻦ‬.16
Legacies
َ
َ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟَﻤﲔ‬
The people of many worlds
َ
.17
ٌ
‫ﺧ ْﻮف‬
Fear
َ .18
‫ اﻟﺠﻮع‬.19
The hunger

‫ﻀﺂء‬ ْ
َ ‫ َﺑﻴ‬.20
White

‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎوات‬ ‫ ﺧﻠﻖ‬.21
He created the skies
َ َ َ# َ َ َ
3

‫ﻜﺔ‬F‫ اﻟﻤﻼ‬.22
The angels

‫ آﻳ ًﺔ‬.23
A miraculous sign

ْ ْ
‫ اﺛﻨﺘﲔ‬.24
Two

‫ﺴﺎء‬#I‫ اﻟ‬.25
The women

‫ اﻟﻴﺘﺎﻣﻰ‬.26
The orphans

K# ‫ ﺟﻬ‬.27
Jahannam (Hell Fire)

‫ ْﻢ‬M‫ ﻗﻠﻮ‬.28
Their hearts

‫ ﺷﻬﺪاءﻛ ْﻢ‬.29
Your witnesses

‫ اﻟﺮﻳﺢ‬.30
The wind
#
4

ANSWER KEY:

1. J, S, F
2. R, S, F
3. N/J, PL, M
4. N/J, PL, F
5. N/J, PL, M
6. J, PL, M or J, S, F
7. N/J, PL, M
8. J, S, F
9. R, S, F
10. N/J, PL, M
11. N/J, pair, M
12. N, S, F
13. N/J, pair, F
14. N, S, M
15. R, S, M
16. N, S, F
17. N/J, PL, M
18. R, S, M
19. J, S, M
20. R, S, F
21. N/J, S, F
22. J, PL, M or J, S, F (human broken plural)
23. N, S, F
24. N/J, pair, F
25. R, PL, F or R, S, F (human broken plural)
26. R/N/J, PL, M or R/N/J, S, F (human broken plural)
27. R, S, F
28. J, S, F
29. N, PL, M or N, S, F (human broken plural)
30. R, S, F
1

4.1 Properties of the Ism—Introduction to Type

Today we’re going to get introduced to the last property of the ism—type. When we talk about type, we
talk about a word being common or proper. To understand this better, think about the difference
between saying ‘a chair,’ and ‘the chair.’ Well, ‘a chair’ is not specific and could refer to any chair, while
‘the chair’ is very particular. What I mean by ‘common’ is that it could be anything while something
‘proper’ is something specific. Just like how we would say that everything is masculine unless proven
feminine when we were studying gender, we say that everything is common unless proven proper when
we study type.

There are seven kinds of proper isms:

1. Proper names
2. Pronouns
3. Pointers
4. The one being called
5. Words that have ‫ال‬
1. Proper names (e.g: Husna, Dallas, and New York)are names of specific people, places, etc.
2. Pronouns (he, she, them, they, it, etc. ) refer to something/someone specific, and are also
considered proper.
3. Pointers (this, that, these, those): I haven’t taught you these in Arabic yet, but pointers are always
proper. For example, if you asked, ‘Which computer?’ and I said, ‘This computer,’ I used two words
to refer to the computer (this + computer). The word ‘this,’ the word I’m using to point at the
computer, is also considered proper.
4. When you call someone you’re referring to a specific person. Even if you use a general word like,
‘Girl!’ you’re still calling someone in particular, and so, the one being called would be considered
proper.
When you call someone in Arabic, you have to use the word ‫ ﻳﺎ‬, and make them light. The one

you call cannot be heavy. For example, I would say, ‫ ﻳﺎ و‬when I want to say, ‘Boy!’ I would

never say ٌ ‫ﻳﺎ و‬.


Remember that a word is normally heavy and needs to have one of four reasons to be light. This
is the second reason we’ve learned so far, the first being partly flexibles.

5. Words that have ‫ال‬: ‫ ال‬means ‘the,’ so words that start with ‫ ال‬are considered proper.
2

There is something that you should never, ever forget about ‫ال‬. Think back to the lesson on light and

heavy. Now look at the ‫ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬chart below and see if you notice anything:

‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬


ْ
‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬
ْ
‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬

‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬


ْ
‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬
ْ
‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ ال‬hates tanween. Either the tanween is there or ‫ ال‬is there. They both can’t be on the same word. But ‫ال‬
has no problem with ending combinations, so long as they also don’t end in tanween (did you see that
the tanween had to go in the feminine plural combination?). ‫ ال‬doesn’t make a word light. It only gets

rid of tanween. The pair and plural combinations remain heavy when used with ‫ال‬.

Why can’t a word have ‫ ال‬and tanween at the same time? Well, ‫ ال‬means ‘the,’ and tanween is the
English equivalent of ‘a.’ The Arabs don’t have a word for ‘a,’ but whenever a tanween comes on a word,
the translation needs to have an ‘a’ in it. For example, ‫ﺘﺎب‬ ٌ ‫ ﻛﺘ‬means ‘a
‫ اﻟ‬means ‘the book,’ while ‫ﺎب‬
ٌ ‫ﺘ‬
book.’ Does it make sense so say, ‘A the book?’ No. That’s why you can’t ever say ‫ﺎب‬ ‫ اﻟ‬because that
would mean you have both an ‘a’ and ‘the’ on the word.

There are a total of seven reasons a word can be proper, and we now know five. We’ll cover the rest in
the next session, inshaAllah.
3

EXERCISES:

Are the following proper or common?

‫ اﻟﺼﻠﻮات‬.1
The prayers

‫ اﻟﻮ ْﺳﻄﻰ‬.2
The middle, the balanced, the excellent

‫ ﻋﺠ ًﺒﺎ‬.3
Strange

‫ اﻟﻨﺎس‬.4
The people

‫ ﻫﺬا‬.5
This

‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ رﺑ‬.6
Your Master

ْ
‫ إذﻧﻪ‬.7
His Permission

Drink ٌ ‫ ﺷﺮ‬.8
‫اب‬

‫ ﻫﻮ‬.9
He

‫ي‬2‫ ا‬.10
The one who

‫ اﻵﻳﺎت‬.11
The miraculous signs

‫ ﻟﻘ ْﻮ ٍم‬.12
For a nation

‫ زﻛﺮﻳﺎ‬.13
Zakariyyah

‫ ﻳﺎ رب‬.14
Master!

‫ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻘ ْﺮآن‬.15


This Quran
4

ANSWER KEY:

1. P
2. P
3. C
4. P
5. P
6. P
7. P
8. C
9. P
10. P
11. P
12. C
13. P
14. P
15. P
1

4.2 Properties of the Ism—Type (cont’d)

We learned five kinds of proper isms so far:

1. Proper Names
2. Pronouns
3. Pointers
4. When you’re calling someone
5. When it has an ‫ ال‬on it

6. ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل‬
7. If the word after ‘of’ is proper, the word before ‘of’ is also proper

(1-5 were explained on previous handout)

6. ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل‬: I’m giving you the Arabic name for this here because giving the English one would make it

more confusing. Here are the ‫ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل‬we learned in class today:

those who ‫ا ﻳﻦ‬ the two who ‫ا ان‬ the one who ‫ا ي‬

those who (f) ‫اﻻ‬ the two who (f) ‫اﻟﺘﺎن‬ the one who (f) ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬

These are a small group of words that you’ll find all over the Quran. It’s good to know them and their
meanings.

7. If the word after ‘of’ is proper, the word before ‘of’ is also proper. This is something I made you
write down, but we aren’t ready to discuss it just yet!

We’ve now officially finished the study of type. Practice identifying the four properties of the ism to
solidify everything we’ve learned so far.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪What’s the status, number, gender, and type of each of the following words‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻓﺌﺘﲔ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻧﻔ ٍﺲ واﺣﺪ ٍة‬‫‪ .2‬ﻣ‬

‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓ (ﻘﻮن‬
‫‪ .3‬إذا ﺟﺎءك (‬
‫ْ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﻔﻘﲔ‬
‫‪ .4‬واﻟﺼﺎدﻗﲔ واﻟﻘﺎﻧﺘﲔ و (‬
‫ﺐ اﻟﺸﻬﻮات‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺣ ( (‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬واﻟﺮاﺳﺨ(ﻮن ﰲ اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻓ ْﻮق اﺛﻨﺘﲔ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .8‬ﻛﺎﻓﺮة‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .9‬إن ﰲ ذﻟﻚ ﻟﻌﱪ ًة ﻷ(و‪ B‬اﻷ ْﺑﺼﺎر‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺂر‬ ‫‪ .10‬ﻏﲑ ﻣ(ﻀ ٍ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .11‬ﻣ‪H‬ﺸﺎ‪G‬ﺎت‬
‫(‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .12‬ﻣﻨﻪ (آﻳﺎت‬

‫‪ .13‬و ا ان‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .14‬أﻫﻞ اﻟ‪O‬ﺘﺎب‬

‫ﲑ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .15‬ﻋﺬاب ﻳﻮ ٍم ﻛﺒ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .16‬ﻫﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن اﺧﺘﺼ (ﻤﻮا ﰲ ر‪ْ G‬ﻢ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﺿﻮن‬ ‫‪ .17‬و (‪ U‬ﻣ(‪( W‬‬
‫‪ .18‬ﺑﻨﻲ إ ْﺳﺮا‪Y‬ﻴﻞ‬

‫‪ .19‬آل ﻓ ْﺮﻋ ْﻮن‬

‫‪ .20‬ﻣ‪ Z‬إ ْﺑﺮاﻫ[‬


3

ANSWER KEY:

1. N/J, 2, F, C
2. First word: J, S, F, C
Second word: J, S, F, C
3. R, PL, M, P
4. N/J, PL, M, P
5. N/J, PL, F, P
6. R, PL,M, P
7. N/J, 2, F, C
8. R, S, F, C
9. N, S, F, C
10. J, S, M, C
11. R, PL, F, C
12. R, PL, F, C
13. R, 2, M, P
14. J, S, M, P
15. First word: J, S, M, C
Second word: J, S, M, C
16. R, 2, M, C
17. R, PL, M, C
18. N/J, S, M, P
19. N/J, S, M, P
20. N/J, S, M, P
1

5.1 Fragments—Introduction to Idhafah

Today, we’re going to move on from studying the four properties of the ism to see how isms come
together with other isms and form phrases. A phrase is more than two words. There are two kinds of
phrases in Arabic: sentences and fragments. Sentences are complete ideas. When I say, ‘I am a teacher,’
I’m communicating a full idea, so this would be called a sentence. ‘My marker,’ on the other hand,
doesn’t convey a complete thought. It’s more than a word, but less than a sentence—which is what we
call a fragment. Before I teach you sentences, I’m going to teach you five different fragments, the first of
which is called Idhafah ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬.

The definition of an Idhafah is: __________ of _____________. Here are some Idhafahs we listed out in
class:

The house of Allah SWT

The name of a friend

The car of the teacher

There are other ways an Idhafah can present itself, but you can rearrange it so that you see the ‘of’
again:

His car car of his

Your house house of yours

The people’s book book of the people

The Idhafah is always made up of two parts: the part before the ‘of’, the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬, and the part after the

‘of’, the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, for example:

The house of Allah SWT

‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬


2

EXERCISES:

Find the ‫( ﻣﻀﺎف‬M), the part before ‘of,’ and the ‫( ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬MI), the part after ‘of,’ in each of the

following phrases:

1. The Night of Power 11. The people of the book

2. The Messenger of Allah 12. Our signs

3. The Creator of the Universe 13. The teacher’s book

4. Their happiness 14. The nation of ‘Aad

5. His fate 15. Their hands

6. Sons of Isra’el 16. Your Master

7. The life of this world 17. His Permission

8. Ibraheem A’s nation 18. The Promise of Allah

9. The establisher of prayer 19. Musa’s mother’s heart

10. The reward of the life of the hereafter 20. Their prayer
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. M= night; MI= power


2. M= messenger; MI= Allah
3. M = The Creator; MI= the Universe
4. M = happiness; MI= their
5. M = fate; MI = his
6. M = sons; MI = Isra’el
7. M= the life; MI = this world
8. M = nation; MI= Ibraheem A
9. M = the establisher; MI = prayer
10. M= the reward; MI = the life
M = the life; MI= the hereafter
11. M= the people; MI = the book
12. M = signs; MI= our
13. M = book; MI = the teacher
14. M = nation; MI = ‘Aad
15. M = hands; MI = their
16. M = Master; MI = Your
17. M = Permission; MI = His
18. M = Promise; MI= Allah
19. M = heart ; MI = mother
M= mother; MI = Musa
20. M = prayer; MI = their
1

5.2 Fragments—Idhafah (cont’d)

We’re continuing our conversation about ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. These two words make up an ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬. They
are both isms and have a status, number, gender and type. Today, we just got used to the rules of
making an Idhafah. Here’s how it goes:

a. The ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬must be light and cannot have an ‫ ال‬on it. If we wanted If we tried to make a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬out

of ‫رﺳﻮل‬, these would be our options:

ٌ
‫رﺳﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳﻮل‬ ‫رﺳﻮل‬
Light, no ‫ال‬ Has ‫ال‬ Heavy

b. The ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬must be Jarr. If we wanted ‫ اﷲ‬to be our ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, our options would look like:

‫رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬ ‫رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬ ‫رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬


Jarr Not Jarr Not Jarr

When you have a word that’s light and has no ‫ال‬, and the word right after it is ‫ﺟﺮ‬, you have a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and

‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬situation. It’s an all-or-nothing deal, though. If one word meets the ‫’ﻣﻀﺎف‬s conditions, but the

word right after it is not ‫ﺟﺮ‬, then it’s not an Idhafah, and vice versa. Both words meet this criteria in

‫ رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬so it’s considered an Idhafah.

To help things come together a bit more, think back to the definitions of a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. A ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬

is the word before ‘of,’ and a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬is the word after ‘of.’ Now think back to the definition of Jarr.

Sound familiar? Jarr status is defined as the word after ‘of,’ too! So it would make sense that a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬
would have to be Jarr—their definitions match!
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪Are the highlighted portions of cases of‬‬


‫‪َ ? Remember:‬‬

‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬

‫ﺟﺮ ‪Jarr‬‬
‫‪Light‬‬
‫ال ‪No‬‬

‫ﺎك‬ ‫ﻳ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬ ‫ا‪.‬‬ ‫م‬ ‫ْﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮ ْ ﻦ اﻟﺮﺣ )‪(١‬اﻟْﺤ ْﻤﺪ ﷲ رب اﻟْﻌﺎﻟﻤﲔ )‪(٢‬اﻟﺮ ْ ﻦ اﻟﺮﺣ )‪(٣‬ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻳ ْ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫(‬ ‫)‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬
‫ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ا=ﻳﻦ أَﻧﻌﻤﺖ ﻋ َﻠ ْ@ ْﻢ َﻏﲑ اﻟﻤﻐﻀﻮب‬
‫اط َ‬
‫َ‬ ‫اط اﻟﻤ ْﺴﺘﻘ )‪(٦‬ﺻﺮ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ﺎك ‪ْ َ 5‬ﺴﺘﻌﲔ )‪(٥‬اﻫﺪ َﻧﺎ اﻟﺼﺮ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َﻧﻌﺒﺪ وإ َﻳ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬

‫اﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔَ )‪(٧‬‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫َﻋ َﻠ@ﻢ َوﻻ َ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻜﲔ )‪(٣‬ﻓَﻮ ْﻳﻞ‬‫َ‬ ‫‪N‬‬‫َ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺾ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫و‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻚ َ‬
‫ا=ي ﻳﺪع اﻟ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﻜﺬب ﺑﺎ‪.‬ﻳﻦ )‪(١‬ﻓَ َﺬﻟ‬
‫َ‬ ‫أَرأ َ ْﻳﺖ َ‬
‫ا=ي ﻳ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫(‬ ‫)‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا=ﻳﻦ ‪ ْQ‬ﻋ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ا=ﻳﻦ ‪ ْQ‬ﻳﺮاءون )‪(٦‬وﻳﻤﻨﻌﻮن اﻟﻤﺎﻋﻮن )‪(٧‬‬
‫ﻦ ﺻﻼ‪ْ R‬ﻢ ﺳﺎﻫﻮن )‪َ (٥‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﲔَ )‪َ (٤‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎء ذَات اﻟﱪوج )‪(١‬واﻟﻴ ْﻮم اﻟﻤ ْﻮﻋﻮد )‪(٢‬و َﺷﺎﻫ ٍﺪ وﻣﺸﻬﻮ ٍد )‪(٣‬ﻗﺘ َﻞ أ َ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻷﺧﺪود‬‫و‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬

‫)‪(٤‬اﻟﻨﺎر ذات اﻟْﻮﻗﻮد )‪(٥‬إ ْذ ‪ ْQ‬ﻋﻠ ْ@ﺎ ﻗﻌ ٌ‬


‫ﻮد )‪(٦‬‬
‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ﺎك‬ ‫ﻳ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬ ‫ا‪.‬‬ ‫م‬ ‫ْﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮ ْ ﻦ اﻟﺮﺣ )‪(١‬اﻟْﺤ ْﻤﺪ ﷲ رب اﻟْﻌﺎﻟﻤﲔ )‪(٢‬اﻟﺮ ْ ﻦ اﻟﺮﺣ )‪(٣‬ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻳ ْ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫(‬ ‫)‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬
‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬ ‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪Yes‬‬

‫ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫اﻫﺪﻧﺎ اﻟﺼﺮاط اﻟْﻤ ْ‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ا=ﻳﻦ أَﻧﻌﻤﺖ ﻋ َﻠ ْ@ ْﻢ َﻏﲑ اﻟﻤﻐﻀﻮب‬
‫اط َ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ‫ﺻ‬ ‫‪٦‬‬ ‫ﻘ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﺎك ‪ْ َ 5‬ﺴﺘﻌﲔ )‪(٥‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َﻧﻌﺒﺪ وإ َﻳ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫(‬ ‫)‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬

‫اﻟﻀﺎﻟﲔَ )‪(٧‬‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫َﻋ َﻠ@ﻢ َوﻻ َ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻜﲔ )‪(٣‬ﻓَﻮ ْﻳﻞ‬‫َ‬ ‫‪N‬‬‫َ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺾ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫و‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻚ َ‬
‫ا=ي ﻳﺪع اﻟ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﻜﺬب ﺑﺎ‪.‬ﻳﻦ )‪(١‬ﻓَ َﺬﻟ‬
‫َ‬ ‫أَرأ َ ْﻳﺖ َ‬
‫ا=ي ﻳ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫(‬ ‫)‬
‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا=ﻳﻦ ‪ ْQ‬ﻋ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ا=ﻳﻦ ‪ ْQ‬ﻳﺮاءون )‪(٦‬وﻳﻤﻨﻌﻮن اﻟﻤﺎﻋﻮن )‪(٧‬‬
‫ﻦ ﺻﻼ‪ْ R‬ﻢ ﺳﺎﻫﻮن )‪َ (٥‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻠﲔَ )‪َ (٤‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪No‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎء ذَات اﻟﱪوج )‪(١‬واﻟﻴ ْﻮم اﻟﻤ ْﻮﻋﻮد )‪(٢‬و َﺷﺎﻫ ٍﺪ وﻣﺸﻬﻮ ٍد )‪(٣‬ﻗﺘ َﻞ أ َ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻷﺧﺪود‬‫و‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬
‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬ ‫‪Yes‬‬

‫)‪(٤‬اﻟﻨﺎر ذات اﻟْﻮﻗﻮد )‪(٥‬إ ْذ ‪ ْQ‬ﻋﻠ ْ@ﺎ ﻗﻌ ٌ‬


‫ﻮد )‪(٦‬‬
‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫‪No‬‬
1

5.4 Introduction to Pronouns

The last thing that we did was ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. We’ll be going back to that soon, but in order to
continue, we have to go off track a little bit and learn something else. Today, we learned pronouns. We
started off by first going through the original pronouns with their meanings:

ْ
they both of them ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ he ‫ﻫﻮ‬

they (f) ‫ﻫﻦ‬ both of them (f) ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ she ‫ﻫﻲ‬

ْ ‫أ ْﻧ‬ ْ ْ
all of you both of you ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ you ‫أﻧﺖ‬
ْ ْ ْ
all of you (f) ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ both of you (f)‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ you-she ‫أﻧﺖ‬

ْ
we ‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬ I ‫أﻧﺎ‬

This list is on pg.18 of the 201 Handout Packet. Memorize these pronouns and their meanings. Pronouns
are one of the most important things in Arabic and will come up all the time. Make flashcards out of
them and run through them for practice. I need you to know them really well before moving on to the
next lesson.
2

EXERCISES:

Make flashcards out of the pronouns. Once you have them memorized, quiz yourself by looking only at
the English and trying to guess the Arabic. Mix up the cards and practice over and over again until you
can run through them very quickly.
1

5.6 Pronouns (Attached Versions)

We’re continuing our lesson on pronouns, but before we move on, you need to make sure you have the
original pronouns we learned last class memorized. If you haven’t done that yet, and don’t know them
backwards and forwards, then this lesson will not help you. Be sure you have the previous lesson down
before you move on.

Sometimes, when people are related to each other, they’re called cousins. When pronouns have
relationships, we call them something else, but we’ll call them cousins for now. I’m listing the cousins in
red under the original pronouns we already learned (this is also on pg.18 of the 201 Handout Packet):

ْ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬
ْ ‫’ﻫﻮ‬s cousin is always
Some cousins look ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ه‬
confused. He’s always
‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬
just like the
original pronouns! saying, ُ‫?ه‬

‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫’ﻫﻲ‬s cousin is always


ْ ‫أ ْﻧ‬ ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺖ‬ laughing, ‘ha!’

‫ﻛ ْﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ك‬


Other cousins
sound like they’re
ْ ْ ْ
cousins (just ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬
exchange the ‫ت‬
‫ﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ك‬
for a ‫)ك‬
ْ
‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ‬

‫ﻧﺎ‬ ‫ ي‬or

Make sure you know all of the cousins by heart. This lesson is one of the most important lessons you will
learn in Arabic, so get lots of practice and memorize them well.
2

EXERCISES:

1. Memorize the cousins


2. Use the flashcards you made last class but this time, look at the English and try to guess the
cousin of that pronoun.
1

5.7 & 5.8 Fragments and Pronouns

We’re going learn one more thing about pronouns. So far, we know the original pronouns and their
cousins. The first step was to memorize them, the second was to learn their meanings, and the third was
to know their cousins (when we say that ‫ ه‬is the cousin of ‫ﻫﻮ‬, that’s not actually ‫’ﻫﻮ‬s cousin. It’s what

‫ ﻫﻮ‬becomes sometimes).

There are original pronouns and attached pronouns. When you say ‫ﻫﻮ‬, ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, , etc, those are the original

pronouns. When you say, ‘‫ ﻫﻮ‬becomes ‫ه‬, ‫ ﻫﻤﺎ‬becomes ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, ْ becomes ْ … ’ those are the attached
pronouns. The original ones are always Raf’, and the attached ones are either Nasb or Jarr. If someone
asks you what the Raf’ version of ‫ ﻫﻮ‬is, you’d say ‘‫ﻫﻮ‬.’ If someone asked you for the Nasb or Jarr version

of ‫ﻫﻮ‬, you’d say ‫ه‬.

If you remember way back when we were discussing the status, we said that you can tell status by
ending sounds, ending combinations, and we wrote down one more thing: pronouns are weird.
Pronouns don’t care about ending sound or ending combinations. They’ve got their own rules. The
original ones are Raf’ and the attached ones are Nasb or Jarr. If you were looking at ending sounds and
looked at ‫ﻫﻮ‬, the ‘a’ sound at the end sounds like Nasb, right? But because it’s an original pronoun, it
doesn’t’ matter if it sounds like Nasb. It’s still counted as Raf’. The rule for telling the status is that
original pronouns are Raf’ and the attached ones are Nasb or Jarr.

A lot of times, you’ll come across words that look like they have a cousin stuck at the end of them.
Before this lesson, a word like ‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ أﻧﻔﺴ‬would look like one word. But now, you know that it’s actually

two words: ‫ أﻧﻔﺲ‬and ‫ﻛ ْﻢ‬. The second word is attached. The cousins are always attached at the end of
the word (that’s why we don’t really call them cousins—we call them ‘attached pronouns’).

Attached pronouns can be attached to an ism, fi’l, or harf. Right now, since we haven’t studied fi’l or
harf, we’re only going to talk about when it’s attached to an ism. Here’s something that we’ll explain
next time: whenever a pronoun is attached to an ism, the first word is a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the pronoun is a

‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. So if I looked at ‫رﺑﻚ‬, the first word, ‫ رب‬, would be the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the second word, the

attached pronoun ‫ ك‬, would be the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. This might take some time to get used, so go through the
exercises below to get your feet wet.
2

EXERCISES:

A. For each of the cases below, find the attached pronoun. What’s the original pronoun that it
came from? What does it mean?

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻜﻤﺎ‬.1
ْ
‫ ﺗﺤﺘﻚ‬.2

‫ﻤﺎ‬%‫ ﺻﺎﺣ‬.3
ْ
‫ زﻟﺰا(ﺎ‬.4
ْ
‫ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ‬.5
ْ ‫ ﻛ ْﻴﺪ‬.6

‫ ﻣﻮازﻳﻨﻪ‬.7

/‫ رﺳﻮ‬.8

‫ أﻣﻚ‬.9

‫ أﺷﺪﻫﻤﺎ‬.10

B. Which word is the ‫ ?ﻣﻀﺎف‬Which is the ‫?ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬

ْ
2‫ أ ْﻣﻮاﻟ‬.6 ‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ ﻣ ْﺮﺟﻌ‬.1
ْ
‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ ﺳﻌﻴ‬.7 ‫ رﺑﻚ‬.2

‫ أ ْﻣﺮﻧﺎ‬.8 ‫ ﺿﺤﺎﻫﺎ‬.3
ْ
‫ ﻏﻀﺒﻲ‬.9 ‫ ﺻﺪرك‬.4
ْ
‫ أﻫﻠﻬﻦ‬.10 ‫ ﻋﺒﺎده‬.5
3

ANSWER KEY:

Section A:

ْ
1. ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬, original is ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬, both of you

2. ‫ك‬, original is ‫أﻧﺖ‬, you-she (you, fem)

3. ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, original is ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, both of them

4. ‫ﻫﺎ‬, original is ‫ﻫﻲ‬, she

5. ‫ك‬, original is ‫ أﻧﺖ‬, you

6. ْ , original is ْ , they

7. ‫ه‬, original is ‫ﻫﻮ‬, he

8. ‫ه‬, original is ‫ﻫﻮ‬, he

9. ‫ك‬, original is ‫أﻧﺖ‬, you-she (you, fem)

10. ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, original is ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, both of them

Section B:

Black = ‫ ;ﻣﻀﺎف‬Red = ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬

ْ
2‫أ ْﻣﻮاﻟ‬.6 ‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ ﻣ ْﺮﺟﻌ‬.1
ْ
‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ ﺳﻌﻴ‬.7 ‫ رﺑﻚ‬.2

‫ أ ْﻣﺮﻧﺎ‬.8 ‫ ﺿﺤﺎﻫﺎ‬.3
ْ
‫ ﻏﻀﺒﻲ‬.9 ‫ ﺻﺪرك‬.4
ْ
‫ أﻫﻠﻬﻦ‬.10 ‫ ﻋﺒﺎده‬.5
1

5.7 & 5.8 Fragments and Pronouns

We’re going learn one more thing about pronouns. So far, we know the original pronouns and their
cousins. The first step was to memorize them, the second was to learn their meanings, and the third was
to know their cousins (when we say that ‫ ه‬is the cousin of ‫ﻫﻮ‬, that’s not actually ‫’ﻫﻮ‬s cousin. It’s what

‫ ﻫﻮ‬becomes sometimes).

There are original pronouns and attached pronouns. When you say ‫ﻫﻮ‬, ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, , etc, those are the original

pronouns. When you say, ‘‫ ﻫﻮ‬becomes ‫ه‬, ‫ ﻫﻤﺎ‬becomes ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, ْ becomes ْ … ’ those are the attached
pronouns. The original ones are always Raf’, and the attached ones are either Nasb or Jarr. If someone
asks you what the Raf’ version of ‫ ﻫﻮ‬is, you’d say ‘‫ﻫﻮ‬.’ If someone asked you for the Nasb or Jarr version

of ‫ﻫﻮ‬, you’d say ‫ه‬.

If you remember way back when we were discussing the status, we said that you can tell status by
ending sounds, ending combinations, and we wrote down one more thing: pronouns are weird.
Pronouns don’t care about ending sound or ending combinations. They’ve got their own rules. The
original ones are Raf’ and the attached ones are Nasb or Jarr. If you were looking at ending sounds and
looked at ‫ﻫﻮ‬, the ‘a’ sound at the end sounds like Nasb, right? But because it’s an original pronoun, it
doesn’t’ matter if it sounds like Nasb. It’s still counted as Raf’. The rule for telling the status is that
original pronouns are Raf’ and the attached ones are Nasb or Jarr.

A lot of times, you’ll come across words that look like they have a cousin stuck at the end of them.
Before this lesson, a word like ‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ أﻧﻔﺴ‬would look like one word. But now, you know that it’s actually

two words: ‫ أﻧﻔﺲ‬and ‫ﻛ ْﻢ‬. The second word is attached. The cousins are always attached at the end of
the word (that’s why we don’t really call them cousins—we call them ‘attached pronouns’).

Attached pronouns can be attached to an ism, fi’l, or harf. Right now, since we haven’t studied fi’l or
harf, we’re only going to talk about when it’s attached to an ism. Here’s something that we’ll explain
next time: whenever a pronoun is attached to an ism, the first word is a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the pronoun is a

‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. So if I looked at ‫رﺑﻚ‬, the first word, ‫ رب‬, would be the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the second word, the

attached pronoun ‫ ك‬, would be the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. This might take some time to get used, so go through the
exercises below to get your feet wet.
2

EXERCISES:

A. For each of the cases below, find the attached pronoun. What’s the original pronoun that it
came from? What does it mean?

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻜﻤﺎ‬.1
ْ
‫ ﺗﺤﺘﻚ‬.2

‫ﻤﺎ‬%‫ ﺻﺎﺣ‬.3
ْ
‫ زﻟﺰا(ﺎ‬.4
ْ
‫ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ‬.5
ْ ‫ ﻛ ْﻴﺪ‬.6

‫ ﻣﻮازﻳﻨﻪ‬.7

/‫ رﺳﻮ‬.8

‫ أﻣﻚ‬.9

‫ أﺷﺪﻫﻤﺎ‬.10

B. Which word is the ‫ ?ﻣﻀﺎف‬Which is the ‫?ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬

ْ
2‫ أ ْﻣﻮاﻟ‬.6 ‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ ﻣ ْﺮﺟﻌ‬.1
ْ
‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ ﺳﻌﻴ‬.7 ‫ رﺑﻚ‬.2

‫ أ ْﻣﺮﻧﺎ‬.8 ‫ ﺿﺤﺎﻫﺎ‬.3
ْ
‫ ﻏﻀﺒﻲ‬.9 ‫ ﺻﺪرك‬.4
ْ
‫ أﻫﻠﻬﻦ‬.10 ‫ ﻋﺒﺎده‬.5
3

ANSWER KEY:

Section A:

ْ
1. ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬, original is ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬, both of you

2. ‫ك‬, original is ‫أﻧﺖ‬, you-she (you, fem)

3. ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, original is ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, both of them

4. ‫ﻫﺎ‬, original is ‫ﻫﻲ‬, she

5. ‫ك‬, original is ‫ أﻧﺖ‬, you

6. ْ , original is ْ , they

7. ‫ه‬, original is ‫ﻫﻮ‬, he

8. ‫ه‬, original is ‫ﻫﻮ‬, he

9. ‫ك‬, original is ‫أﻧﺖ‬, you-she (you, fem)

10. ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, original is ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, both of them

Section B:

Black = ‫ ;ﻣﻀﺎف‬Red = ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬

ْ
2‫أ ْﻣﻮاﻟ‬.6 ‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ ﻣ ْﺮﺟﻌ‬.1
ْ
‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ ﺳﻌﻴ‬.7 ‫ رﺑﻚ‬.2

‫ أ ْﻣﺮﻧﺎ‬.8 ‫ ﺿﺤﺎﻫﺎ‬.3
ْ
‫ ﻏﻀﺒﻲ‬.9 ‫ ﺻﺪرك‬.4
ْ
‫ أﻫﻠﻬﻦ‬.10 ‫ ﻋﺒﺎده‬.5
1

5.9 Fragments—Idhaafah Construction using Attached Pronouns

The last thing we did was go thru pg. 22 in our handout and say what the original pronoun was, which
word was the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬, and which word was the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. Today, I told you why we say that. The

definition of a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬is the word before ‘of’ and the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬is the word after ‘of.’ We also learned

that the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬is light and never has ‫ال‬, and the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬that always comes right after it is always Jarr.

Now if I say, ‘the book of mine,’ it’s a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬because there’s an ‘of’ in there. ‘The book’ is

before ‘of,’ so it would be the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬. ‘Mine’ would be the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬since it’s after ‘of.’ If I were to write

the Arabic version of this, I would have to make sure I made the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬light and not put and ‫ال‬. The
ٌ ‫ﻛﺘ‬, make it light and don’t put ‫ ال‬on it, my ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬would
Arabic word for book is ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬, so if I start with ‫ﺎب‬

be ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬.
ٌ ‫ﻛﺘ‬
‫ﺎب ← ﻛﺘﺎب‬

Now, I have to add ‘mine’ as the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. ‘Mine’ comes from the pronoun ‘I,’ or ‫ أﻧﺎ‬in Arabic. Since it’s

the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, and must be Jarr, I’d have to use the Jarr version of ‫أﻧﺎ‬: ‫ ي‬. Now I just put them together

and get ‫ ﻛﺘﺎ‬to mean ‘book of mine’ or ‘my book.’

‫ ي = ﻛﺘﺎ‬+ ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬

We’ve said that pronouns can be stuck at the end of an ism, fi’l, or harf. But, you only call them ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬

‫ إﻟﻴﻪ‬when they’re stuck to an ism.

Note: Whenever you have to add ‫ ي‬as the attached pronoun of ‫ أﻧﺎ‬, you will usually have a kasra on the

letter before the ‫( ي‬like the ‫ ب‬in the above example). This isn’t a grammar rule, but the Arabs always

like things to sound smooth. ‫ ﻛﺘﺎ‬doesn’t sound as smooth as ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‬, so they don’t say ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‬. ‫ ﻛﺘﺎ‬will

look like ‫ ﻛﺘﺎ‬in raf’, nasb, and jarr and you will need to use the context (more on this later) to
determine the status. This is NOT a grammar rule—just a phonetic one.
2

EXERCISES:

ْ
A. Use the isms listed below to create Idhafahs with a) her, b) both of yours, c) theirs, d) his, e) ‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬,

f) ‫ أﻧﺖ‬, g) ‫أﻧ‬. For example: My bag = ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻲ‬

ٌ ٌ ْ ٌ ٌ ‫ﻛﺘ‬.1
‫ ﺳ "ﻴﺎرة‬.5 ‫ دﻓﱰ‬.4 ‫ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ‬.3 ‫ ﻗﻠ ٌﻢ‬.2 ‫ﺎب‬

B. Now, try to come up with the Idhafah in Arabic by looking at the English:

ٌ ‫ ﻛﺘ‬book
1. ‫ﺎب‬

a. My book
b. Your book
c. Her book
d. Our book
e. Their book

2. ‫ ﻗﻠ ٌﻢ‬pen

a. Their (2) pen (pen of both of theirs)


b. Their pen
c. Your (2) pen
d. His pen
e. Her pen

ٌ
3. ‫ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ‬bag

a. All of you ladies’ bag


b. Their bag
c. Your (2) bag
d. Our bag
e. Your (fem) bag
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫‪Section A:‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪+‬ﺎ )‪1. a‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻜﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪ْ +‬ﻢ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻨﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ )‪f‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑ‪ْ 1‬ﻢ )‪g‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻤﻬﺎ )‪2. a‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻜﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤ‪c) 3‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻨﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻚ )‪f‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤ‪ْ 1‬ﻢ )‪g‬‬

‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒ‪4‬ﺎ )‪3. a‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻜﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒ‪ْ 4‬ﻢ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻨﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻚ )‪f‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘ‪ْ 1‬ﻢ )‪g‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫دﻓﱰﻫﺎ )‪4. a‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰﻛﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰ‪c) ْ6‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰه )‪d‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰﻧﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰك )‪f‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰﻛ ْﻢ )‪g‬‬

‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎر‪9‬ﺎ )‪5. a‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗﻜﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎر‪ْ 9‬ﻢ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗﻨﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗﻚ )‪f‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗ‪ْ 1‬ﻢ)‪g‬‬

‫‪Section B:‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎ )‪1. a‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪+‬ﺎ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻨﺎ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪ْ +‬ﻢ )‪e‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻤﻬﻤﺎ )‪2. a‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤ‪b) 3‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻜﻤﺎ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻬﺎ )‪e‬‬

‫ﻦ )‪3. a‬‬
‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻜ "‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒ‪ْ 4‬ﻢ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻜﻤﺎ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻨﺎ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻚ )‪e‬‬
1

1.3 Properties of the Ism—Status (Ending Sounds Practice)

In the previous session, we learned that there are three kinds of Status:

1. Doer Status (which we are now calling Raf’ ‫) رفع‬

ْ )
2. Detail Status (which we are now calling Nasb ‫نصب‬

3. After “of” Status (which we are now calling Jarr ‫) جر‬

We noted that English identifies the doer based on the sentence sequence. In other words, if we say,
‘Bob helped Joe,’ then Bob is the doer. If we say, ‘Joe helped Bob,’ then Joe is the doer. In Arabic, on
the other hand, it isn’t the sequence that tells us who the doer is. Rather, it’s the way a word sounds at
the end that determines whether it’s the doer (R), the detail (N), or after ‘of’ (J).

The following are the ending sounds for each of the statuses we’ve learned:

Raf’ : ُ(u) or ُ(un) ending

Nasb: ُ (a) or ُ (an) ending

Jarr: ُ (i) or ُ (in) ending


‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪ by looking at the ending sounds:‬جر ‪ْ or Jarr‬‬


‫‪,‬نصب ‪ , Nasb‬رفع’ ‪State whether each of the red words is either Raf‬‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن عي‬ ‫هل أتاك حديث الغاشية (‪)١‬وجوه ي ْومئذ خاشعة (‪)٢‬عامل ناصبة (‪)٣‬ت ْصل نارا حامية (‪)٤‬ت ْسقى م‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ن ضريع (‪)٦‬ال ي ْسمن وال ي ْغني م ْ‬


‫ن جوع (‪)٧‬وجوه ي ْومئذ ناعمة (‪)٨‬لسعِيا راضية‬ ‫آنية (‪)٥‬ليْس لهْ طعام إال م ْ‬

‫(‪)٩‬ف جنة عالية (‪)١١‬ال ت ْسمع فِيا الغية (‪)١١‬‬

‫ْشكون (‪)١‬ينزل الْمالئكة بالروح م ْ‬


‫ن أ ْمره عل م ْ‬
‫ن يشاء م ْ‬
‫ن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أت أ ْمر الل فال ت ْستعجلوه س ْبحانه وتعال عما ي‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫عباده أ ْن أ ْنذروا أنه ال إل إال أنا فاتقون (‪)٢‬خلق السماوات و ْ‬
‫األرض بالحق تعال عما يْشكون (‪)٣‬خلق‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ن نطفة فإذا هو خصي مبي (‪)٤‬واألنعام خلقها لك ْم فِيا دفء ومنافع ومْنا تأكلون (‪)٥‬ولك ْم‬‫اإلنسان م‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫فِيا َجال حي تريحون وحي تْسحون (‪)٦‬وتحمل أثقالك ْم إل بل ل ْم تكونوا بالغيه إال بشق األنفس إن‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ربك ْم لرءوف رحي (‪)٧‬والخ ْيل والبغال والحمي لَتكبوها وزينة ويخلق ما ال تعلمون (‪)٨‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أل ْم تر ك ْيف فعل ربك بأ ْصحاب الفيل (‪)١‬أل ْم يجعل ك ْيدهْ ف تضليل (‪)٢‬وأ ْرسل عل ِْي ْم طيا أبابيل (‪)٣‬ت ْرمِي ْم‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن سجيل (‪)٤‬فجعله كع ْصف مأكول (‪)٥‬‬
‫بحجارة م ْ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن عي‬ ‫هل أتاك حديث الغاشية (‪)١‬وجوه ي ْومئذ خاشعة (‪)٢‬عامل ناصبة (‪)٣‬ت ْصل نارا حامية (‪)٤‬ت ْسقى م‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ن ضريع (‪)٦‬ال ي ْسمن وال ي ْغني م ْ‬


‫ن جوع (‪)٧‬وجوه ي ْومئذ ناعمة (‪)٨‬لسعِيا راضية‬ ‫آنية (‪)٥‬ليْس لهْ طعام إال م ْ‬
‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬

‫(‪)٩‬ف جنة عالية (‪)١١‬ال ت ْسمع فِيا الغية (‪)١١‬‬


‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬

‫ْشكون (‪)١‬ينزل الْمالئكة بالروح م ْ‬


‫ن أ ْمره عل م ْ‬
‫ن يشاء م ْ‬
‫ن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أت أ ْمر الل فال ت ْستعجلوه س ْبحانه وتعال عما ي‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫عباده أ ْن أ ْنذروا أنه ال إل إال أنا فاتقون (‪)٢‬خلق السماوات و ْ‬
‫األرض بالحق تعال عما يْشكون (‪)٣‬خلق‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ن نطفة فإذا هو خصي مبي (‪)٤‬واألنعام خلقها لك ْم فِيا دفء ومنافع ومْنا تأكلون (‪)٥‬ولك ْم‬‫اإلنسان م‬
‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫فِيا َجال حي تريحون وحي تْسحون (‪)٦‬وتحمل أثقالك ْم إل بل ل ْم تكونوا بالغيه إال بشق األنفس إن‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ربك ْم لرءوف رحي (‪)٧‬والخ ْيل والبغال والحمي لَتكبوها وزينة ويخلق ما ال تعلمون (‪)٨‬‬
‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أل ْم تر ك ْيف فعل ربك بأ ْصحاب الفيل (‪)١‬أل ْم يجعل ك ْيدهْ ف تضليل (‪)٢‬وأ ْرسل عل ِْي ْم طيا أبابيل (‪)٣‬ت ْرمِي ْم‬
‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن سجيل (‪)٤‬فجعله كع ْصف مأكول (‪)٥‬‬
‫بحجارة م ْ‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬
1

6.1 & 6.2 Fragments—Harf Jarr

We’ve been talking about ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. Before we move on, we have to memorize some stuff. I
had you memorize the following words in class today:

ْ ْ
‫ﺧﻼ‬ ‫ﻣﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬

‫ﻋﺪا‬ ْ ‫ﺣﺎش ﻣ‬
‫ﻦ‬ ‫رب‬

#‫ﺣﺘﻰ إ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ْ ‫ﻋ‬


‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ‬

These are called Huroof Jaarah, and each one of them is called a Harf of Jarr. These harf have a job to
do: they make the next word Jarr. Whenever you see these harf with an ism after it, that ism has to be
Jarr. Unlike isms, though, a harf doesn’t have any properties, so it doesn’t have a status, a number, a
gender, or a type.

It’s important for you to memorize them well so that you can recognize them when they come up in
Quran, for example:

.)‫أﻋﻮذ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸ ْﻴﻄﺎن اﻟﺮﺟ‬

ْ
.)‫ﺎن اﻟﺮﺣ‬0‫ ْﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮ‬/

ْ ْ ْ ‫( ﻣ‬٣) ‫ اﻟﻨﺎس‬:‫(إ‬٢) ‫( ﻣﻠﻚ اﻟﻨﺎس‬١) ‫ﻗ ْﻞ أﻋﻮذ ﺑﺮب اﻟﻨﺎس‬


‫ي ﻳﻮ ْﺳﻮس ﰲ‬A‫(ا‬٤) ‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ اﻟﻮ ْﺳﻮاس اﻟﺨﻨﺎس‬

(٥) ‫ﺻﺪور اﻟﻨﺎس‬

So…

What are these harfs called? Huroof Jaarah

What is their job? To make the ism after them Jarr.

What properties do they have? None


‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Find all the Huroof Jaarah in the ayaat below:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻏﺎﺳﻖ إذا وﻗﺐ )‪(٣‬وﻣ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﺎﺛﺎت ﰲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻗ ْﻞ أﻋﻮذ ﺑﺮب اﻟْﻔﻠﻖ )‪(١‬ﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ )‪(٢‬وﻣ ْ‬
‫ٍ‬

‫)‪(٤‬وﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﺣﺎﺳ ٍﺪ إذا ﺣﺴﺪ )‪(٥‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻴﻞ )‪(٢‬وأ ْرﺳﻞ ﻋﻠ ْ‪ْ U‬ﻢ ﻃﲑًا‬‫ﻠ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫أﻟ ْﻢ ﺗﺮ ﻛ ْﻴﻒ ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻚ ﺑﺄ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟْﻔﻴﻞ )‪(١‬أﻟ ْﻢ ﻳ ْﺠﻌ ْﻞ ﻛ ْﻴﺪ‪ْT‬‬
‫ٍ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻮل )‪(٥‬‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﻴﻞ )‪(٤‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠ‪ Z‬ﻛﻌﺼ ٍﻒ ﻣﺄ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫أﺑﺎﺑﻴﻞ )‪(٣‬ﺗﺮﻣ‪U‬ﻢ ﺑﺤﺠﺎر ٍة ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠ ٍ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أرأ ْﻳﺖ ا‪A‬ي ﻳﻜﺬب ﺑﺎ^ﻳﻦ )‪(١‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ا‪A‬ي ﻳﺪع اﻟﻴﺘ) )‪(٢‬وﻻ ﻳﺤﺾ ﻋ ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻜﲔ )‪(٣‬ﻓﻮ ْﻳﻞ‬

‫ﻟ ْﻠﻤﺼﻠﲔ )‪(٤‬ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ ‪ ْT‬ﻋ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺻﻼ‪ْ f‬ﻢ ﺳﺎﻫﻮن )‪(٥‬ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ ‪ ْT‬ﻳﺮاءون )‪(٦‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎرك ا‪A‬ي ﺑﻴﺪه اﻟْﻤ ْﻠﻚ وﻫﻮ ﻋ ﻛﻞ ْ‬


‫ﻳﺮ )‪(١‬ا‪A‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ اﻟﻤ ْﻮت واﻟﺤﻴﺎة ﻟﻴ ْﺒﻠﻮﻛ ْﻢ أﻳ‪ْ m‬ﻢ‬
‫‪ٍ l‬ء ﻗﺪ ٌ‬

‫ﺎﻗﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮى ﰲ ﺧ ْﻠﻖ اﻟﺮ ْ‪0‬ﻦ ﻣ ْ‬


‫ات ﻃﺒ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ‬ ‫أﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻤﻼ وﻫﻮ اﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ اﻟﻐﻔﻮر )‪(٢‬ا‪A‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ ﺳﺒﻊ ‪q‬ﺎو ٍ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ارﺟﻊ اﻟْﺒﺼﺮ ﻛﺮﺗ ْﲔ ﻳ ْﻨﻘﻠ ْ‬


‫ﺐ إﻟ ْﻴﻚ اﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﺧﺎﺳ ًﺌﺎ‬ ‫ﺎرﺟﻊ اﻟْﺒﺼﺮ ﻫ ْﻞ ﺗﺮى ﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻓﻄﻮر )‪ْ s(٣‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻓ ْ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍ‬

‫ٌ‬
‫وﻫﻮ ﺣﺴﲑ )‪(٤‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻏﺎﺳﻖ إذا وﻗﺐ )‪(٣‬وﻣ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﺎﺛﺎت ﰲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻗ ْﻞ أﻋﻮذ ﺑﺮب اﻟْﻔﻠﻖ )‪(١‬ﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ )‪(٢‬وﻣ ْ‬
‫ٍ‬

‫)‪(٤‬وﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﺣﺎﺳ ٍﺪ إذا ﺣﺴﺪ )‪(٥‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻴﻞ )‪(٢‬وأ ْرﺳﻞ ﻋﻠ ْ‪ْ U‬ﻢ ﻃﲑًا‬‫ﻠ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫أﻟ ْﻢ ﺗﺮ ﻛ ْﻴﻒ ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻚ ﺑﺄ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟْﻔﻴﻞ )‪(١‬أﻟ ْﻢ ﻳ ْﺠﻌ ْﻞ ﻛ ْﻴﺪ‪ْT‬‬
‫ٍ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻮل )‪(٥‬‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﻴﻞ )‪(٤‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠ‪ Z‬ﻛﻌﺼ ٍﻒ ﻣﺄ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫أﺑﺎﺑﻴﻞ )‪(٣‬ﺗﺮﻣ‪U‬ﻢ ﺑﺤﺠﺎر ٍة ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠ ٍ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أرأ ْﻳﺖ ا‪A‬ي ﻳﻜﺬب ﺑﺎ^ﻳﻦ )‪(١‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ا‪A‬ي ﻳﺪع اﻟﻴﺘ) )‪(٢‬وﻻ ﻳﺤﺾ ﻋ ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻜﲔ )‪(٣‬ﻓﻮ ْﻳﻞ‬

‫ﻟ ْﻠﻤﺼﻠﲔ )‪(٤‬ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ ‪ ْT‬ﻋ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺻﻼ‪ْ f‬ﻢ ﺳﺎﻫﻮن )‪(٥‬ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ ‪ ْT‬ﻳﺮاءون )‪(٦‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎرك ا‪A‬ي ﺑﻴﺪه اﻟْﻤ ْﻠﻚ وﻫﻮ ﻋ ﻛﻞ ْ‬


‫ﻳﺮ )‪(١‬ا‪A‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ اﻟﻤ ْﻮت واﻟﺤﻴﺎة ﻟﻴ ْﺒﻠﻮﻛ ْﻢ أﻳ‪ْ m‬ﻢ‬
‫‪ٍ l‬ء ﻗﺪ ٌ‬

‫ﺎﻗﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮى ﰲ ﺧ ْﻠﻖ اﻟﺮ ْ‪0‬ﻦ ﻣ ْ‬


‫ات ﻃﺒ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ‬ ‫أﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻤﻼ وﻫﻮ اﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ اﻟﻐﻔﻮر )‪(٢‬ا‪A‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ ﺳﺒﻊ ‪q‬ﺎو ٍ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ارﺟﻊ اﻟْﺒﺼﺮ ﻛﺮﺗ ْﲔ ﻳ ْﻨﻘﻠ ْ‬


‫ﺐ إﻟ ْﻴﻚ اﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﺧﺎﺳﺌﺎً‬ ‫ﺎرﺟﻊ اﻟْﺒﺼﺮ ﻫ ْﻞ ﺗﺮى ﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻓﻄﻮر )‪ْ s(٣‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻓ ْ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍ‬

‫ٌ‬
‫وﻫﻮ ﺣﺴﲑ )‪(٤‬‬
1

7.1 Fragments—Harf of Nasb

We’ve memorized the 17 Harf of Jarr, and today, we have to memorize something else. We’re almost
done memorizing stuff:

‫ﻟ ْﻴﺖ‬ ‫إن‬

‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫أن‬

‫ﻟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻛ ﺄن‬

These are the Harf of Nasb. Their job is to make the ism that comes right after them Nasb. I’ll share their
meanings with you once we start reading Quran. For now, I need you to memorize them. You can take a
look at these excerpts to see the Harf of Nasb at work:

ْ ْ ْ
‫ْﻢ‬ ‫أن اﷲ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﰲ أﻧﻔﺴ‬ ‫إن اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﰲ ا' ْرك اﻷ ْﺳﻔﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎر‬ ٍ ‫إن اﻹ ﺴﺎن ﻟﻔﻲ ﺧ‬

‫ﻟﻌﻞ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﻜﻮن ﻗﺮﻳ ًﺒﺎ‬ ْ ‫ﻦ اﻟﱪ ﻣ‬


‫ﻦ آﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ً ‫ﻟ ْﻴﺘﻨﻲ ﻟ ْﻢ أﺗ ْﺨ ْﺬ ﻓﻼﻧًﺎ ﺧﻠ‬
‫ﻴﻼ‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Find the Harf of Nasb in these ayaat. Notice how the word that comes right after them is Nasb.‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫وإن اﻟﻔﺠﺎر ﻟﻔﻲ ﺟﺤ ٍ@ )‪(١٤‬‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻨﺎس‬ ‫ْﻢ إ‪ F‬ﻳ ْﻮم اﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻻ ر ْﻳﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ وﻟ‬ ‫ْﻢ ‪ E‬ﻳﺠﻤﻌ‬ ‫ْﻢ ‪ E‬ﻳﻤﻴﺘ‬ ‫ﻗﻞ اﷲ ﻳﺤﻴﻴ‬
‫‪.2‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮن )‪(٢٦‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻨﺎس ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮن )‪(٥٩‬‬ ‫إن اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﻻ ر ْﻳﺐ ﻓ‪Q‬ﺎ وﻟ‬
‫‪.3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻧﻄﻔ ٍﺔ إذا ﺗﻤﻨﻰ )‪(٤٦‬وأن ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ اﻟ‪Z‬ﺸﺄة اﻷﺧﺮى )‪(٤٧‬‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪.4‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ا]ﻳﻦ ﻳﺠﺘﻨﺒﻮن ﻛﺒﺎ^ﺮ اﻹ‪ E‬واﻟﻔﻮاﺣﺶ إﻻ اﻟﻠﻤﻢ إن رﺑﻚ واﺳﻊ اﻟﻤﻐﻔﺮة‪(٣٢) ...‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وأن اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﷲ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺪﻋﻮا ﻣﻊ اﷲ أﺣ ًﺪا )‪(١٨‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ‪ ْl‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮن )‪(١٣‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮددﻧﺎه إ‪ F‬أﻣﻪ ﻛ ْﻲ ﺗﻘﺮ ﻋ ْﻴ‪i‬ﺎ وﻻ ﺗﺤﺰن وﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ أن وﻋﺪ اﷲ ﺣﻖ وﻟ‬
‫‪.7‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت وﻧﻌ ٍ@ )‪(١٧‬‬ ‫إن اﻟﻤﺘﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺟﻨ ٍ‬
‫‪.8‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪ْ n‬ﺴﺄﻟﻮﻧﻚ ﻋﻦ اﻷﻫ‪ o‬ﻗﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮاﻗﻴﺖ ﻟﻠﻨﺎس واﻟﺤﺞ وﻟ‪s‬ﺲ اﻟﱪ ﺑﺄن ﺗﺄﺗﻮا اﻟﺒﻴﻮت ﻣﻦ ﻇﻬﻮرﻫﺎ‬
‫‪.9‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ْﻢ ﺗﻔﻠﺤﻮن )‪(١٨٩‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ أ ْﺑﻮا‪v‬ﺎ واﺗﻘﻮا اﷲ ﻟﻌﻠ‬ ‫ﻦ اﻟْﱪ ﻣﻦ اﺗﻘﻰ وأﺗﻮا اﻟْﺒﻴﻮت ﻣ ْ‬ ‫وﻟ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ْﻢ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧًﺎ‪(٨١) ...‬‬ ‫ْﻢ أﺷﺮﻛ‪ ْy‬ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻟ ْﻢ ﻳﻨﺰل ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠ ْﻴ‬ ‫وﻛ ْﻴﻒ أﺧﺎف ﻣﺎ أﺷﺮﻛ‪ ْy‬وﻻ ﺗﺨﺎﻓﻮن أﻧ‬
‫‪.10‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻋﻠ ٍﻢ إن ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮن إﻻ اﻟﻈﻦ وإن اﻟﻈﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻖ ﺷ ْﻴ ًﺌﺎ )‪(٢٨‬‬ ‫وﻣﺎ ﻟ| ﺑﻪ ﻣ‬
‫‪.11‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اب أﻟ ٍ@ )‪(٧‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وإذا ﺗﺘ• ﻋﻠﻴﻪ آﻳﺎﺗﻨﺎ و‪ F‬ﻣﺴﺘﻜﱪا ﻛﺄن ﻟﻢ ‪n‬ﺴﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﺄن ﰲ أذﻧﻴﻪ وﻗ ًﺮا ﻓ•‪€‬ه ﺑﻌﺬ ٍ‬
‫‪.12‬‬

‫ﻳﺐ )‪(١٧‬‬ ‫ﺘﺎب ﺑﺎﻟْﺤﻖ واﻟْﻤﲒان وﻣﺎ ﻳ ْﺪرﻳﻚ ﻟﻌﻞ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺮ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اﷲ ا]ي أﻧﺰل اﻟ‬
‫‪.13‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﷲ ﺣﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻌﻨ‪ ْy‬وﻟ‬ ‫ﲑ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺜ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْﻢ رﺳﻮل اﷲ ﻟ ْﻮ ﻳﻄﻴﻌ‬ ‫واﻋﻠﻤﻮا أن ﻓﻴ‬
‫‪.14‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻔﺮ واﻟﻔﺴﻮق واﻟﻌﺼﻴﺎن أوﻟ‪‰‬ﻚ ‪l‬‬ ‫ﻢ اﻟ‬ ‫ْﻢ وﻛﺮه إﻟ ْﻴ‬ ‫ﻢ اﻹﻳﻤﺎن وزﻳﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮﺑ‬ ‫إﻟ ْﻴ‬

‫اﻟﺮاﺷﺪون )‪(٧‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﷲ رﻣﻰ وﻟﻴ ْﺒ‪ Š‬اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻼء ً‬ ‫ﻦ اﷲ ﻗﺘﻠ| وﻣﺎ رﻣ ْﻴﺖ إذ رﻣ ْﻴﺖ وﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻠ ْﻢ ﺗﻘﺘﻠﻮ‪ ْl‬وﻟ‬
‫‪.15‬‬

‫ﺣﺴﻨًﺎ إن اﷲ ‪ٌ Œ‬‬
‫ﻴﻊ ﻋﻠ@ٌ )‪(١٧‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫وإن اﻟﻔﺠﺎر ﻟﻔﻲ ﺟﺤ ٍ@ )‪(١٤‬‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻨﺎس‬ ‫ْﻢ إ‪ F‬ﻳ ْﻮم اﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻻ ر ْﻳﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ وﻟ‬ ‫ْﻢ ‪ E‬ﻳﺠﻤﻌ‬ ‫ْﻢ ‪ E‬ﻳﻤﻴﺘ‬ ‫ﻗﻞ اﷲ ﻳﺤﻴﻴ‬
‫‪.2‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮن )‪(٢٦‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻨﺎس ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮن )‪(٥٩‬‬ ‫إن اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﻻ ر ْﻳﺐ ﻓ‪Q‬ﺎ وﻟ‬
‫‪.3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻧﻄﻔ ٍﺔ إذا ﺗﻤﻨﻰ )‪(٤٦‬وأن ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ اﻟ‪Z‬ﺸﺄة اﻷﺧﺮى )‪(٤٧‬‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪.4‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ا]ﻳﻦ ﻳﺠﺘﻨﺒﻮن ﻛﺒﺎ^ﺮ اﻹ‪ E‬واﻟﻔﻮاﺣﺶ إﻻ اﻟﻠﻤﻢ إن رﺑﻚ واﺳﻊ اﻟﻤﻐﻔﺮة‪(٣٢) ...‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وأن اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﷲ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺪﻋﻮا ﻣﻊ اﷲ أﺣ ًﺪا )‪(١٨‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ‪ ْl‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮن )‪(١٣‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮددﻧﺎه إ‪ F‬أﻣﻪ ﻛ ْﻲ ﺗﻘﺮ ﻋ ْﻴ‪i‬ﺎ وﻻ ﺗﺤﺰن وﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ أن وﻋﺪ اﷲ ﺣﻖ وﻟ‬
‫‪.7‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت وﻧﻌ ٍ@ )‪(١٧‬‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺟ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫إن اﻟ‬
‫‪.8‬‬

‫ﻦ ﻇﻬﻮرﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ْ n‬ﺴﺄﻟﻮﻧﻚ ﻋﻦ اﻷﻫ‪ o‬ﻗ ْﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮاﻗﻴﺖ ﻟﻠﻨﺎس واﻟْﺤﺞ وﻟ ْ‪s‬ﺲ اﻟْﱪ ﺑﺄ ْن ﺗﺄْﺗﻮا اﻟْﺒﻴﻮت ﻣ ْ‬ ‫‪.9‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻢ ﺗﻔﻠﺤﻮن )‪(١٨٩‬‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﻟﱪ ﻣﻦ اﺗﻘﻰ وأﺗﻮا اﻟﺒﻴﻮت ﻣﻦ أﺑﻮا‪v‬ﺎ واﺗﻘﻮا اﷲ ﻟﻌﻠ‬ ‫وﻟ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ْﻢ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧًﺎ‪(٨١) ...‬‬ ‫ْﻢ أﺷﺮﻛ‪ ْy‬ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻟ ْﻢ ﻳﻨﺰل ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠ ْﻴ‬ ‫وﻛ ْﻴﻒ أﺧﺎف ﻣﺎ أﺷﺮﻛ‪ ْy‬وﻻ ﺗﺨﺎﻓﻮن أﻧ‬
‫‪.10‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻋﻠ ٍﻢ إن ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮن إﻻ اﻟﻈﻦ وإن اﻟﻈﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻖ ﺷ ْﻴ ًﺌﺎ )‪(٢٨‬‬ ‫وﻣﺎ ﻟ| ﺑﻪ ﻣ‬
‫‪.11‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫اب أﻟ ٍ@ )‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﺬ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﱪا ﻛﺄ ْن ﻟ ْﻢ ‪ْ n‬ﺴﻤ ْﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﺄن ﰲ أذﻧ ْﻴﻪ و ْﻗ ًﺮا ﻓ• ْ‬
‫‪€‬‬ ‫وإذا ﺗ ْﺘ• ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ آﻳﺎﺗﻨﺎ و‪ F‬ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻜ ً‬ ‫‪.12‬‬
‫ٍ‬
‫ﻳﺐ )‪(١٧‬‬‫ﺘﺎب ﺑﺎﻟْﺤﻖ واﻟْﻤﲒان وﻣﺎ ﻳ ْﺪرﻳﻚ ﻟﻌﻞ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺮ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اﷲ ا]ي أﻧﺰل اﻟ‬
‫‪.13‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﷲ ﺣﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻌﻨ‪ ْy‬وﻟ‬ ‫ﲑ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺜ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْﻢ رﺳﻮل اﷲ ﻟ ْﻮ ﻳﻄﻴﻌ‬ ‫واﻋﻠﻤﻮا أن ﻓﻴ‬
‫‪.14‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻔﺮ واﻟﻔﺴﻮق واﻟﻌﺼﻴﺎن أوﻟ‪‰‬ﻚ ‪l‬‬ ‫ﻢ اﻟ‬ ‫ْﻢ وﻛﺮه إﻟ ْﻴ‬ ‫ﻢ اﻹﻳﻤﺎن وزﻳﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮﺑ‬ ‫إﻟ ْﻴ‬

‫اﻟﺮاﺷﺪون )‪(٧‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﷲ رﻣﻰ وﻟﻴ ْﺒ‪ Š‬اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻼء ً‬ ‫ﻦ اﷲ ﻗﺘﻠ| وﻣﺎ رﻣ ْﻴﺖ إذ رﻣ ْﻴﺖ وﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻠ ْﻢ ﺗﻘﺘﻠﻮ‪ ْl‬وﻟ‬
‫‪.15‬‬

‫ﺣﺴﻨًﺎ إن اﷲ ‪ٌ Œ‬‬
‫ﻴﻊ ﻋﻠ@ٌ )‪(١٧‬‬
1

8.1 Fragments and Pronouns-Status of Attached Pronouns

We’ve done a lot of work so far. Before we go on, I want to share something with you about attached
pronouns:

Remember that the original pronouns are always Raf,’ and the attached versions are either Nasb or Jarr.
An attached pronoun will never, ever be Raf.’ How can you tell if it’s Nasb or Jarr? Let’s take a couple of
examples:

ْ ْ
1. Say we take the word ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬. ‫ ﺑﻨﺖ‬means daughter. If we say something like
ْ ْ
‫ﺑﻨﺘﻚ‬, we see that there two words: ‫ ﺑﻨﺖ‬and the attached pronoun, ‫ك‬, from
ْ
‫أﻧﺖ‬. Together, they mean, ‘your daughter.’ Now, we know that ‫ ك‬can only be ‫ﺑﻨﺘﻚ‬
Nasb or Jarr, but how can we tell which one it is? If you think back to the
definition of an ism (a person, place, thing, adjective, adverb, or more), we
Your daughter
ْ ْ
know that ‫ ﺑﻨﺖ‬is a person, so ‫ ﺑﻨﺖ‬must be an ism. Now here’s something you

can never forget: whenever a pronoun is attached to an ism, the ism is a


‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the pronoun is the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. Since the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬is always Jarr,

the pronoun has to be in Jarr status. So here, ‫ك‬, is Jarr.

ْ
Let’s take another example. Say I’m looking at the word ‫ﻣﻨﻚ‬. You know that ‫ك‬
ْ
2. Harf of Jarr

ْ ‫ ﻣ‬is a Harf of Jarr. What does a Harf of Jarr


is an attached pronoun and that ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻚ‬
Jarr
ْ ‫ﻣ‬, so ‫ﻦ‬
do? It makes the word after it Jarr. ‫ ك‬came after ‫ﻦ‬ ْ ‫ ﻣ‬makes it Jarr.

There are two reasons for something to be Jarr in Arabic:


1. It’s a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬
2. It came after a Harf of Jarr.
2

3. We learned one more fragment: the Harf of Nasb. ‫ إن‬is a Harf of Nasb. What’s its
Harf of Nasb
job? Whatever comes after it is in Nasb status. So if we have the word ‫إﻧﻚ‬,
‫إﻧﻚ‬
with ‫ ك‬as an attached pronoun, we know that ‫ ك‬has to be Nasb here
Nasb
because it’s being beat up by a Harf of Nasb.

So…

When a pronoun is stuck to an ism, it becomes a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, and will have Jarr status.

When a pronoun is stuck to a Harf of Jarr, it’s status is Jarr.


When a pronoun is stuck to a Harf of Nasb, it’s status is Nasb.
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪What is the status of each of the attached pronouns‬‬

‫‪ .1‬و ْ‬
‫اﻣﺮأﺗﻪ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﰲ ﺟﻴﺪﻫﺎ‬

‫‪ .3‬رﺑﻚ‬

‫‪ .4‬إﻧﻪ ﻛﺎن ﺗﻮا ًﺑﺎ‬


‫‪ .5‬ﻛ ْﻴﺪ‪ْ%‬‬

‫‪ .6‬ﻋﻠ ْﻴ) ْﻢ ﻟﺤﺎﻓﻈﲔ‬

‫‪ .7‬إﻧﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻳ ْﺒﺪئ و ﻳﻌﻴﺪ‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬ﻟ ْﻴﺘﻨﻲ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺮا ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ ْ ْ‬
‫اﺻﱪﻧﻔﺴﻚ‬ ‫‪ .9‬و‬
‫‪ .10‬إﻧﻚ ﻟ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ‪ْ 9‬ﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬

‫‪ .11‬ءاﺛﺎرﻫﻤﺎ‬

‫‪ .12‬ﻋﺒﺎدﻧﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻟﻨﺨﺮج ﺑﻪ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫‪ .14‬إﻧ) ْﻢ ﻇﻠﻤ@ْ أﻧﻔﺴ) ْﻢ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫‪ .15‬و إذ ﻓﺮﻗﻨﺎ ﺑ) ْﻢ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .16‬اﻟﻤﻐﻀﻮب ﻋﻠ ْ‪ْ F‬ﻢ‬

‫‪ .17‬اﻟﺤﻖ ﻣﻦ رﺑ) ْﻢ‬

‫‪ .18‬و إﻟ ْﻴﻨﺎ اﻟﻤﺼﲑ‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .19‬إﻧﻚ أﻧﺖ اﻟﻌﻠ‪ J‬اﻟﺤﻜ‪J‬‬

‫‪ .20‬إن ﺷﺎﻧﺌﻚ‬
4

ANSWER KEY:

1. J
2. J
3. J
4. N
5. J
6. J
7. N
8. N
9. J
10. N
11. J
12. J
13. J
14. 1st word: N; 2nd word: J
15. J
16. J
17. J
18. J
19. N
20. J
1

8.2 Fragments and Pronouns-Status of Attached Pronouns (Review)

In this lesson, I reviewed what I told you about pronouns in the last session. To recap, remember that
there are two kinds of pronouns: independent and attached. Independent ones are always Raf’.
Attached ones are always Nasb or Jarr.

I told you four things (we didn’t go into Raf’ status because independent pronouns are always Raf’ so
these four points were about attached pronouns):

When an Attached Pronoun …Its Status Will Be:


Comes After…
H.N (Harf of Nasb) N
Fi’l N
H.J (Harf of Jarr) J
Ism J

Pronouns can be Nasb for two reasons and Jarr for two reasons:

When are they Nasb?

1. When they come after a Harf of Nasb. A Harf of Nasb likes to beat things up and make them
Nasb. If you take any of the Harf of Nasb and attach a pronoun at the end, that pronoun will be
Nasb.
2. When they are attached to a fi’l. We have not studied fi’l yet, but you still have to remember
this right now. One day, when we learn fi’l, you can have a pronoun attached at the end of
them, and when you do, it’s going to be Nasb.

When are they Jarr?

1. When they come after a Harf of Jarr because a Harf of Jarr likes to beat things up and make
them Jarr. They do this to pronouns, too.
2. When they come after an ism. Why? When an ism and a pronoun come together, it’s a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬

and ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬situation. The pronoun is the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, and since ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬is always Jarr, the
pronoun has to be Jarr, as well.

These four points have to stick in your head. You’ve memorized the pronouns, know what they mean,
and now, you know their status.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪What is the status of the pronouns in red‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻟ ْﻢ ْ ْ‬


‫ح ﻟﻚ ﺻﺪرك )‪(١‬ووﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﻚ وزرك )‪(٢‬ا!ي أﻧﻘﺾ ﻇﻬﺮك )‪(٣‬ورﻓﻌﻨﺎ ﻟﻚ ذﻛﺮك )‪(٤‬ﻓﺈن ﻣﻊ‬

‫ﺐ )‪(٧‬وإ< رﺑﻚ ﻓ ْ‬
‫ﺎرﻏ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎﻧﺼ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﺐ )‪(٨‬‬ ‫‪1‬ا )‪(٦‬ﻓﺈذا ﻓﺮﻏﺖ ﻓ‬
‫‪1‬ا )‪(٥‬إن ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌ‪ً 2 4 1‬‬
‫اﻟﻌ‪ً 2 4 1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻳﺎ أ ‪@2‬ﺎ اﻟ ‪2‬ﻤﺰﻣ ‪2‬ﻞ )‪(١‬ﻗ‪2‬ﻢ اﻟﻠ ْﻴﻞ إﻻ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ )‪(٢‬ﻧﺼﻔﻪ ‪ 2‬أو اﻧﻘ‪ْ 2‬ﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻗﻠﻴﻼ )‪(٣‬أ ْو زد ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ ورﺗﻞ اﻟ ‪2‬ﻘ ْﺮآن ﺗ ْﺮﺗﻴﻼ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫)‪(٤‬إﻧﺎ ﺳﻨﻠﻘﻲ ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻚ ﻗ ْﻮﻻ ﺛﻘﻴﻼ )‪(٥‬إن ﻧﺎﺷﺌﺔ اﻟﻠ ْﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ أﺷ ‪2‬ﺪ وﻃ ًﺌﺎ وأﻗﻮم ﻗﻴﻼ )‪(٦‬إن ﻟﻚ ﰲ اﻟ‪X‬ﺎر ﺳ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻓﺎﺗﺨﺬه وﻛﻴﻼ )‪(٩‬‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫إ‬ ‫_‬‫إ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫^‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ق‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ر‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺒ‬‫اﺳﻢ رﺑﻚ وﺗﺒﺘ ْﻞ إﻟ ْﻴﻪ ﺗ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اذﻛﺮ ْ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻼ )‪(٧‬و‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﺪو ﻣﺒﲔ )‪(٥‬وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺎن‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴﺪوا ﻟﻚ ﻛ ْﻴ ًﺪا إن اﻟﺸ ْﻴﻄﺎن ﻟﻺ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻳﺎ ﺑﻨﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺼ ْﺺ رؤﻳﺎك ﻋ‪ f‬إﺧﻮﺗﻚ ﻓﻴﻜ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺗﺄوﻳﻞ اﻷﺣﺎدﻳﺚ وﻳ‪2 u‬ﻧﻌﻤﺘﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻚ وﻋ‪ f‬آل ﻳﻌ ‪2‬ﻘﻮب ﻛﻤﺎ أﺗﻤﻬﺎ ﻋ‪ f‬أﺑﻮ ْﻳﻚ‬‫ﻳﺠﺘﺒﻴﻚ رﺑ‪2‬ﻚ وﻳﻌﻠ ‪2‬ﻤﻚ ﻣ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻗ ْﺒ ‪2‬ﻞ إ ْﺑﺮاﻫ‪ v‬وإ ْﺳﺤﺎق إن رﺑﻚ ﻋﻠ‪ ٌv‬ﺣﻜ‪(٦) ٌv‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎن ﰲ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ وإﺧﻮﺗﻪ آﻳﺎت ﻟﻠﺴﺎ‪y‬ﻠﲔ )‪(٧‬‬
‫ﻣ ْ‬
‫‪2 2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻟ ْﻢ ْ ْ‬


‫ح ﻟﻚ ﺻﺪرك )‪(١‬ووﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﻚ وزرك )‪(٢‬ا!ي أﻧﻘﺾ ﻇﻬﺮك )‪(٣‬ورﻓﻌﻨﺎ ﻟﻚ ذﻛﺮك )‪(٤‬ﻓﺈن ﻣﻊ‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ﺐ )‪(٧‬وإ< رﺑﻚ ﻓ ْ‬
‫ﺎرﻏ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎﻧﺼ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﺐ )‪(٨‬‬ ‫‪1‬ا )‪(٦‬ﻓﺈذا ﻓﺮﻏﺖ ﻓ‬
‫‪1‬ا )‪(٥‬إن ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌ‪ً 2 4 1‬‬
‫اﻟﻌ‪ً 2 4 1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻳﺎ أ ‪@2‬ﺎ اﻟ ‪2‬ﻤﺰﻣ ‪2‬ﻞ )‪(١‬ﻗ‪2‬ﻢ اﻟﻠ ْﻴﻞ إﻻ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ )‪(٢‬ﻧﺼﻔﻪ ‪ 2‬أو اﻧﻘ‪ْ 2‬ﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻗﻠﻴﻼ )‪(٣‬أ ْو زد ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ ورﺗﻞ اﻟ ‪2‬ﻘ ْﺮآن ﺗ ْﺮﺗﻴﻼ‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫)‪(٤‬إﻧﺎ ﺳﻨﻠﻘﻲ ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻚ ﻗ ْﻮﻻ ﺛﻘﻴﻼ )‪(٥‬إن ﻧﺎﺷﺌﺔ اﻟﻠ ْﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ أﺷ ‪2‬ﺪ وﻃ ًﺌﺎ وأﻗﻮم ﻗﻴﻼ )‪(٦‬إن ﻟﻚ ﰲ اﻟ‪X‬ﺎر ﺳ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻓﺎﺗﺨﺬه وﻛﻴﻼ )‪(٩‬‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫إ‬ ‫_‬‫إ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫^‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ق‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ر‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺒ‬‫اﺳﻢ رﺑﻚ وﺗﺒﺘ ْﻞ إﻟ ْﻴﻪ ﺗ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اذﻛﺮ ْ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻼ )‪(٧‬و‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻳﺎ ﺑﻨﻲ ﻻ ﺗ ْﻘﺼ ْ‬


‫ﺪو ﻣﺒﲔ )‪(٥‬وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺎن‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻺ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺎن‬‫ﻄ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺧﻮﺗﻚ ﻓﻴﻜﻴﺪوا ﻟﻚ ﻛ ْﻴ ًﺪا إن اﻟﺸ ْ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫‪f‬‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ك‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺺ‬
‫‪2 2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻳﺠﺘﺒﻴﻚ رﺑ‪2‬ﻚ وﻳﻌﻠ ‪2‬ﻤﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄوﻳﻞ اﻷﺣﺎدﻳﺚ وﻳ‪2 u‬ﻧﻌﻤﺘﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ وﻋ‪ f‬آل ﻳﻌ ‪2‬ﻘﻮب ﻛﻤﺎ أﺗﻤﻬﺎ ﻋ‪ f‬أﺑﻮﻳﻚ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻗ ْﺒ ‪2‬ﻞ إ ْﺑﺮاﻫ‪ v‬وإ ْﺳﺤﺎق إن رﺑﻚ ﻋﻠ‪ ٌv‬ﺣﻜ‪(٦) ٌv‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎن ﰲ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ وإﺧﻮﺗﻪ آﻳﺎت ﻟﻠﺴﺎ‪y‬ﻠﲔ )‪(٧‬‬
‫ﻣ ْ‬
‫‪2 2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬
1

8.3 Fragments—Idhafah (Special Mudafs)

Okay, there’s one last little bit about ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬that you have to know. Here is a list of words
we went over today in class:

ْ ْ ْ
‫وراء‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻗ ْﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻓ ْﻮق‬
Behind Behind After Before Below Above

ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫!ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺣ ْﻮل‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬
$
With Has, with, Besides, other Without, non Around Between
nearby than
ْ ْ
‫ﻞ‬$ + $‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﺾ‬
$ ‫ﺑﻌ‬ ‫ي‬
$+ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬0
$
All of Some of Which Especially from

All of these are isms. Remember the definition of an ism is a person, place, thing, adjective, adverb, and
more. Is ‘above’ a person? No. A place? No. A thing? No. An adjective? No. An adverb? More? Maybe.
Some words can’t be put under person, place, etc., so this is the ‘more’ list. I like to call these words
special ‫'ﻣﻀﺎف‬s. Here’s why:

1. Notice that I made all of them light without ‫ال‬. That’s because whenever you use them in Arabic,

they’re usually playing the role of a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬, so there’s no point in making them heavy to begin
with, even though it’s not impossible to make them heavy. A lot of times, you have to look and
see if the first word is light, no ‫ ال‬and the second word is Jarr to see if you have a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and

‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬going on. Since these guys come as ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬anyway, I can automatically spot a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬

and ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬without having to think about it.

2. Why am I calling them ‘special’ ‫’ﻣﻀﺎف‬s? Well, when we translate Idhafah, the word ‘of’ usually
ْ
goes between the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. But if were to say 1! ‫ ْﺮ‬3‫اﻟ‬
$ ‫( ﺗﺤﺖ‬1! ‫ ْﺮ‬$‫ ﻛ‬means
‘chair’), that means ‘under the chair,’ not ‘under of the chair.’ In other words, when you try to
2

figure out the meaning, even though it’s a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, you don’t necessarily need an
‘of.’
3. Lastly: I made some of them Nasb, and some of them Raf,’ It’s not a rule or anything, but when
you’re reading Quran, you’ll find that they happen to be Nasb. That’s only because they happen
to be details most of the time. ‘I was sitting.’ Where? ‘On top of the chair.’ ‘On’ gives me details
about where I was sitting. That’s why I’d find it Nasb. You can find them as Raf’, and even Jarr
sometimes, but normally, you’ll find them as Nasb.

I’m not making you memorize these words, but you are expected to know them.
3

EXERCISES:

Fill in the blanks with the correct meanings:

ْ
_________ the right/justification/truth/evidence ‫ !ﻖ‬+ ‫ﲑ اﻟﺤ‬
! ‫ !ﺑﻐ‬.1

_________ all of you ‫ ْﻢ‬3 $ 7‫آ‬


! ‫ ور‬.2
ْ ْ
_________ them 9! ‫ ﺧﻠ !ﻔ‬.3
ْ ْ
_________ them 9! ‫ ﻗﺒ !ﻠ‬.4
ْ
_________ you all ‫ ْﻢ‬3 $ ‫ﻀ‬ $ ‫ ﺑﻌ‬.5

_________ us ‫ ﺑ ْﻴﻨﻨﺎ‬.6

‫; ْﻢ‬$ + ‫ أ‬.7
_________ them $
ْ ْ ْ
_________ two sisters ‫ﲔ‬
! ‫ﺧﺘ‬$‫ ﺑﲔ اﻷ‬.8
‫ﻧﺎ‬+ 0 .9
_________ us $
ْ
_________ the obligation ‫ ﺑﻌ !ﺪ اﻟﻔ !ﺮﻳﻀ !ﺔ‬.10

‫ دون ذﻟ!ﻚ‬.11
_________ that $
ْ
You _________ ‫ !ﻋﻨ !ﺪك‬.12

_________ her/it ‫ ﻓ ْﻮﻗﻬﺎ‬.13


ْ
_________ the tree ‫اﻟﺸﺠﺮ !ة‬
+ ‫ ﺗﺤﺖ‬.14

_________ both of them ‫ﻤﺎ‬$I‫ ﺑ ْﻴ‬.15


4

ANSWER KEY:

1. Without
2. Behind
3. Behind
4. Before
5. Some of
6. Between
7. Which
8. Between
9. Especially from
10. After
11. Other than
12. Have
13. Above
14. Under
15. Between
1

9.1 Fragments—Introduction to Mawsoof Sifah

Today, we’re starting our next fragment: they’re two words called ‫ ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬and ‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬. In English, when

we say, ‘beautiful car,’ we’re describing something. If I want to describe lots of cars, I don’t say,
‘beautifuls cars.’ I say, ‘beautiful cars.’ I didn’t make the ‘beautiful’ plural even though the ‘cars’ are
plural. Similarly, if I say ‘smart boy,’ I don’t change it to ‘smart-ette’ when I want to talk about a girl. That
would be weird. But in Arabic, they do that.

In English, you have nouns and you have adjectives. They’re two separate things. In Arabic, nouns and
adjectives are part of the same family. They’re not separate. Why not? Because we say, an ‘ism is a
person, place, thing, idea, (so far, that’s like saying that an ism is a noun), we go on and say ‘adjective,
adverb, and more.’ So, in Arabic, nouns and adjectives are part of the same category. Now, an ism has
four properties, right? That means that every noun has status, number, gender, and type. It also means
that every adjective has status, number, gender and type, as well. So there is such a thing as ‘beautifuls’
and ‘smartette’ in Arabic. Just like you give nouns a number, you have to give adjectives a number. Just
like you give nouns a gender, you have to give adjectives a gender. The same goes for status and type.

Now, watch this:

ٌ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ ذﻛ‬
‫ﻲ‬
R, S, M, C = R, S, M, C

ٌ ‫ ذﻛ‬is also Raf’, singular, masculine, and common. You


‫ ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬is Raf’, singular, masculine, and common. ‫ﻲ‬
have two words that came together and match in all four properties. When that happens, you call the
first one ‫ ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬and the second one ‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬. Now, when you translate it, you have to know that ‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬

and ‫ ﺻﻔﺔ‬work backwards. In English, the description comes first (intelligent) and the thing you’re

describing comes second (boy) so it looks like ‘intelligent boy.’ But in Arabic, it’s switched around. The
noun, boy, comes first. The adjective, intelligent, comes second. You won’t say, ‘Muslim intelligent’—
that’s bad English. Instead, you would say, ‘An intelligent Muslim.’

ٌ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ ذﻛ‬
‫ﻲ‬
intelligent Muslim = An intelligent Muslim
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Tell whether each of the following is a case of Mawsoof and Sifah or not.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻛﻼم اﷲ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺛﻤﻨًﺎ ﻗﻠ ً‬
‫ﻴﻼ‬

‫‪ .3‬و ﻧﻔﺼﻞ اﻵﻳﺎت‬

‫‪ .4‬رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬

‫‪ .5‬اﻟﻤ ْﺴﺠﺪ اﻟﺤﺮام‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬أﻋﻈﻢ درﺟ ٍﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻮل‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻛﻌﺼ ٍﻒ ﻣﺄﻛ ٍ‬
‫‪ is a collective plural word‬ﻗ ْﻮم ‪Note: the word‬‬ ‫‪ .8‬اﻟﻘﻮم اﻟﻔﺎﺳﻘﲔ‬
‫‪(nation) that is given plural, masculine adjectives‬‬
‫‪ .9‬إ‪ً 9‬ﺎ واﺣ ًﺪا‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .10‬ﺟﻨﺘﺎن ﻣﺪﻫﺂﻣﺘﺎن‬

‫‪ .11‬ﻳ ْﻮم ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ‬

‫‪ .12‬ﻋ ْﻴﻨﺎن ﻧﻀﺎﺧﺘﺎن‬

‫‪ .13‬ﻧﺎ ًرا ﺣﺎﻣﻴ ًﺔ‬

‫‪ .14‬اﻟﺼﺮاط اﻟﻤ ْﺴﺘﻘ‪D‬‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .15‬ﺑﲔ اﻟﺼﻠﺐ‬

‫‪ .16‬ا ْﺳﻢ رﺑﻚ‬

‫‪ .17‬ﻏ ْﻴﻆ ﻗﻠﻮ‪ْ I‬ﻢ‬


‫‪ .18‬ﻋﺬ ٌ‬
‫اب أﻟ‪ٌD‬‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .19‬ﻧﺬ ٌ‬
‫ﻳﺮ ﻣﺒﲔ‬

‫‪ .20‬ﻋ‪ O‬اﷲ‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. No
2. Yes
3. No
4. No
5. Yes
6. No
7. Yes
8. Yes
9. Yes
10. Yes
11. No
12. Yes
13. Yes
14. Yes
15. No
16. No
17. No
18. Yes
19. Yes
20. No
1

9.2 Fragments—Mawsoof Sifah

I just have to tell you a few more things about ‫ ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬and ‫ ﺻﻔﺔ‬and we’ll be good to go. Here’s what

we know so far:

1. Noun comes first, adjective comes second


2. There may be lots of adjectives for one noun, for example: cold, hard, delicious chocolate
3. 4 properties of noun = 4 properties of adjective (their properties match)
4. Broken plurals are treated like a girl. So when you want to give broken plurals an adjective, you
have to give them an adjective as though you’re giving a girl an adjective. This holds true for
words that are feminine because the Arabs said so. When you give those words an adjective,
you have to give those words a feminine adjective because the Arabs think that what you’re
talking about a feminine.

Just run through some more practice problems so that you become more familiar with how ‫ ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬and

‫ ﺻﻔﺔ‬work.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪ cases‬ﺻﻔﺔ ‪ and‬ﻣﻮﺻﻮف ‪Are these‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺳﺤ ٌﺮ ﻣﺒﲔ‬

‫‪ .2‬إ ﻳ ْﻮم اﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻳﻮ ٍم ﻋﻈ ٍ‬
‫‪ .4‬اﻟﻔ ْﻮز اﻟﻤﺒﲔ‬
‫‪ .5‬ﻋ" ﻛﻞ ْ‬
‫& ٍء ﻗﺪ ٌ‬
‫ﻳﺮ‬

‫‪ .6‬أﺳﺎﻃﲑ اﻷوﻟﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ ا‪/‬ﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬اﻟﺤﻴﺎة ا‪/‬ﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪ .9‬إن اﷲ ﻗﺎد ٌر‬

‫‪ .10‬رب اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﲔ‬

‫‪ .11‬اﻟﻘ ْﻮم اﻟﻈﺎﻟﻤﻮن‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬
‫‪ .12‬ﻋﲔ ﺟﺎرﻳﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻛﺎﻟﻔﺮاش اﻟﻤ ْﺒﺜﻮث‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .14‬ﻣﺜﻘﺎل ذر ٍة‬

‫‪ .15‬ﻋ‪B‬ﺸ ٍﺔ راﺿﻴ ٍﺔ‬


‫‪ .16‬واﻟﻌﺎدﻳﺎت ﺿ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .17‬ﻧ ٌ‬
‫ﺎر ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫‪ .18‬ﻛﺎﻟﻌﻬﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﻔﻮش‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .19‬ﻟﺤﺐ اﻟﺨﲑ ﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .20‬ﻛﺘ ٌ‬
‫ﺐ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. Yes
2. No
3. Yes
4. Yes
5. No
6. No
7. Yes
8. Yes
9. No
10. No
11. Yes
12. Yes
13. Yes
14. No
15. Yes
16. No
17. Yes
18. Yes
19. No
20. Yes
1

10.1 & 10.2 Fragments--Pointers

Today we’re going to use pg. 30 to start our next fragment: pointing words. We went over these words
in class:

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺬان‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬


these these two this

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬


these these two (fem.) this (fem.)

‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ذاﻧﻚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬


those both of those that
ْ
‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬
those both of those (fem.) that (fem.)

It might seem a bit hard to keep the meanings straight, but if you look at the list, you’ll notice that all the
ones that begin with ‘ha’ refer to something that’s nearby (this, these two, these), and the ones that end
with a ‘kaaf’ are far (that, those two, those). You need to memorize these words and know what they
mean.

We took a few notes on pointing words on pg. 30:

ْ
1. Pointing words are known as ‫أ ﺂء اﻹﺷﺎرة‬
2. They are all non-flexible, except for their pairs.
a. Non-flexible words look the same in Raf’, Nasb, and Jarr status. So, the Raf’ version of
‫ ذﻟﻚ‬is ‫ذﻟﻚ‬, the Nasb version is ‫ذﻟﻚ‬, and the Jarr version is ‫ذﻟﻚ‬. They all look the same.
Now, when you look at the pairs, that’s when you’ll see something different—they are
flexible. So if you took ‫( ﻫﺬان‬the Raf’ version), its Nasb version would look like ‫ﻫﺬ ْﻳﻦ‬, and

its Jarr version would look like ‫ﻫﺬ ْﻳﻦ‬, too. The chart below shows you what each of the
pointing words looks like in Raf’, Nasb, and Jarr (the grayed-out words are non-flexible):

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺬان‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬ Raf’

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺬ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬ Nasb

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺬ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬ Jarr


2

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬ Raf’


ْ
‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬ Nasb
ْ
‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬ Jarr

‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ذاﻧﻚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ Raf’

‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ذ ْﻳﻨﻚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ Nasb

‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ذ ْﻳﻨﻚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ Jarr

ْ
‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ Raf’
ْ
‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ﺗ ْﻴﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ Nasb
ْ
‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ﺗ ْﻴﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ Jarr

3. Pointing words are always proper.


4. Pointing words can be used to make sentences or fragments.
a. If the word after the pointing word has ‘al’ (alif-laam), then it makes a fragment:
‫ﺒﻲ‬#‫ = ﻫﺬا اﻟﻨ‬This prophet (a fragment because the word after ‫ ﻫﺬا‬has an ‘al’ on it)
#
b. If the word after the pointing word does NOT have an ‘al’ after it, then it makes a
sentence. So ‫ﻲ‬ ٌ ‫ = ﻫﺬا ﻧﺒ‬This is a prophet. The ‘is’ comes about because you are now
#
looking at a sentence, not a fragment.

**Note: Points a and b only apply to pointing words, not every time an ‘al’ comes up in the
Quran.
ْ
5. ‫ ﻫﺬه‬or ‫ ﺗﻠﻚ‬could be talking about a broken plural. If this is the case, then it does not mean ‘this’
or ‘that.’ Since you’re talking about a plural, it’ll be translated as ‘those’ or ‘these,’ instead.
3

EXERCISES

Are the following sentences or fragments? Try translating them as you go along (some vocabulary has
been provided for you to help you piece things together).

‫ ذﻟﻚ اﻟ)ﺘﺎب‬.1
book

Knowledgeable magician ٌ*‫ﻫﺬا ﻟﺴﺎﺣ ٌﺮ ﻋﻠ‬# .2

‫اﻟﺸﺠﺮة‬
# ‫ﻫﺬه‬# .3
Tree

ْ
1‫ ذﻟﻚ أد‬.4
Closer

ْ
‫ﻧﻴﺎ‬3‫ا‬# ‫ ﻫﺬه‬.5
Inferior, lower thing

ْ
‫ار‬3‫ا‬ # ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺗ‬.6

‫ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻘ ْﺮﻳﺔ‬.7


Town

‫ﺎر‬#‫ﻚ أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨ‬8‫ أوﻟ‬.8


Companions of the fire

ٌ ْ
‫ ذﻟﻚ ﺧﲑ‬.9
Better

‫ا<ي‬# ‫ﻫﺬ ا‬# .10


The one who

Country ً ‫ ﻫﺬا ﺑ‬.11


‫>ا‬
ٌ ْ
‫ﻣﺔ‬# ‫ ﺗﻠﻚ أ‬.12
Nation

‫ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻘ ْﺮآن‬.13

‫ ﻫﺆﻵء ﺷﻔﻌﺎؤﻧﺎ‬.14
Intercessors

E# ‫ ﻫﺬا ر‬.15
Master

ٌ
‫ ﻫﺬا ﺻﺮاط‬.16
Path

‫ ﻫﺬه ﺑﻀﺎﻋﺘﻨﺎ‬.17
Goods/merchandise

Cattle ٌ ‫ ﻫﺬه أ ْﻧﻌ‬.18


‫ﺎم‬

‫ ﻫﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬.19
Arguers

‫اﷲ‬
# ‫ ﻫﺬه ﻧﺎﻗﺔ‬.20
She-camel
4

ANSWER KEY

S = sentence, F = fragment

‫ ذﻟﻚ اﻟ)ﺘﺎب‬.1
F That book

S This is certainly, a knowledgeable magician ٌ*‫ﻫﺬا ﻟﺴﺎﺣ ٌﺮ ﻋﻠ‬# .2

‫اﻟﺸﺠﺮة‬
# ‫ﻫﺬه‬# .3
F This tree

ْ
1‫ ذﻟﻚ أد‬.4
S That is closer

ْ
‫ﻧﻴﺎ‬3‫ا‬# ‫ ﻫﺬه‬.5
F This inferior, lower thing

ْ
‫ار‬3‫ا‬ ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺗ‬.6
F That house
#
‫ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻘ ْﺮﻳﺔ‬.7
F This town

‫ﺎر‬#‫ﻚ أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨ‬8‫ أوﻟ‬.8


S Those are the companions of the fire

ٌ ْ
‫ ذﻟﻚ ﺧﲑ‬.9
S That is better

‫ا<ي‬# ‫ﻫﺬ ا‬# .10


S This is the one who (there is an ‘al’ next, but this is an
exception to the rule…more about this later)
S This is a country ً ‫ ﻫﺬا ﺑ‬.11
‫>ا‬
ٌ ْ
‫ﻣﺔ‬# ‫ ﺗﻠﻚ أ‬.12
S That is a nation

‫ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻘ ْﺮآن‬.13


F This Quran

‫ ﻫﺆﻵء ﺷﻔﻌﺎؤﻧﺎ‬.14
S These are our intercessors

E# ‫ ﻫﺬا ر‬.15
S This is my Master

ٌ
‫ ﻫﺬا ﺻﺮاط‬.16
S This is a path

‫ ﻫﺬه ﺑﻀﺎﻋﺘﻨﺎ‬.17
S These are our goods/merchandise

S These are cattle ٌ ‫ ﻫﺬه أ ْﻧﻌ‬.18


‫ﺎم‬

‫ ﻫﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬.19
S These two are arguers

‫اﷲ‬
# ‫ ﻫﺬه ﻧﺎﻗﺔ‬.20
S This is the she-camel of Allah
1

11.1 Sentences

We finished talking about the fragments and now we start the exciting step of making sentences! Before
we do that, please review the 5 fragments (more than a word but less than a sentence):

1. Idhaafah
2. Mawsoof/Sifah
3. Harf of Jar
4. Harf of Nasb
5. Pointers with Al

We learned there are 2 kinds of sentences:

ْ ْ ): what we’ve been learning about


1. Ism based (‫ا ﻴﺔ‬
ْ
2. Fi’l based ( ‫) ْ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬

ْ ْ
Our first job in understanding a ‫ا ﻴﺔ‬ is to find the invisible “is”, here ar tips to do that:

ْ
1. Proper followed by common: ‫ اﷲ أﻛﱪ‬Allah IS greater
2. Harf of Nasb + it’s victim:
o The invisible “is” is right after the harf & it’s victim ….. IS ‫إن اﻹ ﺴﺎن‬
o Remember that the victim of a harf of nasb can be far away from the harf but we still
translate them together
3. Raf’ pronouns: ‫ ﻫﻮ‬isn’t just “he” but “he is…”
4. Pointers + no AL: review the lesson on pointers
5. Break in the chain
o when you can’t connect a bunch of isms together by applying what you learned of the 5
fragments, you will find the invisible “is” where the connection is lost
ْ
‫اﻟﺤﻤﺪ | ﷲ رب اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﲔ‬
ٌ ‫ﻢ | ﻣﺮ‬$‫ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮ‬
‫ض‬ ْ
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫? ”‪Where is the invisible “is‬‬

‫ْ ٌ‬
‫‪ .1‬إ‪ْ ,‬ﻢ ﻓﺘﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ .2‬رﺑﻨﺎ رب اﻟﺴﻤﺎوات‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺗﻠﻚ آﻳﺎت اﻟ‪1‬ﺘﺎب‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .4‬ﰲ اﻷ ْرض ﻗﻄ ٌﻊ ﻣﺘﺠﺎورات‬

‫‪ .5‬أوﻟ ٰـ;ﻚ أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨﺎر‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬اﻷﻧﻔﺎل ﻟﻠـﻪ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻛﺄﻧﻚ ﺣﻔ ٌ‬
‫ﻲ‬

‫ﲔ‬
‫‪ .8‬اﻟﻈﺎﻟﻤﻮن ﰲ ﺿﻼ ٍل ﻣﺒ ٍ‬
‫‪ .9‬إن اﷲ ﻗﺎد ٌر‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .10‬ﻟ ٰـﻜﻨﻲ رﺳﻮل‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .11‬أﻧ‪ ْO‬ﻗ ْﻮ ٌم ﻣ‪M‬ﻓﻮن‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .12‬ﻣﻦ ﻃ ْﻠﻌﻬﺎ ﻗﻨْﻮ ٌ‬
‫ان داﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻛﺄن ﰲ أذﻧ ْﻴﻪ وﻗﺮً ا‬

‫‪ .14‬ﻫ ٰـﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬


‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .15‬اﻟﻨﺠﻮم ﻣﺴﺨﺮات‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .16‬ﺑﻌﻀ‪ Z‬أ ْوﻟﻴﺎء ﺑﻌ ٍﺾ‬
‫‪ .17‬إن ﻟ ْﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ ﻣﻔ ً‬
‫ﺎزا‬
‫ٌ ْ‬
‫‪ .18‬اﻟﻠـﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟ‪1‬ﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .19‬أ ْﺑﺼﺎرﻫﺎ ﺧﺎﺷﻌﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .20‬أن اﻟﻘﻮة ﻟﻠـﻪ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ ٌ‬
‫‪ .1‬إ‪ْ ,‬ﻢ | ﻓﺘﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ .2‬رﺑﻨﺎ | رب اﻟﺴﻤﺎوات‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺗﻠﻚ | آﻳﺎت اﻟ‪1‬ﺘﺎب‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .4‬ﰲ اﻷ ْرض | ﻗﻄ ٌﻊ ﻣﺘﺠﺎورات‬

‫‪ .5‬أوﻟ ٰـ;ﻚ | أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨﺎر‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬اﻷﻧﻔﺎل | ﻟﻠـﻪ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻛﺄﻧﻚ | ﺣﻔ ٌ‬
‫ﻲ‬

‫ﲔ‬
‫‪ .8‬اﻟﻈﺎﻟﻤﻮن | ﰲ ﺿﻼ ٍل ﻣﺒ ٍ‬
‫‪ .9‬إن اﷲ | ﻗﺎد ٌر‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .10‬ﻟ ٰـﻜﻨﻲ | رﺳﻮل‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .11‬أﻧ‪ | ْO‬ﻗ ْﻮ ٌم ﻣ‪M‬ﻓﻮن‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .12‬ﻣﻦ ﻃ ْﻠﻌﻬﺎ | ﻗﻨْﻮ ٌ‬
‫ان داﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻛﺄن ﰲ أذﻧ ْﻴﻪ وﻗﺮً ا )ﻛﺄن وﻗﺮا ً| ﰲ أذﻧ ْﻴﻪ (‬

‫‪ .14‬ﻫ ٰـﺬان | ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬


‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .15‬اﻟﻨﺠﻮم | ﻣﺴﺨﺮات‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .16‬ﺑﻌﻀ‪ | Z‬أ ْوﻟﻴﺎء ﺑﻌ ٍﺾ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫‪ .17‬إن ﻟ ْﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ ﻣﻔ ً‬
‫ﺎزا )إن ﻣﻔﺎزا ً| ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ (‬
‫ٌ ْ‬
‫‪ .18‬اﻟﻠـﻪ | ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟ‪1‬ﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .19‬أ ْﺑﺼﺎرﻫﺎ | ﺧﺎﺷﻌﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .20‬أن اﻟﻘﻮة | ﻟﻠـﻪ‬
1

12.1 Introduction to Fi’l - Past Tense

Knowing your pronouns is very important in understanding how to use Fi’ls. Please review page 18;
know the pronouns and their meanings.

ْ
We started learning about past tense (‫ )ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬fi’ls today:

If a fi’l ends with this sound: The doer is: Looks like: The meaning is:
ْ
‘A’ He (‫)ھو‬ ‫أﻧﺰل‬ He sent down

ْ ْ
‘Att’ She ( ‫)ھ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬ She sent down
ْ
‘Aa’ Both of them ( ‫)ھ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻻ‬ Both of them sent down
ْ
‘Taa’ Both of them (fem)( ‫)ھ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﺎ‬ Both of those girls sent down
ْ
‘Oo’ All of them (‫)ھم‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟ ْﻮا‬ They sent down
ْ ْ
‘Na’ All of them (fem) (‫)ھُن‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﻦ‬ The women sent down

We also learned some new vocabulary:

ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺰل‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﺗﺨﺬ‬
Sent down Made Warned Congratulated Worked Took
‫ﻛﱪ‬ ‫ﺧﺮج‬ ‫ﻗﺎل‬ ‫آﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺄ‬
Got big Left Said Believed Assumed Prepared

Then we practiced saying the fi’l chart with the pronouns on page 33. We should practice this chart with
the pronouns and know it very well.

We’ll be analyzing Surat ul Kahf with the grammar rules we’ve learned so be sure to start working on
memorizing it.
2

EXERCISES:

Translate the following sentences

1. ‫ﻗﺎﻟ ْﻮا‬
ْ
2. ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﺎ‬
ْ
3. ‫ﺣﺴﺒﺖ‬
ْ
4. ‫أﻧﺬر‬

5. ‫ﺟﻌﻼ‬
6. Those women believed

7. Both of them said


8. She got big
9. The two girls prepared

10. They worked


11. The two girls took
12. Both of them left

13. She congratulated


14. The two girls assumed
15. Those women said
16. They warned
17. Both of them congratulated
18. He sent down

19. They got big


20. Those women prepared
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. ‫ﻗﺎﻟ ْﻮا‬ They said


ْ
2. ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﺎ‬ The two girls sent down
ْ
3. ‫ﺣﺴﺒﺖ‬ She assumed
ْ
4. ‫أﻧﺬ ْرن‬ The women warned

5. ‫ﺟﻌﻼ‬ Both of them made

‫آﻣﻦ‬
6. Those women believed

‫ﻗﺎﻻ‬
7. Both of them said

ْ
‫ﻛﱪت‬
8. She got big

‫ﻫﻴﺄﺗﺎ‬
9. The two girls prepared

‫ﻋﻤﻠ ْﻮا‬
10. They worked

‫اﺗﺨﺬﺗﺎ‬
11. The two girls took

‫ﺧ ﺮﺟ ﺎ‬
12. Both of them left

ْ
‫ت‬
13. She congratulated

‫ﺣ ﺴﺒﺘ ﺎ‬
14. The two girls assumed

ْ
‫ﻗﻠﻦ‬
15. Those women said

ْ
‫أﻧﺬر ْوا‬
16. They warned

‫ا‬
17. Both of them congratulated

ْ
‫أﻧﺰل‬
18. He sent down

‫ﻛﱪ ْوا‬
19. They got big

ْ
‫ﻫﻴ ﺄ ن‬
20. Those women prepared
1

12.2 Fi’l - Past Tense (cont’d)

We continued our lesson on past tense fi’l and how to change the fi’l depending on the doer:

If a fi’l ends with this sound: The doer is: Looks like: The meaning is:
ْ ْ ْ
‘Ta’ You (‫)أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬ You sent down
ْ ْ
‘Toma’ Both of you (‫)أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﻤﺎ‬ Both of you sent down

‘Tom’ ْ
All of you (ْ ‫)أﻧ‬ ْ ْ‫أ ْﻧﺰﻟ‬ All of you sent down
ْ ْ ْ
‘Ti’ You (f)(‫)أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬ You (f) sent down
ْ ْ
‘Toma’ Both of you (f) (‫)أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﻤﺎ‬ Both of you (f) sent down
ْ ْ ْ
‘Toona’ All of them (fem) (‫)أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﻦ‬ All of you (f) sent down
ْ ْ
‘To’ I (‫)أﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬ I sent down

ْ ْ ْ
‘Naa’ We (‫)ﻧﺤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ‬ We sent down

Practice changing the fi’ls that we learned with the different doers (hidden/inside pronouns) like we
changed the fi’l ‫ ﻧﺼﺮ‬on page 33. We should always say the pronoun along with the fi’l as we practice.

We also started learning about how to tell the difference between the hidden pronoun inside the fi’l and
the outside pronoun that’s being affected by the fi’l. For example:

‫ﻧﺼﺮﻛ ْﻢ‬: first we identify the attached pronoun (‫ )ﻛ ْﻢ‬and ignore it. The translate the

original verb (‫ )ﻧﺼﺮ‬, he helped. Then translate the attached pronoun: all of you. Together it
translates as “he helped all of you”
2

EXERCISES:

Find the hidden pronoun and translate it:

Ex: He ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل‬


ْ
‫ ﺧﻔﺖ‬.1
ْ
‫ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬.2

‫ ﺗﻜﻠﻤ ْﻮا‬.3

‫ اﺗﻘ ْﻮا‬.4

‫ وﻫﻦ‬.5
Translate the following sentences:

1. You assumed
2. All of you (f) got big
3. All of you sent down

4. Both of you left


5. I warned
6. Both of you (f) took
7. We made
8. You (f) congratulated
9. We believed

10. All of you (f) prepared

Translate the following sentences:

ْ
Ex: He made them % ‫ﺟ ﻌﻠ‬
ْ
(‫ أﻧﺰ‬.1
ْ
‫ ﺟﻌﻠﺘ) ْﻢ‬.2

‫ اﺗﺨﺬوﻫﺎ‬.3
ْ
‫ﻦ‬,‫ أﻧﺬ ْر‬.4
ْ /0 .5
.
3

ANSWER KEY:

Find the hidden pronoun and translate it:

ْ
I ‫أﻧﺎ‬ ‫ ﺧﻔﺖ‬.1

‫ﻫﻲ‬ ْ
She ‫ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬.2

They ْ. ‫ ﺗﻜﻠﻤ ْﻮا‬.3

They ْ. ‫ اﺗﻘ ْﻮا‬.4

He ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ وﻫﻦ‬.5
Translate the following sentences:

‫ﺣﺴ ْﺒﺖ‬
1. You assumed

ْ
‫ﻛﱪﺗﻦ‬
2. All of you (f) got big

3. All of you sent down ْ ْ‫أ ْﻧﺰﻟ‬

4. Both of you left ْ ‫ﺧﺮ‬


‫ﺟﺘﻤﺎ‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺬ ْرت‬
5. I warned

ْ
‫اﺗﺨﺬﺗﻤﺎ‬
6. Both of you (f) took

ْ
‫ﺟﻌﻠﻨﺎ‬
7. We made

8. You (f) congratulated ْ 0


‫ت‬/

‫آﻣﻨﺎ‬
9. We believed
ْ
‫ﻫﻴﺄﺗﻦ‬
10. All of you (f) prepared

Translate the following sentences:

ْ
(‫ أﻧﺰ‬.1
He sent it down

ْ
‫ ﺟﻌﻠﺘ) ْﻢ‬.2
She made you

‫ اﺗﺨﺬوﻫﺎ‬.3
They took her

ْ
‫ﻦ‬,‫ أﻧﺬ ْر‬.4
I warned them (f)

He congratulated them ْ /0 .5
.
1

12.3 Fi’l - Past Tense (Practice and Pronouns)

We continued practicing what we learned about past tense over the last two sessions. This session we
focused on finding the hidden pronoun which is always the doer and the attached pronoun, which is
always the detail. We also learned that when a pronoun is attached to a fi’l it is in nasb status. Complete
the following exercises for more practice.

Find the hidden pronoun and translate it:

ْ
‫ﻛﻔﺮت‬

‫ﺷﻜﺮ ْوا‬

‫ﻛﺎن‬

‫ﻋﻠﻤﺘﺎ‬

‫ﻏﻔ ْﺮت‬

‫رﺟﻌﺘﺎ‬
ْ ‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒ‬
ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﻦ‬

Translate the following sentences:


ْ
‫ﺎ‬$‫ﻫﻴﺄﺗ‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺬرﺗﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺟﻌﻠﻮاﻛ ْﻢ‬
ْ
‫اﺗﺨﺬﺗﻤﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬

‫*)ﻦ‬ ْ +
ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﻪ‬
ْ
‫ﻗﻠﺘﻪ‬
ْ
‫ﻫﻴﺄﻧﺎﻫﺎ‬
ْ
‫ ْﻢ‬.‫ﺟﻌﻠ‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬
2

ANSWER KEY

Find the hidden pronoun and translate it:

ْ
‫ﻫﻲ‬, she ‫ﻛﻔﺮت‬
ْ0, they ‫ﺷﻜﺮ ْوا‬

‫ﻫﻮ‬, he ‫ﻛﺎن‬

‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, both of them (f) ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺘﺎ‬


ْ
‫ أﻧﺖ‬, you (m) ‫ﻏﻔ ْﺮت‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬, both of you ‫رﺟﻌﺘﻤﺎ‬
ْ ‫أ ْﻧ‬, all of you (m) ْ ‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒ‬
ْ ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬, all of you (f) ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﻦ‬

Translate the following sentences:


ْ
All of you (f) prepared her ‫ﺎ‬$‫ﻫﻴﺄﺗ‬
ْ
Both of them (f) warned both of them ‫أﻧﺬرﺗﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬
All of them made you ‫ﺟﻌﻠﻮاﻛ ْﻢ‬
ْ
Both of you took both of them ‫اﺗﺨﺬﺗﻤﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬
You (f) congratulated them (f) ‫*)ﻦ‬ ْ +
ْ ْ
You sent it down ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﻪ‬
ْ
You (f) said it ‫ﻗﻠﺘﻪ‬
ْ
We prepared her ‫ﻫﻴﺄﻧﺎﻫﺎ‬
ْ
I made them ‫ ْﻢ‬.‫ﺟﻌﻠ‬
ْ
Both of them (f) sent both of them down ‫أﻧﺰﻟﺘﺎﻫﻤﺎ‬
1

12.4 Fi’l - Past Tense (Two Kinds of Doers)

We learned about 2 different kinds of doers:

1. Inside doers:

- We already learned this in our previous lessons on Fi’l when we figured out the hidden
pronouns in a fi’l.
- For example, when we say ‫ ﻧﺼﺮ ْوا‬we are implying an inside doer who is ْ

2. Outside doers:

ْ
- They only work with ‫ ﻫﻮ‬or ‫ ﻫﻲ‬. For example, only fi’ls like ‫ ﻧﺼﺮ‬or ‫ ﻧﺼﺮت‬can have an outside
doer.
- When your doer is not a pronoun it is called an outside doer
o He helped is like using an inside doer (‫ )ﻧﺼﺮ‬but ‘Waleed helped’ is an example of using
an outside doer, a doer that is not a pronoun.
- We discovered how to tell which word is the outside doer by learning these 2 rules:
o Must be in raf’ status (remember when we first learned about isms we said in ism in raf’
is the doer)
o Must be after the fi’l
- Then we practiced with some examples:
o ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﺪرس‬: the teacher is not the outside doer because it’s not in raf’ status. The doer

is still inside (‫ )ﻫﻮ‬so this will be translated as ‘He taught the teacher’

o ‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻟﻤﺪرس‬: the teacher is in raf’ status & after the fi’l therefore it must be the outside
doer. This will be translated as ‘The teacher taught’
- We talked about how the outside doer can be singular, dual, or plural
o ‫ﻗﺎل ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻣﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬

- We use the ‫ ﻫﻮ‬version of the fi’l if the outside doer is masculine (‫)ﻗﺎل ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬
ٌ ْ
- We use the ‫ ﻫﻲ‬version of the fi’l if the outside doer is feminine( ‫)ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬
ٌ
- Finally we learned that the doer is called ‫ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬in Arabic
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Indicate whether there’s an inside or outside doer and who the doer is‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ‪Ex: inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬أﻧﺰل اﻟ(ﺘﺎب‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺟﻌﻠﻨﺎ اﻟﺒ ْﻴﺖ‬

‫‪ .3‬آﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎس‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .4‬اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨ ْﻮن ﺧﺮﺟ ْﻮا‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .5‬أﻧﺬ ْرﺗ( ْﻢ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬ﺣﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﺠ ًﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .7‬اﺗﺨﺬت اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎت اﻟ(ﺘﺎب‬

‫‪ .8‬ﺟﻌﻞ اﷲ‬

‫‪ .9‬ﻗﺎﻟﺘﺎ اﻟﻘﺼﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪>? .10‬ت اﻷم‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .11‬ﻛﱪ اﻟﻮ‪B‬ان‬

‫‪ .12‬ﻗﺎ‪C‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎت اﺗﺨﺬن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .14‬أﻧﺬر اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﻮن‬

‫‪ .15‬ﺧﺮج اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ >? .16‬اﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬

‫‪ .17‬اﻟﻌﻤﺎل ﻋﻤﻠ ْﻮا‬

‫‪ .18‬اﻟﻄﻔﻼن اﺗﺨﺬا‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .19‬ﻫﻴﺄت اﻷﻣﻮر‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .20‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺘﺎن‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ‪Ex: inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬أﻧﺰل اﻟ(ﺘﺎب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ‪Inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺟﻌﻠﻨﺎ اﻟﺒ ْﻴﺖ‬

‫اﻟﻨﺎس ‪Outside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬آﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎس‬


‫ْ‬
‫ْ ‪Inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .4‬اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨ ْﻮن ﺧﺮﺟ ْﻮا‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺎ ‪Inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .5‬أﻧﺬ ْرﺗ( ْﻢ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ‪Inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .6‬ﺣﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﺠ ًﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎت ‪Outside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .7‬اﺗﺨﺬت اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎت اﻟ(ﺘﺎب‬

‫اﷲ ‪Outside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .8‬ﺟﻌﻞ اﷲ‬

‫)‪ (f‬ﻫﻤﺎ ‪Inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .9‬ﻗﺎﻟﺘﺎ اﻟﻘﺼﺔ‬


‫ْ‬
‫اﻷم ‪Outside doer,‬‬ ‫‪>? .10‬ت اﻷم‬
‫ْ‬
‫اﻟﻮ‪B‬ان ‪Outside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .11‬ﻛﱪ اﻟﻮ‪B‬ان‬

‫ﻫﻮ ‪Inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .12‬ﻗﺎ‪C‬‬


‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ‪Insider doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .13‬اﻟﻄﺎﻟﺒﺎت اﺗﺨﺬن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨ ْﻮن ‪Outside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .14‬أﻧﺬر اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﻮن‬

‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎن ‪Outside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .15‬ﺧﺮج اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬


‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ‪Inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ >? .16‬اﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬

‫ْ ‪Insider doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .17‬اﻟﻌﻤﺎل ﻋﻤﻠ ْﻮا‬

‫ﻫﻤﺎ ‪Inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .18‬اﻟﻄﻔﻼن اﺗﺨﺬا‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ‪Inside doer,‬‬ ‫‪ .19‬ﻫﻴﺄت اﻷﻣﻮر‬

‫اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺘﺎن ‪Outside doer,‬‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪ .20‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ اﻟﻤﺪرﺳﺘﺎن‬
1

13.1 Fi’l - Present Tense

ٌ ٌ
We started learning about Present Tense Fi’l (‫)ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬. Unlike ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬where we change the
ٌ ٌ ْ
endings first, with ‫ ﻓﻌﻞﻣﻀﺎرع‬we change the beginning first. First we learned how to change the doer of
ٌ ٌ ْ
a ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬from ‘He’ to ‘I’ to ‘We’:

If the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬begins with: The doer is: Looks like: The meaning is:

ْ
‫ي‬
َ or ُ‫ي‬ He (‫)ھو‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬ He sends down
ْ
‫ أ‬or ‫أ‬ I (‫)أﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺰل‬ I send down

ْ ْ
‫ ن‬or ‫ن‬ We (‫)ﻧﺤﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺰل‬ We send down
ٌ ٌ ْ
Then we talked about the 4 different kinds of ‫ ي‬that we see in a ‫ﻓﻌﻞﻣﻀﺎرع‬:

If you see: The doer is: Looks like The meaning is


ْ
‫ ي‬by itself He (‫)ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬ He sends down

ْ
‫ ي‬with ‫آن‬ Both of them (‫)ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰﻻن‬ Both of them send
down
ْ
‫ ي‬with ‫ْون‬ They (ْ!) ‫ﻳﻨﺰﻟ ْﻮن‬ They send down
ْ ْ
‫ ي‬with ‫ن‬ They (f) (‫ﻦ‬
# ‫)ﻫ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰﻟﻦ‬ They (f) send down
ٌ ٌ ْ
The rest of the doers (hidden pronoun within the ‫ )ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬begin with ‫ ت‬so we end up with:

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻦ ﻳﻨﺰﻟﻦ‬
# ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻨﺰل‬ ‫!ْ ﻳﻨﺰﻟ ْﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻨﺰل‬

Throughout our lesson we learned the present tense versions of the fi’ls we learned before:

ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﻨﺬ ر‬ (# )‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺬ‬# ‫ﻳ‬
Sends down Makes Warns Congratulates Works Takes
ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻳﻜﱪ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺮج‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮل‬ ‫ﻳﺆﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳ ﺤﺴ ﺐ‬ ‫ﻴﺊ‬# 4
Gets big Leaves Says Believes Assumes Prepares
2

EXERCISES:

Translate the following sentences:

‫ﺘﺨﺬ‬# ‫ ﻳ‬.1
ْ
‫ﻳﺤﺴﺒ ْﻮن‬ .2
ْ
‫ﻳﺨﺮﺟﺎن‬ .3
ْ
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻦ‬ .4
ْ
‫ﺗﻜﱪ‬ .5
ْ
‫ ﻳﻨﺰﻟ ْﻮن‬.6
ْ
‫ ﺗﻨﺬران‬.7

(# ;‫ أ‬.8
‫ آﻣﻦ‬.9
ْ
‫ ﻧﻌﻤﻞ‬.10
11. They (f) get big

12. Both of them (f) leave

13. He makes

14. I say

15. We warn

16. They prepare

17. Both of them congratulate

18. They (f) send down

19. She believes

20. We prepare
3

ANSWER KEY:

‫ﺘﺨﺬ‬# ‫ ﻳ‬.1
He takes

ْ
‫ﻳﺤﺴﺒ ْﻮن‬
They assume
.2
ْ
‫ﻳﺨﺮﺟﺎن‬
Both of them leave
.3
ْ
‫ﻳﻘﻠﻦ‬
They (f) say
.4
ْ
‫ﺗﻜﱪ‬
She gets big
.5
ْ
‫ ﻳﻨﺰﻟ ْﻮن‬.6
They send down

ْ
‫ ﺗﻨﺬران‬.7
Both of them (f) warn

(# ;‫ أ‬.8
I congratulate

‫ آﻣﻦ‬.9
I believe

ْ
‫ ﻧﻌﻤﻞ‬.10
We make

ْ ْ
‫ﻳﻜﱪن‬
11. They (f) get big

ْ
‫ﺗﺨﺮﺟﺎن‬
12. Both of them (f) leave

ْ
‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬
13. He makes

‫أﻗ ْﻮل‬
14. I say

ْ
‫ﻧﻨﺬر‬
15. We warn

‫ﻴﺌ ْﻮن‬# 4
16. They prepare

‫(ان‬# )‫ﻳ‬
17. Both of them congratulate

ْ ْ
‫ﻳﻨﺰﻟﻦ‬
18. They (f) send down

ْ
‫ﺗﺆﻣﻦ‬
19. She believes

‫ﻴﺊ‬# >
20. We prepare
1

13.2 Fi’l- Present Tense (cont’d)

ٌ ٌ ْ
We continued learning about Present Tense (‫ )ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬and how to change it depending on the doer:

ْ
We learned that all the present tense fi’ls whose doers are the “‫ ”أﻧﺖ‬pronouns will begin with ‫ت‬

The doer is: Looks like: The meaning is:


ْ ْ
You (‫)أﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺰل‬
You send down

ْ ْ
Both of you (‫)أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺰﻻن‬
Both of you send down

ْ ْ
All of you (ْ ‫)أﻧ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺰﻟ ْﻮن‬
All of you send down

ْ ْ ْ
You (f) (‫)أﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺰﻟﲔ‬
You (f) send down

ْ ْ
Both of you (f) (‫)أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺰﻻن‬
Both of you (f) send
down
ْ ْ ْ
All of you (f) (‫)أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺰﻟﻦ‬
All of you (f) send down

Unfortunately due to sound quality we had to cut the video short. Please watch Lessons 13.1 and 13.2,
practice and know the conjugations really well before moving on to the next lesson.
2

EXERCISES:

Find the hidden pronoun and translate it:

Ex: He ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﻘ ْﻮل‬


ْ
‫ ﻳﻌﻠﻤ ْﻮن‬.1
ْ
‫ﲔ‬%‫ 'ﺸﺎ‬.2
ْ ْ
‫ ﺗﺠﻤﻌﻦ‬.3
ْ
‫ ﻳﺄﻣﺮان‬.4
ْ
‫ ﺗﻤﻜﺮ‬.5
Translate the following sentences:

1. They work
2. You prepare
3. They (f) congratulate

4. Both of you leave


5. You (f) get big
6. All of you say
7. Both of them (f) believe
8. I send down
9. We warn

10. All of you (f) make

Translate the following sentences:

ْ ْ
Ex: He makes them - ‫ﻳ ﺠ ﻌﻠ‬

‫ﺎ‬.‫ ْﻳ‬/0‫ ﺗ‬.1

‫ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ْوﻧﻪ‬.2

‫ ْﻢ‬6‫ﻴﺌﺎ‬9 .3
ْ
‫ أﻧﺬرﻛ ْﻢ‬.4
ْ
;‫ ﺗﻨﺰ‬.5
3

ANSWER KEY:

Find the hidden pronoun and translate it:

Ex:‫ﻫﻮ‬ He ‫ﻳﻘ ْﻮل‬


ْ
ْ< They ‫ ﻳﻌﻠﻤ ْﻮن‬.1
ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺖ‬ You(f) ‫ﲔ‬%‫ 'ﺸﺎ‬.2
ْ ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ All of you (f) ‫ ﺗﺠﻤﻌﻦ‬.3
ْ
‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ Both of them ‫ ﻳﺄﻣﺮان‬.4
ْ ْ
‫ أﻧﺖ‬or ‫ﻫﻲ‬ You or She ‫ ﺗﻤﻜﺮ‬.5
Translate the following sentences:

ْ
11. They work ‫ﻳﻌﻤﻠ ْﻮن‬
12. You prepare ‫ﻴﺊ‬9
13. They (f) congratulate ‫ن‬/0‫ﻳ‬
ْ
14. Both of you leave ‫ﺗﺨﺮﺟﺎن‬
ْ
15. You (f) get big ‫ﺗﻜﱪ ْﻳﻦ‬
16. All of you say ‫ﺗﻘ ْﻮﻟ ْﻮن‬
ْ
17. Both of them (f) believe ‫ﺗﺆﻣﻨﺎن‬
ْ
18. I send down ‫أﻧﺰل‬
ْ
19. We warn ‫ﻧﻨﺬر‬
ْ ْ
20. All of you (f) make ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻦ‬
Translate the following sentences:

ْ ْ
Ex: He makes them -‫ﻳﺠﻌﻠ‬
You (f) congratulate her ‫ﺎ‬.‫ ْﻳ‬/0‫ ﺗ‬.1
They take it ‫ ﻳﺘﺨﺬ ْوﻧﻪ‬.2
Both of you prepare them OR ‫ ْﻢ‬6‫ﻴﺌﺎ‬9 .3
Both of you (f) prepare them OR
Both of them (f) prepare them
ْ
I warn you ‫ أﻧﺬرﻛ ْﻢ‬.4
ْ
You send it down ;‫ ﺗﻨﺰ‬.5
1

13.3 Fi'l-Present Tense (The Light Harf)

We started this lesson by learning about the Light Harf.

ً ‫إذا‬ ْ ‫ﻟ‬ ْ
‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫أن‬
Until In that case So that Will not To

Then we learned how to turn the present tense fi’ls on page 39 into their light versions:

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺼﺮ ﻧﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺼﺮ ﺗﻨﺼﺮا ﺗﻨﺼﺮ ْوا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺼﺮ ﻳﻨﺼﺮا ﻳﻨﺼﺮ ْوا‬

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﺗﻨﺼﺮ ْي ﺗﻨﺼﺮا ﺗﻨﺼ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺼﺮ ﺗﻨﺼﺮا ﻳﻨﺼ ْﺮن‬

The light harfs above turn the Present Tense fi’l light and change the meanings accordingly:

ْ
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ He helps

ْ ْ
‫ﻦ ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬‫ﻟ‬ He will not help

ْ ً
‫إذا ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ In that case, he will help

Also, remember, these light harf will ONLY work on present tense fi’l not past tense. Please practice
saying the light harf and know their meanings.
2

EXERCISES:

Without referring to any notes, write the light harfs and their meanings:

(1
(2
(3

(4
(5

Translate the following sentences:

ْ
‫ﺣﺘ ﻰ ﻳ ﻨ ﺼ ﺮ‬
Ex: Until he helps

1. So that all of you help


2. In that case, both of you will
help
3. To help (‫)ﻫﻲ‬
4. You (f) will not help
5. Until all of you (f) help
6. So that both of them (f) will help
7. We will not help
8. So that she helps

9. In that case, I will help

10. Until all of you help

Translate the following sentences:

ْ ْ
‫ﻦ ﻳﻨﺼ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻟ‬
ْ ْ
‫أن ﻳﻨﺼﺮ ْوا‬
ْ
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻨﺼﺮا‬
ْ
‫ْﻲ أﻧﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻟ‬
ْ ً
‫إذا ﺗﻨﺼﺮ ْوا‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

Without referring to any notes, write the light harfs and their meanings:

ْ
To ‫أن‬
Will not ْ ‫ﻟ‬
‫ﻦ‬
So that ‫ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻟ‬
In that case ً ‫إذا‬

Until ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬
Translate the following sentences:

ْ
Ex: Until he helps ‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬
ْ
1. So that all of you help ‫ْﻲ ﺗﻨﺼﺮ ْوا‬ ‫ﻟ‬
ْ ً
2. In that case, both of you will ‫إذا ﺗﻨﺼﺮا‬
help
ْ ْ
3. To help (‫)ﻫﻲ‬ ‫أن ﺗﻨﺼﺮ‬
ْ ْ
4. You (f) will not help ‫ﻦ ﺗﻨﺼﺮ ْي‬ ‫ﻟ‬
ْ
5. Until all of you (f) help ‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻨﺼ ْﺮن‬
ْ
6. So that both of them (f) will ‫ْﻲ ﺗﻨﺼﺮا‬ ‫ﻟ‬
help
ْ ْ
7. We will not help ‫ﻦ ﻧﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻟ‬
ْ
8. So that she helps ‫ْﻲ ﺗﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻟ‬
ْ
9. In that case, I will help ‫إذا ًأﻧﺼﺮ‬
ْ
10. Until all of you help ‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻨﺼﺮ ْوا‬
Translate the following sentences:

ْ ْ
They (f) will not help ‫ﻦ ﻳﻨﺼ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻟ‬
ْ ْ
So that they help ‫أن ﻳﻨﺼﺮ ْوا‬
ْ
Until both of you help OR ‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻨﺼﺮا‬
Until both of you (f) help OR
Until both of them (f) help
ْ
So that I help ‫ْﻲ أﻧﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻟ‬
ْ
In that case, you will help ‫إذا ًﺗﻨﺼﺮ ْوا‬
1

13.4 Fi'l-Present Tense (Practice)


We took this session as an opportunity to practice what we’ve learned so far. If you had difficulty
understanding the concepts in today’s session please go back and watch the Present Tense sessions.

EXERCISES:

Find the hidden pronoun and translate


ْ
‫ﻳ ﺿ ْﻮن‬

‫أﺣﺎﻓﻆ‬
ْ
‫ﻧﺨﻠﻖ‬
ْ
‫ﺗﻨﺠﲔ‬

‫ﺗﺘﻘﻄﻌﺎن‬
ْ
‫ﺸ‬
ْ
‫ﺴﺎرﻋﻦ‬
ْ
‫ْﺴﺘﻜﱪان‬
ْ
‫ﻳﻨﻜﺮان‬

‫ﺗﺘﻘ ْﻮن‬

‫ﻳﺘﺬﻛﺮ‬

What is the “light” version of these words:


ْ
‫ﻧﺄﺧﺬ‬
ْ
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻔ ْﻮن‬
ْ
‫ﻳﺆﺗﻴﺎن‬

‫أﺑﺮء‬

‫ﻳ ْﺒﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬

‫ﺎﺟﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬3
ْ
‫ﺲ‬5‫ ْﺴﺘﺄ‬6
2

ANSWER KEY:

Find the hidden pronoun and translate


ْ
ْ7 They ‫ﻳ ﺿ ْﻮن‬

‫أﻧﺎ‬ I ‫أﺣﺎﻓﻆ‬
ْ ْ
‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬ We ‫ﻧﺨﻠﻖ‬
ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺖ‬ You (f) ‫ﺗﻨﺠﲔ‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ Both of you (m&f) or ‫ﺗﺘﻘﻄﻌﺎن‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ Both of them (f)
ْ
‫ﻫﻲ‬ She or, ‫ﺸ‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺖ‬ You
ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ All of you (f) ‫ﺴﺎرﻋﻦ‬
ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ Both of you (m/f) or ‫ْﺴﺘﻜﱪان‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ Both of them (f)
ْ
‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ Both of them (m) ‫ﻳﻨﻜﺮان‬
ْ=‫أ ْﻧ‬ All of you ‫ﺗﺘﻘ ْﻮن‬

‫ﻫﻮ‬ He ‫ﻳﺘﺬﻛﺮ‬

What is the “light” version of these words:


ْ ْ
‫ﻧﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻧﺄﺧﺬ‬
ْ ْ
‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻔ ْﻮا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻔ ْﻮن‬
ْ ْ
‫ﻳﺆﺗﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺗﻴﺎن‬

‫أﺑﺮء‬ ‫أﺑﺮء‬

‫ﻳ ْﺒﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳ ْﺒﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬


ْ
‫ﺎﺟﺮي‬3 ‫ﺎﺟﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬3
ْ ْ
‫ﺲ‬5‫ ْﺴﺘﺄ‬6 ‫ﺲ‬5‫ ْﺴﺘﺄ‬6
1

13.5 Fi'l-Present Tense (The Lightest Harf)

We began a new lesson today learning about the lightest harf and they are:

ْ ْ‫ل‬ ْ ‫ل‬
ْ َ‫ف‬ ْ ْ‫ول‬ ْ ‫لَ ّما‬ ْ ‫م‬
ْ َ‫ل‬ ْ‫إن‬
َ
Should ْ Not yet ْ Did not If

Then we learned how to turn the present tense fi’ls on page 39 into their lightest versions by changing
the end of the fi’ls like this:

- With the hidden pronouns ‫و‬


ْ ‫ه‬,ْ‫هي‬,ْْ ‫أنت‬, ‫أَنا‬, and ‫ن‬ْ ‫ نح‬we changed the damma (ُ) to a sukoon (ُ)
َُ َ َ ُ َ

- With the hidden pronouns ‫هما‬, ْ ُ ‫أَن‬, ْ‫ أَنت‬we get rid of the ‫ ن‬at the end
ْ ‫أنتما‬, ‫ت‬
‫ه‬,
َ ُ ُ َُ

- َ ّ and ‫ن‬
ْ‫هن‬ َّْ ُ ‫ أَنت‬don’t change in their lightest form

ْ‫ْ ْ ْ ْأَنصرْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْنَنصر‬ ْ ْ ْ ْ‫ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ َتنصرْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ َتنصراْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ َْتنصروا‬ ْ ْ ‫روا‬ ْ ‫ينصرْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْينصراْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْينص‬
ُ ُ ُ ُ َ ُ ُ ُ ُ َ َ ُ َ ُ َ
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ‫ْ ْ ْ َتنصريْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ َتنصرا ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ َْتنصرن‬ ْ ْ ْ ْ‫َتنصرْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ َتنصراْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْْينصرن‬
َ ُ َ ُ ُ َ ُ َ َ ُ ُ

Similar to the light harf, the lightest harfs make the present tense fi’l into their lightest forms and
change the meaning depending on the harf. A couple of few examples:

ْ‫ينصر‬ He helps
ُ ُ َ
ْ‫لَمْينصر‬ He did not help
ُ َ
ْ‫إنْينصر‬ If he helps
ُ َ

We also discovered that ‫ ل‬can either make the fi’l light or lightest. How do we know which is which? If

the fi’l is light (ْ‫)لينصر‬, we understand it with the light harf meaning: so that he helps. If the fi’l is in the
َ ُ َ
lightest form (ْ‫)لينصر‬, we understand it with the lightest harf meaning: he should help.
ُ َ
2

EXERCISES:

Without referring to any notes, write the lightest harfs and their meanings:

ْ )1
)2

)3

)4
)5

)6

Translate the following sentences:


ْ ْ‫شن‬
ْ ‫إنْ ْيب‬
َ ّ َُ
ْ‫لتعم َل‬
َ َ
‫لَمْ ْيحسبا‬
َ َ
‫ذوا‬ُ ‫لَ ّماْ َْت ّ َتخ‬
ْ‫ل ْت ُؤمن‬

Translate the following sentences:


Ex: he should help
ْ‫لينْصر‬
ُ َ
1. If all of you believe
2. She did not assume

3. Both of them should send down


4. They (fem) didn’t say yet

5. You should prepare

6. If all of you (f) leave

7. Both of you (f) should warn

8. I didn’t make yet

9. He didn’t get big


10. If you (f) say
3

ANSWER KEY:

Without referring to any notes, write the lightest harfs and their meanings:
If
ْ ْ‫) إن‬1
Did not
ْ‫) لَم‬2
Not yet
‫) لَ ّ َما‬3

ْ‫) ول‬4
َ
Should ْ‫) فَل‬5

ْ‫) ل‬6

Translate the following sentences:


If they (f) help ْ ْ‫شن‬
ْ ‫إنْ ْيب‬
َ ّ َُ
So that you (or she) helps ْ‫لتعم َل‬
َ َ
Both of them did not assume ‫لَمْ ْيحسبا‬
َ َ
All of you did not take yet ‫ذوا‬
ُ ‫لَ ّماْ َْت ّ َتخ‬
You (or she) should believe ْ‫ل ْت ُؤمن‬

Translate the following sentences:


Ex: he should help ْ‫لينْصر‬
ُ َ
11. If all of you believe ‫إنْ ْتُؤمنُوا‬
12. She did not assume ْ‫لَمْ َتحسب‬
13. Both of them should send down ْ‫لينز َل‬
َ
14. They (fem) didn’t say yet ْ‫لَ ّماْي ُقلن‬
َ َ
15. You should prepare ْ‫ل ُُت ّيئ‬
َ
16. If all of you (f) leave ْ‫إنْتُخرجن‬
َ
17. Both of you (f) should warn ‫ذرا‬ ‫ل ْتن‬
َُ ُ
18. I didn’t make yet ْ‫لَ ّماْأَجعل‬
َ
19. He didn’t get big ْ‫ب‬
ُ ‫لَمْ َيك‬
20. If you (f) say ْ‫إنْ َت ُقول‬
1

13.6 Fi'l- The Outside Doer

We’ve learned about 2 different kinds of fi’l )‫ارع‬ِ ‫ض‬ ِ ( and each time we’ve practiced
َ ُ ‫ماضي و م‬
ْ
them we’ve said the pronoun that’s being represented inside. For example: ‫ ََهْ ينصر ْون‬means “they
َ ُ ُ َ
ْ ْ
help”. Even if we don’t say the pronoun (for example: ‫ )ينصرون‬it still means “they help”. This is because
َ ُ ُ َ
ْ‫ َه‬is the hidden inside doer inside the fi’l. We also know that the inside doer is always a pronoun.
ُ

Today we were introduced to the outside doer. An outside doer is a doer that is NOT a pronoun
ْ ْ
and cannot be hidden inside the fi’l. Example: Husna helped )‫ (نَصرت ح ْسنَى‬vs. She helped )‫( َنصرت‬.
ُ َ َ َ َ
Husna is the outside doer because we can’t hide her name inside the fi’l. “She” is an inside doer because

the pronoun is hidden in the fi’l. We have two important questions to answer when we’re trying to

figure out if there’s an outside doer:

How do we find the outside doer?

- It’s found after the fi’l (doesn’t have to be right after, can come later)
- In raf’ status (remember when we first learned about isms, the doer was always raf’)

When should we look for an outside doer?

- When the hidden pronoun inside the fi’l is ‫هو‬ or ‫ ِهي‬we look after it for a word in raf’ status. If
َُ َ
we find it then that is the outside doer. If we don’t, then the doer must be the inside doer “he”
or “she”

We also learned something strange: even if the outside doer is a pair or a plural, the fi’l stays in the ‫هو‬
َُ
or ‫ ِهي‬form.
َ
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Indicate if there is an inside doer or outside doer. Underline the outside doer if you find one‬‬

‫َل ع ْب ِد ِه‬ ‫أنزل ع ٰ‬


‫َ َ َ َ َ َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ِل ِبي ِه‬‫فِ َ‬ ‫ِإ َ َ ُ ُ ُ‬
‫وس‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ذ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬ ‫ص ُل اْلي ِ‬ ‫ن ُ َف ِ ِّ‬
‫َ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ي‬
‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬
‫ِ‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ش ال ُم‬ ‫يب ِ ِّ‬
‫َُ ُ‬
‫ْ‬
‫لئب‬ ‫أكَل ا ِ‬
‫َ َ َ ُ ِّ ُ‬
‫ش ِك‬ ‫ِإ ِّ َن ال ِّلَـه يب ِ ِّ‬
‫َ َُ ُ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫اِلش ُهر‬ ‫انس َل َخ َ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫َل ُالطِّ ِ َِّيب يخرج‬ ‫َوال َب َ‬
‫ُ َ ُ ُ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫كيَ عهد‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ش‬
‫كونُ لِل ُم ِ‬ ‫ي ُ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ال ال َم َل ُ‬ ‫َق َ‬
‫ات‬
‫ح ِ‬ ‫ع ِملُوا الصال‬
‫ِّ َ ِ َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫سنَا النَِّار‬ ‫لَن َت َم ِّ َ‬
‫ُ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اِلنع ِام‬ ‫ح ِّلَت لَكم َبيمة‬ ‫أُ ِ‬
‫ُ َِ َ ُ َ َ‬
‫ات ُقوا ال ِّلَـه‬ ‫َو ِّ َ‬
‫َ‬
‫كسب س ِ ِّي َئة‬
‫َ َ َ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫كا ِف ِرين‬
‫َ‬ ‫ِّ َّل ي ِّ َت ِخ ِذ ال ُمؤ ِمنُون ال‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫فقوّل ل‬
‫َُ َ َُ‬
‫صالِحا جع َل‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

Indicate if there is an inside doer or outside doer. Underline the outside doer if you find one

Inside doer
‫َل ع ْب ِد ِه‬ ٰ ‫أنزل ع‬
َ َ َ َ َ َ
Outside doer ْ
‫ِل ِبي ِه‬َ ِ‫ف‬ ُ ُ ُ َ َ ‫ِإ‬
‫وس‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ذ‬
Inside ْ
‫ات‬ ِ ‫ص ُل اْلي‬ ِّ ِ ‫ن ُ َف‬
َ
Inside ْ ْ
‫ي‬
َ ِ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬
ِ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ش ال ُم‬ ِّ ِ ‫يب‬
ُ َُ
Outside ْ
‫لئب‬ ِ ‫أكَل ا‬
ُ ِّ ُ َ َ َ
Inside
‫ش ِك‬ ِّ ِ ‫ِإ ِّ َن ال ِّلَـه يب‬
ُ َُ َ
Outside ْ ْ
‫اِلش ُهر‬ َ ‫انس َل َخ‬
ُ َ
Inside ْ ْ
‫َل ُالطِّ ِ َِّيب يخرج‬ َ ‫َوال َب‬
ُ ُ َ ُ
Outside ْ ْ ْ
‫كيَ عهد‬ ِ ‫ش‬
ِ ‫كونُ لِل ُم‬ ُ ‫ي‬
َ َ
Outside ْ
ُ ‫ال ال َم َل‬ َ ‫َق‬
Inside
‫ات‬
ِ ‫ح‬ ‫ع ِملُوا الصال‬
َ ِ َ ِّ َ
Outside
‫سنَا النَِّار‬ َ ِّ ‫لَن َت َم‬
ُ
Outside ْ ْ ْ
‫اِلنع ِام‬ ‫ح ِّلَت لَكم َبيمة‬ ِ ُ‫أ‬
َ َ ُ َ َِ ُ
Inside
‫ات ُقوا ال ِّلَـه‬ َ ِّ ‫َو‬
َ
Inside
‫كسب س ِ ِّي َئة‬
َ َ َ َ
Outside ْ ْ ْ
‫كا ِف ِرين‬
َ ‫ِّ َّل ي ِّ َت ِخ ِذ ال ُمؤ ِمنُون ال‬
َ َ َ
Inside
‫فقوّل ل‬
َُ َ َُ
inside
‫صالِحا جع َل‬
َ َ َ
1

13.9 Fi'l-Forbidding

We’re going to learn how to ask someone not to do something in Arabic. When we’re forbidding
someone from doing something it has to be occurring at that moment so this is only relevant to present
tense fi’l since we can’t forbid someone in the past. Also, we must be talking directly to them so we can
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
ََ ُ ‫ت َ َأنتُما َ َأَن ُُتْ َ َأَنتَ َ َأَنت‬
only forbid using the “you” versions of the present tense fi’l )‫ن‬ َ ‫(أَن‬.
َ َ

So how do we turn a normal present tense fi’l into a commanding fi’l?

1. We start off by saying ‫ ال‬which means no

2. Then we make the fi’ls in their lightest form.

Using page 39 as an example we end up with:


ْ ْ ْ
َ ‫َال ََتنصر ْوا‬ َ ‫َال ََتنصرا‬ َ َ ْ ‫ال ََتنص‬
َ‫ر‬
ُ ُ َ ُ ُ

ْ ْ ْ ْ
َ َ‫َالَ َتنص ْرن‬ َ ‫َال ََتنصرا‬ َ َ‫ال ََتنصري‬
َ ُ َ ُ ُ
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪What is the forbidding form of these fi’ls:‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫‪َ .1‬تجعل ُ ْونَ‬
‫َ َ‬
‫‪ .2‬تُحافظَانَ‬
‫َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .3‬تُنَج َ‬
‫يَ‬
‫ََت َت َ َقط َعانَ‬ ‫‪.4‬‬
‫َ َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫تَش ُ َ‬
‫ع‬ ‫‪.5‬‬
‫ُ‬
‫ْ‬
‫َت ُسارع َ‬
‫ن‬ ‫‪.6‬‬
‫َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ت َ ْستكِبانَ‬ ‫‪.7‬‬
‫َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫كرانَ‬ ‫ََتن َُ‬ ‫‪.8‬‬

‫ذ ْو َ‬
‫ن‬ ‫تتخ‬ ‫‪.9‬‬
‫َ َ ُ َ‬
‫كرَ‬ ‫‪ .11‬ت َتذ َ‬
‫ََ َ ُ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ََ .11‬تختلفُ ْو َ‬
‫ن‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪َ .12‬تحسب َ‬
‫يَ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ن َ‬ ‫ر َ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ُُ .13‬تاج َ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ستأنسانَ َ‬ ‫‪َ .14‬ت ْ َ‬
‫َ َ َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ن َ‬ ‫و َ‬ ‫ر ُؤ ْ َ‬ ‫‪َ .15‬تق َ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫يَ َ‬ ‫‪َ .16‬ت ُق ْول َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪َ .17‬تخرجانَ َ‬
‫ُ َ‬
‫ن َ‬ ‫ّش َ‬ ‫‪ .18‬تب ْ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َُ‬
‫‪ُُ .19‬تيئَ َ‬
‫َ ُ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪َ .21‬تعملُو َ‬
‫ن َ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

What is the commanding form of these fi’ls:

ْ ْ
‫ال ََتجعل ُ ْوا‬ َ‫ َتجعل ُ ْون‬.1
َ َ َ
‫ظا‬
َ ‫حاف‬ ‫الَ َت‬ َ‫ظان‬
َ ‫حاف‬ ‫ ت‬.2
َ ُ َ ُ
ْ ‫التن‬ ْ
َ‫ّج‬ ََ ‫ تُنَج‬.3
َ َُ ‫ي‬

‫الَ َت َقط َعا‬ َ‫َتت َقط َعان‬ .4


َ َ َ
ْ ْ
َ ْ ُ ‫الَ َت َش‬
‫ع‬ َ ُ ‫تَش‬
‫ع‬ .5
ُ
ْ ْ
َ‫الت ُسارعن‬ َ َ َ ‫تُسارع‬
‫ن‬ .6
َ َ
ْ ْ
‫ال َ َت َ ْستكِبا‬ َ‫ت َ ْستكِبان‬ .7
َ َ
ْ ْ
‫كرا‬ ُ ‫الَ ََتن‬ َ‫كران‬ ُ ‫َتن‬ .8

‫ذ ْوا‬ ُ ‫الَ ََت ََتخ‬ َ ‫ذ ْو‬


‫ن‬ ‫تتخ‬ .9
َ ُ َ َ
َْ ‫ك‬
‫ر‬ َ ‫َالَ ََت َت َذ‬ َ ‫ تتذ‬.11
َ‫كر‬
ُ َ ََ

Translate the following:


All of you, don’t say! ‫ول ُ ْوا‬
َ ْ ‫ الَ َت ُق‬.11
You (f) don’t assume! َ‫ الَ َتحسب ْي‬.12
ْ
َ
All of you (f), don’t prepare! ْ
َ َ‫ الَ ُُتيَئن‬.13
َ َ
Both of you(f), don’t leave! ْ
َ ‫ ال َ َتخرجا‬.14
َ ُ
You, don’t send down ْ ْ
َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ ال َتُنز‬.15
Both of you, don’t warn َ ‫ ال َتُنذرا‬.16
ْ
َ
You (f), don’t work َ ‫ل‬ ْ
َ ‫ ال َ َتعم‬.17
ْ
َ
All of you, don’t make َ ‫ ال َ َتجعل ُ ْوا‬.18
ْ
َ
Both of you, don’t congratulate َ ‫ ال َتُبّشا‬.19
َ َ
All of you(f), don’t take ْ
َ ‫ذوا‬ ُ ‫ الَ َت َتخ‬.21
1

13.9 Fi'l-Commanding

During this session, we learned how to form commanding fi’ls. We turn a present tense fi’l into
commanding fi’l using two steps but sometimes it requires three:

STEP 1: Make everything lightest


ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ تُنَافِس ْوا‬‫تُنَافِس ْون‬ ‫ َتضحكِ ْي‬َ‫َتضحكِي‬ ‫ ت َ ْسجد‬ ‫د‬ ْ
ُ ُ‫تَسج‬
ُ َ ُ َ َ ُ

STEP 2: Get rid of the ‫ ت‬in the beginning


ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ َنا ِفس ْوا‬ ‫تُنَا ِفس ْوا‬ ‫ك ْي‬
ِ ‫ح‬ ‫ ض‬ ‫ك ْي‬
ِ ‫َتضح‬ ‫ ْسجد‬ ‫ت َ ْسجد‬
ُ ُ َ َ ُ ُ

STEP 3: If the word can’t be read, we must add an alif ) ‫ ( ا‬in the beginning

ْ ْ ْ ْ
(can be read) ‫تُنَا ِفس ْوا‬ ‫ك ْي‬
ِ ‫ح‬ ‫ اض‬‫ك ْي‬
ِ ‫ح‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا ُ ْسجد‬‫ْسجد‬
ُ َ ِ َ ُ ُ

Some points we should remember about adding an alif:

 We never add an alif if the word can be read


 If the second to last letter as an ُ, we add an ُ on the alif; with everything else we add an ُ
2

EXERCISES:

What is the commanding form of these fi’ls:

ْ
‫ َتجعل ُ ْون‬.1
َ َ
‫ان‬
ِ ‫ظ‬
َ ِ‫حاف‬ ‫ ت‬.2
َ ُ
ْ
َ‫ تُنَ ِجي‬.3
‫ان‬
ِ ‫َت َت َقط ََع‬ .4
ْ
‫تَش ُع‬ .5
ُ
ْ
‫سارعن‬ ‫ت‬ .6
َ ِ ُ
ْ
‫ان‬
ِ ‫ِب‬ ِ ‫ك‬ ‫ت َ ْست‬ .7
َ
ْ
‫ران‬
ِ ‫ك‬ ُ ‫َتن‬ .8

‫ذ ْون‬ ‫تتخ‬ .9
َ ُ ِ َ َ
َ ‫ تتذ‬.11
‫كر‬
ُ َ ََ

Translate the following:


All of you, say! .1
You (f) assume! .2
All of you (f), prepare!
.3
Both of you(f), leave!
.4
You, get big!
.5
Both of you, say!
.6
You (f), work
.7
All of you, make
.8
Both of you, congratulate
.9
All of you(f), take
.11
3

ANSWER KEY:

What is the commanding form of these fi’ls:

ْ ‫ا‬ ْ
‫جعل ُ ْوا‬ ‫ َتجعل ُ ْون‬.11
َ ِ َ َ
‫حافِظَا‬ ‫ان‬
ِ ‫ظ‬
َ ِ‫حاف‬ ‫ ت‬.12
َ َ ُ
ْ ‫ن‬ ْ
‫ّج‬ِ َ َ‫ تُنَ ِجي‬.13
‫َت َقط َعا‬ ‫ان‬
ِ ‫َت َت َقط ََع‬ .14
َ
ْ ‫ا ْش‬ ْ
‫ع‬ ُ ُ ‫تَش ُع‬ .15
ُ
ْ ْ
‫سارعن‬ ‫سارعن‬ ‫ت‬ .16
َ ِ َ ِ ُ
ْ ْ
‫ِا ْستك ِِبا‬ ‫ان‬
ِ ‫ِب‬ ِ ‫ك‬ ‫ت َ ْست‬ .17
َ َ
ْ ْ
‫كرا‬ ُ ‫ا ُن‬ ‫ران‬
ِ ‫ك‬ ُ ‫َتن‬ .18

‫ذ ْوا‬ ُ ‫ِا َت ِخ‬ ‫ذ ْون‬ ‫تتخ‬ .19


َ ُ ِ َ َ
‫ك ْر‬
َ ‫َت َذ‬ َ ‫ تتذ‬.21
‫كر‬
ُ َ ََ

Translate the following:


All of you, say! ‫ ق ُ ْول ُ ْوا‬.1
You (f) assume! ‫حس ِب ْي‬ ْ ‫ا‬ .2
ِ
َ
All of you (f), prepare! ْ
‫َه ِيئن‬ .3
َ
Both of you(f), leave! ْ
‫ا ُخرجا‬ .4
َ ُ
You, get big! ْ ْ
‫اُك ُِب‬ .5
Both of you, say! ‫ ق ُ ْو َل‬.6
You (f), work ‫ل‬ْ ‫ ِا ْعم‬.7
َِ
All of you, make ‫جعل ُ ْوا‬ ْ ‫ ا‬.8
َ ِ
Both of you, congratulate ‫ ب َ ِّشا‬.9
َ
All of you(f), take ْ
‫ ِا َت ِخذن‬.11
َ
1 SIMPLIFIED GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Term Definition Term Definition


ÙvC Name of person, place
object, indefinite action,
½p¥Ü× pìº Partly Flexible Ism

state of being etc.


з¾ A word confined in a
dimension of time.
ïÜG× Non-Flexible

½pd A word without meaning


until something follows it.
½D©× The Word before an ‘OF’. No Alif Laam +
Always Light
klµ Number (a property of both
ism & fi’l )
éìÎC ½D©× Word After ‘OF’. Always Jarr

ldCÞ/kp¿× Singular ½ß¤ß× The one being Described

øìÜSN/íÜS× Pair\t ø¿¤ The description or adjective (must match


mowsoof in all four properties & must come
after mowsoof)
¸ØV Plural з¿ÎDF éG¡× Inna, Anna etc. force the ism after them to jar
form
½pd
pÆn× Masculine ÷oDzÓC ÙvC The haadha, dhaalika words. (table in your
book)
TÛå× Feminine éìÎC oD¡× The word after ism ul isharah that has ‘AL’
prefix.
ECpµC Status ölOG× The part before the ‘is’ or ‘are’

´ß¾p× / ¸¾o Doer/ Subject pGh The part after the ‘is’ or ‘are’

EߥÜ× / H¥Û Detail/ Object ï¨D× Past Tense

oÞpW× / pV After Of/ Possessive ´oD©× Preset/ Future Tense

ø¾p·× Proper/ Definite EߥÜ× / Light Present Tense, caused generally by ‘an’,
‘lan’, ‘kay’, ‘idhan’.
Àì¿h
÷pÇÛ Common/ Indefinite ÖÞrW× / ÀhC The Lightest present tense, caused generally by
‘in’, ‘lam’, ‘lamma’, ‘laam’, ‘laa of forbidding’,
and a conditional statement.
½p¥Ü× Fully Flexible Ism p×C Command. Must be lightest without the ‘taa
beginning from 2nd person present tense’.
ÐìÃR Heavy (present tense) ïèÛ Forbidding. Must be lightest weight 2nd person
with a laa before it.
ÐÃRC Heaviest (present tense) kpW× ïRÔR Fi’ls that are three letter words in the past tense
‘hua’ conjugation.
EDF Shape family éì¾ lër× ïRÔR Words that are more than three letter words in
the past tense ‘hua’ conjugation.
ol¥× Indefinite Action oDV ½pd A harf that forces the ism after it to jar.

pñDب /pìب Pronoun/ Pronouns

øÎߤß×öDØvC Words from the Alladhee


family.

1
2

1. I was eating too much chocolate.


2. My teeth began aching.
3. My dentist game me a root canal.

ùEÔú®ÎC ùÚßvûýoùlúØÎC ùlùµDv

úEÔú®ÎC ùÚìvûýoùlúØÎC ùlùµDv

ùÚßvûýoùlúØÎC ùEÔú®ÎC ùlùµDv

ùÚìvûýoùlúØÎC úEÔú®ÎC ùlùµDv

úEÔú®ÎC ùlùµDv ÚìvûýoùlúØÎC

ù Ôú®ÎC
ùÚßvûýoùlúØÎClùµDv E
(SUBJECT) DOER OF THE ACT = ´ß¾p× / ¸¾o

(OBJECT) DETAIL OF THE ACT = EߥÜ× / H¥Û

(POSSESSIVE) AFTER AN ‘OF’ = oÞpW× / pV

2
3

Form of I’rab Shortcuts:


Doer of the act = Raf’ (R)
Detail of the act = Nasb (N)
After an ‘OF’ = Jarr (J)

Raf’ Recognition:

ø þ (u) or (un) ending for singular

A (aa) or ùØA (aani) ending for pair


Ü (oo) or ÷ØÜ (oona) ending for plural
Nasb Recognition:

÷ ú (a) or (an) ending for singular

üì÷ (ay) or ùÛüé÷ (ayni) ending for pair

ìù (ee) or ÷Ûéù (eena) ending for plural

Jarr Recognition:
(i) or (in) ending for singular

÷ ú üì÷ (ay) or ùÛüé÷


ìù (ee) or ÷Ûéù
(ayni) ending for pair

(eena) ending for plural

3
4

I’RAB

4
5
LIGHT OR HEAVY?

l
à >翶=
k
ô «ï ¾ç
Ìæbß U
å =ßÆ
Äß ·ò ¶=
O
ß ÉåF^
ß ¶ï =
G
å Éëìõ ¶>åE
>âEÇàU
P
ß Ø
í Mà Æß
Íð ·í V
á ¾å
>âÒÉå¿Âß
Áó =ßb¶å =ßǶï =
Áß ÇàEfß ®ï Ùí =ßÆ
À
ó ÉáÉßNß¾îÙ=
>ßN·î Mà
=ßÇEß ?í
¤à Eà fè ¶=
À
ß Èåb¶å >ß]

5
6

MASCULINE
÷ØÝÖùÇüsøÕ ùØDÖùÇüsøÕ ù×þ ÇüsøÕ
÷ÛêÖùÇüsøÕ ùÛüê÷ÖùÇüsøÕ Jú ÖùÇüsøÕ
÷ÛêÖùÇüsøÕ ùÛüê÷ÖùÇüsøÕ ×\ ùÇüsøÕ

FEMININE

þODÖùÇüsøÕ Ø ù DQ÷ÖùÇüsøÕ öþ ÖùÇüsøÕ


\ODÖùÇüsøÕ ùÛêü ÷QÖùÇüsøÕ öú ÖùÇüsøÕ
\ODÖùÇüsøÕ ùÛüê÷QÖùÇüsøÕ \öÖùÇüsøÕ

BROKEN PLURAL

øÔþ Ìü¾E ù DÖǾ


Ø ×þ Ǿ
úDÕÌü¾E ùÛüê÷ÖǾ úJÖǾ
\ÔÌü¾E ùÛüê÷ÖǾ \×Ǿ
6
7 What is the I’rab of the word in blue?

7
8

Tell Whether The Word is Raf’, Nasb, or Jarr

8
9

FULLY, PARTLY OR NON-FLEXIBLE?


H
å >ßJ³
å ¶ï =
THE BOOK

hó Èóh£ß ¶ï =
THE ONE WITH AUTHORITY

Îí«ï¶àg
FLATTERY

>ârå·á^àº
SINCERELY, A SINCERE PERSON

Áß Çá ¢ß fá ªå ¹ó A
THE LINEAGE OR DESCENDANTS OF FIR’OWN

Áß Çàufó £á ºè
THE ONES WHO IGNORE

½ß aß A
ADAM

¼ß ÉåÂ=ßfEá Có ¹ß AßÆ
THE DESCENDANTS OF IBRAHIM

Áß =ßf»á ¢å ¹ß AßÆ
THE DESCENDANTS OF IMRAN

¼ß Èßfá ºß
MARYAM

>çÈfó ²í gß
ZAKARIYYA

9
10

Using the translation as a clue, tell whether any of the words is partly flexible:
The sons of Israel. 1

The progeny of Fir’own. 2

The nation of Ibrahim. 3

The establisher of the prayer 4

The reward of the workers. 5

By the belly of Makkah. 6

The people of the book. 7

The destroyers of the people of this 8


town
The people of Yathrib. 9

The nation of Yunus. 10

For the people. 11

The love of desires 12

And isn’t Allah the one who know 13


best?
Without any support 14

Gardens of Eden. 15

The nation of Fir’own, do they refuse 16


to be conscious of me?

10
11

GENDER

11
12

FEMININE BECAUSE THE ARABS SAID SO…


During a ‫ ﺣﺮب‬, a soldier was

daydreaming looking at a ‫ ﻧﺠ ﻢ‬in the ‫ﺳ ﻤﺎء‬

until the ‫ ﺷ ﻤﺲ‬came up. When he

snapped out of it, he realized he is the

only ‫ ﻧﻔ ﺲ‬left on the battlefield

surrounded by ‫ﻧ ﺎر‬, so he used a ‫ دﻟ ﻮ‬full

of water to make a ‫ﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ ﺳ‬all the way to

safer ‫أرض‬. In the hot blowing ‫ رﻳ ﺢ‬he

was desperately looking for a ‫ ﺑ ﺌﺮ‬to

draw water from. In his search, he finds

an empty ‫ دار‬inside which he finds a ‫آﺄس‬

full of ‫ﺧﻤﺮ‬. He is tempted despite his

fear of ‫ ﺟﻬﻨ ﻢ‬to take a sip but wards off

his temptation and uses his ‫ ﻋﺼ ﺎ‬to strike

the drink.

12
13

BROKEN PLURALS: Tell The Number & Gender of the Word

¼á ÃEå Çî·®î
á¼óÃ£å »á i
ß
¼á Âå åe>ßrEá ?í
H
ã =ßd¢ß
Ð>ßëí j
è ¶=
L
æ >ß»·î žî
¼ê q
à
¼ã ³ï Eà
Ê
ã »á ¢à
¼á Ãà £ß Eå >áq?í
¼î²Ð=ßbÃß m
à
Ìîeß >ßRV
å ¶ï =
l
à >翶=
L
æ >ç¿Q
ß
T
ã =ßÆgá ?í
Ð>ß»i
áÙ
í=

13
14

Tell the Number, Gender and Status:

14
15

Tell the Number, Gender and Status of eacher:

L
å =ßÆ>ß»j
ç ¶=
Íå ³í Ñå Ø
í »ß ¶ï =
ÊIå ?ífß ºá =
À
ó ÉáJß«í Ñå Bí{
Íð Èß A
À
ó ÉáJß¿ßMá =
Ð>ßj¿ç¶=
Îߺ>ßJÉ߶ï =
ÎßEfá î̄ï¶=
Íð Èç eë cà
¼á ³î Ià >ß¿Eß Æß
L
à >ßÈA
À
ó ÉáJßÒߺå
óÁ>ßJç¿ßQ
L
å >ßÒÉëj
ç ¶=
Íæ ¶í >ßÃR
ß Eå

15
16

TYPE

16
17

Are the following Common or Proper?

The Prayers

The Middle, The balanced, The Excellent

Strange

People

This

Your Lord

His Permission

The Promise of Allah

Drink

He

The one who

The Signs

For a nation

Zakariyya

Oh Lord

This Qur’

17
18

PRONOUN ASSOCIATIONS

ü×øå DÖøå ÷Ýøå


×å DÖå ùä äø Nasb (attached at the end)

×å DÖå äù äø Jarr (attached at the end)

û÷Ûøå DÖøå ÷íùå


û÷Ûøå DÖøå Då Nasb (attached at the end)

û÷Ûøå DÖøå Då Jarr (attached at the end)

ü×øQüÙE DÖøQüÙE ÷RüÙE


ü×ø DÖø ÷Á Nasb (attached at the end)

ü×øÂ DÖøÂ ÷ Á Jarr (attached at the end)

ûÛøQÙE DÖøQüÙE ùRÙE


û÷ÛøÂ DÖøÂ ùÁ Nasb (attached at the end)

û÷ÛøÂ DÖøÂ ù Á Jarr (attached at the end)

øÛücÙ DÙE
DÙ íÙ Nasb (attached at the end)

DÙ ì *Jarr (attached at the end)

18
19

The Primary Rules for Idhafah

1. Mudhaf must be
a. Light
b. Without Alif – Laam

2. Mudhaf Ilaih Must be


a. Jarr

3. The Basic Types of Idhafah are:


a. Typical: ‘of’ in translation.
b. Pronoun: Attached to an Ism.
c. Special Mudhafs

4. The Mudhaf:
a. Determines 3 properties.
b. Type is dictated by Mudhaf Ilaih

5. Nothing may come between the two.

19
20

3 TYPES OF IDHAFAH
There are many types of Idhafah constructions. The three most important ones to note
are the ones we covered in this course. The rest of them are self evident and one need not
get into unnecessary technicalities for a beginners course. Students must be strong in
their ability to recognize a mudhaf + mudhaf Ilaih situation. The best way to do that is to
know these three types of Idhafah well.

Type 1: Conventional Mudhaf + Mudhaf Ilaih


Two isms coming together to produce the meanings ‘The _M_ of M.I.’.

Here are some English examples with their Arabic Equivalent:

The House of Allah. éÏÎC PìF


The Prayers of the Prophet. ÍßvpÎC MCßϤ
The Deeds of the Companions. øFDe¥ÎC ÍDص‫أ‬
The Example of a Mosquito. ø¨ß·F ÐS×
Type 2: Special Mudhaf + Regular Mudhaf Ilaih
This construction, though an idhafah does not necessarily produce the ‘of’ meaning. The
following are commonly used special mudhafs.

Type 3: Mudhaf + Attached Pronouns.


Whenever an ism is attached to a pronoun, that ism acts as a mudhaf and the attached
pronoun as the mudhaf Ilaih. Though the attached pronouns don’t look like the
singular, pair or plural jarr that we are used to identifying from our Ism table, they are
still jarr which is why they are studied separately.
; ÙûúèGOÆ ;DØûúèGOÆ ;`úûéGOÆ
;ÝûúèGOÆ ;DØûúèGOÆ ;DèGOÆ
; þÙúÇGOÆ ;DØúÇGOÆ ;ùÈGOÆ
;ùýÝúÇGOÆ ;DØúÇGOÆ ;ûÈGOÆ
etc.

20
21

Idhafah Recognition Drill:


Tell whether each is an instance of Idhafah or not.
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

21
22
IDHAFA WITH PRONOUNS: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH PRONOUNS.

______ selves.
¼î³j
å «î ¾í?

____________ rebellion.
¼á ³
î Éà§á Eß

__________ glitter.
>ßêífà ]
á gà

__________faces.
¼á Ãà Âß ÇàQÆà

___________command.
>ß¾fà ºá ?í

____________ nation.
¼á Ãà ºß Çá ®í

_____________ family or people or dwellers.


>ß÷î Âá ?í

_______________ boundaries.
Åàaß ÆàbU
à

_______________ place.
¼á ³
î ¾ß >í³ºß

With _________ example or likeness.


>ß÷å Ná»å Eå

Then for ____________ mother.


Äå ºë Ú
î ªí

___________ family.
À
ç Ãó ·å Âá ?í

One of _____________.
À
ç Âà =ßbU
á Có

_______________ associates.
¼á ²î Õà Bí²fß m
à

_______________ marriage gifts.


À
ç Ãó Iå >í®bà q
ß

______________ action or work.


Êå·»ß ¢ß

_______________ lord.
´
í Eë eß

22
23
SPECIAL IDHAFAH: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH CORERCT MEANINGS

__________ the right/ justification / truth/ evidence.

__________ all of you.

__________ them.

__________ two women.

_______________ them.

_____________ you all.

__________________ us.

__________________ them.

_________________ two sisters.

__________________ that for you all.

_________________ own behalf.

_________________ the obligation.

_________________ that.

_________________ have.

_________________ her / it.

___________________ the tree.

___________________ both of them.

23
24

The Primary Rules for Mowsoof + Sifah

1. Mowsoof must be
a. First
b. Only One

2. Sifah
a. is the same as Mowsoof in 4 properties
b. is after the Mowsoof
c. may be more than one
d. may not be right after mowsoof

24
25

Tell whether each is an instance of Mowsoof + Sifah or not.


1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

25
26

IS A MOWSOOF + SIFAH IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING?

26
27

HUROOF OF JARR IN THE QUR’AN


With the believers. (With, because of, by, at, in
etc.)

They said, “By Allah!”

There actions are like ashes which the wind


blows fiercely on a stormy day.

And for you. The of emphasis should never be

confused with this because this is the only one that


forces to Jarr.
(I swear) By the fleeting passage of time!
Shouldn’t be confused with eaning ‘and’.
From amongst yourselves

In just retribution there is life

They ask you regarding the spoils of war

And upon Allah the believers should place their


complete trust. (On, against, mandatory on, over
and upon)

Until the rise of dawn

Until a time (3 times in Qur’an)

It (the Qur’an) guides towards what is right.

27
28

HUROOF OF NASB
Certainly Allah is

That they are / That certainly they are

As though there is deafness in his ear (literally


barrier)
Woe is me! If only I didn’t take so-and-so for a
friend!

On the contrary righteousness is

So that you may be grateful.

28
29
Sentence Vs. Fragment Drill:
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

29
30

POINTING WORDS ASSOCIATIONS

ôÉãå ØClå Clå


MASC.
NEAR

ôÉãå Ûélå Clå Nasb

ôÉãå Ûélå Clå Jarr

ôÉãå ØDPDå älå


FEM.
NEAR

ôÉãå ÛêPDå älå Nasb

ôÉãå ÛêPDå älå Jarr

ÁôÉÜE ÄÙCk ÄÆk


MASC.
FAR

ÁôÉÜE ÄÚék ÄÆk Nasb

ÁôÉÜE ÄÚék ÄÆk Jarr

ÁôÉÜE ÄÙDP ÄÇP


FEM.
FAR

ÁôÉÜE ÄÚêP ÄÇP Nasb

ÁôÉÜE ÄÚêP ÄÇP Jarr

If the word after any of these has ‘AL’, it becomes a


fragment like ‘This book’. If the word after does not
have ‘AL’ it becomes a sentence like ‘This is a book.’

30
31

The primary rules for Jumlah Ismiyah

1. Try to analyze cause and effect between every


consecutive word based on the following:

a. Mudhaf + Mudhaf Ilaih


b. Mowsoof + Sifah
c. Harf of Jarr + its victim
d. Harf of Nasb + its victim
e. Ismul Isharah + Musharun Ilaih

At any point in your analysis if you are unable


to establish cause and effect, place an ‘is’ or an
‘am’ or an ‘are’ in the translation.

2. The part before the ‘is’ is called Mubtada’


3. The part after is called ‘Khabar’.

31
32 Draw a line where the part before the ‘is’ ends and the part after the ‘is’ begins.
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

32
33

Plural Pair Singular

Ùç DØç ßç Masculine 3rd Person

CÞúpù¥ùÛ Cùpù¥ùÛ ùpù¥ùÛ


They helped. They (2) helped. He helped.

Ýç DØç íç Feminine 3rd Person

ùÚþpù¥ùÛ DùNùpù¥ùÛ þMùpù¥ùÛ


They helped (f). They (2) helped (f). She helped.

ÙOÛC DØOÛC ùPÛC Masculine 2nd Person

ÙúNþpù¥ùÛ DùØúNþpù¥ùÛ ùMþpù¥ùÛ


You all helped. You two helped. You helped.

ÝúOÛC DØOÛC ûPÛC Feminine 2nd Person

ùýÝúNþpù¥ùÛ DùØúNþpù¥ùÛ ûMþpù¥ùÛ


You all helped (f). You two helped. You helped (f).
ÙÏÇO×
ÝeÛ DÛC 1st Person

DùÛþpù¥ùÛ úMþpù¥ùÛ
We helped I helped.

ßç A

íç AT

ùPÛC PAUSE+ TA

ûPÛC PAUSE+ TI

DÛC PAUSE+ TU

ÝeÛ PAUSE+ NAA

etc.

33
34
WHAT PRONOUN IS BEHIND EACH PAST TENSE?

34
35

WHAT PRONOUN IS BEHIND EACH PAST TENSE?

35
Translate accurately based on the English clues
36

To destroy
>ß¿³ï ·í Âá ?í 1

To come
Ð>ßQ 2

To become heavy
K
á ·í î̄ßM 3

To settle (someone else)


>翳õ ºß 4

To forbid
´
í £ß ¿ßºß 5

To throw out
Êå¿JßÈá Çß ¦ï ?í 6

To follow
´
í £ß FåIß 7

To whisper evil suggestions


l
ß Çß i
á Çß ªí 8

To swear to someone
>ß»àÃ»ß i
ß >í® 9

To taste
>í®=ßc 10

To wrong
>ß¿»á ·í ží 11

To expel
T
ß fß ]
á ?í 12

To do
=ïÇî·£ß ªí 13

To command
fß ºß ?í 14

To make illegal / forbid


½ß fç U
ß 15

To come
Ð>ßQ 16

To lie against
To be arrogant =ïÆàfFß³ï Jßi
á =ïÇàEdç ²í 17

36
37
FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH APPROPRIATE PRONOUNS.

__________ created _________. ¼á ³


î í̄ ·í ]
ß

__________ gave _____________ life. ¼á ²î >ßÉU


á @íªí

__________ fashioned _____________. À


ç Âà =çÇj
ß ªí

__________ made _____________. ¼á ²î >ß¿·ï £ß Q


ß

And _______________ came to ________________. ¼á Ãà Iá Ð>ßQÆß

Then ________________ made ______________. >ßÂ>ß¿·ï £ß R


ß ªí

__________________ understood _______________. ÅàÇî·í̄ ¢ß

Then _________________slaughtered______________. >ßÂÇàVEß dß ªí

_________________touched______________. ¼á Ãà Jáj
ç ºß

__________________ gave _________________. ¼î²>ß¿ÉáIß A

_________________ wronged _______________. >ß¾Çà»·í ží

_________________ seized _______________. ¼î³áIßdß]í@íª

_________________ rescued _______________. ¼î²>ß¿ÉáR


ç ¾ß

_________________ favored _______________. ¼á ³


î Jà·ï v
ç ªí

_________________ expelled _______________. >ß»àÃßQßfá]í@íª

___________________ taught ______________. >ß¿ßJá»õ·ß¢

___________________ brought before ______________. ¼á Ãà u


ß fß ¢ß

37
38
FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH APPROPRIATE PRONOUNS.

__________ enables or facilitates travel for _________. ¼á ²î fà Éëj


ß Èà

__________ gave _____________ life. ¼á ²î >ßÉU


á @íªí

__________ fashioned _____________. À


ç Âà =çÇj
ß ªí

__________ made _____________. ¼á ²î >ß¿·ï £ß Q


ß

And _______________ came to ________________. ¼á Ãà Iá Ð>ßQÆß

Then ________________ made ______________. >ßÂ>ß¿·ï £ß R


ß ªí

__________________ understood _______________. ÅàÇî·í̄ ¢ß

Then _________________slaughtered______________. >Âß ÇàVEß dß ªí

_________________touched______________. ¼á Ãà Jáj
ç ºß

__________________ gave _________________. ¼î²>ß¿ÉáIß A

_________________ wronged _______________. >ß¾Çà»·í ží

_________________ seized _______________. ¼î³áIßdß]í@íª

_________________ rescued _______________. ¼î²>ß¿ÉáR


ç ¾ß

_________________ favored _______________. ¼á ³


î Jà·ï v
ç ªí

_________________ expelled _______________. >ß»àÃßQßfá]í@íª

___________________ taught ______________. >ß¿ßJá»õ·ß¢

___________________ brought before ______________. ¼á Ãà u


ß fß ¢ß

38
39

PRESENT TENSE

¸ØV íÜS× kp¿×


Ùç DØç ßç HñDº pÆn×
ùÚÞúpú¥þÜùë ûÚCùpú¥þÜùë úpú¥þÜùë Masculine 3rd Person

They help. They (2) help. He helps.


Ýç DØç íç HñDº TÛå×
ùÚþpú¥þÜùë ûÚCùpú¥þÜùN úpú¥þÜùN Feminine 3rd Person

They help (f). They (2) help (f). She helps.


ÙOÛC DØOÛC PÛC p¨DdpÆn×
ùÚÞúpú¥þÜùN ûÚCùpú¥þÜùN úpú¥þÜùN Masculine 2nd Person

You all help. You two help. You help.


ÝúOÛC DØOÛC PÛC p¨DdTÛå×
ùÚþpú¥þÜùN ûÚCùpú¥þÜùN ùÝëûpú¥þÜùN Feminine 2nd Person

You all help (f). You two help (f). You help (f).
ÝeÛ DÛC ÙÏÇO×
úpú¥þÜùÛ úpú¥þÛùC 1st Person

We help I help.

Some Shortcuts:

‘YA’ Beginning = Someone Who’s Not Here (3rd Person, i.e. he, she, they etc.)

The Present Tense for ‘She’ and ‘You (m)’ is the same.

‘OONA’ was used in Ism study to show plural. It does the same thing here.

‘AANI’ was used in Ism study to show pair. It does the same thing here.

39
Translate accurately based on the English clues
40

To remember
Áß Æàf²õ dß Iß 1

To wrong
Áß Çà»·å Ÿ
ï Èå 2

To live and To die


Áß ÇàIÇà»Iß Áß Çá ÉßV
á Iß 3

To see (someone else)


¼á Ãà ¾ß Æá fß Iß 4

To command
fà ºà @ïÈß 5

To say
Áß Çà»·í £á Iß Áß Çî¶Çî̄ßI 6

To return
Áß ÆàaÇà£Iß 7

To assume
Áß ÇàFj
ßV
á Èß 8

To love
G
è V
å Èà 9

To explain
¸
àrë «í ¾à 10

To understand
Áß Çà»·í £á Èß 11

To delay and To advance (make early)


Áß Çàºbå ï̄ßJj
á Èß Áß Æàf]
å @ïJßj
á Èß 12

To narrate
Áß Çèrî̄ßÈ 13

To reach
¼á Ãà ¶î >ß¿Èß 14

To call
Áß Çà¢bá Iß 15

To know
Áß Çà»·í £á Iß 16

To enter
Áß Çî·]
à bá Èß 17

40
41
PRESENT TENSE: FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH APPROPRIATE PRONOUNS.

_______________ commit(s) _________. >ßþå >ßÉIå @ïÈß

__________ advise (s) or sermon(s) _____________ . ¼î³Ÿî £å Èß

Are/ Is __________ taking _____________? Äà ¾ß Æàd]


à @ïIß ?í

__________ own behalf. Äà ¾á bà ¶õ

Then _______________ return(s) ________________. >ßÂaç fà ¿ßªí

And ________________ guide(s) ______________. ¼á ³


î ÈåbÃá ÈßÆß

____________ attack(s) or afflict (s) or test(s) ___________. ¼î³¿àJå«ï Èß

_________________has (ve) in store for ______________. ¼á Âà bà £å ¾ß

_________________multiply(s) ______________. >ßÃ«ï ¢å >ßvÈà

__________________ throw(s) / cast(s)_________________. Äå Éå·r


á ¾à

_________________ will certainly show _______________. ´


í ¿çÈßfó ¾à

_________________ give(s) _______________. Äå ÉåIÖá ¾à

_________________ provide(s) _______________. ¼î³î®àgáfßÈ

_________________ return (s) _______________. Åàbà Éå£Èà

_________________ take(s) _______________ in full. À


ç Âà >õªÇß JßÈß

___________________ gather(s) ______________. ¼á Âà fà n


àVá ¾ß

___________________ inform(s) ______________. ¼î³ÒàFë¿ß¿àªí

41
42
FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH APPROPRIATE PRONOUNS.

__________ appoint(s).

__________ gave _____________ life.

________________ command (s) people towards


good.

__________ assume(s) that they are to meet their


Lord.

_________ will never accept your demand.

_______take(s).

________________please(s) the viewers.

_________________ask or plea

_________________eat (s) the wealth of the orphans.

__________________ don’t (doesn’t) know.

_________________ bequest(s) or leave(s) a will.

_________________ come(s) or commit (s)

Should _________________ tell you all?

_________________ hide(s) or cover(s).

_________________ alone accept(s) their repentence.

How can ____________ be?

And _____________ explain(s) the ayaat.

42
43

Is the Present Tense Normal, Light or Lightest?


=Çè¿»à Iß
=Çîªeß >ߣJ߶å
=Ç࿺å Öá Ià
¸
ó]à bá Èß
=Çà£ÉåìIà
=ÇàrU
á ?íÆß
Áß Çà»·ù £ß Ià
¼à ·í £á Èß
Áß Çî·»ß £á Iß
Áó =ßbR
àj
á Èß
=Æàf»å Iß ?ï
Áó >ßÉå̄ßJ·ï Èß
óÁ>ßÉå§áFßÈ
Äà ¶î @íj
á Èß
©à fà «ï ¿ßi
ß
=Æàd«î ¿ßI

43
44

ACTION WITHOUT TIME (ISM PRESENT FI’L PAST FI’L


MASDAR)

>ðºØáiC ¼à ·å j
á Èà ¼ß ·í i
á ?í

>ð»É·á£Iß ¼à ·åä £ß Èà ¼ß ·õ ¢ß

=ða>ÃåQ bà Âå >RàÈ bß Âß >Q

ð=fèFí³ßI fà Fç³í JßÈß fß Fç³í Iß


úÌøïDs÷P øÈ÷ïDs÷Q÷é ÷È÷ïDs÷P

DúLCnùQü¾ùG øKùn÷Qü¿÷é ÷K÷n÷Qü¾ùG

ImD©ù»üÙùG ønù©÷»üÚ÷é ÷n÷©÷»üÙùG

ð=e>«á§åJáiC fà «å §á Jßj
á Èß fß «í §á Jßi
áC

44
Amr
45
Recognition Drill:
Are the following commands?
To remember 1

To carve 2

To congratulate 3

To wrong 4

To bring out 5

To follow 6

To obey 7

To accept 8

To devote oneself, to prostrate, to bow 9


down

To make or to place 10

To understand 11

To delay and To advance (make early) 12

To narrate 13

To reach 14

To call 15

To know 16

To enter 17

45
46

Retracing Commands:
Can you retrace the fi’l back to its normal, non-commanding state?
1

10

46
47

How have the following sentences been negated?


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

47
48

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

48
49

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

50.

51.

52.

53.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58.

49
50

59.

60.

61.

62.

63.

64.

65.

66.

67.

68.

69.

70.

71.

72.

73.

74.

75.

76.

77.

78.

50
51

79.

80.

81.

82.

83.

84.

85.

86.

87.

88.

89.

90.

91.

92.

93.

94.

95.

96.

97.

51
52

98.

99.

100.

101.

102.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107.

108.

109.

110.

111.

112.

113.

114.

115.

116.

52
53

117.

118.

119.

120.

121.

122.

123.

124.

125.

126.

127.

128.

129.

130.

131.

132.

133.

134.

135.

136.

53
54

137.

138.

139.

140.

141.

142.

143.

144.

145.

146.

147.

148.

149.

150.

151.

152.

153.

154.

155.

156.

54
55

157.

158.

159.

160.

161.

162.

163.

164.

165.

166.

167.

168.

169.

170.

171.

172.

173.

174.

55
56

Retracing Commands:
Can you retrace the fi’l back to its normal, non-commanding state?
1

10

56
57

Which bolded words are NOT from the Ta’leem family?

57
58

Qur’anic Examples of the TAKABBURAN family:


2:74

2:102

14:48

2:166

2:275

3:191

2:228

28:18

24:63

48:24

19:90

14:30

58:11

58
59

Which bolded words are NOT from the Mujaahadah family?

59
60

Which bolded words are NOT from the Islah family?


Áß Çà»Éå̄àÈß
å Áß Ç࿺å Öá Èà
Áß ÇàV·å «ï »à ¶ï =
¼á Ãà Iß eá dß ¾í?
Áß Çà¢aå >ß^Èà
=ïÆàbj
å «ï Ià
Áß ÇàV·å r
á ºà
¼à ·í £á Èß
L
á Ð>ßu?í
œ
ñ ÉåVºà
¼ß ·í žï ?í
å T
ß fß ]
á ?í
¼á ³î ÉåÉV
á Èà ¼á ³î JàÉå»Èà
Äà ¶î @íj
á Èß
©à fà «ï ¿ßi
ß
=Æàd«î ¿ßI

60
Fundamentals of Classical Arabic Exam 1 - Ism and Fragments ‫ بينة‬Bayyinah Institute

Name of Student: _______________________________ Date:__________ Location_____________________

Section 1: Circle R, N or J in each cell below. If two answers are possible, circle both. 5points
ْ ْ
َ‫ كا ِذ ِب ن‬R N J
‫ي‬ OO
َ‫سائحات‬
ِ َ ‫ ِف ْرع ْو‬R N J
‫ن‬ ‫ نث ُم ْو َد‬R N J
OO OO OO َ‫مش ِف نق ْي‬ OO
‫ن ن‬ ‫ن‬ ُ
R N J R N J

Section 2: Circle P for Proper and C for Common in each of the following. 5points
ْ ْ
َ ‫ َ َ أنن‬P
‫ت‬ O َ‫ َ َ بُْشى‬P O َ ‫اّل ْي‬
‫ن‬ ِ ‫ َ َ َن‬P
O َ‫د ْور َ نَق ْوم‬ ‫ ص‬P O ‫ َ َ هـذا‬P O
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ُ ُ ن‬
C C C C C

Section 3: Circle M for Masculine and F for Feminine for each of the following. 5points
ْ ْ
‫طلح نَة‬ O ‫ن‬ ََM O
‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ أ ُ ََم‬M F O
َ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ننفس‬M F َ‫ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ب ْيت‬M F
O َ‫ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ صالة‬M O
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬
F F

Section 4: Circle 1 for Singular, 2 for Pair and Pl for Plural. 5points
ْ
َِ ‫ َ َ جنَ ن‬1 2 Pl
‫تان‬ O َ ْ ‫ َ َ م ْس ِلم‬1 َ2 Pl
‫ي‬ O O
‫ َ َ َ َ َ قا ِنتُو‬1 َ 2 َ َ Pl َ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ر ْيب‬1 2 Pl َ‫ َ مخت ِل نفة‬1
O O
‫ن‬ ‫ُ ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ُ ن‬
2 Pl

Section 5: Is each of the following a case of Mowsoof-Sifah? Circle Y for Yes and N for No. 5points

َ‫ظ ْي‬ ِ ‫كتابَ َ نَع‬ O ِ َ Y N َ‫أ ن نش َ ُدَ ََق ُ َ نوة‬ O َ ِ ‫َالغ ْي‬
‫ب‬ ‫ عالِ ُم َ ن‬Y N O َ‫شاِبات‬ ِ ‫ آياتَ ََمُت ن‬Y N ‫ي‬O َ ‫َ َ هـذاَ ََالنَ ن ِب‬ َ َY O
َُ
Y N N

Section 6: Is each of the following a mudhaf and mudhaf ilayh? Circle Y for Yes and N for No. 5points

َ ِ ِ‫د ْون َ ََالخال‬ َ‫ صالة َ ََرس ْول‬Y N َْ ‫ك‬ َ ِ ‫حسنَ ََالح ِد ْي‬ ْ ‫ أ‬Y N ‫ك َة‬
‫ق‬
‫ن‬ ُ O ‫عاب‬
ِ Y N
ُ ‫ن‬ O ‫ن‬
‫م‬ ُ ُ O
‫كتاب‬ ِ Y N ‫ث‬
‫ن ن ن ن‬ O ‫ساج نداَ َ نَم َ ن ن‬
ِ ‫م‬
‫ن‬ OY N

Section 7: Is each of the following a sentence? Circle Y for Yes and N for No. 5points
ْ
َِ‫َِل‬ ‫دَ َ ِ َ ن‬Oُ ‫الحم‬ َ‫هـذا ََبيان‬ O َ‫ِإ َ نّن ْم َ نَق ْوم‬
O ِ َ ‫كتاب َ َ َ ن‬
‫َاِل‬ ِ O َ َ ‫َاِلِ َ ََح‬
‫ق‬ ‫ن‬ َ َ ‫ِد ْين‬ O
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ُ ُ ‫ن‬ ُ
Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N

Bayyinah Institute Fundamentals of Classical Arabic – Exam 1 Page 1


Fundamentals of Classical Arabic Exam 1 - Ism and Fragments ‫ بينة‬Bayyinah Institute

Section 8: Tell the status of the pronouns (R, N or J). 20points


ْ ‫(إ‬their faith) R N J ‫ت‬ ْ
َ‫ك َن‬
‫ن‬ ُ ‫ ِب‬R N J O َ ْ ‫ماّن‬
‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ِ O َ ِ ‫ن‬ ‫ أن‬RO ‫ِإ َنننا‬ O َ‫ك ْم‬
ُ ‫لن نعلَ ن‬ O
ُُ
N J R N J R N J

ْ
َ ‫ه‬
‫و‬ O َْ ‫ك‬
‫م‬ ‫ ِف ْي‬R N J O َ ‫ ننصر ن‬R
‫ك‬ O ‫كتابنا‬ O َ ‫ ننح‬R
‫ن‬ O
ُ ِ
ُ‫ن‬ َََ R ُ ‫ن ن‬ ُ
N J N J R N J N J
(he helped you)
Section 9: Match these fragments with their correct label 15points
ْ َ َ‫هـذا‬
a. ‫ََش َء‬
‫ن‬
g
b. َ‫ذلكَ ََالرج ُل‬
1. ______________ Idafah
ُ ‫ن َن‬
c
c. َ‫َشء ََع ِج ْيب‬ ْ
2. ______________ Mowsoof & Sifah
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬
e
َ ْ ‫ِإ َ نّن‬
3. ______________ Harf of Jarr
d. ‫م‬
4. d
______________ Harf of Nasb
ُ
e. َِ‫اِل‬
‫ِب َ ن‬
5. b
______________ Ismul Isharah & Musharun Ilayh
f. ُ َ‫نهـ ِذ ِهَ ََفا ِطمة‬
a , f Sentence ‫ن‬
g. َ‫دُعاء َ َالر ُس ْو ِل‬
6. ______________

‫ن َن‬

Bayyinah Institute Fundamentals of Classical Arabic – Exam 1 Page 2


Fundamentals of Classical Arabic Exam 1 - Ism and Fragments ‫ بينة‬Bayyinah Institute

Name of Student: _______________________________ Date:__________ Location_____________________

Section 1: Circle R, N or J in each cell below. If two answers are possible, circle both. 5points
ْ ْ
َ‫ كا ِذ ِب ن‬R N J
‫ي‬ َ‫سائحات‬
ِ َ ‫ ِف ْرع ْو‬R N J
‫ن‬ ‫ نث ُم ْو َد‬R N J َ‫مش ِف نق ْي‬
‫ن ن‬ ‫ن‬ ُ
R N J R N J

Section 2: Circle P for Proper and C for Common in each of the following. 5points
ْ ْ
َ ‫ َ َ أنن‬P
‫ت‬ َ‫ َ َ بُْشى‬P َ ‫اّل ْي‬
‫ن‬ ِ ‫ َ َ َن‬P َ‫د ْور َ نَق ْوم‬ ‫ ص‬P ‫ َ َ هـذا‬P
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ُ ُ ن‬
C C C C C

Section 3: Circle M for Masculine and F for Feminine for each of the following. 5points
ْ ْ
‫طلح نَة‬ ‫ن‬ ََM ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ أ ُ ََم‬M F َ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ننفس‬M F َ‫ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ب ْيت‬M F َ‫ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ صالة‬M
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬
F F

Section 4: Circle 1 for Singular, 2 for Pair and Pl for Plural. 5points
ْ
َِ ‫ َ َ جنَ ن‬1 2 Pl
‫تان‬ َ ْ ‫ َ َ م ْس ِلم‬1 َ2 Pl
‫ي‬ ‫ َ َ َ َ َ قا ِنتُو‬1 َ 2 َ َ Pl َ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ر ْيب‬1 2 Pl َ‫ َ مخت ِل نفة‬1
‫ن‬ ‫ُ ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ُ ن‬
2 Pl

Section 5: Is each of the following a case of Mowsoof-Sifah? Circle Y for Yes and N for No. 5points

َ ْ‫ظ‬
‫ي‬ ِ ‫كتابَ َ نَع‬ ِ َ Y N َ‫أ ن نش َ ُدَ ََق ُ َ نوة‬ َ ِ ‫َالغ ْي‬
‫ب‬ ‫ عالِ ُم َ ن‬Y N َ‫شاِبات‬ ِ ‫ آياتَ ََمُت ن‬Y N ‫ي‬ َ ‫َ َ هـذاَ ََالنَ ن ِب‬ َ َY
َُ
Y N N

Section 6: Is each of the following a mudhaf and mudhaf ilayh? Circle Y for Yes and N for No. 5points

َ ِ ِ‫د ْون َ ََالخال‬ َ‫ صالة َ ََرس ْول‬Y N َْ ‫ك‬ َ ِ ‫حسنَ ََالح ِد ْي‬ ْ ‫ أ‬Y N ‫ك َة‬
‫ق‬
‫ن‬ ُ ‫عاب‬
ِ Y N
ُ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬
‫م‬ ُ ُ
‫كتاب‬ ِ Y N ‫ث‬
‫ن ن ن ن‬ ‫ساج نداَ َ نَم َ ن ن‬
ِ ‫م‬
‫ن‬
Y N

Section 7: Is each of the following a sentence? Circle Y for Yes and N for No. 5points
ْ
ِ‫َِل‬
َ ‫دَ َ ِ َ ن‬ ُ ‫الحم‬ َ‫هـذا ََبيان‬ َ‫ِإ َ نّن ْم َ نَق ْوم‬ ِ َ ‫كتاب َ َ َ ن‬
‫َاِل‬ ِ َ َ ‫َاِلِ َ ََح‬
‫ق‬ ‫ن‬ َ َ ‫ِد ْين‬
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ُ ُ ‫ن‬ ُ
Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N

Bayyinah Institute Fundamentals of Classical Arabic – Exam 1 Page 1


Fundamentals of Classical Arabic Exam 1 - Ism and Fragments ‫ بينة‬Bayyinah Institute

Section 8: Tell the status of the pronouns (R, N or J). 20points


ْ ‫(إ‬their faith) R N J ‫ت‬ ْ
َ‫ك َن‬
‫ن‬ ُ ‫ ِب‬R N J َ ْ ‫ماّن‬
‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ِ َ ِ ‫ن‬ ‫ أن‬R ‫ِإ َنننا‬ َ‫ك ْم‬
ُ ‫لن نعلَ ن‬
ُُ
N J R N J R N J

ْ
َ ‫ه‬
‫و‬ َْ ‫ك‬
‫م‬ ‫ ِف ْي‬R N J َ ‫ ننصر ن‬R
‫ك‬ ‫كتابنا‬ َ ‫ ننح‬R
‫ن‬
ُ ِ
ُ‫ن‬ َََ R ُ ‫ن ن‬ ُ
N J N J R N J N J
(he helped you)
Section 9: Match these fragments with their correct label 15points
ْ َ َ‫هـذا‬
a. ‫ََش َء‬
‫ن‬
b. َ‫ذلكَ ََالرج ُل‬
1. ______________ Idafah
ُ ‫ن َن‬
c. َ‫َشء ََع ِج ْيب‬ ْ
2. ______________ Mowsoof & Sifah
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬
َ ْ ‫ِإ َ نّن‬
3. ______________ Harf of Jarr
d. ‫م‬
4. ______________ Harf of Nasb
ُ
e. َِ‫اِل‬
‫ِب َ ن‬
5. ______________ Ismul Isharah & Musharun Ilayh
f. ُ َ‫نهـ ِذ ِهَ ََفا ِطمة‬
‫ن‬
g. َ‫دُعاء َ َالر ُس ْو ِل‬
6. ______________ Sentence

‫ن َن‬

Bayyinah Institute Fundamentals of Classical Arabic – Exam 1 Page 2


2.1 SURAH KAHF AYAH 1
Learning Objectives - Review the grammar of the first ayah of Surah Kahf

Lesson Review

There are 3 goals of this unit:

1. Memorize the first 10 ayaat


2. Know every word in these ayaat, and what each one means
3. Know how to apply all the grammar learned in Unit 1 to these 10 ayaat

We will now begin with the first ayah:

‫ح ح ح‬ ‫ح ح‬ ‫ح ح َ َ ح ح‬
َ )١(َ‫لَلََعّوجَا‬
َ ‫ّيَأنزلَََعََعب ّد َه َّالكّتابََول َمََيع‬
َ ‫لِلَّاَّل‬
َ ّ ََ‫اَْلمد‬
Praise and gratitude is for Allah who sent down upon His slave the book, and He did not make in it any
crookedness.

‫ح ح‬
Grammar Meaning Word

‫رفع‬, singular, masculine, proper Praise and gratitude َ‫اَْلمد‬


‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬
Review the ‫ حرفَجر‬chart from Appendix A
for َ‫ّل‬
‫ح‬
‫ جر( َمر حور‬status) َ
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, proper
Allah ّ‫الِل‬
َ

‫َ ح‬
Ism Mowsool
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, proper
Review the 7 reasons for something to be
the One who َ ‫اَّل‬
‫ّي‬
proper from Appendix B

1
© BayyinahTV
َ‫( فعلَماض‬past tense ‫)فعل‬ ‫ح‬
‫ح‬
Review the ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for َ‫ أنزل‬from He sent down َ‫أنزل‬
Appendix C
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬ upon َ‫َع‬
‫ح‬
‫ جر( َمر حور‬status)
‫ح‬
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf) slave of َ‫عب ّد‬
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, proper
‫( مضافَإ ّ حَله‬mudhaaf ilayh)
‫ح‬
‫ جر( َمر حور‬status) of His ّ ‫َه‬
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, proper
‫( مفع حول‬detail)
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, proper ‫ح‬
‫ح‬ the book َ‫الكّتاب‬
Review the four types of ‫ مفع حول‬from
Appendix D
‫حرف‬ and َ‫و‬
َ‫ل حم‬
Lightest harf
Review the lightest harf chart from did not
Appendix E
Lightest ‫فعلَمضارّع‬ ‫ح ح‬
‫ح‬
Review the lightest ‫ فعلَمضارع‬chart for َ‫َيعل‬ He makes َ ‫َيع‬
‫ل‬
from Appendix F
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬ in َ‫ل‬
‫ح‬
‫ جر( َمر حور‬status) it َ‫ه‬
‫( مفع حول‬detail) crookedness (confusion,
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common evil) ‫عّوجا‬
something that is bent

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Appendix

A. Review the ‫ حرفَجر‬chart:

َ‫ّب‬ with
َ‫ت‬ I swear by (only for Allah)
َ‫ك‬ like
َ‫ل‬ for
َ‫و‬ I swear by
‫ح‬
َ‫مّن‬ from
َ‫ّ ح‬
‫ف‬ in
‫ح‬
َ‫عن‬ about
َ‫َع‬ upon/on
َ
َ ‫ح‬
‫ّت‬ until
َ‫إّل‬ to

B. The seven reasons for something to be proper:

1. Proper names
a. Names of people or places
2. Words withَ‫ال‬
a. ‫َال‬means ‘the’
b. Words with ‫ ال‬cannot have tanween: َ‫ مسلم‬becomes َ‫املسلم‬
3. Pronouns
4. Pointers
5. Ism Mowsool
‫َ ح‬ ‫َ ح َ ح‬
a. Examples: ‫ّي‬
َ ‫اَّل‬, َ‫اَّلّين‬, ‫ت‬
َ ّ ‫ال‬, etc.
6. The one being called (‫)يا‬
a. In Arabic we use ‫ يا‬to call someone. It means ‘hey!’ The word after it will
always be proper.
7. If the ‫ اسم‬after ‘of’ is proper, then the ‫ اسم‬before ‘of’ is proper

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‫ح‬
C. The َ‫ فعلَماض‬chart for َ‫أنزل‬:

Plural Dual Singular


‫ح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ح‬
‫ه حَمَأنزل حوا‬ َ‫هماَأنزل‬ َ‫هوََأنزل‬ 3rd Person

‫ح ح‬
They all (m) sent down. Both of them (m) sent down. He sent down.
‫ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
َ‫ه ََنَأنزلن‬ ‫هماَأنزَلا‬ َ‫هَأنزلت‬
َّ

‫ح ح ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬
They all (f) sent down. Both of them (f) sent down. She sent down.
‫أنت حَمَأنزَل حَم‬ ‫أنتماَأنزَلما‬ َ‫أنتََأنزلت‬ 2nd Person

‫ح َ ح ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬
You all (m) sent down. You two (m) sent down. You (m) sent down.
ََ ‫تَأنزل‬
‫ت‬ َ ‫أن‬ ‫أنتماَأنزَلما‬ َ‫ت‬
ّ ‫تَأنزل‬
َ ّ ‫أن‬

‫ح ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
You all (f) sent down. You two (f) sent down. You (f) sent down.
‫َنحنََأنزْلا‬ َ‫أناَأنزلت‬ 1st Person

We sent down. I sent down.

‫ح‬
D. The four types of ‫’مفع حول‬s:
1. َ‫مفعولَب ّ ّه‬: a detail about who or what the action was done to
a. Example:
i. I ate chicken.
1. The ‫ مفعولَب ّ َّه‬is chicken because it answers the question ‘what
did I eat?’
‫ح‬
2. ‫مفعولَفّي َّه‬: a detail about when or where the action was done
a. Example:
i. I woke up in my room.
‫ح‬
1. The ‫ مفعولَفّي َّه‬is in my room because it answers the question
‘where did I wake up?’
2. at home because it answers the question ‘where did I eat?’
3. َ‫مفعولَل‬: detail why the action was done
a. Example: I ate because I was hungry.
i. The َ‫ مفعولَل‬is because I was hungry because it answers the question
‘why did I eat?’
4. ‫مفعولَحال‬: how the action was done
a. Example: I studied quietly.

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i. The ‫ مفعولَحال‬is quietly because it answers the question ‘how did I
study?’

E. Review the lightest harf chart:


‫ح‬
َ‫إّن‬ if
‫ل حَم‬ did not
َ
‫لما‬ not yet
‫ح‬
َ‫ف‬
‫ل‬ so should
‫ح‬
‫و َل‬ and should
َ‫ّل‬ should

‫ح‬
F. Review the lightest ‫ارع‬
ّ ‫ فعلَمض‬chart for َ‫َيعل‬:

Plural Dual Singular


‫ح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
‫ه حَمََيعل حوا‬ َ‫هماََيعل‬ َ‫هوَََيعل‬ 3rd Person

‫ح ح‬
They all (m) make. Both of them (m) make. He makes.
‫ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
َ‫ه ََنََيعلن‬ َ‫هماََتعل‬ َ‫هََتعل‬
َّ
They all (f) make. Both of them (f) make. She makes.
‫ح ح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ح ح ح‬
‫أنت حَمََتعل حوا‬
‫ح‬
َ ‫أنتماََتع‬
‫ل‬ َ‫أنتَََتعل‬ 2nd Person

‫ح َ ح ح‬
You all (m) make. You two (m) make. You (m) make.
‫ح‬
‫ح‬ ‫تََتحع ّ ح‬ ‫ح‬
َ‫تََتعلن‬
َ ‫أن‬ َ ‫أنتماََتع‬
‫ل‬ َ‫ل‬ َ ّ ‫أن‬
You all (f) make. You two (f) make. You (f) make.
‫ح ح‬ ‫ح ح‬
َ ‫َنحنَََنع‬
‫ل‬ َ‫أناَأجعل‬ 1st Person

We make. I make.

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2.2 SURAH KAHF AYAH 2
Learning Objectives - Review the grammar of the second ayah of Surah Kahf

Lesson Review

َ ْ ُ َ ْ َ َ ْ ‫َ ِّ ً ُ ْ َ َ ْ ً َ ْ ً ْ َ ُ ْ ُ َ ُ َ ِّ َ ْ ُ ْ ْ َ ذ‬
‫قيما ِلنذر بأسا شديدا من َلنه ويبش المؤمني اَّلين يعملون‬
ً َ َ ً ْ َ ْ َُ ‫ذ َ َ ذ‬
)٢( ‫الصاِلات أن لهم أجرا حسنا‬
Standing upright so that it warns about an intense war especially from Him, and so that it congratulates
the believers who do a few good things that a beautiful reward is for them.

Grammar Meaning Word


ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) something that stands ً ِّ َ
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common
upright/straight and does ‫قيما‬
not move from its place
Light harf
Review the light harf chart from Appendix A
so that ‫ل‬
َ ُ
Light ‫( فعل مضارع‬present tense ‫)فعل‬
ُْ
ُْ
Review the light ‫ فعل مضارع‬chart for ‫ ينذ ُر‬from he/it warns ‫ينذ َر‬
ً َْ
Appendix B
ُ َ
‫( م ْوص ْوف‬mowsoof)
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common
a war ‫بأسا‬
َ
‫( صفة‬sifah) ًْ َ
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common
intense ‫شديدا‬
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ ْ
Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart from Appendix C
from ‫من‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) ْ َُ
َ ُ
Special ‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf)
especially from ‫َلن‬

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َ َ ُ
‫( مضاف إ ِْله‬mudhaaf ilayh)
َْ
ُ‫ه‬
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
him

‫( حرف‬harf) and ‫َو‬


َ ُ
َ ِّ َ‫يُب‬
Light ‫( فعل مضارع‬present tense ‫)فعل‬
ُ ِ َ‫يُب‬
Review the light ‫ فعل مضارع‬chart for ‫ش‬ he/it congratulates ‫ش‬
from Appendix D
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail)
ُ َ
‫( م ْوص ْوف‬mowsoof) the believers
َ‫ال ْ ُم ْؤمن ْي‬
‫نصب‬, plural, masculine, proper

َ‫ذاَّل ْين‬
Ism Mowsool
َ
‫( صفة‬sifah) the ones who
‫نصب‬, plural, masculine, proper
َ ُ
‫( فعل مضارع‬present tense ‫)فعل‬
َ ُْ َ َْ
ََُْ
Review the ‫ فعل مضارع‬chart for ‫ يعمل‬from they work/do ‫يعملون‬
Appendix E
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) َ ‫الص‬‫ذ‬
‫نصب‬, plural, feminine, proper
a few good things ‫اِلات‬
‫حرف نصب‬ ‫َ ذ‬
Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart from Appendix F
that ‫أن‬
َ
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ for ‫ل‬
ُ
‫ه ْم‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) them
ُ َ
‫( م ْوص ْوف‬mowsoof)
Victim of ‫أن‬
‫َ ذ‬
reward
ً‫َأ ْجرا‬
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common
َ
‫( صفة‬sifah)
‫َ ذ‬ ً َ َ
Victim of ‫أن‬ beautiful ‫حسنا‬
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common

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Appendix

A. Review the light harf chart


َ ُ َ ُ
If any of the following harf’s come before a ‫فعل مضارع‬, the ‫ فعل مضارع‬will become light:
ْ َ
‫أن‬ to
َْ
‫لن‬ will not
‫ك‬ ْ َ or ‫ك‬
ْ َ ‫( ل‬can be ‫ل‬, ‫ك‬, ْ َ ‫)ل‬ so that
ً
‫إذا‬ in that case
‫َ ذ‬
‫حّت‬ until

َ ُ ُْ
B. The light ‫ فعل مضارع‬chart for ‫ينذ ُر‬:

Plural Dual Singular


ُْ ُ ُْ ُ ُْ ُ
‫ه ْم ينذ ُر ْوا‬ ‫ه َما ينذ َرا‬ ‫ه َو ينذ َر‬ 3rd Person

They all (m) warn. Both of them (m) warn. He warns.


َ ُْ ُ ُْ ُ ُْ َ
‫ه ذن ينذ ْرن‬ ‫ه َما تنذ َرا‬ ‫ه تنذ َر‬
They all (f) warn. Both of them (f) warn. She warns.
ُْ َُْ ُْ َُْ ْ ُ َْ
‫أنت ْم تنذ ُر ْوا‬ ‫أنت َما تنذ َرا‬ ‫أن َت تنذ َر‬ 2nd Person

You all (m) warn. You two (m) warn. You (m) warn.
َ ُْ ‫َُْ ذ‬ ُْ َُْ ْ ْ ُ َْ
‫ت تنذ ْرن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أنت َما تنذ َرا‬ ‫أنت تنذري‬
ُْ ََ
You all (f) warn. You two (f) warn. You (f) warn.
ُْ َ
‫َنْ ُن ننذ َر‬ ‫أنا أنذ َر‬ 1st Person

We warn. I warn.

C. Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart:

‫ب‬ with
َ
‫ت‬ I swear by (only for Allah)
َ
‫ك‬ like
َ
‫ل‬ for

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‫َو‬ I swear by
ْ
‫من‬ from
‫ف‬ْ in
ْ َ
‫عن‬ about
ََ
‫َع‬ upon/on
‫َ ذ‬
‫حّت‬ until
َ
‫إل‬ to

َ ُ ُ ِ َ‫يَب‬:
D. The light ‫ فعل مضارع‬chart for ‫ش‬

Plural Dual Singular


ُ ِ َ‫ُه ْم يُب‬
‫ش ْوا‬ َ ِ َ‫ُه َما يُب‬
‫شا‬ َ ِ َ‫ُه َو يُب‬
‫ش‬ 3rd Person

They all (m) congratulate. Both of them (m) congratulate. He congratulates.


َ ْ ِ َُ ‫ُ ذ‬
‫شن‬ ‫هن يب‬ َ ِ َ‫ُه َما تُب‬
‫شا‬ َ ِ َ‫ه تُب‬
‫ش‬ َ
They all (f) congratulate. Both of them (f) congratulate. She congratulates.
ُ ِ َ‫َأ ْن ُت ْم تُب‬
‫ش ْوا‬ َ ِ َ‫َأ ْن ُت َما تُب‬
‫شا‬ َ ِ َ‫َأنْ َت تُب‬
‫ش‬ 2nd Person

You all (m) congratulate. You two (m) congratulate. You (m) congratulate.
َ ْ ِ َُ ‫َُْ ذ‬ َ ِ َ‫َأ ْن ُت َما تُب‬ ْ ِ َُ َْ
‫شن‬ ‫أنت تب‬ ‫شا‬ ‫أنت تبشي‬
You all (f) congratulate. You two (f) congratulate.
ُ
You (f) congratulate.
َ ِ َ‫ََنْ ُن نُب‬
‫ش‬ َ ِ َ ‫َأنَا أب‬
‫ش‬ 1st Person

We congratulate. I congratulate.

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َ ُ ََُْ
E. Normal ‫ فعل مضارع‬chart for ‫يعمل‬:

Plural Dual Singular


َ ُ َ َْ ُ ََ َْ ُ َُ َْ ُ
‫ه ْم يعمل ْون‬ ‫ه َما يعمَلن‬ ‫ه َو يعمل‬ 3rd Person

َْ َْ ُ
They all (m) do. Both of them (m) do. He does.
ََ َْ ُ ََُْ َ
‫ه ذن يعمل َن‬ ‫ه َما تعمَلن‬ ‫ه تعمل‬
They all (f) do. Both of them (f) do. She does.
َ ُ َ ْ َ َُْ َ َ ْ َ َُْ ُ َ ْ َ َْ
‫أنت ْم تعمل ْون‬ ‫أنت َما تعمَلن‬ ‫أن َت تعمل‬ 2nd Person

ْ َ ْ َ ‫َُْ ذ‬
You all (m) do. You two (m) do. You (m) do.
َ َ ْ َ َُْ َ ْ ‫َأنْت َت ْع َمل‬
‫ت تعمل َن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أنت َما تعمَلن‬ ‫ي‬
ُ َ ْ َ ََ
You all (f) do. You two (f) do. You (f) do.
َُ َْ َ
‫َنْ ُن نعمل‬ ‫أنا أعمل‬ 1st Person

We do. I do.

F. Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart:


‫ذ‬
‫إن‬ for sure
‫َ ذ‬
‫أن‬ that
‫ََ ذ‬
‫كأن‬ as though
َ َ
‫ِْلت‬ if only
َ
‫لك ذن‬ however
‫ََذ‬
‫لعل‬ so that, hopefully,
maybe

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2.3 SURAH KAHF AYAAT 3-5
Learning Objectives - Review the grammar of the third through fifth ayaat of Surah Kahf

Lesson Review

ًََ ْ َ ْ َ
)٣(َ‫يَف َِي ِهَأبدا‬
َ ِ‫ماكِث‬
Those who will remain in it forever.

ً َ َ ُ‫َ ُْ َ ذ ْ َ َ ُْ ذَ َ ذ‬
)٤(َ‫وين ِذرَاَّل َِينَقال َواَاَّتذَاَّللَوَلا‬
َ And so that it warns the ones who said, “Allah took a son.”
‫ْ ْ َ َ َ ْ َ َُ ْ َ َ ً َْ ُ ُ ْ َ ْ َ ْ ْ َ ُ ْ ُْ َ ذ‬ ْ َُ َ
َ‫ل‬
َ ِ ‫َيق َول َونَإ‬
َ ‫لَلَِبائ ِِهمَكُبتََكِمةََّترجَمِنَأفواه ِِهمَإِن‬
َ ‫ماَلهمَب ِ ِهَمِنَعِل ٍمَو‬
ً َ
َ )٥(َ‫ك ِذبا‬
They do not have any knowledge at all about it and nor do their fathers have. What a huge word; it
comes out from their mouths. They say nothing but/except a lie.

Grammar Meaning َWord


َ ْ ‫َماكث‬
َ‫ي‬
‫نصب‬, plural, masculine, common those who will remain ِِ
َ
َْ ِ
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬
Review the ‫ حرفَجر‬chart from Appendix A
in ‫ف‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) it ِ ‫َه‬
ُ َ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) ًََ
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common
forever ‫أبدا‬
‫( حرف‬harf) and ‫ََو‬

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َ ُ
Light ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫( فعلَمض‬present tense ‫)فعل‬ ُْ
َ ُ ُْ
Review the light ‫ فعلَمضارِع‬chart for ‫ ينذ َُِر‬from he/it warns َ‫ين ِذ َر‬
ْ ‫ذ‬
Appendix B

Ism Mowsool the ones who


َ‫ن‬
َ ‫اَّل َِي‬
َ
َ‫اض‬ ٍ ‫( فعلَم‬past tense ‫)فعل‬ ُ َ
Review the ‫اض‬
َ
َ ٍ ‫ فعلَم‬chart for ‫ال‬
َ َ
َ ‫ ق‬from they said ‫قال َْوا‬
Appendix C
َ
َ ٍ ‫( فعلَم‬past tense ‫)فعل‬
‫اض‬
َ َ‫ذ‬ َ َ‫ذ‬
Review the ‫اض‬
َ
َ ٍ ‫ فعلَم‬chart ‫ ا َِّت َذ‬for from he took ‫َا َِّت َذ‬
Appendix D
َ
Outside ‫عل‬ َِ ‫ َفا‬, ‫رفع‬
ُ‫ذ‬
َ َ َْ ُ ْ َ
Note that the word Allah is referred to as Allah َ‫اَّلل‬
‫َاْلَللة‬ ‫( لفظ‬Lafdh-ul-Jalalah)
ً‫َو ََلا‬
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail)
a son
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common
َ
not at all ‫ما‬
َ
َ
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬ have ‫َل‬
ُ
‫ه َْم‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) they

َ
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬ about َ‫ِب‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) he/it ِ ‫َه‬
ْ
َ
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬ any َ‫مِن‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) ْ
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, common
knowledge ‫عِل ٍَم‬
‫( حرف‬harf) and ‫ََو‬
َ
nor َ
‫ل‬

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َ
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
have َ‫ِل‬
َ ُ
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf) َ
‫جر‬, (broken) plural, masculine, common
fathers َ‫ائ‬
ِ ‫آب‬
َ َ ُ
‫ه َِْم‬
‫( مضافَإ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh)
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
their
َ
َ ٍ ‫( فعلَم‬past tense ‫)فعل‬
‫اض‬
ْ ََُ
Review the ‫اض‬
َ َ
ََ ُ ‫ ك‬from
َ ٍ ‫ فعلَم‬chart for ‫ُب‬ she/it was huge َ ‫كُب‬
‫ت‬
ًَ َ
Appendix E
‫نصب‬, singular, feminine, common as a word ‫َكِم َة‬
َ ُ
‫ارع‬
ِ ‫( فعلَمض‬present tense ‫)فعل‬ ُ َُْ
Review the normal ‫ارع‬
َ ُ ُ َْ
َ ‫َي ُر‬
ِ ‫ فعلَمض‬chart for ‫ج‬ she/it comes out َ ‫َّتر‬
‫ج‬
from Appendix F
ْ
‫ حرفَجر‬or ‫جار‬
َ
from َ‫مِن‬
َ ُ
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf)
َْ َ َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) mouths ِ ‫أفوا َه‬
‫جر‬, broken plural, masculine, common
َ َ ُ
َ‫ه ِْم‬
‫( مضافَإ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh)
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
their

ْ
Not a lightest ‫حرف‬ nothing َ ِ‫إ‬
‫ن‬
َ ُ
‫( فعلَمضارِع‬present tense ‫)فعل‬
َ ُْ ْ ُ َ
َ ُ ُْ َ
Review the normal ‫ فعلَمضارِع‬chart for ‫قو َل‬ ‫ي‬ they say َ ‫يق َول َو‬
‫ن‬
‫ذ‬
from Appendix G

except/but َ ِ‫إ‬
‫ل‬
ً َ
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common a lie ‫ك ِذبا‬

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Appendix

A. Review the ‫ حرفَجر‬chart:

َ‫ِب‬ with
َ
َ
‫ت‬ I swear by (only for Allah)
َ
َ
‫ك‬ like
َ
‫َل‬ for
‫ََو‬ I swear by
ْ
َ‫مِن‬ from
َْ ِ
‫ف‬ in
ْ َ
َ‫ع‬
‫ن‬ about
ََ
َ
‫َع‬ upon/on
‫َ ذ‬
َ ‫ح‬
‫ّت‬ until
َ
َ ِ‫إ‬
‫ل‬ to

َ ُ ُْ
B. The light ‫ فعلَمضارِع‬chart for ‫ينذ َُِر‬:

Plural Dual Singular


ُْ ُ ُْ ُ ُْ ُ
‫ه َْمَينذ ُِر ْوا‬ ‫ه َماَينذ َِرا‬ َ‫ه ََوَينذ َِر‬ 3rd Person

They all (m) warn. Both of them (m) warn. He warns.


َ ُْ ُ ُْ ُ ُْ َ
َ ‫ه ذَنَينذ ِْر‬
‫ن‬ ‫ه َماَتنذ َِرا‬ َ‫هَتنذ َِر‬
َِ
They all (f) warn. Both of them (f) warn. She warns.
ُْ َُْ ُْ َُْ ْ ُ َ َْ
‫أنت َْمَتنذ ُِر ْوا‬ ‫أنت َماَتنذ َِرا‬ َ‫تَتنذ َِر‬َ ‫أن‬
2nd Person

You all (m) warn. You two (m) warn. You (m) warn.
َ ُْ ‫َُْ ذ‬ ُْ َُْ ْ ْ ُ َْ
َ ‫تَتنذ ِْر‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫أن‬ ‫أنت َماَتنذ َِرا‬ َ‫تَتنذ ِِري‬ َ ِ ‫أن‬

ُْ ََ
You all (f) warn. You two (f) warn. You (f) warn.
ُْ َ
َ‫َنْ َُنَننذ َِر‬ ‫أناَأنذ ََِر‬ 1st Person

We warn. I warn.

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َ َ َ
C. The ‫اض‬
َ ٍ ‫ فعلَم‬chart for ‫ال‬
َ ‫ق‬:

َ َ ُ
Plural Dual Singular
ُ َ ُ َ َ ُ
‫ه َْمَقال ْوا‬ َ ‫ه َماَق‬
‫ال‬ َ‫ه ََوَقال‬ 3rd
Person
ُْ ُ
They all (m) said. Both of them (m) said. He said.
َ َ ُ ْ َ َ َ
ََ ‫ه ذَنَقل‬
‫ن‬ ‫ه َماَقاَلَا‬ َ‫هَقالت‬َِ

ُْ ُ َُْ َ ُْ ُ َُْ َ ْ ُ َ َْ
They all (f) said. Both of them (f) said. She said.
‫أنت َْمَقلت َْم‬ ‫أنت َماَقلتما‬ َ‫تَقلت‬ َ ‫أن‬
2nd
Person

ُْ ُ ‫َُْ ذ‬ َ ُْ ُ َُْ ْ ُ َْ
You all (m) said. You two (m) said. You (m) said.
َ‫تَقل ذ‬
‫ت‬ َ ‫أن‬ ‫أنت َماَقلتما‬ َ‫ت‬
ِ ‫ت َق ل‬
َ ِ ‫أن‬

َُْ َ ُ ْ ُ ََ
You all (f) said. You two (f) said. You (f) said.
‫َنْ َُنَقلنا‬ َ‫أناَقلت‬ 1st
Person
We said. I said.

َ َ َ‫ذ‬
D. The ‫اض‬
َ ٍ ‫ فعلَم‬chart for ‫ا َِّت َذ‬:

ُ َ‫ُ ذ‬ َ َ‫ُ ذ‬ َ َ‫ُ ذ‬


Plural Dual Singular
‫ه َْمَا َِّتذ ْوا‬ ‫ه َماَا َِّتذا‬ َ‫ه ََوَا َِّتذ‬ 3rd Person

َ ْ َ‫ُ ذ‬ ََ َ‫ُ ذ‬ ْ َ َ‫َ ذ‬


They all (m) took. Both of them (m) took. He took.
َ ‫ه ذَنَا َِّتذ‬
‫ن‬ ‫ه َماَا َِّتذتا‬ َ ‫هَا َِّتذ‬
‫ت‬ َِ

ُ ْ َ‫َُْ ذ‬ َ ُ ْ َ‫َُْ ذ‬ َ ْ َ‫َْ َ ذ‬


They all (f) took. Both of them (f) took. She took.
‫أنت َْمَا َِّتذت َْم‬ ‫أنت َماَا َِّتذتما‬ َ ‫تَا َِّتذ‬
‫ت‬ َ ‫أن‬
2nd Person

ُ ْ َ‫َُْ ذ ذ‬ َ ُ ْ َ‫َُْ ذ‬ ْ َ‫َْ ذ‬


You all (m) took. You two (m) took. You (m) took.
َ‫تَا َِّتذت ذ‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫أن‬ ‫أنت َماَا َِّتذتما‬ َ‫ت‬
ِ ‫تَا َِّتذ‬
َ ِ ‫أن‬

َْ َ‫َ ذ‬ ُ ْ َ‫ََ ذ‬
You all (f) took. You two (f) took. You (f) took.
‫َنْ َُنَا َِّتذنا‬ َ‫أناَا َِّتذت‬ 1st Person

We took. I took.

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َ َ
E. The ‫اض‬ ََ ُ ‫ك‬:
َ ٍ ‫ فعلَم‬chart for ‫ُب‬

Plural Dual Singular


ُ ُ ‫ُه َْمَ َك‬
‫ُب ْوا‬ َ ُ ‫ُه َماَ َك‬
‫ُبا‬ َ ُ ‫ُه ََوَ َك‬
َ‫ُب‬ 3rd Person

They all (m) were huge. Both of them (m) were huge. He was huge.
َ َُْ ‫ُ ذ‬ َََُ َُ ْ ََُ َ
َ ‫ُب‬
‫ن‬ ‫ه َنَك‬ ‫ُبتا‬ ‫هماَك‬ َ‫ُبت‬ ‫هَك‬
َِ
They all (f) were huge. Both of them (f) were huge. She was huge.
ُ ُْ َ َُْْ َ ُ ُْ َ ََُْ َ ُْ َ َ َْ
‫ُبت َْم‬ ‫أنت َمَك‬ ‫ُبتما‬ ‫أنتماَك‬ َ‫ُبت‬ ‫تَك‬
َ ‫أن‬
2nd Person

You all (m) were huge. You two (m) were huge. You (m) were huge.
ُ ُْ َ ‫َُْ ذ‬ َ ُ ُْ َ ََُْ ْ ُ َ َِ ْ‫َأن‬
َ‫ُبت ذ‬
‫ن‬ ‫تَك‬
َ ‫أن‬ ‫ُبتما‬ ‫أنتماَك‬ َ‫ت‬
ِ ‫تَكُب‬
You all (f) were huge. You two (f) were huge. You (f) were huge.
َ ُْ َ ُ َْ ُ ُْ َ ََ
‫ُبنا‬ ‫َن َنَك‬ َ‫ُبت‬ ‫أناَك‬ 1st Person

We were huge. I was huge.

َ ُ ُ َْ
َ ‫َي ُر‬:
F. The normal ‫ فعلَمضارِع‬chart for ‫ج‬

Plural Dual Singular


َ ُ َْ ُ َ َْ ُ ُ َْ ُ
َ ‫ه َْمََي ُرج ْو‬
‫ن‬ َِ ‫ه َماََي ُرج‬
‫ان‬ َ‫ه ََوََي ُرج‬ 3rd Person

َ َْ ُ ُ َْ َ
They all (m) come out. Both of them (m) come out. He comes out.
ْ َْ ُ
ََ ‫ه ذَنََي ُرج‬
‫ن‬ َِ ‫ه َماََّت ُرج‬
‫ان‬ َ‫هََّت ُرج‬
َِ

َ ُ َْ َُْ َ َْ َُْ ُ َْ َ َْ
They all (f) come out. Both of them (f) come out. She comes out.
َ ‫أنت َْمََّت ُرج ْو‬
‫ن‬ َِ ‫أنت َماََّت ُرج‬
‫ان‬ َ‫تََّت ُرج‬
َ ‫أن‬
2nd Person

ْ َْ ‫َُْ ذ‬ َ َْ َُْ َْ َْ
You all (m) come out. You two (m) come out. You (m) come out.
ََ ‫تََّت ُرج‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫أن‬ َِ ‫أنت َماََّت ُرج‬
‫ان‬ َ ْ ‫َّت ُرج‬
َ‫ي‬ ِ َ‫ت‬ َ ِ ‫أن‬

ُ َْ َ ُ ْ َ ََ
You all (f) come out. You two (f) come out. You (f) come out.
َ ‫َنْ َُنََن ُر‬
‫ج‬ َ‫أناَأخ ُرج‬ 1st Person

We come out. I come out.

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َ ُ َُُْ
G. The normal ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫ فعلَمض‬chart for ‫يقو َل‬:

َ َُ ُ
Plural Dual Singular
َ ُ َُ ُ ُ َُ ُ
َ ‫ه َْمَيق ْول ْو‬
‫ن‬ َِ ‫ه َماَيق ْول‬
‫ن‬ َ‫ه ََوَيق ْول‬ 3rd Person

ْ َُ ُ َ َُ ُ
They all (m) say. Both of them (m) say. He says.
ُ َُ َ
ََ ‫ه ذَنَيقل‬
‫ن‬ َِ ‫ه َماَتق ْول‬
‫ن‬ َ‫هَتق ْول‬
َِ

َ ُ َ َُْ
They all (f) say. Both of them (f) say. She says.
َ ُ ُ َ َُْ ُ ُ َ َ َْ
َ ‫أنت َْمَتق ْول ْو‬
‫ن‬ َِ ‫أنت َماَتق ْول‬
‫ن‬ َ‫تَتق ْول‬
َ ‫أن‬
2nd Person

ْ ُ َ ‫َُْ ذ‬ َ ُ َ َُْ
You all (m) say. You two (m) say. You (m) say.
ََ ‫تَتقل‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫أن‬ َِ ‫أنت َماَتق ْول‬
‫ن‬ َ ْ ‫تَ َت ُق ْول‬
َ‫ِي‬
َْ
َ ِ ‫أن‬

ُ ُْ َ ََ
You all (f) say. You two (f) say. You (f) say.
ُ َُ َ
‫َنْ َُنَنق ْو َل‬ ‫أناَأقو َل‬ 1st Person

We say. I say.

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2.4 SURAH KAHF AYAH 6
Learning Objectives - Review the grammar of the sixth ayah of Surah Kahf

Lesson Review

ً َ َ ْ َ ْ َ َ ْ ُ ْ ُ ْ َ ْ ْ َ َ َ َ َ ْ َ ٌ َ َ َّ َ َ َ
)٦( ‫ث أسفا‬ ِ ‫ارهِم إِن لم يؤمِنوا بِهذا اْل ِدي‬
ِ ‫خع نفسك لَع آث‬
ِ ‫فلعلك با‬
So perhaps you are destroying yourself over their consequences if they did not believe in this
speech out of sadness.

َ
Grammar Meaning Word

‫( حرف‬harf) so ‫ف‬
‫حرف نصب‬ َّ َ َ
Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart from Appendix A
perhaps/maybe ‫لعل‬
Attached pronoun
َّ َ َ
Victim of ‫لعل‬
َ
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, proper you ‫ك‬
Review independent and attached pronouns
from Appendix B
ٌ َ
destroying ‫خع‬ِ ‫با‬
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) َ َْ
َ ُ
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf)
self ‫نفس‬
َ َ ُ
‫( مضاف إ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh)
َ
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) your ‫ك‬
Attached pronoun
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ ََ
Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart from Appendix C
based on/over ‫لَع‬

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َ ُ
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf) َ
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
consequences
ِ‫آثار‬
َ َ ُ
‫ه ِْم‬
‫( مضاف إ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh)
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
their

ْ
Lightest harf
Review lightest harf chart from Appendix D
if ‫إِن‬
َ
Lightest harf did not ‫ل ْم‬
َ ُ
Lightest ‫( فعل مضارِع‬present tense ‫)فعل‬
ُ ُْ
َ ُ ُْ
Review the lightest ‫ فعل مضارِع‬chart for ‫يؤم ُِن‬ they believe ‫يؤمِن ْوا‬
from Appendix E
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬
َ
in ‫ِب‬
َ ‫( ا ِْس ُم ْاْل َش‬pointing word)
‫ارة‬ ِ َ َ
ْ ُ َْ
‫ جر( َمرور‬status)
this ‫هذا‬
َ ٌ َ ُ
‫ار إ ِ َْله‬ ‫( مش‬word pointed at) ْ َْ
‫جر‬, singular, masculine, proper
speech ‫ث‬
ِ ‫اْل ِدي‬
ُ َْ ً َ َ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) out of sadness/sorrow ‫أسفا‬

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Appendix

A. Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart:


َّ
‫إِن‬ for sure
َّ َ
‫أن‬ that
َّ َ َ
‫كأن‬ as though
َ َ
‫َْلت‬ if only
َ
‫ك َّن‬ ِ ‫ل‬ however
َّ َ َ
‫لعل‬ so that, hopefully,
maybe

B. Review independent and attached pronouns:

Raf’a “They (m)” Raf’a “Both of them (m)” Raf’a “He”


ُ َُ ُ
‫ه ْم‬ ‫هما‬ ‫ه َو‬

3rd Person Pronouns


Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)
ُ َ َُ
‫ ه ِْم‬or ‫ه ْم‬ ‫ هِما‬or ‫هما‬ ُ
ِ ‫ ه‬or ‫ه‬
Raf’a “They (f)” Raf’a “Both of them (f)” Raf’a “She”
ُ َُ
‫ه َّن‬ ‫هما‬ َِ
‫ه‬
Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)
ُ َ َُ َ
‫ ه َِّن‬or ‫ه َّن‬ ‫ هِما‬or ‫هما‬ ‫ها‬

َُْ ََُْ َ َْ
Raf’a “You (m, pl)” Raf’a “Both of you (m)” Raf’a “You (m, s)”
‫أنت ْم‬ ‫أن ت م ا‬ ‫أنت‬
2nd Person Pronouns

Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)


ُ َُ َ
‫ك ْم‬ ‫كما‬ ‫ك‬

َّ‫َأ ْن ُت‬ ََُْ َْ


Raf’a “You (f, pl)” Raf’a “Both of you (f)” Raf’a “You (f, s)”
‫أن ت م ا‬ ‫ت‬
ِ ‫أن‬
Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)
ُ َُ
‫ك َّن‬ ‫كما‬ ِ‫ك‬
Raf’a “We” Raf’a “I”
َْ ََ
‫َن ُن‬
1st Person Pronouns

‫أ نا‬
Nasb/Jarr (attached) ْ ِ nasb/‫ ي‬jarr
‫ن‬
َ
‫نا‬ (both are attached)

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C. Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart:

‫ِب‬ with
َ
‫ت‬ I swear by (only for Allah)
َ
‫ك‬ like
َ
‫ل‬ for
‫َو‬ I swear by
ْ
‫مِن‬ from
‫ف‬ ِْ in
ْ َ
‫عن‬ about
ََ
‫لَع‬ upon/on
َّ َ
‫حّت‬ until
َ
‫إِل‬ to

D. Review the lightest harf chart:


ْ
‫إِن‬ if
َ
‫ل ْم‬ did not
َّ َ
‫لما‬ not yet
َْ
‫فل‬ so should
ْ
‫َول‬ and should
‫ِل‬ should

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َ ُ ُْ
E. The lightest ‫ فعل مضارِع‬chart for ‫يؤم ُِن‬:

Plural Dual Singular


ُ ُْ ُ َ ُْ ُ ْ ُْ ُ
‫ه ْم يؤمِن ْوا‬ ‫ه َما يؤمِنا‬ ‫ه َو يؤمِن‬ 3rd Person

They all (m) believe. Both of them (m) believe. He believes.


ُْ ُ َ ُْ ُ ْ ُْ َ
‫ه َّن يؤم َِّن‬ ‫ه َما تؤمِنا‬ ‫ه تؤمِن‬ِ
They all (f) believe. Both of them (f) believe. She believes.
ُ ُْ َُْ َ ُْ َُْ ْ ْ ُ َْ
‫أنت ْم تؤمِن ْوا‬ ‫أنت َما تؤمِنا‬ ‫أن َت تؤمِن‬ 2nd Person

You all (m) believe. You two (m) believe. You (m) believe.
ْ ُ َّ ُ ْ َ َ ُْ َُْ َ
ْ ِ ‫أنْ ِت تُ ْؤم‬
‫ت تؤم َِّن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أنت َما تؤمِنا‬ ‫ِن‬

ْ ْ ُ ََ
You all (f) believe. You two (f) believe. You (f) believe.
ْ ُْ َ
‫َنْ ُن نؤمِن‬ ‫أنا أؤمِن‬ 1st Person

We believe. I believe.

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2.5 SURAH KAHF AYAH 7
Learning Objectives - Review the grammar of the seventh ayah of Surah Kahf

Lesson Review

ً َ َ ُ َ ْ َ ْ ُ َ ْ ُ َُ َْ ََ ً َْ ْ َ ْ َ َ َ َ ْ َ َ َّ
)٧( ‫إِنا جعلنا ما لَع الر ِض ِزينة لها ِِلبلوهم أيهم أحسن عمل‬
No doubt We made whatever is on the earth beautification for it so that We test them, which of them is
better in terms of deeds/actions.

Grammar Meaning Word


‫حرف نصب‬ َّ
Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart from Appendix A
no doubt/certainly ‫إِن‬
Attached pronoun َ
Review independent and attached pronouns We ‫نا‬
from Appendix B
َ
‫( فعل ماض‬past tense ‫)فعل‬
َْ َ َ
َ ََ َ
Review the ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for ‫ جعل‬from We made ‫جعلنا‬
Appendix C
َ
Ism Mowsool whatever ‫ما‬
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ ََ
Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart from Appendix D
on/upon ‫لَع‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
ْ َْ
Review words that are feminine because the the earth ‫الر ِض‬
Arabs said so from Appendix E
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) ًَْ
‫نصب‬, singular, feminine, common
beautification ‫ِزينة‬

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َ
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ for ‫ل‬
َْ َ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) it ‫ها‬
Light harf so that ‫ِل‬
َ ُ
َ‫َن ْبلُو‬
Light ‫( فعل مضارِع‬present tense ‫)فعل‬
َ ُ َُْ
Review the light ‫ فعل مضارِع‬chart for ‫ يبل ْوا‬from We test
Appendix F
ُ
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) them ‫ه ْم‬
َ ُ
َ
Special ‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf) which of ‫أي‬
َ َ ُ
ُ
‫ه ْم‬
‫( مضاف إ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh)
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
of them

better
ُ‫َأ ْح َسن‬
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) ً َ َ
‫نصب‬, singular, masculine, common
in terms of deeds/actions ‫عمل‬

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Appendix

A. Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart:


َّ
‫إِن‬ for sure
َّ َ
‫أن‬ that
َّ َ َ
‫كأن‬ as though
َ َ
‫َْلت‬ if only
َ
‫ك َّن‬ ِ ‫ل‬ however
َّ َ َ
‫لعل‬ so that, hopefully,
maybe

B. Review independent and attached pronouns:

Raf’a “They (m)” Raf’a “Both of them (m)” Raf’a “He”


ُ َُ ُ
‫ه ْم‬ ‫هما‬ ‫ه َو‬

3rd Person Pronouns


Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)
ُ َ َُ
‫ ه ِْم‬or ‫ه ْم‬ ‫ هِما‬or ‫هما‬ ُ
ِ ‫ ه‬or ‫ه‬
Raf’a “They (f)” Raf’a “Both of them (f)” Raf’a “She”
ُ َُ
‫ه َّن‬ ‫هما‬ َِ
‫ه‬
Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)
ُ َ َُ َ
‫ ه َِّن‬or ‫ه َّن‬ ‫ هِما‬or ‫هما‬ ‫ها‬

َُْ ََُْ َ َْ
Raf’a “You (m, pl)” Raf’a “Both of you (m)” Raf’a “You (m, s)”
‫أنت ْم‬ ‫أن ت م ا‬ ‫أنت‬
2nd Person Pronouns

Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)


ُ َُ َ
‫ك ْم‬ ‫كما‬ ‫ك‬

َّ‫َأ ْن ُت‬ ََُْ َْ


Raf’a “You (f, pl)” Raf’a “Both of you (f)” Raf’a “You (f, s)”
‫أن ت م ا‬ ‫ت‬
ِ ‫أن‬
Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)
ُ َُ
‫ك َّن‬ ‫كما‬ ِ‫ك‬
Raf’a “We” Raf’a “I”
َْ ََ
‫َن ُن‬
1st Person Pronouns

‫أ نا‬
Nasb/Jarr (attached) ْ ِ nasb/‫ ي‬jarr
‫ن‬
َ
‫نا‬ (both are attached)

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َ ََ َ
C. The ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for ‫جعل‬:

Plural Dual Singular


َُ َ ُ ََ َ ُ ََ َ ُ
‫ه ْم جعل ْوا‬ ‫ه َما جعل‬ ‫ه َو جعل‬ 3rd Person

َْ َ َ ُ
They all (m) made. Both of them (m) made. He made.
ََ َ َ ُ ْ ََ َ َ
‫ه َّن جعلنا‬ ‫ه َما جعلتا‬ ‫ه جعلت‬ ِ

ُْ َ َ َُْ َ ُْ َ َ َُْ َ ْ َ َ َْ
They all (f) made. Both of them (f) made. She made.
‫أنت ْم جعلت ْم‬ ‫أنت َما جعلتما‬ ‫أن َت جعلت‬ 2nd Person

َّ ُ ْ‫ت َج َعل‬ َ ُْ َ َ َُْ ْ َ َ َْ


You all (m) made. You two (m) made. You (m) made.
َّ ُ ‫َأ ْن‬
‫ت‬ ‫أنت َما جعلتما‬ ‫ت‬
ِ ‫أن ِت جعل‬
َْ َ َ َ ُ ْ َ َ ََ
You all (f) made. You two (f) made. You (f) made.
‫َنْ ُن جعلنا‬ ‫أنا جعلت‬ 1st Person

We made. I made.

D. Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart:

‫ِب‬ with
َ
‫ت‬ I swear by (only for Allah)
َ
‫ك‬ like
َ
‫ل‬ for
‫َو‬ I swear by
ْ
‫مِن‬ from
‫ف‬ ِْ in
ْ َ
‫عن‬ about
ََ
‫لَع‬ upon/on
َّ َ
‫حّت‬ until
َ
‫إِل‬ to

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E. Feminine words because the Arabs said so:
a. There are two categories of words that are feminine because the Arabs said so:
i. Body parts in pairs
1. Examples: knees, elbows, eyebrows, ankles, hands
ii. Random others (as depicted in following story):
َْ َ َ
1. During a ‫( حرب‬war), a solder was daydreaming looking at the ‫سماء‬
ْ َ
(sky) until the ‫( شمس‬sun) came up. When he snapped out of it, he
َْ
realized he is the only ‫( نفس‬person) left on the battlefield
َ َْ
surrounded by ‫( نار‬fire), so he used a ‫( دلو‬bucket) full of water to
ْ َ َْ
make a ‫( سبِيل‬path) all the way to safer ‫( أرض‬land). In the hot
ْ ْ
blowing ‫( ِريح‬wind), he was desperately looking for a ‫( بِئ‬well) to
َ
draw water from. In his search he found an empty ‫( دار‬house) in
َْ ََ
which there was a ‫( كأس‬cup) full of ‫( َخر‬wine). He is tempted
َّ َ َ
despite his fear of ‫( جهنم‬hellfire) to take a sip but wards off his
َ َ
temptation and uses his ‫( عص‬staff) to strike the drink.

F. Review the lightest harf chart:


ْ
‫إِن‬ if
َ
‫ل ْم‬ did not
َّ َ
‫لما‬ not yet
َْ
‫فل‬ so should
ْ
‫َول‬ and should
‫ِل‬ should

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َ ُ َُْ
G. The lightest ‫ فعل مضارِع‬chart for ‫يبل ْو‬:

Plural Dual Singular


َُْ ُ َُْ ُ َُْ ُ
‫ه ْم يبل ْوا‬ ‫ه َما يبل َوا‬ ‫ه َو يبل‬ 3rd Person

They all (m) test. Both of them (m) test. He tests.


َ َُْ ُ َُْ ُ َُْ َ
‫ه َّن يبل ْون‬ ‫ه َما تبل َوا‬ ‫ه تبل‬ ِ
They all (f) test. Both of them (f) test. She tests.
ُ َْ َُْ ُ َْ َُْ ُ ْ َ َْ
‫أنت ْم تبل ْوا‬ ‫أنت َما تبل َوا‬ ‫أن َت تبل‬ 2nd Person

You all (m) test. You two (m) test. You (m) test.
َ ُ ْ َ َّ ُ ْ َ ُ َْ َُْ
ْ ِ ‫أنْ ِت َت ْب‬
َ
‫ت تبل ْون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أنت َما تبل َوا‬ ‫ل‬
َُْ ََ
You all (f) test. You two (f) test. You (f) test.
َُْ َ
‫َنْ ُن نبل‬ ‫أنا أبل‬ 1st Person

We test. I test.

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2.6 SURAH KAHF AYAH 8
Learning Objectives - Review the grammar of the eighth ayah of Surah Kahf

Lesson Review

ً ُ ُ ً َ َ َ َ َ َ ُ َ َ َّ َ
)٨( ‫وإِنا َلاعِلون ما عليها ص ِعيدا جرزا‬
No doubt We will truly make whatever is on it (the Earth) barren dust/dirt.

Grammar Meaning Word

‫( حرف‬harf) and ‫َو‬


‫حرف نصب‬ َّ
Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart from Appendix A
no doubt/certainly ‫إِن‬
Attached pronoun َ
Review independent and attached pronouns We ‫نا‬
َ
from Appendix B
Not a ‫حرف جر‬ truly ‫ل‬
َ ُ َ
‫رفع‬ will make ‫جاعِلون‬
َ
Ism Mowsool whatever ‫ما‬
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ ََ
Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart from Appendix C
on/upon ‫َع‬
َ َ
‫ جر( َم ُرور‬status) it ‫ها‬
ً َ
ُ َ
‫( موصوف‬mowsoof) dried up dirt or dust ‫ص ِعيدا‬
ً ُ
‫ج ُرزا‬
َ
‫( ِصفة‬sifah) barren/lifeless

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Appendix

A. Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart:


َّ
‫إِن‬ for sure
َّ َ
‫أن‬ that
َّ َ َ
‫كأن‬ as though
َ َ
‫َلت‬ if only
َ
‫ك َّن‬ ِ ‫ل‬ however
َّ َ َ
‫لعل‬ so that, hopefully,
maybe

B. Review independent and attached pronouns:

Raf’a “They (m)” Raf’a “Both of them (m)” Raf’a “He”


ُ َُ ُ
‫هم‬ ‫هما‬ ‫ه َو‬

3rd Person Pronouns


Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)
ُ َ َُ ُ
‫ هِم‬or ‫هم‬ ‫ هِما‬or ‫هما‬ ِ ‫ ه‬or ‫ه‬
Raf’a “They (f)” Raf’a “Both of them (f)” Raf’a “She”
ُ َُ
‫ه َّن‬ ‫هما‬ َِ
‫ه‬
Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)
ُ َ َُ َ
‫ ه َِّن‬or ‫ه َّن‬ ‫ هِما‬or ‫هما‬ ‫ها‬

ُ َ َُ َ َ َ
Raf’a “You (m, pl)” Raf’a “Both of you (m)” Raf’a “You (m, s)”
‫أن ت م‬ ‫أن ت م ا‬ ‫أنت‬
2nd Person Pronouns

Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)


ُ َُ َ
‫كم‬ ‫كما‬ ‫ك‬

َّ‫َأن ُت‬ َُ َ َ
Raf’a “You (f, pl)” Raf’a “Both of you (f)” Raf’a “You (f, s)”
‫أن ت م ا‬ ‫ت‬
ِ ‫أن‬
Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached) Nasb/Jarr (attached)
ُ َُ
‫ك َّن‬ ‫كما‬ ِ‫ك‬
Raf’a “We” Raf’a “I”
َ ََ
‫َن ُن‬
1st Person Pronouns

‫أ نا‬
Nasb/Jarr (attached)
َ ‫ ِن‬nasb/‫ ي‬jarr
‫نا‬ (both are attached)

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C. Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart:

‫ِب‬ with
َ
‫ت‬ I swear by (only for Allah)
َ
‫ك‬ like
َ
‫ل‬ for
‫َو‬ I swear by
‫مِن‬ from
‫ِف‬ in
َ
‫عن‬ about
ََ
‫َع‬ upon/on
َّ َ
‫حّت‬ until
َ
‫إِل‬ to

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2.7 SURAH KAHF AYAAT 9-10
Learning Objectives - Review the grammar of the ninth and tenth ayaat of Surah Kahf

Lesson Review

ً َ َ َ َ ْ ْ ُ َ ْ َّ َ ْ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ َّ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ
)٩( ‫أم ح ِسبت أن أصحاب الكه ِف والرقِي ِم َكنوا مِن آيات ِنا عجبا‬
Or did you assume that the people of the cave and the inscription were strange from Our miracles.

َ ْ َ ْ َ َ ْ ِّ َ َ ً َ ْ َ َ ْ ُ َ ْ َ َ َّ َ ْ ُ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ ُ َ ْ ْ َ َ ْ
‫إِذ أوى ال ِفتية إَِل الكه ِف فقالوا ربنا آت ِنا مِن َلنك رْحة وهي ِئ َلا مِن أم ِرنا‬
ً َ
)١٠( ‫َرشدا‬
When the young people took refuge to the cave, then they said, “Our Master, give us love, care, and
mercy especially from You, and provide guidance for us from our decision.”

َْ
Grammar Meaning Word

‫( حرف‬harf) or ‫أم‬
َ
‫( فعل ماض‬past tense ‫)فعل‬
َ ْ َ
َ َ
Review the ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for ‫ ح ِس َب‬from you assumed ‫ح ِسبت‬
َّ َ
Appendix A
‫حرف نصب‬
Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart from Appendix B
that ‫أن‬
َ ُ
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf) َ َ ْ َ
‫نصب‬, (broken) plural, masculine, proper
companions ‫أصحاب‬
َ َ ُ
‫( مضاف إ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh) ْ َ ْ
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
the cave ‫الكه ِف‬

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‫( حرف‬harf) and ‫َو‬
َ َ ُ
‫( مضاف إ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf) ْ َّ
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
the inscription (giant stone
tablet) ‫الرقِي ِم‬
َ
‫( فعل ماض‬past tense ‫)فعل‬
َ َ َ ْ‫ََكنُوا‬
Review the ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for ‫ َكن‬from they were
Appendix C
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ ْ
Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart from Appendix D
from ‫مِن‬
َ ُ
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf) َ
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
miracles/signs ‫ات‬
ِ ‫آي‬
َ َ ُ
‫( مضاف إ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh) َ
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
Our ‫نا‬
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) ًَ َ
‫نصب‬
strange ‫عجبا‬
ْ
when ‫إِذ‬
َ َ
َ
‫( فعل ماض‬past tense ‫)فعل‬ he took refuge ‫أوى‬
َ
Outside ‫فاعِل‬ َُْ ْ
‫رفع‬
the young people ‫ال ِفتية‬
َ
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ to ‫إَِل‬
َْ ْ َ ْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) the cave ‫الكه ِف‬
َ
‫( حرف‬harf) then ‫ف‬
َ
‫( فعل ماض‬past tense ‫)فعل‬ ُ َ
َ َ
Review the ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for ‫ قال‬from they said ‫قال ْوا‬
Appendix E
َ ُ
َّ
‫َرب‬
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf)
Master
‫( نصب‬because it is being called out as a du’a)
َ َ ُ
‫( مضاف إ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh) َ
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
Our ‫نا‬

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َْ
‫( فعل أمر‬commanding ‫)فعل‬
َْ َ
Review the rules of the ‫ فعل أمر‬from give us ‫آت ِنا‬
Appendix F
ْ
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ from ‫مِن‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) ْ َُ
َ ُ
Special ‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf)
especially ‫َلن‬
َ
Attached pronoun
َ َ ُ
‫( مضاف إ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh) You ‫ك‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) ًََْ
‫نصب‬
love, care and mercy ‫رْحة‬
‫( حرف‬harf) and ‫َو‬
َْ ْ ‫َه ِّي‬
‫ئ‬
‫( فعل أمر‬commanding ‫)فعل‬ provide ِ
َ
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ for ‫ل‬
َْ َ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) us ‫نا‬
ْ
َ
‫ حرف جر‬or ‫جار‬ from ‫مِن‬
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status) َْ
َ ُ
‫( مضاف‬mudhaaf)
decision ‫أم ِر‬
َ َ ُ
‫( مضاف إ ِ َْله‬mudhaaf ilayh) َ
َْ
‫ جر( َم ُر ْور‬status)
our ‫نا‬
ُ َْ
‫( مفع ْول‬detail) ً َ
‫نصب‬
guidance ‫َرشدا‬

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Appendix

َ َ
A. The ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for ‫س َب‬
ِ ‫ح‬:

Plural Dual Singular


ُ َ ُ َ َ ُ َ ُ
‫ه ْم ح ِسب ْوا‬ ‫ه َما ح ِسبا‬ ‫ه َو ح ِس َب‬ 3rd Person

They all (m) assumed. Both of them (m) assumed. He assumed.


َ ْ ‫ُه َّن َحس‬ ََ َ ُ ْ َ َ َ
‫ب‬ ِ ‫ه َما ح ِسبتا‬ ‫ه ح ِسبت‬ِ
They all (f) assumed. Both of them (f) assumed. She assumed.
ُْ َ َُْ َ ُْ َ َُْ َ ْ َ َْ
‫أنت ْم ح ِسبت ْم‬ ‫أنت َما ح ِسبتما‬ ‫أن َت ح ِسبت‬ 2nd Person

You all (m) assumed. You two (m) assumed. You (m) assumed.
َّ ُ ْ‫ت َحسب‬َُْ َ ُْ َ َُْ ْ َ َْ
‫ت‬ ِ َّ ‫أن‬ ‫أنت َما ح ِسبتما‬ ‫ت‬
ِ ‫أن ِت ح ِسب‬
You all (f) assumed. You two (f) assumed. You (f) assumed.
َْ َ َ ُ ْ َ ََ
‫َنْ ُن ح ِسبنا‬ ‫أنا ح ِسبت‬ 1st Person

We assumed. I assumed.

B. Review the ‫ حرف نصب‬chart:


َّ
‫إِن‬ for sure
َّ َ
‫أن‬ that
َّ َ َ
‫كأن‬ as though
َ َ
‫َْلت‬ if only
َ
‫ك َّن‬ ِ ‫ل‬ however
َّ َ َ
‫لعل‬ so that, hopefully,
maybe

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َ َ َ
C. The ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for ‫َكن‬:

Plural Dual Singular


ُ َ ُ َ َ ُ َ ُ
‫ه ْم َكن ْوا‬ ‫ه َما َكنا‬ ‫ه َو َكن‬ 3rd Person

They all (m) were Both of them were He was


ُ ُ ََ َ ُ ْ َ َ َ
‫ه َّن ك َّن‬ ‫ه َما َكنتا‬ ‫ه َكنت‬ ِ
They all (f) were Both of them were She was
ُْ ُ َُْ َ ُْ ُ َُْ َ ْ ُ َْ
‫أنت ْم كنت ْم‬ ‫أنت َما كنتما‬ ‫أن َت كنت‬ 2nd Person

You all (m) were You two (m) were You (m) were
َّ ُ ‫ت ُك ْن‬
‫ت‬ َّ ُ ‫َأ ْن‬ َ ُْ ُ َُْ
‫أنت َما كنتما‬ ‫ت‬
ْ ُ َْ
ِ ‫أن ِت كن‬
You all (f) were You two (f) were You (f) were
َّ ُ َ ُ ْ ُ ََ
‫َنْ ُن كنا‬ ‫أنا كنت‬ 1st Person

We were I was

D. Review the ‫ حرف جر‬chart:

‫ِب‬ with
َ
‫ت‬ I swear by (only for Allah)
َ
‫ك‬ like
َ
‫ل‬ for
‫َو‬ I swear by
ْ
‫مِن‬ from
‫ف‬ ِْ in
ْ َ
‫عن‬ about
ََ
‫َع‬ upon/on
َّ َ
‫حّت‬ until
َ
‫إَِل‬ to

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َ َ َ
E. The ‫ فعل ماض‬chart for ‫قال‬:

َ َ ُ
Plural Dual Singular
ُ َ ُ َ َ ُ
‫ه ْم قال ْوا‬ ‫ه َما قال‬ ‫ه َو قال‬ 3rd
Person
ُْ ُ
They all (m) said. Both of them (m) said. He said.
َ َ ُ ْ َ َ َ
‫ه َّن قل َن‬ ‫ه َما قاَلَا‬ ‫ه قالت‬ ِ

ُْ ُ َُْ َ ُْ ُ َُْ َ ْ ُ َْ
They all (f) said. Both of them (f) said. She said.
‫أنت ْم قلت ْم‬ ‫أنت َما قلتما‬ ‫أن َت قلت‬ 2nd
Person

َّ ُ ْ‫ت قُل‬ َ ُْ ُ َُْ ْ ُ َْ


You all (m) said. You two (m) said. You (m) said.
َّ ُ ‫َأ ْن‬
‫ت‬ ‫أنت َما قلتما‬ ‫ت‬
ِ ‫أن ِت قل‬
َُْ َ ُ ْ ُ ََ
You all (f) said. You two (f) said. You (f) said.
‫َنْ ُن قلنا‬ ‫أنا قلت‬ 1st
Person
We said. I said.

F. Review the rules for Commanding ‫’فعل‬s:


Commanding ‫’فعل‬s have two (sometimes three) steps:
1. Make the ‫ فعل‬lightest
2. Get rid of the ‫ت‬
3. Add a helper ‫ ا‬if need be
a. As for what goes on the ‫ا‬, you must look at the second last letter of the
original ‫فعل‬. If the second last letter has a ُ, then the ‫ ا‬will have a ُ. If the

second last letter has anything else, the ‫ ا‬will have a ُ.

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‫‪SURAH KAHF UNIT 2 CUMULATIVE EXAM‬‬

‫_________________________________________ ‪Name:‬‬ ‫_____________________ ‪Date:‬‬

‫‪Section 1: Write the correct letter in the box. More than one letter may apply.‬‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫افة ‪A.‬‬
‫إِض ِ‬ ‫حرفِجر ‪B.‬‬ ‫ِحرفِنصب ‪C.‬‬ ‫شارِِإِ ِله ‪D.‬‬
‫ةِوِمِ ِ‬
‫ار ِ‬
‫ش ِ‬‫اِسِمِِالِ ِ‬ ‫ِموِصِوِفِصِ ِفة ‪E.‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َّ َ َ‬ ‫ََ َ‬
‫َ َ‬
‫‪ِِِ.5‬منِِآياتنا‬ ‫‪ِِِ.4‬ب َه َذاِ َ‬
‫اْلديثِ‬ ‫‪ِِِ.3‬منِأف َواههمِ‬
‫َ َ ً‬
‫‪ِِِ.2‬أنِلهمِأج ًراِحسنا‬ ‫‪ِِِ.1‬لَعِعبِدهِ‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َّ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫َ ً‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ َّ َ َ َ َ‬
‫‪َ ِِِ.10‬وهيِئَِِلَاِمنِأمرنا‬ ‫‪ِِ.9‬إناِجعلناِماِلَعِاْلرضِ‬ ‫‪ِِِ.8‬صعيداِجرزا‬ ‫‪ِِِ.7‬منَِلنكِ‬ ‫‪ِِِ.6‬أنِأصحابِالكهفِ‬

‫‪Section 2:‬‬
‫?)‪ in (past, present, command, light, lightest, etc.‬فعل ‪A) What form are each of the following highlighted‬‬
‫َ‬
‫?)‪ (doer‬فاعل ‪B) Who is the‬‬
‫َ ً َ ً‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪ .6‬لِنذ َِرِبأساِشديدا‬ ‫‪ .1‬إذِأ َوىِالفتيةِإَلِالكهفِ‬

‫ِو َ ً‬ ‫َّ‬
‫اَّتَ َذِاهلل َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ ُّ َ َ َ َ ً‬
‫َلا‬ ‫‪ .7‬قالواِ‬ ‫‪َِ .2‬لَبل َِوهمِأيهمِأحسنِعملِ‬

‫َ َّ َ َ َ َ َّ‬
‫الص َ‬ ‫َ َ َّ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫اْلاتِ‬ ‫نِ‬
‫‪ِ .8‬اَّليِنِيعملوِ ِ‬ ‫‪ .3‬أمِحسبتِأنِأصحابِ‬

‫ً‬ ‫َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َّ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ‬
‫‪َ .9‬ولمَِيعلَِِلِع َوجا‬ ‫ِاْلرضِ‬
‫‪ .4‬إناِجعلناِماِلَع ِ‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪© BayyinahTV‬‬
‫‪SURAH KAHF UNIT 2 CUMULATIVE EXAM‬‬

‫َ َ َ َ ً‬ ‫َ ِّ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫اِرشدا‬ ‫‪َ .10‬وهيئَِِلَاِمنِأمرن‬ ‫‪َّ .5‬ترجِِمنِأف َواههمِ‬

‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫?‪, etc.)? What do these words mean‬مفعول ‪,‬فاعل ‪,‬فعل( ‪Section 3: What role are each of the following words playing‬‬
‫ً‬ ‫َ َ َ َ َ ً‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ َ ََ َ‬
‫‪ .6‬ماِعليهاِصعيِداِجرزا‬ ‫‪ ِ.1‬أن َزلِلَعِعبدهِالكت ِ‬
‫اب‬

‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫َ َ َ َ‬


‫‪َّ .7‬ترجِمنِأف َواههمِ‬ ‫‪َ .2‬ولمَِيعلَِلِع َو ِ‬
‫جا‬

‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ َ َ َّ َ َ‬ ‫َ َّ َ َ َ َ َّ‬
‫الص َ‬ ‫‪َ .3‬ويبَ ِّ َ‬
‫كِ‬
‫كِباخعِنفس ِ‬
‫‪ِ .8‬فلعل ِ‬ ‫اْلاتِ‬ ‫يِاَّليِنِيعملوِنِ‬
‫ِشِالمؤمن ِ‬

‫َ َ َ ًَ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ًََ‬ ‫َ‬


‫ِرْح ِة ِ‬ ‫‪ .9‬آتِناِمنَِلنك‬ ‫‪ .4‬ماكث َِ‬
‫يِفيِهِأبدا‬

‫َ َّ َ ً‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ ً ََ‬ ‫َّ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ‬


‫ّلِكذبا ِ‬
‫‪ .10‬إنِيقوِلوِنِإ ِ‬ ‫ِاْلرضِزيِنةِلهاِ‬
‫‪ .5‬إناِجعلناِماِلَع ِ‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪© BayyinahTV‬‬
SURAH KAHF UNIT 2 CUMULATIVE EXAM
ANSWER KEY

Section 1: Write the correct letter in the box. More than one letter may apply.
َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ
A. ‫افة‬
ِ ‫إِض‬ B. ‫حرفِجر‬ C. ‫ِحرفِنصب‬ D. ‫شارِِإِ ِله‬
ِ ِ‫ةِوِم‬
ِ ‫ار‬
ِ ‫ش‬
ِ ِ‫اِسِمِِال‬ E. ‫ِموِصِوِفِصِ ِفة‬
A & B .5 B & D .4 A & B .3 B & C & E .2 A & B .1

A & B .10 B & C .9 E .8 A & B .7 A & C .6


Section 2:
A) What form are each of the following highlighted ‫ فعل‬in (past, present, command, light, lightest, etc.)?
َ
B) Who is the ‫( فاعل‬doer)?
ً َ ً َ َ َ َ َ
‫ لِنذ َِرِبأساِشديدا‬.6 ِ‫ إذِأ َوىِالفتيةِإَلِالكهف‬.1
a. Light, Present tense ‫فعل‬ a. Past tenseِ‫ِفعل‬
َ َ َ َ
b. ‫( ه َِو‬inside ‫)فاعل‬ b. ِ‫( ِالفتية‬outside ‫)فاعل‬

ً َ ‫ِو‬ َّ
َ ‫اَّتَ َذِاهلل‬ َ ً َ َ َ َ ُّ َ َ َ
‫َلا‬ ِ‫ قالوِا‬.7 ِ ‫ َِلبل ِوهمِأيهمِأحسنِعم‬.2
‫ل‬
a. Light, Present tense ‫فعل‬
a. Past tenseِ‫ِفعل‬
َ َ
َ ََ َ َ b. ِِ‫( َنن‬inside ‫)فاعل‬
b. ‫ِاْلللة‬ ‫( لفظ‬outside ‫)فاعل‬

َّ َ َ َ َ َّ َ
َ ‫الص‬ َ َ َ َّ َ َ َ َ
ِ‫اْلات‬ ِ‫ن‬
ِ ِ‫ ِاَّليِنِيعملو‬.8 ِ‫ أمِحسبتِأنِأصحاب‬.3

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© BayyinahTV
SURAH KAHF UNIT 2 CUMULATIVE EXAM
ANSWER KEY
a. Present tenseِ‫ِفعل‬ a. Past tense ‫فعل‬
َ َ َ َ
b. ِ‫( هم‬inside ‫)فاعل‬ b. ‫ت‬
ِ ‫( أن‬inside ‫)فاعل‬

ً َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َّ
‫ َولمَِيعلَِِلِع َوجا‬.9 ِ‫ِاْلرض‬
ِ ‫ إناِجعلناِماِلَع‬.4
a. Lightest, Present tenseِ‫ِفعل‬ a. Past tenseِ‫ِفعل‬
َ َ َ
b. ِ‫( ه َِو‬inside ‫)فاعل‬ b. ِِ‫( َنن‬inside ‫)فاعل‬

ً َ َ َ َ َ ِّ َ َ َ
‫اِرشدا‬ ‫ َوهيئَِِلَاِمنِأمرن‬.10 ِ‫ َّترجِِمنِأف َواههم‬.5
َ
a. ‫فعلِأمر‬
ِ (Commanding ‫)فعل‬ a. Present tenseِ‫ِفعل‬

َ َ َ َ ِ(inside ‫)فَاعل‬
b. ‫ت‬
ِ ‫( أن‬inside ‫)فاعل‬ b. ِ‫ِه‬
َ َ
Section 3: What role are each of the following words playing (‫فعل‬, ‫فاعل‬, ‫مفعول‬, etc.)? What do these words mean?
ً ً َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ََ َ َ
‫ ماِعليهاِصعيِداِجرزا‬.6 ِ ‫ِ أن َزلِلَعِعبدهِالكت‬.1
‫اب‬

َ َ
‫( مفعول‬detail) ‫( مفعول‬detail)

meaning: dried up dirt or dust meaning: the book


َ َ ً َ َ َ َ
ِ‫ َّترجِمنِأف َواههم‬.7 ِ ‫ َولمَِيعلَِلِع َو‬.2
ِ ‫جا‬

4
© BayyinahTV
SURAH KAHF UNIT 2 CUMULATIVE EXAM
ANSWER KEY
َ َ
‫( َمرور‬victim of ‫)حرفِجر‬ ‫( مفعول‬detail)
َ َ
‫( إضافة‬mudhaaf) meaning: crookedness, something bent

meaning: their mouths


َ َ َ َ َ َّ َ َ َ َّ َ َ َ َ َّ َ
َ ‫الص‬ َ ِّ َ‫ َويب‬.3
ِ‫كِباخعِنفسك‬
ِ ‫ ِفلعل‬.8 ِ ِ‫اْلات‬ ِ‫يِاَّليِنِيعملوِن‬
ِ ‫ِشِالمؤمن‬

َ َ
‫ حرفِنصب‬and its victim/‫اسم‬ ‫( مفعول‬detail), ‫( موصوف‬mowsoof)

meaning: perhaps, maybe meaning: the believers


ًَ َ َ َ َ ًََ َ
‫ِرْح ِة‬ ‫ آتِناِمنَِلنك‬.9 َِ ‫ ماكث‬.4
‫يِفيِهِأبدا‬
َ َ
‫فعلِأمر‬
ِ (commanding ‫)فعل‬ ‫( مفعول‬detail)

meaning: Give! meaning: those who will remain


ً َ َّ َ َ ََ ً َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َّ
‫ّلِكذبا‬
ِ ‫ إنِيقوِلوِنِإ‬.10 ِ‫ِاْلرضِزيِنةِلها‬
ِ ‫ إناِجعلناِماِلَع‬.5

َ َ
‫( مفعول‬detail) ِ‫( فعلِماض‬past tense ‫)فعل‬

meaning: a lie meaning: We made

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‫‪3.1.1‬‬ ‫‪DRILLS‬‬
‫‪F I ’ L - P AST T ENSE P ASSIVES‬‬

‫‪Drills‬‬

‫َ‬
‫‪’s from the following ayaat:‬فعل ماض ‪Part I: Highlight the passive‬‬

‫َ َْ َُ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫َ َّ ْ ُ ُ ْ‬
‫‪َ .8‬وإِذا الم ْو ُء ْودة سئِلت (‪)٨‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬إِذا الشمس ك ِّ ِو َرت (‪)١‬‬

‫َ َْ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫ُ ُ ْ َ َ ْ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪ .9‬بِأ ِِّي ذنب قتِلت (‪)٩‬‬ ‫‪َ .2‬وإِذا انلُّجوم انكد َرت (‪)٢‬‬

‫َ َ ُّ ُ ُ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫َ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ِّ َ ْ‬
‫ِشت (‪)١٠‬‬ ‫‪ .10‬وإِذا الصحف ن ِ‬ ‫ِيت (‪)٣‬‬ ‫اْلبال س ِ‬
‫‪ .3‬وإِذا ِ‬

‫َ َ َّ َ ُ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫َ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ِّ َ ْ‬
‫اء ك ِشطت (‪)١١‬‬ ‫‪ .11‬وإِذا السم‬ ‫ار ع ِطلت (‪)٤‬‬ ‫‪ .4‬وإِذا ال ِعش‬

‫َ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ِّ ْ‬ ‫َ َ ُْ ُ ُ ُ َ ْ‬
‫يم س ِع َرت (‪)١٢‬‬ ‫ح‬
‫‪ .12‬وإِذا اْل ِ‬ ‫ِشت (‪)٥‬‬‫‪ .5‬وإِذا الوحوش ح ِ‬

‫َ ْ َّ ُ ُ ْ َ ْ‬ ‫َ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ِّ ْ‬
‫‪َ .13‬وإِذا اْلَنة أزل ِفت (‪)١٣‬‬ ‫ج َرت (‪)٦‬‬
‫‪ .6‬وإِذا اْلِحار س ِ‬

‫َ َ ْ َْ ٌ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ‬ ‫َ ُ ُ ُ َ ْ‬
‫َضت (‪)١٤‬‬ ‫‪ .14‬علِمت نفس ما أح‬ ‫‪َ .7‬وإِذا انلُّفوس ز ِّوِجت (‪)٧‬‬

‫َ‬
‫‪ can have‬فعل ماض ‪’s, make them passive. (Hint: A passive‬فعل ‪Part II: For the following active‬‬
‫)‪multiple ‘u’ sounds but only one ‘e’ sound. Also, the sound of the last letter never changes.‬‬

‫َ ََ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ ْ َ‬ ‫َ َّ‬ ‫َ ََ‬


‫جعل‬ ‫أ ْرسل‬ ‫أسل َم‬ ‫عل َم‬ ‫سأل‬
‫َ َ َّ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ََ َ َ‬ ‫َك َت َ‬ ‫َََ‬
‫تذك َر‬ ‫صاب َر‬ ‫اون‬ ‫تع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫قتل‬
‫َََ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫َ ََ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫َْ َ‬
‫فتح‬ ‫َضب‬ ‫قرأ‬ ‫أم َر‬ ‫أن َزل‬

‫َ‬
‫‪ chart:‬فعل ماض ‪’s, practice the passive‬فعل ‪Part III: For the following‬‬
‫ُكت َ‬ ‫نُ ِ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ‬
‫ب‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫أسل َِم‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪© BayyinahTV‬‬
‫‪Answer Key‬‬

‫َ‬
‫‪’s from the following ayaat:‬فعل ماض ‪Part I: Highlight the passive‬‬

‫َ َْ َُ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫َ َّ ْ ُ ُ ْ‬
‫‪َ .8‬وإِذا الم ْو ُء ْودة سئِلت (‪)٨‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬إِذا الشمس ك ِّ ِو َرت (‪)١‬‬

‫َ َْ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫ُ ُ ْ َ َ ْ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪ .9‬بِأ ِِّي ذنب قتِلت (‪)٩‬‬ ‫‪َ .2‬وإِذا انلُّجوم انكد َرت (‪)٢‬‬

‫َ َ ُّ ُ ُ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫َ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ِّ َ ْ‬
‫ِشت (‪)١٠‬‬ ‫‪ .10‬وإِذا الصحف ن ِ‬ ‫ِيت (‪)٣‬‬ ‫اْلبال س ِ‬
‫‪ .3‬وإِذا ِ‬

‫َ َ َّ َ ُ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫َ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ِّ َ ْ‬
‫اء ك ِشطت (‪)١١‬‬ ‫‪ .11‬وإِذا السم‬ ‫ار ع ِطلت (‪)٤‬‬ ‫‪ .4‬وإِذا ال ِعش‬

‫َ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ِّ ْ‬ ‫َ َ ُْ ُ ُ ُ َ ْ‬
‫يم س ِع َرت (‪)١٢‬‬ ‫ح‬
‫‪ .12‬وإِذا اْل ِ‬ ‫ِشت (‪)٥‬‬‫‪ .5‬وإِذا الوحوش ح ِ‬

‫َ ْ َّ ُ ُ ْ َ ْ‬ ‫َ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ِّ ْ‬
‫‪َ .13‬وإِذا اْلَنة أزل ِفت (‪)١٣‬‬ ‫ج َرت (‪)٦‬‬
‫‪ .6‬وإِذا اْلِحار س ِ‬

‫َ َ ْ َْ ٌ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ‬ ‫َ ُ ُ ُ َ ْ‬
‫َضت (‪)١٤‬‬ ‫‪ .14‬علِمت نفس ما أح‬ ‫‪َ .7‬وإِذا انلُّفوس ز ِّوِجت (‪)٧‬‬

‫َ‬
‫‪ can have‬فعل ماض ‪’s, make them passive. (Hint: A passive‬فعل ‪Part II: For the following active‬‬
‫)‪multiple ‘u’ sounds and one ‘e’ sound. Also, the sound of the last letter never changes.‬‬

‫ُ َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ‬ ‫ُ ِّ‬ ‫ُ َ‬
‫ج ِعل‬ ‫أ ْر ِسل‬ ‫أسل َِم‬ ‫عل َم‬ ‫سئِل‬
‫ُ ُ ِّ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُُ َ‬ ‫ُكت َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬
‫تذك َر‬ ‫ص ْوب ِ َر‬ ‫تع ْو ِون‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫قتِل‬
‫ُ َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬
‫فتِح‬ ‫َضب‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ق ِرئ‬ ‫أم َِر‬ ‫أن ِزل‬

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‫َ‬
‫‪ chart:‬فعل ماض ‪’s, practice the passive‬فعل ‪Part III: For the following‬‬
‫ُكت َ‬ ‫نُ ِ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ‬
‫ب‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫أسل َِم‬

‫نُ ِ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ‬
‫ص‬ ‫أسل َِم‬
‫ُه ْم نُ ِ ُ‬ ‫ُه َما نُ ِ َ‬ ‫ُه َو نُ ِ َ‬ ‫ُ ُ ْ ُ‬ ‫َُ ُ ْ َ‬ ‫ُ ُ ْ‬
‫ص ْوا‬ ‫صا‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ه ْم أسلِم ْوا‬ ‫هما أسلِما‬ ‫ه َو أسل َِم‬
‫ُ َّ ُ ْ َ‬ ‫َُ ُ ََ‬ ‫َ ُ َ ْ‬ ‫ُ ُ ْ ْ‬ ‫َُ ُ ْ ََ‬ ‫َ ُ ْ َ ْ‬
‫صن‬ ‫هن ن ِ‬ ‫صتا‬ ‫هما ن ِ‬ ‫صت‬ ‫ِه ن ِ‬ ‫ه َّن أسلِم َن‬ ‫هما أسلِمتا‬ ‫ه أسلِمت‬ ‫ِ‬
‫َُْْ ُ ْ ُ‬ ‫ََُْ ُ ْ ُ َ‬ ‫َْ َ ُ ْ َ‬ ‫َُْ ُ ْ ُْ‬ ‫ََُْ ُ ْ َُْ‬ ‫َْ َ ْ ْ َ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫صت ْم‬ ‫أن ت م ن ِ‬ ‫صتما‬ ‫أن ت م ا ن ِ‬ ‫صت‬ ‫أنت ن ِ‬ ‫أنت ْم أسلِمت ْم‬ ‫أنتما أسلِمتما‬ ‫أنت أسلِمت‬
‫ص ُتنَّ‬‫ت نُ ِ ْ‬ ‫َأ ْن ُ َّ‬ ‫ََُْ ُ ْ ُ َ‬ ‫ت نُ ِ ْ‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ت ُأ ْسل ِْم ُ َّ‬
‫َأ ْن ُ َّ‬ ‫ََُْ ُ ْ َُْ‬ ‫َْ ُ ْ ْ‬
‫أنتما ن ِصتما‬ ‫ت‬
‫ص ِ‬ ‫أن ِ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أنتما أسلِمتما‬ ‫ت‬
‫ت أسلِم ِ‬ ‫أن ِ‬
‫َْ ُ ُ ْ َ‬ ‫ََ ُ ْ ُ‬ ‫َْ ُ ْ ْ َ‬ ‫ََ ُ ْ ْ ُ‬
‫صنا‬ ‫َنن ن ِ‬ ‫صت‬ ‫أ نا ن ِ‬ ‫َن ُن أسلِمنا‬ ‫أنا أسلِمت‬

‫ب‬‫ُكت َ‬
‫ِ‬
‫ُ ُ ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫ُه َو ُكت َ‬
‫ه ْم كتِب ْوا‬ ‫هما كتِبا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ِ‬
‫ب‬‫ُه َّن ُكت ْ َ‬ ‫ُ َ ُ ََ‬
‫هما كتِبتا‬
‫َ ُ َ ْ‬
‫ِه كتِبت‬
‫ِ‬
‫َأ ْن ُت ْم ُكتبْ ُتمْ‬ ‫ََُْ ُ َُْ‬ ‫َْ َ ُ ْ َ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫أنتما كتِبتما‬ ‫أنت كتِبت‬
‫ت ُكتبْ ُتَّ‬ ‫َأ ْن ُ َّ‬ ‫ََُْ ُ َُْ‬ ‫َْ ُ ْ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫أنتما كتِبتما‬ ‫ت‬
‫ت كتِب ِ‬ ‫أن ِ‬
‫َْ ُ َْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ََ‬
‫َن ُن كتِبنا‬ ‫أنا كتِبت‬

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3.1.1 FI’L- PAST TENSE PASSIVES
- To understand the concept of Passives
Learning Objectives ‫ر‬
- To practice the Passive َ‫فعلَماض‬

Lesson Review

Congratulations! We have completed the Fundamentals of Grammar in Unit 1 and learned the
meanings of the first 10 ayaat of Surah Kahf in Unit 2. We will begin the Fundamentals of Sarf
soon. Before we begin, we will learn something called Passives.

Recall that a ‫ فعل‬does not only tell us that an action is being done, but also who is doing the
‫ر ر ر‬ ُ
action. For example, ‫ب‬َ ‫َض‬ means ‘He hit’ even though the explicit ‫ ه رَو‬isn’t mentioned. A passive
‫ فعل‬is defined as a ‫ فعل‬in which the one who is doing the ‫ فعل‬is not known. There are two kinds
‫ر‬ ‫ُ ر‬
of passives: past tense passives (passive َ‫ )فعلَماض‬and present tense passives (passive ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫)فعلَمض‬.
‫ر‬
We will now look at the passive َ‫فعلَماض‬.

If someone said, “The teacher was being helped,” we wouldn’t know who the doer is. In other
words, we know the teacher was helped, but we don’t know who helped the teacher. This is an
‫ر‬
example of a passive َ‫فعلَماض‬. When the doer is known, the ‫ فعل‬is referred to as active.

Refer to the following active ‫’فعل‬s:

‫رك رت ر‬
َ‫ب‬
‫ر رر‬
َ‫قاتل‬
‫ررر‬
َ‫قتل‬
‫ر ر‬
َ‫د َّرس‬ ‫نر ر ر‬
َ‫ص‬
He wrote. He fought. He killed. He taught. He helped.

‫ر‬
Notice that these ‫’فعل‬s look similar: we’ve already learned these! Passive َ‫’فعلَماض‬s look
different: they begin with an ‘u’ sound and then an ‘e’ sound. Note that the current ending

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‫ر‬
sound (‘a’) of the word never changes though. Thus, when there’s a َ‫ فعلَماض‬invaded by these
sounds (remember, the last letter is off-limits), the ‫ فعل‬becomes passive. Refer to the following
‫ر‬
passive َ‫’فعلَماض‬s:

ُ
‫ك َت ر‬ ‫ُ ر‬ ‫ُ ر‬ ‫ُ ر‬ ‫َنُ ِ ر‬
َ‫ب‬ َِ َ‫قوَ َت ِل‬ َ‫َق َتِل‬ َ‫َدرَس‬ َ‫ص‬
It was written. He was fought. He was killed. He was taught. He was
helped.

In the case of more complicated words that are longer, there is a specific formula to use.

1. The last letter of the original word never changes


2. The second last letter will take the ‘e’ sound
3. All letters before the second last letter will take the ‘u’ sound
a. Note that it’s possible to have multiple ‘u’ sounds but only one ‘e’ sound
‫ر ر‬ ُ ُ ‫رر ر‬ ‫ُُ ر‬
َ ‫ تف َّر‬becomes ‫ق‬
For example, ‫ ا ِستغف رَر‬becomes ‫ استغَ َِف رَر‬and ‫ق‬ َ َ‫ت َفر‬.

For additional practice, refer to the following.


‫ر‬
Active َ‫ فعلَماض‬chart:

Plural Dual Singular


ُ ‫ُهمََنر ر‬
‫صوا‬ ‫ُه رماَنر ر ر‬
‫صا‬ ‫ُه رَوَنر ر ر‬
َ‫ص‬ 3rd Person
They all (m) helped. Both of them (m) helped. He helped.
‫ُ ر ر‬ ‫ُر ر ر رر‬ ‫هَ ن ر ر ر‬
َ ‫ه ََّنَن رص‬
‫ن‬ ‫صتا‬ ‫هماَ ن‬ َ‫صت‬ َ‫ِ ر‬
They all (f) helped. Both of them (f) helped. She helped.
ُ ‫ر ُ ر‬ ‫ر ُ ر ُر‬ ‫ر ر ر ر‬
َ‫أنتمََن رصتم‬ ‫أنت رماَن رصتما‬ َ ‫تَن رص‬
‫ت‬ َ ‫أن‬ 2nd Person
You all (m) helped. You two (m) helped. You (m) helped.
ُ ‫ر ُ َّ ر‬ ‫ر ُ ر ُر‬ ‫ر ر‬
ََّ ‫تَن رصت‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫أن‬ ‫أنت رماَن رصتما‬ َِ ‫تَن رص‬
‫ت‬ َ ِ ‫أن‬
You all (f) helped. You two (f) helped. You (f) helped.
‫ر ر ر‬ ُ ‫رر ر‬
‫َن َُنَن رصنا‬ َ ‫أناَن رص‬
‫ت‬ 1st Person
We helped. I helped.

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‫ر‬
Passive َ‫ فعلَماض‬chart:

Plural Dual Singular


ُ ِ ُ‫ُهمََن‬
‫صوا‬ ‫ُه رماَنُ ِ ر‬
‫صا‬ ‫ُه رَوَنُ ِ ر‬
َ‫ص‬ 3rd Person
They all (m) helped. Both of them (m) helped. He helped.
‫ُ ُ ر‬ ‫ُر ُ رر‬ ‫هَ ن ُ ِ ر‬
َ ‫ه ََّنَن ِص‬
‫ن‬ ‫صتا‬ ِ ‫هماَ ن‬ َ‫صت‬ َ‫ِ ر‬
They all (f) helped. Both of them (f) helped. She helped.
ُ ُ ُ ‫ر‬ ‫ر ُر ُ رر‬ ‫تَ ن ُ ِ ر‬‫ر ر‬
َ‫أنتمََن ِصتم‬ ‫صتا‬ ِ ‫أن ت م ا َ ن‬ َ‫صت‬ َ ‫أن‬ 2nd Person
You all (m) helped. You two (m) helped. You (m) helped.
ُ ُ َّ ُ ‫ر‬ ‫ر ُر ُ رر‬ ُ ‫ر‬
ََّ ‫تَنصت‬
‫ن‬ ِ َ ‫أن‬ ‫صتا‬ ِ ‫أن ت م ا َ ن‬ َِ ‫تَن ِص‬
‫ت‬ َ ِ ‫أن‬
You all (f) helped. You two (f) helped. You (f) helped.
‫ر ُ ر‬ ُ ُ ‫رر‬
‫َن َُنَنصنا‬
ِ َ ‫أناَن ِص‬
‫ت‬ 1st Person
We helped. I helped.

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3.1.2 DRILLS
F I ’ L - P RESENT T ENSE P ASSIVES

Drills

Part I: Make the following ‫’فعل‬s passive. Make sure to pay close attention to whether the ‫ فعل‬is
past tense or present tense so you know which two sounds to use!

ُْ ْ
1. َ‫أنذِر‬ َ‫ أنذر‬.1

ُ ُْ ُ ُْ
2. َ‫يْشك ْون‬ َ‫ْشك َْون‬
ِ ‫ ي‬.2
ُْ ْ
3. ‫يعل َُم‬ َ‫ يعل ُم‬.3

ْ ِّ ُ ْ َّ
4. َ‫سبحت‬ َ‫ سبحت‬.4

ُ ْ ُْ ُ ْ ْ
5. َ‫يستخدم‬ َ‫ يستخدِم‬.5
ُ
6. ‫أم ُِر ْوا‬ ‫ أم ُر َْوا‬.6

ْ ُ ُْ ْ ْ
7. ‫ن‬
َ ‫است ِمع‬ َ‫ ا ِستمعن‬.7

ُ
8. ‫ك ِِّّبا‬ ‫ ك َِّّبا‬.8

ُْ ُْ
9. َ‫يؤم ُر ْون‬ َ‫ يأم ُر َْون‬.9

ِّ ُ َّ
10. َ‫عذب‬ َ‫ عذب‬.10

َّ ُ ِّ ُ
11. ‫يقد َُر‬ َ‫ يقد ُر‬.11

ْ ُ ْ ُ ْ ْ
12. َ‫اجت ِهدت‬ َ‫ ا ِجتهدت‬.12

ُ ُْ ُ ْ
13. َ‫ُتتهد‬ َ‫ ُتت ِهد‬.13

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ْ ُ ْ
14. َ‫أسلِم‬ َ‫ أسلم‬.14

ُ
15. ‫غ ِف َر‬ َ‫ غفر‬.15

ُ
Part II: For the following ‫’فعل‬s, practice the passive َ‫ فعلَماض‬or ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫ فعلَمض‬charts
ِّ ُ ُ ُْ
َ‫بْش‬ َ‫ف ِهم‬ َ‫َيعل ُم‬

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Answer Key

Part I: Make the following ‫’فعل‬s passive. Make sure to pay close attention to whether the ‫ فعل‬is
past tense or present tense so you know which two sounds to use!

ُْ ْ
1. ََ‫أنذِر‬ َ‫ أنذر‬.1

ُ ُْ ُ ُْ
2. ََ‫يْشك ْون‬ َ‫ْشك َْون‬
ِ ‫ ي‬.2
ُْ ْ
3. َ‫يعل َُم‬ َ‫ يعل ُم‬.3

ْ ِّ ُ ْ َّ
4. َ‫ت‬
َ ‫س بح‬ َ‫ سبحت‬.4

ُ ْ ُْ ُ ْ ْ
5. َ‫يستخد َم‬ َ‫ يستخدِم‬.5
ُ
6. َ‫أم ُِر ْوا‬ ‫ أم ُر َْوا‬.6

ْ ُ ُْ ْ ْ
7. ََ‫است ِمعن‬ َ‫ ا ِستمعن‬.7

ُ
8. َ‫ك ِِّّبا‬ ‫ ك َِّّبا‬.8

ُْ ُْ
9. ََ‫يؤم ُر ْون‬ َ‫ يأم ُر َْون‬.9

ِّ ُ َّ
10. ََ‫عذب‬ َ‫ عذب‬.10

َّ ُ ِّ ُ
11. َ‫يقد َُر‬ َ‫ يقد ُر‬.11

ْ ُ ْ ُ ْ ْ
12. َ‫ت‬
َ ‫اجت ِهد‬ َ‫ ا ِجتهدت‬.12

ُ ُْ ُ ْ
13. َ‫ُتته َد‬ َ‫ ُتت ِهد‬.13

ْ ُ ْ
14. ََ‫أسلِم‬ َ‫ أسلم‬.14

ُ
15. ََ‫غ ِفر‬ َ‫ غفر‬.15

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‫ُ‬
‫ارع ‪ or‬فعلَماضَ ‪’s, practice the passive‬فعل ‪Part II: For the following‬‬
‫‪ charts:‬فعلَمض ِ‬
‫ُ ِّ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫بْشَ‬ ‫ف ِهمَ‬ ‫َيعل ُمَ‬

‫ُ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫ف ِهمَ‬ ‫يعل ُمَ‬
‫ُ ُ ُ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ُ ُْ ُ‬ ‫ُ ُْ‬ ‫ُ ُْ‬
‫ه َْمَف ِهم َْوا‬ ‫هماَف ِهما‬ ‫هوََف ِهمَ‬ ‫ه َْمَيعلم َْونَ‬ ‫هماَيعلم َِ‬
‫ان‬ ‫هوََيعل ُمَ‬
‫ُ َّ ُ ْ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ُ ْ‬ ‫ُ َّ ُ ْ ْ‬ ‫ُ ُْ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫نَف ِهمنَ‬ ‫هَ‬ ‫هماَف ِهمتا‬ ‫هَف ِهم َ‬
‫ت‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫نَيعلمنَ‬ ‫هَ‬ ‫هماَتعلم َِ‬
‫ان‬ ‫هَتعل َُم‬ ‫َِ‬
‫ُْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ ُ ُْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ُْ ُْ ُ‬ ‫ُْ ُْ‬ ‫ْ ُْ‬
‫أنت َْمَف ِهمت َْم‬ ‫أنتماَف ِهمتما‬ ‫أنتََف ِهمتَ‬ ‫أنت َْمَتعلم َْونَ‬ ‫أنتماَتعلم َِ‬
‫ان‬ ‫أنتََتعل َُم‬
‫ْ ُ َّ ُ ْ ُ‬ ‫ُْ ُ ُْ‬ ‫ْ ُ ْ‬ ‫ْ ُ َّ ُ ْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ ُْ‬ ‫ْ ُْ ْ‬
‫تَف ِهم ََّ‬
‫ت‬ ‫أن َ‬ ‫أنتماَف ِهمتما‬ ‫تَف ِهم َِ‬
‫ت‬ ‫أن ِ َ‬ ‫تَتعلمنَ‬ ‫أن َ‬ ‫أنتماَتعلم َِ‬
‫ان‬ ‫تَتعل ِم َ‬
‫ي‬ ‫أن ِ َ‬
‫ْ ُ ُ ْ‬
‫نَف ِهمنا‬ ‫َن َ‬
‫ُ ْ ُ‬
‫أناَف ِهم َ‬
‫ت‬
‫ْ ُ ُْ‬
‫نَنعل َُم‬ ‫َن َ‬ ‫أناَ ُأ ْعل َمُ‬

‫ُ ِّ‬
‫بْشَ‬
‫ُه َْمَب ُ ِّ ُ‬
‫ْش َْوا‬
‫ُ ُ ِّ‬
‫هماَبْشا‬
‫ُ ُ ِّ‬
‫هوََبْشَ‬
‫ْشنَ‬ ‫نَب ُ ِّ ْ‬‫ه ََّ‬
‫ُ‬
‫هماَبْشتا‬
‫ُ ُ ِّ‬ ‫ُ ِّ ْ‬
‫هَبْش َ‬
‫ت‬ ‫َِ‬
‫ْ ُ ْ ُ ِّ ْ ُ‬ ‫ْ ُ ُ ِّ ْ ُ‬ ‫ْ ُ ِّْ‬
‫ْشت ْمَ‬ ‫أنت َمَب‬ ‫ْشتما‬ ‫أنتماَب‬ ‫أنتََبْشتَ‬
‫ْ ُ َّ ُ ِّ ْ َُّ‬ ‫ْ ُ ُ ِّ ْ ُ‬ ‫تَب ُ ِّ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫تَبْشت َ‬
‫ن‬ ‫أن َ‬ ‫أنتماَبْشتما‬ ‫ْش َِ‬
‫ت‬ ‫أن ِ َ‬
‫ْ ُ ُ ِّ‬ ‫ُ ِّ ْ ُ‬
‫نَبْشنا‬ ‫َن َ‬ ‫ْش َ‬
‫ت‬ ‫أناَب‬

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3.1.2 FI’L- PRESENT TENSE PASSIVES
- To understand the concept of Passives
Learning Objectives َ ُ
- To practice the Passive ‫فعل مضارِع‬

Lesson Review

Recall that a passive ‫ فعل‬is a ‫ فعل‬in which the doer is not known. Recall also that a passive ‫فعل‬
َ َ ُ
‫ ماض‬has an ‘u’ and ‘e’ sound. We will now study the passive ‫ارع‬ ِ ‫فعل مض‬.
َ ُ
The passive ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫ فعل مض‬has an ‘u’ and ‘a’ sound (notice this is different from the sounds of the
َ َ ُ
passive ‫)!فعل ماض‬. The following are some guidelines for making a passive ‫ارع‬ ِ ‫فعل مض‬:

1. The last letter of the original word never changes


2. The first letter will take the ‘u’ sound
3. All letters after the first letter will take the ‘a’ sound (with the exception of the last
letter of the original word)
a. Note that it’s possible to have multiple ‘a’ sounds but only one ‘u’ sound

For example:
َْ ُ ُْ َ
‫يكت ُب‬ ‫يكت ُب‬
taken over by ‘u’
and ‘a’ sound

ُْ َ
‫‘( يكت ُب‬He writes’) was made passive when it was taken over by the ‘u’ and ‘a’ sound, turning
َْ ُ ُ َُ
into ‫‘( يكت ُب‬It is being written’). Notice that ‫يد ِّرس‬, for example, already has an ‘u’ sound in it.
ُ َُ
Therefore, the passive form would be ‫يدرس‬:

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‫َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬
‫ارع ‪ and‬فعل ماض ‪Additional passive‬‬
‫‪ examples are as follows:‬فعل مض ِ‬
‫ُْ َْ َ‬ ‫َْ َْ‬ ‫ُْ ُْ‬ ‫ْ َْ َ‬
‫يستغف ُر‬ ‫يستغ ِف ُر‬ ‫استغ ِف َر‬ ‫ا ِستغف َر‬
‫َ‬ ‫ََُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ََ َ‬ ‫ُ ُ ِّ‬ ‫ََ‬
‫يتذك ُر ْون‬ ‫يتذك ُر ْون‬ ‫تذك ُر ْوا‬ ‫تذك ُر ْوا‬
‫ََُ َ ُ‬ ‫َََ َ ُ‬ ‫ُُ َ‬ ‫ََ َ َ‬
‫اون‬ ‫يتع‬ ‫اون‬ ‫يتع‬ ‫تع ْو ِون‬ ‫اون‬ ‫تع‬

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‫‪3.2.1‬‬ ‫‪DRILLS‬‬
‫‪A SLAMA F AMILY P ART I‬‬

‫‪Drills‬‬

‫ْ َ‬ ‫َ ْ َ ُْ‬
‫‪. The first line has all‬أسل ََمَيسل ُِمَإِسَلمَا ‪Part I: Each of the following is to be read along the pattern of‬‬
‫‪the harakaat on it. Recite each of the words below using the pattern learned in this family.‬‬

‫ْ َ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫َ ْ َ‬
‫إِسَلمَا‬ ‫يسل ُِمَ‬ ‫أسل َمَ‬

‫إعراضا‬ ‫يعرض‬ ‫أعرض‬

‫إفسادا‬ ‫يفسد‬ ‫أفسد‬

‫إفَلحا‬ ‫يفلح‬ ‫أفلح‬

‫إنباتا‬ ‫ينبت‬ ‫أنبت‬

‫إنذارا‬ ‫ينذر‬ ‫أنذر‬

‫إنزاال‬ ‫يزنل‬ ‫أنزل‬

‫إنشاء‬ ‫ينشأ‬ ‫أنشأ‬

‫إنعاما‬ ‫ينعم‬ ‫أنعمَ‬

‫إنفاقا‬ ‫ينفق‬ ‫أنفقَ‬

‫إنكارا‬ ‫ينكر‬ ‫أنكرَ‬

‫إهَلاك‬ ‫يهلك‬ ‫أهلكَ‬

‫إبصارا‬ ‫يبرص‬ ‫أبرصَ‬

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‫َ ْ َ‬
‫أسل ََم ‪’s, determine which of them are part of the‬فعل ‪Part II: For each of the following underlined‬‬
‫‪Family.‬‬

‫َ ْ َ ْ َ َ َّ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ ْ‬ ‫َ ُ ْ ُ ْ َ َّ َ َ‬
‫َالكه ِفَ‬‫تَأنَأصحاب َ‬ ‫‪ .8‬أمَح ِسب َ‬ ‫نَالصَلةَ‬
‫‪َ .1‬وي ِق َيم َو َ‬

‫َ ُْ ُ َ َ ْ َ‬ ‫َ َّ ْ َ ُ ْ ُ ْ َ ْ َ ْ‬
‫اَالَ ِ‬
‫لَ‬ ‫‪ .9‬الَأق ِس َمَبِهذ َ‬ ‫بَ‬
‫الغي ِ‬ ‫نَب ِ َ‬
‫‪َ .2‬اَّل َِينَيؤمِن َو َ‬

‫َْ ْ َ ْ َ َ‬ ‫َ ْ َ‬ ‫ََْ َ ََ َ ْ ْ َ َ َ‬
‫ِيَمسغب ٍةَ‬ ‫‪ .10‬أ ْوَإِطعامََ ِِفَيومٍ َذ َ‬ ‫َِالكتابَ‬
‫‪ .3‬أنز َلَلَعَعب ِده َ‬

‫َََْ َ َ ُ ُ َ‬ ‫َ َْ ََْْ َ‬
‫‪َ .11‬فأله َمهاَفج َْو َرها‬ ‫لَ َُلََع َِوجَا‬
‫‪ .4‬وَلمََيع َ‬

‫َ ْ َ ْ َ َ َ ْ َ َّ َ‬ ‫ْ َْ‬ ‫َ ِّ‬
‫حَمنَزكىها‬ ‫‪ .12‬قدَأفل َ‬ ‫اَلُنذ ََِرَبأسَا‬
‫‪ .5‬قيم ِ َ‬

‫َ َ ْ َ ُ ُ َ َ َ َّ‬ ‫َ َ َُْ ُ ْ َْ‬


‫‪َ .13‬فأنذ ْر َتك ْمَنارَاَتلظى‬ ‫جَمِنَأف َواه ِِه ْمَ‬
‫‪َ .6‬كِمةََتر َ‬

‫َ َّ ْ َ َّ َ َ َّ‬ ‫ْ َ ُ ْ ُ ْ َ َّ َ‬
‫بَ َوَت َوّلَ‬
‫ِيَكذ َ‬
‫‪َ .14‬اَّل َ‬ ‫نََإِالَكذِبَا‬
‫‪ .7‬إِنَيق َول َو َ‬

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Answer Key

َ ْ ُْ َ ْ َ
Part I: Each of the following is to be read along the pattern of ‫أسل ََمَيسل ُِمَإِسَلمَا‬. The first line has all
the harakaat on it. Recite each of the words below using the pattern learned in this family.
Oral exercise

َ ْ َ
Part II: For each of the following underlined ‫’فعل‬s, determine which of them are part of the ‫أسل ََم‬
Family.

ْ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ َّ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ َ َ َّ َ ْ ُ ْ ُ َ
َ‫َالكه ِف‬َ ‫تَأنَأصحاب‬ َ ‫ أ َمَح ِسب‬.8 َ‫نَالصَلة‬
َ ‫ َوي ِق َيم َو‬.1

َ ْ َ َ ُ ُْ َ ْ َ ْ َ ْ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ َّ َ
ِ َ‫اَال‬
َ‫ل‬ َ ‫ الَأق ِس َمَبِهذ‬.9 َ‫ب‬
ِ ‫الغي‬ َ ِ ‫نَب‬
َ ‫نَيؤمِن َو‬
َ ‫ َاَّل َِي‬.2

َ َ ْ َ ْ َْ َ ْ َ َ َ َ ْ ْ َ ََ َ ََْ
َ‫ِيَمسغب ٍة‬ َ ‫ أ َْوَإِطعامََ ِِفَيومٍ َذ‬.10 َ‫َِالكتاب‬
َ ‫ أنز َلَلَعَعب ِده‬.3

َ ُ ُ َ َ َََْ َ ََْْ َْ َ
‫ َفأله َمهاَفج َْو َرها‬.11 ‫َلَع َِوجَا‬
َُ َ‫ل‬
َ ‫ وَل َمََيع‬.4

َ َّ َ ْ َ َ َ ْ َ ْ َ َْ ْ ِّ َ
‫حَمنَزكىها‬ َ ‫ قدَأفل‬.12 ‫ قيماَ ِ َلُنذ ََِرَبأسَا‬.5

َّ َ َ َ ُ ُ َ ْ َ َ َْ ْ ُ َُْ َ َ
‫ َفأنذ ْر َتك َْمَنارَاَتلظى‬.13 َ‫جَمِنَأف َواه ِِه ْم‬
َ ‫ َكِمةََتر‬.6

َّ َ َ َّ َ ْ َّ َ َ َّ َ ْ ُ ْ ُ َ ْ
َ‫بَ ََوَت َوّل‬
َ ‫ِيَكذ‬
َ ‫ َاَّل‬.14 ‫نََإِالَكذِبَا‬
َ ‫ إِنَيق َول َو‬.7

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3.2.1 ASLAMA FAMILY PART I
- To understand the concept of Families in Sarf (‫)رصف‬
Learning Objectives َ ْ َ
- To learn the first part of the ‫ أسل َم‬Family
Lesson Review

As we begin our fun study of Sarf (‫)رصف‬, imagine a machine that the Arabs invented thousands
of years ago. If someone put 1 word into the machine, it produced 100 words! So instead of
having to learn 100 words, you only have to learn how to use this machine, and then you can
make 100 words yourself. That machine’s name is Sarf (‫)رصف‬.

َ َ ُ
With Sarf (‫)رصف‬, by looking at a ‫فعل ماض‬, you can correctly guess the ‫ فعل مضارِع‬and other words
like it!

َ ْ َ
We begin by looking at our first family, the ‫ أسل َم‬Family:

ً َ ْ ُْ َ ْ َ
‫ا ِسَلما‬ ‫يسل ُِم‬ ‫أسل َم‬
َ ْ َ َ ُ َ
‫م صد ر‬ ‫فعل مضارِع‬ ‫فعل ماض‬
To submit/ He submits. He submitted.
submission

َ َ ُ َ ْ َ
Let’s look at each: the ‫فعل ماض‬, ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫فعل مض‬, and ‫مصدر‬.
َ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ َ
The ‫ فعل ماض‬is ‫أسل َم‬. Cousins of the ‫ أسل َم‬Family will have ‫’فعل ماض‬s that look and sound just like it.
َ َ ُ ُ ُْ
They will begin with an ‫ أ‬and have a sukoon (ْ) on the second letter. The ‫ارع‬ ِ ‫ فعل مض‬is ‫يسلِم‬. Note
َ ْ َ َ ُ
that cousins of the ‫ أسل َم‬Family will have ‫’فعل مضارِع‬s that look and sound just like it. Also notice
َ ُ
that the ‫ فعل مضارِع‬has an ‘u’ and ‘e’ sound (do not confuse this with the ‘u’ and ‘e’ sound in a
َ ً َ ْ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ
passive ‫)!فعل ماض‬. Lastly, ‫ ا ِسَلما‬is the ‫مصدر‬. A ‫ مصدر‬is a type of ‫ اسم‬and it refers to the ‘idea of
something.’ Recall that an ‫ اسم‬can be a person, place, thing, idea, adjective, adverb, and more.
ً َ ْ
Therefore, ‫ ا ِسَلما‬means ‘the idea of submitting, to submit, or submission.’

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Look at the examples listed below. Note that when you read them out oud, you can hear how
َ
they sound similar to each other. Their spellings are similar, too. Thus, if you see a ‫ فعل ماض‬that
َ ُ َ ْ َ
looks like this, you can predict what its ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫ فعل مض‬and ‫ مصدر‬will be. That’s what Sarf (‫ )رصف‬allows
you to do. Listen for the pattern:
ً َ ْ ُْ َ ْ َ
‫إِسَلما‬ ‫يسل ُِم‬ ‫أسل َم‬

ً ْ ُ ُْ َ ََْ
‫إِن َزال‬ ‫ْنل‬ِ ‫ي‬ ‫أنزل‬
ً َْ ُ ُْ َ َ َْ
‫إِبعادا‬ ‫يب ِعد‬ ‫أبعد‬
ً َْ ُ ُْ َ ََْ
‫إِنقاضا‬ ‫ين ِقض‬ ‫أنقض‬

ً َ ْ ُْ َ ْ َ
Notice that upon learning ‫أسل َم يسل ُِم ا ِسَلما‬, we do not learn 3 words, but rather we learn 37
َ َْ َ ْ َ
words. Refer to the following charts for the word ‫( أن َزل‬a cousin of ‫)أسل َم‬:

َ
The ‫ فعل ماض‬chart:

ُ َْ ُ َ َْ ُ َ َْ ُ
Plural Dual Singular
‫ه ْم أن َزل ْوا‬ ‫ه َما أن َزل‬ ‫ه َو أن َزل‬ 3rd Person

ْ َْ ُ َ َْ ُ ْ َ َْ َ
They all (m) sent down. Both of them (m) sent down. He sent down.
‫هن أن َزل َن‬ ‫ه َما أن َزَلَا‬ ‫ه أن َزلت‬ِ

ْ َْ َُْ َ ْ َْ َُْ َ ْ َْ َْ
They all (f) sent down. Both of them (f) sent down. She sent down.
‫أنت ْم أن َزَلُ ْم‬ ‫أنت َما أن َزَلُما‬ ‫أن َت أن َزلت‬ 2nd Person

ُْ َْ َُْ َ ْ َْ َُْ ْ َ َْ َْ
You all (m) sent down. You two (m) sent down. You (m) sent down.
‫أنت أن َزلت‬ ‫أنت َما أن َزَلُما‬ ‫ت‬
ِ ‫أن ِت أنزل‬
ْ َْ َ ُ ْ َْ ََ
You all (f) sent down. You two (f) sent down. You (f) sent down.
‫َنْ ُن أن َزْلَا‬ ‫أنا أن َزلت‬ 1st Person

We sent down. I sent down.

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َ ُ
The ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫ فعل مض‬chart:

َ ُْ َُ
Plural Dual Singular
َ ُ ُْ ُ ُ ُْ َُ
‫ه ْم يْنِل ْون‬ ‫ْنل ِن‬
ِ ‫هما ي‬ ‫ْنل‬
ِ ‫هو ي‬
3rd Person

ْ ُْ ُ َ ُْ َُ
They all (m) send down. Both of them (m) send down. He sends down.
ُ ُْ َ
‫ْنل َن‬
ِ ‫هن ي‬ ‫ْنل ِن‬
ِ ‫هما ت‬ ‫ه تْنِل‬ِ

َ ْ ُ ََُْ
They all (f) send down. Both of them (f) send down. She sends down.
َ ُ ْ ُ َُْْ ُ ْ ُ َ َْ
‫ْنل ْون‬
ِ ‫أن ت م ت‬ ‫ْنل ِن‬
ِ ‫أن ت م ا ت‬ ‫ْنل‬
ِ ‫أنت ت‬
2nd Person

ْ ْ ُ َُْ َ ْ ُ ََُْ
You all (m) send down. You two (m) send down. You (m) send down.
‫ْنل َن‬ َ ْ ‫َأنْت ُت ْْنل‬
ِ ‫أن ت ت‬ ‫ْنل ِن‬
ِ ‫أن ت م ا ت‬ ‫ِي‬ ِ ِ
ُ ُْ ََ
You all (f) send down. You two (f) send down. You (f) send down.
ُ ْ ُ ُ َْ
‫ْنل‬
ِ ‫َنن ن‬ ‫أنا أن ِزل‬ 1st Person

We send down. I send down.

َ ْ َ
The ‫ مصدر‬chart:

‫( مجع‬Plural) ‫( مثىن‬Dual) ‫( مفرد‬Singular) ‫( مذكر‬Masculine)


َ ْ َ ْ ْ
‫ا ِن َزالت‬ ‫ا ِن َزال ِن‬ ‫ا ِن َزال‬ ‫رفع‬
َ ْ َْ َْ ً ْ
‫ا ِن َزالت‬ ‫ي‬ ِ ‫ا ِنزال‬ ‫ا ِن َزال‬ ‫نصب‬
َ ْ َْ َْ ْ
‫ا ِن َزالت‬ ‫ي‬ ِ ‫ا ِنزال‬ ‫ا ِن َزال‬ ‫جر‬

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3.2.2 DRILLS
A SLAMA F AMILY P ART II

Drills

َ ْ َ ََ ْ َ
Part I: Practice putting the following words through the first line of the ‫أسل ََم‬/َ‫ب‬ ‫ أخ‬Family (recite
all four words):
َ َ َ َ َ َْ
َ‫ أ ْرسل‬.9 َ‫ْشك‬ ‫ أ‬.1

َ ْ َ َ َْ
َ‫ أحس َن‬.10 َ‫ أْنَح‬.2

َ ْ َ َ ْ َ
َ‫ أخ َرج‬.11 َ‫ أغ َرق‬.3

َ َْ َََْ
َ‫ أنع َم‬.12 َ‫ أفلح‬.4

َ َْ َ ََْ
َ‫ أد َرك‬.13 َ‫ أنبت‬.5

َ َْ َ َْ
َ‫ أنذ َر‬.14 َ‫ أن َزل‬.6

ََْ َ ََْ
َ‫ أله َم‬.15 َ‫ أنقض‬.7

َ َ َْ
َ‫ أفسد‬.8

َ
Part II: Figure out the ‫ اسمَفاعِل‬of each of the following ‫’فعل‬s and then put them through the
Muslim Chart.

ََْ َ َْ َ َ َْ َ َْ َ ْ َ
َ‫أفلح‬ َ‫أن َزل‬ َ‫أفسد‬ َ‫أنذ َر‬ َ‫أحس َن‬

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© BayyinahTV
‫‪Answer Key‬‬

‫َ ْ ََ َ ْ َ‬
‫بَ‪/‬أسل ََم ‪Part I: Practice putting the following words through the first line of the‬‬ ‫‪ Family (recite‬أخ‬
‫‪all four words):‬‬

‫ََُ ُ ْ‬ ‫ْ َ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬


‫ْشكَ‬
‫فهوَم ِ‬ ‫ْشاكَ‬ ‫إِ‬ ‫ْشكَ‬
‫ي ِ‬ ‫ْشكَ‬ ‫‪ .1‬أ‬

‫ََُ ُْ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫َْ َ‬


‫جحَ‬
‫فهوَمن ِ‬ ‫إِْنَ َ‬
‫احا‬ ‫جحَ‬
‫ين ِ‬ ‫‪ .2‬أْنَحَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫َْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫َ ْ َ‬


‫فه َوَمغ ِرقَ‬ ‫اقا‬
‫إِغر َ‬ ‫يغ ِرقَ‬ ‫‪ .3‬أغ َرقَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫َْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫َََْ‬


‫فه َوَمفلِحَ‬ ‫حا‬
‫إِفَل َ‬ ‫يفلِحَ‬ ‫‪ .4‬أفلحَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫َْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫ََْ َ‬


‫فه َوَمنبِتَ‬ ‫إِنب َاتا‬ ‫ينبِتَ‬ ‫‪ .5‬أنبتَ‬

‫ََُ ُْ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫َْ َ‬


‫ْنلَ‬
‫فهوَم ِ‬ ‫إِن َزالَ‬ ‫ْنلَ‬
‫ي ِ‬ ‫‪ .6‬أن َزلَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫َْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫ََْ َ‬


‫فه َوَمن ِقضَ‬ ‫اضا‬
‫إِنق َ‬ ‫ين ِقضَ‬ ‫‪ .7‬أنقضَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫ْ َ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬


‫فه َوَمف ِسدَ‬ ‫ادا‬
‫إِفس َ‬ ‫يف ِسدَ‬ ‫‪ .8‬أفسدَ‬

‫َُ ُ‬ ‫َ ً‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬
‫فه َوَم ْر ِسلَ‬ ‫إ ِ ْرسالَ‬ ‫ي ْر ِسلَ‬ ‫‪ .9‬أ ْرسلَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫ْ َ ً‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫َ ْ َ‬


‫فه َوَُم ِسنَ‬ ‫إِحس َانا‬ ‫ُي ِس ُنَ‬ ‫‪ .10‬أحس َنَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫َ ْ َ‬


‫فه َوَُم ِرجَ‬ ‫إِخ َر َ‬
‫اجا‬ ‫ُي ِرجَ‬ ‫‪ .11‬أخ َرجَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫َْ ً‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫َْ َ‬


‫فه َوَمن ِعمَ‬ ‫اما‬
‫إِنع َ‬ ‫ين ِع ُمَ‬ ‫‪ .12‬أنع َمَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ُ‬ ‫َْ َ‬


‫فه َوَمد ِركَ‬ ‫إِد َراكَ‬ ‫يد ِركَ‬ ‫‪ .13‬أد َركَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫َْ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫َْ َ‬


‫فه َوَمنذِرَ‬ ‫إِنذ ًَ‬
‫ارا‬ ‫ينذ ُِرَ‬ ‫‪ .14‬أنذ َرَ‬

‫َُ ُْ‬ ‫َْ ً‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ََْ‬


‫فه َوَمل ِهمَ‬ ‫اما‬
‫إِله َ‬ ‫يل ِه ُمَ‬ ‫‪ .15‬أله َمَ‬

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‫َ‬
‫‪’s and then put them through the‬فعل ‪ of each of the following‬اسمَفاعِل ‪Part II: Figure out the‬‬
‫‪Muslim Chart.‬‬

‫ََْ‬ ‫َْ َ‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬ ‫َْ َ‬ ‫َ ْ َ‬


‫أفلحَ‬ ‫أن َزلَ‬ ‫أفسدَ‬ ‫أنذ َرَ‬ ‫أحس َنَ‬

‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫منذِرَ‬ ‫ُم ِسنَ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ ُ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫منذ ُِر َْونَ‬ ‫منذ َِر َِ‬
‫ان‬ ‫منذِرَ‬ ‫ُم ِسن َْونَ‬ ‫ُم ِسن َِ‬
‫ان‬ ‫ُم ِسنَ‬
‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ َْ‬ ‫ُْ ً‬
‫منذِرِي ََ‬
‫ن‬ ‫منذ َِري َِ‬
‫ن‬ ‫م نذ َ‬
‫ِرا‬ ‫ُم ِسنِ ََ‬
‫ي‬ ‫ُم ِسن َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫ُم ِس َ‬
‫نا‬
‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ َْ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫منذِرِ َي ََ‬
‫ن‬ ‫منذ َِري َِ‬
‫ن‬ ‫منذِرَ‬ ‫ُم ِسنِ ََ‬
‫ي‬ ‫ُم ِسن َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫ُم ِسنَ‬

‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ ََ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ ََ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬


‫منذ َِراتَ‬ ‫انَ‬
‫منذِرت ِ‬ ‫منذ َِر َة‬ ‫ُم ِسناتَ‬ ‫انَ‬
‫ُم ِسنت ِ‬ ‫ُم ِسن َة‬
‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ َْ‬ ‫ُْ ًَ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ ََْ‬ ‫ُْ ًَ‬
‫منذ َِراتَ‬ ‫منذ َِرت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫منذِر َة‬ ‫ُم ِسناتَ‬ ‫ُم ِسنت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫ُم ِسن َة‬
‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ َْ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ ََْ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬
‫منذ َِراتَ‬ ‫منذ َِرت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫منذ َِرةَ‬ ‫ُم ِسناتَ‬ ‫ُم ِسنت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫ُم ِسنةَ‬

‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫ْنلَ‬
‫م ِ‬ ‫مف ِسدَ‬
‫ُْ ُ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ ُ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫ْنل ْونَ‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْنل َِ‬
‫ن‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْنلَ‬‫م ِ‬ ‫مف ِسد ْونَ‬ ‫مف ِسد َِ‬
‫ان‬ ‫مف ِسدَ‬
‫ِيَ‬‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ َْ‬ ‫ُْ ً‬ ‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ َْ‬ ‫ُْ ً‬
‫ْنل َ‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْنل َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْن َ‬
‫ل‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫مف ِسدِي ََ‬
‫ن‬ ‫س َدي َِ‬
‫ن‬ ‫َم َف َِ‬ ‫َمف ِسدا‬
‫ِيَ‬ ‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ َْ‬ ‫ُْ‬ ‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ َْ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫ْنل َ‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْنل َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْنلَ‬‫م ِ‬ ‫مف ِسدِي ََ‬
‫ن‬ ‫س َدي َِ‬
‫ن‬ ‫َم َف َِ‬ ‫مف ِسدَ‬

‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُم ْ َ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ْ ََ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬


‫ْنلتَ‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫انَ‬
‫ْنَل ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ْنل َة‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫مف ِسداتَ‬ ‫انَ‬
‫مف ِسدت ِ‬ ‫مف ِسدةَ‬
‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ ََْ‬ ‫ُْ ًَ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ َْ‬ ‫ُْ ًَ‬
‫ْنلتَ‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْنَل َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْنل َة‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫مف ِسداتَ‬ ‫مف ِسدت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مف ِسد َة‬
‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ ْ‬‫َ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ َْ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬
‫ْنلتَ‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْنَلَ َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫ْنلةَ‬ ‫م ِ‬ ‫مف ِسداتَ‬ ‫مف ِسدت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مف ِسدةَ‬

‫ُْ‬
‫مفلِحَ‬
‫ُْ ُ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫مفلِح َْونَ‬ ‫مفلِح َِ‬
‫ان‬ ‫مفلِحَ‬
‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ َ ْ‬ ‫ُْ ً‬
‫ح ََ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مفلِ ِ‬ ‫مفلِح َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مفل َ‬
‫ِحا‬
‫ُْ ْ‬ ‫ُْ َ ْ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫ح ََ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مفلِ ِ‬ ‫مفلِح َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مفلِحَ‬

‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬


‫مفلِحاتَ‬ ‫انَ‬
‫مفلِحت ِ‬ ‫مفلِح َة‬
‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ َْ‬ ‫ُْ َ ً‬
‫مفلِحاتَ‬ ‫مفلِحت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مفلِح َة‬
‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ َ َْ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬
‫مفلِحاتَ‬ ‫مفلِحت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مفلِحةَ‬

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3.2.2 ASLAMA FAMILY PART II
َ َ ْ َ
Learning Objectives - To learn the ‫( اسمَفاعِل‬Ism Faa’il) of the ‫ أسل ََم‬Family

Lesson Review

َ ْ َ
Recall that we started learning about the members of the ‫ أسل ََم‬family. So far we learned:

ً َ ْ ُْ َ ْ َ
‫ا ِسَلما‬ َ‫يسل ُِم‬ َ‫أسل َم‬
َ ْ َ َ ُ َ
‫م صد ر‬ ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫فعلَمض‬ َ‫فعلَماض‬
to submit/ He submits. He submitted.
submission

َ َ
We will now learn the next member of this family today: the ‫( اسمَفاعِل‬ism faa’il). The ‫اسمَفاعِل‬
refers to the person who does the ‫فعل‬. It will usually have an “-er” ending such as in teacher,
َ َ ُ
submitter, etc. Note that the ‫ اسمَفاعِل‬sounds somewhat similar to the ‫!فعلَمضارِع‬

ْ ُ َُ ً َ ْ ُْ َ ْ َ
َ‫مسلِم‬ َ‫فه َو‬ ‫ا ِسَلما‬ َ‫يسل ُِم‬ َ‫أسل َم‬
َ َ ْ َ َ ُ َ
‫اسمَفاعِل‬ ‫م صد ر‬ ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫فعلَمض‬ َ‫فعلَماض‬
a submitter so he to submit/ He submits. He submitted.
is submission

َُ
Now that we have the first four members of the family (َ‫ فه َو‬doesn’t count; it’s just there to
make it flow), make sure to review and memorize this framework! You should be able to do this
َ ْ َ َ َْ َ َ َْ َ َ َْ
with other words that sound similar to ‫ أسل ََم‬such as ‫أن َز َل‬, ‫ض‬
َ ‫أنق‬, ‫أبع َد‬, etc.

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© BayyinahTV
‫َ‬
‫‪, we can insert this into our favorite Muslim Charts from Unit 1:‬اسمَفاعِل ‪Notice that with the‬‬

‫)‪ (Plural‬مجع‬ ‫)‪ (Dual‬مثىن‬ ‫)‪ (Singular‬مفرد‬ ‫)‪ (Masculine‬مذكر‬


‫ُ ْ ُ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ‬
‫مسلِم ْونَ‬ ‫انَ‬
‫مسلِم ِ‬ ‫مسلِمَ‬ ‫رفعَ‬
‫ُ ْ ْ‬ ‫ُ ْ َْ‬ ‫ُ ْ ً‬
‫مسلِ ِم ََ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مسلِم َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مسلِما‬ ‫نصبَ‬
‫ُ ْ ْ‬ ‫ُ ْ َْ‬ ‫ُ ْ‬
‫مسلِ ِم ََ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مسلِم َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مسلِمَ‬ ‫جر‬

‫)‪ (Plural‬مجع‬ ‫)‪ (Dual‬مثىن‬ ‫)‪ (Singular‬مفرد‬ ‫)‪ (Feminine‬مؤنث‬


‫ُ ْ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ ََ‬ ‫ُ ْ َ‬ ‫رفع‬
‫مسلِماتَ‬ ‫مسلِمتا ِنَ‬ ‫مسلِم َة‬
‫ُ ْ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ ََْ‬ ‫ُ ْ ًَ‬
‫مسلِماتَ‬ ‫مسلِمت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مسلِم َة‬ ‫نصب‬
‫ُ ْ َ‬ ‫ُ ْ ََْ‬ ‫ُ ْ َ‬
‫مسل َِماتَ‬ ‫مسلِمت َِ‬
‫ي‬ ‫مسلِمةَ‬ ‫جر‬

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3.2.3 DRILLS
A KHBARA F AMILY P ART III

Drills

َ
Part I: Make these words passive and put them through the entire passive ‫ فعل ماض‬chart. Pay
special attention to the harakaat!
َََْ َ َ َْ َ َْ
‫أفلح‬ ‫أهلك‬ ‫أنذ َر‬

َ ُ
Part II: Convert these words to their respective ‫ارع‬ِ ‫ مض‬versions. Then make them passive and
َ ُ
put them through the entire ‫ارع‬ِ ‫ فعل مض‬chart. Pay special attention to the harakaat!
َََْ َ َ َْ َ َْ
‫أفلح‬ ‫أهلك‬ ‫أنذ َر‬

َ
َ َ ‫ أ ْخ‬means ‘He informed.’):
Part III: Translate the following words into English (‫ب‬
ُ
َ ‫ أ ْخ‬.1
‫با‬ِ
ْ َُْ
‫بي َن‬
ِ ‫ ُت‬.2
َُْ ْ َ
‫بت ْم‬ ‫ أخ‬.3

َ ُ ُْ
‫ب ْون‬
ِ ‫ ُت‬.4
َ ْ ُْ
‫بن‬ ِ ‫ ُي‬.5
ُ
َ ‫ أ ْخ‬.6
‫ب‬ِ
ُْ
ُ ‫ُي‬
‫ب‬ِ .7

‫ان‬ََُْ
ِ ‫ ُيب‬.8

1
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َََ ْ َ
‫بتا‬ ‫ أخ‬.9
ُ
‫ب‬ُ ‫ أ ْخ‬.10
ِ
ُ
ُ َ ‫ أ ْخ‬.11
‫ب ْوا‬
َْ ْ ُ
‫ب نا‬
ِ ‫ أخ‬.12

َ
َ َ ‫)أ ْخ‬:
Part IV: Translate the following words into Arabic (‘He informed’ means ‫ب‬

1. They both were informed.


2. Both of them are being informed.
3. We informed.
4. I was informed.
5. Both of you inform.
6. Both of those women were informed.
7. I am being informed.
8. You were informed.
9. Both of those women are being informed.
10. Those women are being informed.
11. He was informed.
12. She was informed.

2
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‫‪Answer Key‬‬

‫َ‬
‫‪ chart. Pay‬فعل ماض ‪Part I: Make these words passive and put them through the entire passive‬‬
‫!‪special attention to the harakaat‬‬
‫َََْ‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬ ‫َْ َ‬
‫أفلح‬ ‫أهلك‬ ‫أنذ َر‬

‫ُْ َ‬ ‫ُْ‬
‫أهلِك‬ ‫أنذ َِر‬
‫ُ ُْ ُ‬ ‫َُ ُْ َ‬ ‫ُ ُْ َ‬ ‫ُ ُْ‬ ‫ُ َ ُْ‬ ‫ُ ُْ‬
‫ه ْم أهلِكوا‬ ‫هما أهلِك‬ ‫ه َو أهلِك‬ ‫ه ْم أنذ ُِر ْوا‬ ‫هما أنذ َِرا‬ ‫ه َو أنذ َِر‬
‫ُ ُْ ْ‬ ‫َُ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫َ ُْ َ ْ‬ ‫ُ ُْ َ‬ ‫ُ َ ُْ َ‬ ‫َ ُْ ْ‬
‫هن أهلِك َن‬ ‫هما أهلِكتا‬ ‫ه أهلِكت‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫هن أنذ ِْرن‬ ‫هما أنذ َِرتا‬ ‫ه أنذ َِرت‬ ‫ِ‬
‫َُْ ُ ْ ْ ُ‬ ‫ََُْ ُ ْ ْ َُ‬ ‫َْ َ ْ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َُْ ُْ ُ‬ ‫َُْ َ ُْ ُ َ‬ ‫َْ َ ْ َ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫أنت ْم أهلِكت ْم‬ ‫أنتما أهلِكتما‬ ‫أنت أهلِكت‬ ‫أنت ْم أنذ ِْرت ْم‬ ‫أنتما أنذ ِْرتما‬ ‫أنت أنذ ِْرت‬
‫َُْ ُ ْ ْ ُ‬ ‫ََُْ ُ ْ ْ َُ‬ ‫َْ ُ ْ ْ‬ ‫َْ ُ ُْ ُ‬ ‫َُْ َ ُْ ُ َ‬ ‫َأنْ ُ ْ ْ‬
‫أنت أهلِكت‬ ‫أنتما أهلِكتما‬ ‫ت‬
‫ت أهلِك ِ‬ ‫أن ِ‬ ‫أنت أنذ ِْرتن‬ ‫أنتما أنذ ِْرتما‬ ‫ت‬
‫ت أنذِر ِ‬ ‫ِ‬
‫َْ ُ ْ ْ َ‬ ‫ََ ُ ْ ْ ُ‬ ‫َْ ُْ َ‬ ‫ََ ُْ ْ ُ‬
‫َن ُن أهلِكنا‬ ‫أنا أهلِكت‬ ‫َن ُن أنذ ِْرنا‬ ‫أنا أنذِرت‬

‫ََُْ‬
‫أفلح‬
‫ُ ُْ ُ‬ ‫َُ ُْ َ‬ ‫ُ ُْ َ‬
‫ه ْم أفلِح ْوا‬ ‫هما أفلِحا‬ ‫ه َو أفلِح‬
‫ُ ُْ ْ‬ ‫َُ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫َ ُْ َ ْ‬
‫هن أفلِح َن‬ ‫هما أفلِحتا‬ ‫ه أفلِحت‬ ‫ِ‬
‫َُْ ُْ ْ ُ‬ ‫ََُْ ُْ ْ َُ‬ ‫َْ َ ُْ ْ َ‬
‫أنت ْم أفلِحت ْم‬ ‫أنتما أفلِحتما‬ ‫أنت أفلِحت‬
‫َُْ ُْ ْ ُ‬ ‫ََُْ ُْ ْ َُ‬ ‫َْ ُْ ْ‬
‫أنت أفلِحت‬ ‫أنتما أفلِحتما‬ ‫ت‬
‫ت أفلِح ِ‬ ‫أن ِ‬
‫َْ ُْ ْ َ‬ ‫ََ ْ ْ ُ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫َن ُن أفلِحنا‬ ‫أنا أفلِحت‬

‫ُ َ‬
‫ارع ‪Part II: Convert these words to their respective‬‬‫‪ versions. Then make them passive and‬مض ِ‬
‫ُ َ‬
‫ارع ‪put them through the entire‬‬‫!‪ chart. Pay special attention to the harakaat‬فعل مض ِ‬
‫َََْ‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬ ‫َْ َ‬
‫أفلح‬ ‫أهلك‬ ‫أنذ َر‬

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‫َُْ ُ‬ ‫ُْ َ‬
‫يهلك‬ ‫ينذ ُر‬
‫ُ ُْ َ ُ َ‬ ‫َُ َُْ َ‬ ‫ُ ُْ َ ُ‬ ‫ُ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫َُ ُْ ََ‬ ‫ُ ُْ َ‬
‫ه ْم يهلك ْون‬ ‫هما يهلك ِن‬ ‫ه َو يهلك‬ ‫ه ْم ينذ ُر ْون‬ ‫ان‬
‫هما ينذر ِ‬ ‫ه َو ينذ ُر‬
‫ُ َُْ ْ‬ ‫َُ َُْ َ‬ ‫َ ُْ َ ُ‬ ‫ُ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫َُ ُْ ََ‬ ‫َ ُْ َ‬
‫هن يهلك َن‬ ‫هما تهلك ِن‬ ‫ه تهلك‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫هن ينذ ْرن‬ ‫ان‬
‫هما تنذر ِ‬ ‫ه تنذ ُر‬ ‫ِ‬
‫َُْ ُْ َ ُ َ‬ ‫ََُْ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َْ َ‬ ‫َُْ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫ََُْ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫َ ْ َ ُ ْ َُ‬
‫أنت ْم تهلك ْون‬ ‫أنتما تهلك ِن‬ ‫أنت تهلك‬ ‫أنت ْم تنذ ُر ْون‬ ‫ان‬
‫أنتما تنذر ِ‬ ‫أنت تنذر‬
‫َُْ ُْ َ ْ‬ ‫ََُْ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫َأنْت ُت ْهلَك ْ َ‬ ‫َُْ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫ََُْ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫َْ ُْ َ ْ‬
‫أنت تهلك َن‬ ‫أنتما تهلك ِن‬ ‫ِي‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫أنت تنذ ْرن‬ ‫ان‬
‫أنتما تنذر ِ‬ ‫ت تنذرِي َن‬ ‫أن ِ‬
‫َْ ُ ْ َ ُ‬ ‫ََ ُ ْ َ ُ‬ ‫َْ ُْ َ‬ ‫َأنَا ُأنْ َذرُ‬
‫َن ُن نهلك‬ ‫أنا أهلك‬ ‫َن ُن ننذ ُر‬

‫ُْ َُ‬
‫يفلح‬
‫ُ ُْ َ ُ َ‬ ‫َُ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫ُ ُْ َُ‬
‫ه ْم يفلح ْون‬ ‫ان‬
‫هما يفلح ِ‬ ‫ه َو يفلح‬
‫ُ ُْ َ ْ‬ ‫َُ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫َ ُْ َُ‬
‫هن يفلح َن‬ ‫ان‬
‫هما تفلح ِ‬ ‫ه تفلح‬ ‫ِ‬
‫َُْ ُْ َ ُ َ‬ ‫ََُْ ُْ َ‬ ‫َ ْ َ ُ ْ َُ‬
‫أنت ْم تفلح ْون‬ ‫حان‬
‫أنتما تفل ِ‬ ‫أنت تفلح‬
‫َُْ ُْ َ ْ‬ ‫ََُْ ُْ َ َ‬ ‫َأنْت ُت ْفلَح ْ َ‬
‫أنت تفلح َن‬ ‫ان‬
‫أنتما تفلح ِ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬
‫َْ ُْ َ ُ‬ ‫َ َ ُ ْ َُ‬
‫َن ُن نفلح‬ ‫أنا أفلح‬

‫َ‬
‫‪ means ‘He informed.’):‬أ ْخ َ َ‬
‫ب( ‪Part III: Translate the following words into English‬‬
‫ُ‬
‫‪ .1‬أ ْخ َ‬
‫با‬
‫‪1. Both of them were informed.‬‬ ‫ِ‬
‫َُْ ْ‬
‫‪2. You (feminine) are being informed.‬‬ ‫بي َن‬
‫‪ُ .2‬ت ِ‬
‫َ ْ َُْ‬
‫‪3. You all informed.‬‬ ‫بت ْم‬ ‫‪ .3‬أخ‬

‫ُْ ُ َ‬
‫‪4. You all inform.‬‬ ‫ب ْون‬
‫‪ُ .4‬ت ِ‬
‫ُْ ْ َ‬
‫‪5. They (feminine) inform.‬‬ ‫بن‬ ‫‪ُ .5‬ي ِ‬
‫ُ‬
‫‪ .6‬أ ْخ َ‬
‫ب‬
‫‪6. He was informed.‬‬ ‫ِ‬
‫ُْ‬
‫ُي ُ‬
‫‪7. He informs.‬‬ ‫ب‬‫ِ‬ ‫‪.7‬‬

‫ان‬‫ََُْ‬
‫‪8. Both of them are being informed.‬‬ ‫‪ُ .8‬يب ِ‬

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َََ ْ َ
9. Both of them (feminine) informed. ‫بتا‬ ‫ أخ‬.9
ُ
‫ب‬ُ ‫ أ ْخ‬.10
10. I inform. ِ
ُ
11. They were informed. ُ َ ‫ أ ْخ‬.11
‫ب ْوا‬
َْ ْ ُ
12. We were informed. ‫ب نا‬
ِ ‫ أخ‬.12

َ
َ َ ‫)أ ْخ‬:
Part IV: Translate the following words into Arabic (‘He informed’ means ‫ب‬
ُ
َ ‫ أ ْخ‬.1
‫با‬
1. They both were informed. ِ

‫ان‬ َ ُْ
2. Both of them are being informed. ِ ‫ ُي ِب‬.2
ََْ ْ َ
3. We informed. ‫ب نا‬ ‫ أخ‬.3

ُ ْ ْ ُ
4. I was informed. ‫بت‬ ِ ‫ أخ‬.4

‫ان‬ َ ُْ
5. Both of you inform. ِ ‫ ُت ِب‬.5
ََ ْ ُ
6. Both of those women were informed. ‫بتا‬ ِ ‫ أخ‬.6
ُ
7. I am being informed. ُ َ ‫ أ ْخ‬.7
‫ب‬

َ ْ ْ ُ
8. You were informed. ‫بت‬ ِ ‫ أخ‬.8

‫ان‬ََُْ
9. Both of those women are being informed. ِ ‫ ُتب‬.9
َ َُْْ
10. Those women are being informed. ‫بن‬ ‫ ُي‬.10
ُْ
ُ َ ‫ُي‬
11. He was informed. ‫ب‬ .11
ُْ
ُ َ ‫ُت‬
12. She was informed. ‫ب‬ .12

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3.2.3 AKHBARA FAMILY PART III
َ ْ َ ََ ْ َ
Learning Objectives - To learn the next few members of the ‫أسل ََم‬/َ‫ب‬ ‫ أخ‬Family

Lesson Review

َ ْ َ
Recall that we started learning about the members of the ‫ أسل ََم‬family. So far we know:

ْ ُ َُ ً َ ْ ُْ َ ْ َ
َ‫مسلِم‬ َ‫فه َو‬ ‫ا ِسَلما‬ َ‫يسل ُِم‬ َ‫أسل َم‬
a submitter so he to submit/ He submits. He submitted.
is submission

َ َ ُ
Recall also our discussion on the passive ‫فعل‬: a passive ‫ ماضَ( فعل‬or ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫ )مض‬is a ‫ فعل‬in which the
َ
doer is not known. Passive ‫’فعل‬s have two sounds that take over: for the َ‫فعلَماض‬, the ‘u’ and ‘e’
َ ُ
sound will be present. For the ‫ارع‬
ِ ‫ فعلَمض‬the ‘u’ and ‘a’ sound will be present.

ْ َ َ ْ َ َ ْ َ َ
َ َ ‫أ ْخ‬
ََ َ ‫ أخ‬for the ‫ أسل ََم‬Family. “َ‫ أسل َم‬Family” and “َ‫ب‬
Know that from now on, we will use the word ‫ب‬
Family” will be mentioned interchangeably from now on!

ْ َ ْ ُ
For example, let’s look at the word ‫ب‬ ََ َ ‫أخ‬: ‘He informed.’ The passive version would be ‫ب‬ََ ِ ‫‘ أخ‬He
ْ ُ
was informed.’ Notice that for ‫ب‬ََ ِ ‫أخ‬, we do not know who did the informing. The doer is a
َ ْ َ
mystery. Not all words have a passive version. ‫ أسل ََم‬is a good example of a word that does not
َ ْ َ
have a passive version. Thus, in order to learn more about the members of the ‫ أسل ََم‬Family, we
َ ْ َ ََ ْ َ
will use the handsome cousin of ‫أسل ََم‬: ‫ب‬ َ ‫أخ‬. Refer to the following:

ُْ َُ ً ‫ا ِْخ َب‬ ُْ َ
َ‫ُم ِب‬ َ‫فه َو‬ ‫ارا‬ ُ ‫ُي‬
َ‫ب‬ َ َ ‫أ ْخ‬
َ‫ب‬
ِ
an informer so he to inform He informs. He informed.

ُْ
is
َُ ً ‫ا ِْخ َب‬ ُْ ُ
َ‫ُم َب‬ َ‫فه َو‬ ‫ارا‬ ُ َ ‫ُي‬
َ‫ب‬ َ ‫أ ْخ‬
َ‫ب‬ِ
the one who is so he to inform He is being He was
informed is informed. informed.

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ُْ ُ َْ ُ َْ
َ َ ‫ُم‬. This is an ‫( اسمَمفع ْول‬ism maf’ool); an ‫ اسمَمفع ْول‬is
Notice the newest member of the family, ‫ب‬
َ
the person whom the action is being done to. Notice that the ‫ اسمَفاعِل‬on the other hand is the
person doing the action. Also notice that they look exactly the same, except for one harakah.
Do not get mixed up between the two!

Practice saying these two lines out loud till you feel comfortable saying them without looking.
َ َ َْ َ َ ْ َ َ َْ
For additional practice, use the words: ‫أبع َد‬, ‫ك‬ َ ‫أد َر‬. For reference:
َ ‫أْش‬, and ‫ك‬

َُْ َُ ً َ ْ ُ ُْ َ َ َْ
َ‫أبعدَََيب ِعدَََا ِبعاداَََفه َوَمبعد‬
َ ُْ ُ َ ً َ ْ ُ َ ُْ َ ُْ
َ‫أب ِعدَََيبعدَََا ِبعاداَََفه ِوَمبعد‬

ْ ُ َُ ً َ ْ ُ ُْ َ َ َْ
َ‫ْشك‬
ِ ‫ْشكَََا ِْشاًكَََفه ِوَم‬
ِ ‫أْشكَََي‬
َْ ُ َ ُ َ ً َ ْ ُ َ ْ ُ َ ْ ُ
َ‫ْشكَََيْشكَََا ِْشاًكَََفهوَمْشك‬ِ ‫أ‬

ُْ َُ ً ْ ُ ُْ َ َْ
َ‫أد َركَََيد ِركَََا ِد َراًكَََفه َوَمد ِرك‬
ُْ َُ ً ْ ُ ُْ َ ُْ
َ‫أد ِركَََيد َركَََا ِد َراًكَََفه َوَمد َرك‬

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3.2.4 AKHBARA FAMILY PART IV
َ
Learning Objectives َ َ ‫ أ ْخ‬Family
- To finish the last part of the ‫ب‬

Lesson Review

ْ َ
Recall that we completed the first two lines of what we will now call the ‫( رصف ص ِغي‬sarf sagheer)
َ
َ َ ‫ أ ْخ‬family. There is one line remaining, and this will complete our framework for
of the ‫ب‬
practicing all of ‫ !رصف‬Before we do that, let’s review what we already learned:

ْ‫خ‬ ‫َخ‬ ً ‫ا ِْخ َب‬ ْ‫خ‬ َ


‫ُم ر‬
‫ب‬ ‫فه َو‬ ‫ارا‬ ‫ُي خ‬
‫ب‬ َ َ ‫أ ْخ‬
‫ب‬
ِ ِ
an informer
ْ‫خ‬
so he is
‫َخ‬
to inform
ً ‫ا ِْخ َب‬
He informs.
ْ‫خ‬ ‫خ‬
He informed.
‫ُم َ ر‬
‫ب‬ ‫فه َو‬ ‫ارا‬ ‫ُي َ خ‬
‫ب‬ َ ‫أ ْخ‬
‫ب‬ِ
the one who is so he is to inform He is being He was
informed informed. informed.

ْ َ
It is also important not to forget to do the ‫( رصف كبِي‬Sarf Kabeer) chart for each of these words.
ْ َ َ
‫ رصف كبِي‬is the complete ‫فعل ماض‬, ‫ارع‬
َ َ ‫خ‬
‫ض‬ ‫م‬ ‫فعل‬, َ َ ‫أ ْخ‬, the ‫ رصف َكب ْي‬would
‫ب‬
ِ & Muslim charts. Thus, for ِ
َ ْ‫خ‬
‫ُي خ‬, ْ َ َ ‫خ‬
be the complete ‫ فعل ماض‬chart. For ‫ب‬ ِ the ‫ رصف كبِي‬would be the complete ‫ فعل مضارِع‬chart. For
ً ‫ا ِْخ َب‬, since this isn’t a ‫ فعل‬and is rather an ‫اسم‬, we would do the Muslim chart. This is the
‫ارا‬
ْ َ
meaning of ‫رصف كبِي‬. Practice it for each of the above words and check your work accordingly:

ْ‫خ‬ َ
‫ب‬‫ُي خ‬ َ َ ‫أ ْخ‬
‫ب‬
ِ
َ ‫خ ْ خْ خ‬ َ َ َ
‫ب ْون‬ َ ْ‫خ َ خ‬ ‫ُي خ‬ ْ‫خَ خ‬
‫ب ْوا‬‫خه ْم أ ْخ َ خ‬ َ َ ‫خه َما أ ْخ‬ َ َ ‫خه َو أ ْخ‬
ِ ‫هم ُي‬ ‫ان‬
ِ ‫هما ُي ِب‬ ‫ب‬ ِ ‫هو‬ ‫با‬ ‫ب‬
َ ْ ْ‫خ خ‬ َ ْ‫خ َ خ‬ ‫ُت خ‬ ْ‫َ خ‬ َ َْ ْ َ ‫خ‬ َََ ْ َ َ ‫خ‬ ْ ََ ْ َ َ
‫بن‬ ِ ‫هن ُي‬ ‫ان‬
ِ ‫هما ُت ِب‬ ‫ب‬ ِ ‫ه‬ ِ ‫بن‬ ‫هن أخ‬ ‫بتا‬ ‫هما أخ‬ ‫بت‬ ‫ِه أخ‬
َ ْ ‫َْخ ْ خْ خ‬ َ ْ‫ْخ َ خ‬
َ
‫أنْت ُت خ‬ ْ ‫خ‬ َ َ ْ‫ب ختم‬ْ َ ‫َأ ْن خت ْم َأ ْخ‬ َ ‫َْخَ َ ْ َْخ‬ َ َْ ْ َ َ َْ
‫أنتم ُت ِبون‬ ‫ان‬
ِ ‫أنتما ُت ِب‬ ‫ب‬ ِ ‫أنتما أخبتما‬ ‫أنت أخبت‬
َ ْ ْ‫َْ خ خ‬ َ ْ‫ْخ َ خ‬
َ ْ ْ‫َْ خ‬ ‫َْخ َ ْ َْخ‬ َ ‫َْخَ َ ْ َْخ‬ ْ َ ْ َ ْ‫َأن‬
‫بن‬ ِ ‫أنت ُت‬ ‫ان‬
ِ ‫أنتما ُت ِب‬ ‫بي َن‬ ِ ِ ‫ت ُت‬ ِ ‫أن‬ ‫بتن‬ ‫أنت أخ‬ ‫بتما‬ ‫أ ن ت م ا أخ‬ ‫ت‬
ِ ‫ت أخب‬ ِ
ْ‫َْ خ خ‬ ْ ‫ََ خ‬ ََْ ْ َ ‫َْ خ‬ ‫ََ َ ْ َْ خ‬
‫ُن خ‬
‫ب‬ ‫أنا أخ خ‬
ِ ‫َنن‬ ‫ب‬ ِ ‫َنن أخبنا‬ ‫أنا أخبت‬

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‫ُم ر‬ ‫خْ‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب ً‬
‫ب‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ارا‬
‫خْ خ َ‬ ‫خْ َ‬ ‫خْ‬ ‫ْ َ َ ر‬ ‫ْ َ َ‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب ر‬
‫ب ْون‬ ‫ُم ِ‬ ‫ان‬
‫ُم ِب ِ‬
‫ُم ر‬
‫ب‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ارات‬ ‫ا ِخب‬ ‫ان‬
‫ا ِخبار ِ‬ ‫ار‬
‫ُمب ْينَ‬ ‫خْ‬ ‫خْ َْ‬ ‫ُم ً‬ ‫خْ‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب َ‬ ‫ْ َ َْ‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب ً‬
‫ِِ‬ ‫بي ِن‬ ‫ُم ِ‬ ‫با‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ارات‬ ‫اري ِن‬ ‫ا ِخب‬ ‫ارا‬
‫خْ ْ‬ ‫خْ َْ‬ ‫خْ‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب َ‬ ‫ْ َ َْ‬ ‫ْ َ‬
‫بي َن‬‫ُم ِ ِ‬ ‫ُم ِبي ِن‬ ‫ُم ِب‬ ‫ارات‬ ‫ا ِخباري ِن‬ ‫ا ِخبار‬

‫خْ‬ ‫خ‬
‫ُي َ خ‬
‫ب‬ ‫أ ْخ َ‬
‫ب‬‫ِ‬
‫خ ْ خَْخ َ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫خ‬
‫ب ْون‬ ‫هم ُي‬ ‫ان‬ ‫خ َ خََْ‬ ‫ُي َ خ‬‫خَ خْ‬ ‫خه ْم أ ْخ خ‬
‫ب ْوا‬ ‫خه َما أ ْخ َ‬ ‫خه َو أ ْخ َ‬
‫هما ُيب ِ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫هو‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫با‬‫ِ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ِ‬
‫ْ‬
‫خ خ َْ َ‬ ‫خ َ خََْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ه ُت َ خ‬ ‫خ‬
‫َِ‬ ‫خ خ ْ ْ َ‬ ‫خَ خ ْ ََ‬ ‫َ خ ْ َ ْ‬
‫بن‬ ‫هن ُي‬ ‫ان‬
‫هما ُتب ِ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫هن أخ ِبن‬ ‫هما أخ ِبتا‬ ‫ِه أخ ِبت‬
‫َْخ ْ خَْخ َ‬ ‫ْخ َ خََْ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َْ َ خْ‬ ‫َْخْ خ ْ ْخ‬ ‫َْخَ خ ْ ْخ َ‬ ‫َْ َ خ ْ ْ َ‬
‫ب ْون‬ ‫أنتم ُت‬ ‫ان‬
‫أنتما ُتب ِ‬
‫ُت َ خ‬
‫ب‬ ‫أنت‬ ‫بت ْم‬ ‫أنتم أخ ِ‬ ‫بتما‬ ‫أ ن ت م ا أخ ِ‬ ‫بت‬ ‫أنت أخ ِ‬
‫َْ خ خَْْ َ‬ ‫ْخ َ خََْ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ُت َب ْينَ‬ ‫َْ خْ‬ ‫َْخ خ ْ ْخ‬ ‫َْخَ خ ْ ْخ َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َْ خ ْ‬
‫أنت ُتبن‬ ‫ان‬
‫أنتما ُتب ِ‬ ‫ت ِ‬ ‫أن ِ‬ ‫أنت أخ ِبتن‬ ‫أنتما أخ ِبتما‬ ‫ت‬
‫ت أخ ِب ِ‬ ‫أن ِ‬
‫َْ خ خْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ََ خ‬ ‫َْ خ خ ْ َْ‬ ‫ََ خ ْ ْ خ‬
‫ُن َ خ‬
‫ب‬ ‫َنن‬ ‫بَ‬
‫أنا أخ خ‬ ‫ب نا‬ ‫َنن أخ ِ‬ ‫أنا أخ ِبت‬

‫خْ‬
‫ُم َ ر‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب ً‬
‫ب‬ ‫ارا‬
‫خَْخ َ‬ ‫خََْ‬ ‫خْ‬ ‫ْ َ َ ر‬ ‫ْ َ َ‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب ر‬
‫ب ْون‬ ‫ُم‬ ‫ان‬
‫ُمب ِ‬
‫ُم َ ر‬
‫ب‬ ‫ارات‬ ‫ا ِخب‬ ‫ان‬
‫ا ِخبار ِ‬ ‫ار‬
‫خ َ ْ‬‫ْ‬ ‫خََْْ‬ ‫خْ‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب َ‬ ‫ْ َ َْ‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب ً‬
‫بي َن‬‫ُم ِ‬ ‫بي ِن‬ ‫ُم‬ ‫با‬‫ُم َ ً‬ ‫ارات‬ ‫اري ِن‬ ‫ا ِخب‬ ‫ارا‬
‫خْ ْ‬ ‫خََْْ‬ ‫خْ‬ ‫ا ِْخ َب َ‬ ‫ْ َ َْ‬ ‫ْ َ‬
‫ُم َبِي َن‬ ‫بي ِن‬ ‫ُم‬ ‫ُم َب‬ ‫ارات‬ ‫اري ِن‬ ‫ا ِخب‬ ‫ا ِخبار‬

‫َ ْ‬ ‫َ ْ‬
‫‪. It‬رصف ص ِغي ‪, we will now finish the last line of the‬رصف كبِي ‪Now that we’ve reviewed the‬‬
‫َْ‬ ‫َ ْ‬
‫‪), and the form of time and‬فعل نه( ‪), the forbidding form‬فعل أمر( ‪consists of the command form‬‬
‫َ‬
‫‪):‬ظ ْرف( ‪place‬‬

‫َ ْخ ْخ خْ‬
‫ُم َ ر‬
‫ب‬ ‫والظرف مِنه‬ ‫ه َع ْن خه ََل خُتْ ْ‬
‫ب‬ ‫َوانل ْ خ‬ ‫اَ ْْلَ ْم خر م ِْن خه أَ ْخ ْ‬
‫ب‬
‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬
‫‪time/place of informing‬‬ ‫!‪Don’t inform‬‬ ‫!‪Inform‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫‪© BayyinahTV‬‬
َ
ْ َ َ َ ‫ أ ْخ‬is as follows:
Thus, the complete ‫ رصف ص ِغي‬of the word ‫ب‬

ْ‫خ‬ ‫َخ‬ ً ‫ا ِْخ َب‬ ْ‫خ‬ َ


‫ُم ر‬
‫ب‬ ‫فه َو‬ ‫ارا‬ ‫ُي خ‬
‫ب‬ َ َ ‫أ ْخ‬
‫ب‬
ِ ِ
an informer
ْ‫خ‬
so he is
‫َخ‬
to inform
ً ‫ا ِْخ َب‬
He informs.
ْ‫خ‬ ‫خ‬
He informed.
‫ُم َ ر‬
‫ب‬ ‫فه َو‬ ‫ارا‬ ‫ُي َ خ‬
‫ب‬ َ ‫أ ْخ‬
‫ب‬ِ
the one who is so he is to inform He is being He was
informed informed. informed.

ْ‫َ ْخ ْخ خ‬
‫ُم َ ر‬
‫ب‬ ‫والظرف مِنه‬ ْ ْ‫ه َع ْن خه ََل خُت‬
‫ب‬ ‫َوانل ْ خ‬ ْ ‫اَ ْْلَ ْم خر م ِْن خه أَ ْخ‬
‫ب‬
ِ ِ
time/place of Don’t inform! Inform!
informing

3
© BayyinahTV
‫‪3.2.5‬‬ ‫‪DRILLS‬‬
‫‪A KHBARA F AMILY P ART V‬‬

‫‪Drills‬‬

‫َْ‬ ‫َْ ُ ن َُْ َ َْ َُْ َُْ َ َْ َ‬


‫ت ‪,‬أنتما ‪,‬أنت ‪,‬أنت ْم ‪,‬أنتما ‪,‬أنت( ‪ applicable‬فعل أمر ‪’s, provide every‬فعل ‪For the following‬‬ ‫‪):‬أن‬

‫ََْ َ‬ ‫َََْ‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬ ‫َ ْ َ‬


‫‪ .10‬أنبت‬ ‫‪ .7‬أفلح‬ ‫‪ .4‬أفسد‬ ‫‪ .1‬أع َرض‬
‫َْ َ‬ ‫ََْ َ‬ ‫َْ َ‬ ‫َْ َ‬
‫‪ .11‬أنع َم‬ ‫‪ .8‬أنشأ‬ ‫‪ .5‬أن َزل‬ ‫‪ .2‬أنذ َر‬
‫َ‬ ‫َْ َ َ‬ ‫َْ َ‬ ‫ََْ َ‬
‫‪ .12‬أبْ َ َ‬
‫ص‬ ‫‪ .9‬أهلك‬ ‫‪ .6‬أنك َر‬ ‫‪ .3‬أنفق‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪© BayyinahTV‬‬
‫‪Answer Key‬‬

‫َْ‬ ‫َْ ُ ن َُْ َ َْ َُْ َُْ َ َْ َ‬


‫ت ‪,