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1914- 1918 The First World War

1913- 1918 The war prices increased in double
1918-1919 & 1920-1921 Crop failure
1921 Famines and the epidemic
Mahatma Gandhi

1916 Mahatma Gandhi organized satyagraha movement in Champaran

1917 Mahatma Gandhi organized satyagraha movement in
Kheda District (Gujarat)

1918 Mahatma Gandhi organized satyagraha Movement in Ahmedabad.

1919 Rowlatt Act was Passed (It gave the govt. enormous powerto repress
political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without
trial for two years.
10th April,1919 The police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession. Martial
Was imposed.
13 April, 1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place.
March, 1919 Khilafat Committee founded in Bombay.
Sep, 1920 Congress Session in Calcutta- Decided to start a non- cooperation
Movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
December ,1920 Congress Session at Nagpur- A compromise was worked out and the
Non- cooperation programme was adopted.
Different strands within the Movement

1921-1922 The Import of foreign cloth halved.

June,1920 Jawahar Lal Nehru going around the village in Awadh
October,1929 Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by J.L. Nehru
1920 The peasant movement in Awadh spread, but the Congress Leader
Were not happy with them.
1921 A militant Guerrilla movement spread in the Gudem Hills of
Andhra Pradesh. Movement started by Alluri Sitaram Raju.
1924 Raju was captured and executed.
Towards Civil Disobedience

Feb,1922 Mahatma Gandhi decided to Withdraw Non-Cooperation

Establishment of Swaraj Party by Motilal Nehru and C.R.Dass
1928 Simon Commission arrived in India.
Oct, 1929 A vague offer of ‘Dominion Status ‘ for India offered by Lord
Dec, 1929 Lahore Session of the Congress- Demand for Purna Swaraj.
Jan26,1930 Celebrated as the Independence day.
Jan 31,1930 Gandhiji sent a letter to viceroy Irwin stating 11 demands.
April 6,1930 The salt march reached Dandi, Gandhiji violated the salt law.
April ,1930 Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested
Mar 5, 1931 Gandhi Irwin Pact
Dec, 1931 Gandhiji went for Second Round table Conference
1934 Civil Disobedience movement lost its momentum.
FICCI (1927) The Federation Of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and
Sep, 1932 Poona Pact between Gandhiji and Ambedkar.

Q1. How did the first world war help in the growth of National Movement in India ?
Ans. 1. The war created a new political and economic situation.
2. War led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war
loans and increasing taxes like custom duties and introduction of Income tax.
3. Increase in price between year 1913-1918- leading to extreme hardship for the
common people.
4. Forced recruitment - Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and the
forced recruitment in rural areas caused anger among villagers.
5. Failure of crops in 1918-1919 and 1920-21, led to acute shortage of food.
6. Spread of Epidemic - Acc. To the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people
perished as a result of the famines and the epidemic.
Q2. When did Gandhiji come to India ? Discuss his new mode of struggle.
Ans. 1. Mahatama Gandhiji came to India in January 1915.
2. His new mode of struggle was satyagraha.
3. The idea of satyagraha emphsised the power of truth and need to search for
4. Acc. To satyagraha , if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice,
then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
5. Without being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win battle through non-

Q3. What was the Rowlatt Act ?

Ans. 1. It was an act which gave the government enormous power to repress political
2. It allowed that govt. could arrest anybody without a trial for two years.

Q4. Discuss the Indians reaction to the Rowlatt Act. How did the british suppress their
Ans. 1. Rallies were organized in various cities, workers went on strike in railway
workshops, and shops closed down.
2. The alarmed British admi9nistration responded by repressive measures. Like
local leaders were picked up from Amritsar Mahatama Gandhi was barred
from entering Delhi, on 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful
3. Martial law was imposed .

Q5. How did Jallianwala Bagh incident take place ?

Ans. 1. On 13 April , a crowd of villagers who had come to Amritsar to attend a fair
gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
2. Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had
been imposed.
3. Gen. Dyer entered the area , blocked the exit points and opened fire on the
crowd, killing hundreds.
4. His object was to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror .
Q6. What was Khilafat Movement ?
Ans. 1. The First world war had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey.
2. There was rumour that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the
Ottoman empire- the spiritual head of the Islamic world the calipha would be
over thrown .
3. To defend the power of Khalifa, a Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay
in March 1919.
4. A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brother Muhammad Ali and
And Shaukar Ali started Khilafat movement with the support of Gandhiji
against the injustice done to the Khalifa.
Q7. Why did Gandhiji launch Non- cooperation movement ?
Ans. 1. Acc. To Gandhiji , the British rule was established in India with the
cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation.
2. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a
year , and sawraj would come.
Q8. How could non- cooperation become a movement ?
Ans. 1. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
2. It should begin with the surrender of titles that the govt. awarded, and a
boycott of civil service, army, police, courts, and legislative councils, schools
and foreign goods.
3. In case the govt. used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign woul be
Q9. Why was non-cooperation movement withdrawn by Gandhiji ?
Ans. 1. Chauri- chaura is a small town in Uttar Pradesh.
2. The non-cooperation movement was at its peak. It had evoked country wide.
3. The non-cooperation movement was designed as non-violent movement.
4. But in Chauri-Chaura, people turned violent and set fire to police station. It
caused the death of 22 policemen.
5. Gandhiji called off the Non-Cooperation movement on the account of the
Q1. Why did non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down in the cities ?
Ans. The non-cooperation movement in cities allowed down for a variety of reasons-
a. Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor
people could not afford to buy it.
b. The boycott of British institution posed a problem , for the movement to be
successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be
used in place of British ones. These were slow to come up.
c. So , the teachers and students began trickling back to govt. schools and lawyers
joined back work in government courts.

Q1. When did Non-cooperation – Khilafat Movement begin ?

Ans. The Non-Cooperation Movement began in Jan 1921.

Q2. Why was Non-Cooperation movement launched ?

Ans. a. To protest against the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
b. To support the demand for swaraj as well as Khilafat.

Q3. Describe in brief , the non-cooperation movement in the towns.

Ans. Participants- The movement started with middle class people.

Activities - Students leftgovt. Controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and

teachers resigned andm lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were
boycotted min most provinces except Madras.

Effects – foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in
huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922. Many
merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. Indians
discarded imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, as a result production of Indian
Textile mills and handlooms went up.

Q4. Why did non-cooperation slow down in the cities ?

Ans. 1. Non-cooperation Movement gradually slowed down because Khadi was more
expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
2. There were no alternative Indian Institution which could be used in place of the
British ones.
3. So students and teachers began going back to govt. schools and lawyers joined back
work in govt. court.

Q5. Describe , in brief, the movement of Awadh peasants .

Ans. Leader - Baba Ramchandra – He was a sanyasi . He had earlier been to Fiji as an
indentured labourer.
Why they joined the movement :- They launched the movement against rich landlords
and talukadars who demanded high land revenue and other cesses. Peasants were forced
to perform beggar on the land of the talukadars. The peasants demanded reduction of
land revenue and abolition of beggar.
Movement- Nai-dhobi bandh were organized by panchayat to deprive landlords of the
services of even barbers and washermen.
Congress support to Awadh peasants – The Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by
J.L. Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others. Over 300 branches of it had been set up
in the villages around the region.

Q6. Why was the Congress unhappy with peasants movement ?

Ans. As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukadars and merchants were attacked,
bazaars were looted and grains hoards were taken over, The local leaders told peasants
that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be pid and land was to be redistributed
among the poor. The name of the Mahatma was being invoked to sanction all action and

Q7. Describe in brief the Tribal peasants (Gudem Hills)movement.

Ans. Reason – a. The tribals were suffering from various miseries , the colonial govt. had
closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle ,
or to collect fuelwood and fuel.
b. The traditional tribal rights were being denied.
c. The govt. forced the hill people to contribute begar for road building.
d. All these enraged the tribals and they revolted.

Leader - The tribal movement was led by Alluri Sitaram Raju. He claimed that he had a
variety of special powers. He could make correct astrological predictions and heal people,
and he could survive even bullet shots. The rebels proclaimed he was an incarnation of

Movement/Activities- The Gudem rebels attacked police station, attempted to kill

British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj. Raju captured and
executed in 1924, and overtime became a folk hero.

Q8. Explain the condition of the plantation workers during the colonial rule. Describe in brief
their movement against british.
Ans. a. Workers in plantations had to live and work under harsh conditions.
b. They were confined within enclosed areas- freedom of movement was restricted.
c. Inland Emigration Act (1859) – Under this act, tea plantations workers were not
permitted to leave the tea garden without permission

Movement – When they heard of the non-cooperation movement, thousands of workers

defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They believed that Gandhi
Raj was coming and everyone could be given land in their own villages.They stranded
on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally
beaten up.

Q1. Examine the role of following in the Civil- disobedience Movement What were their
hopes and expectation for the civil – disobedience movement.
a. The rich peasants
b. The poor peasants
c. The businessmen
d. Industrial working class
e. Women

a. The Rich Peasants -

i. The rich peasant communities- like Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar
Pradesh- were active in the movement.
ii. They were the producers of commercial crops, they were depressed by the
trade depression and falling prices.
iii. As their cash income disappeared , they found it impossible to pay the govt.
revenue’s demand .
iv. The refusal of the govt. to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread
v. Thus , these rich peasants became supporters of the civil disobedience
b. The poor Peasants –
i. the Poor peasants were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from
ii. As the depression continued and their incomes fell, they found it difficult to
pay the rent.
iii. For them, the fight for swaraj was a struggle against high rents.
iv. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlords to be remitted.
v. The congress was unwilling to support ‘no rent campaigns’ because they felt
that it might upset the rich peasants and landlords.So the relationship between
the poor peasants and the congress remained uncertain.

c. The Business Classes-

i. During the First World War, Indian merchants and industrialists had made
huge profits and become powerful.
ii. They were keen on expanding their business , so they wanted protection
against imports of foreign goods.
iii. To organize business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and
Commercial Congress and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of
commerce and Industries (FICCI)
iv. Purushottamdas Thakurdas and G.D.Birla , the industrialist attacked colonial
control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience
v. They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods.
d. The Industrial working class-
i. They did not participate in the Civil disobedience movement.
ii. As the Industrialist came closer to the Congress, workers stayed aloof.
iii. Some workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience movement, selectively
adopting some of the ideas of the Gandhian Programme, like boycott of
foreign goods.
iv. Their movement was against low wages and poor working condition.
v. Their were strikes by railway workers and dockworkers.
vi. In Chotanagpur tin mines , workers wore Gandhi caps and participated in
protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
vii. The congress was not interest in including worker’s demand as part of its
programme of struggle because they knew that such issues might upset the
e. The women-
i. Thousand of women came out of their homes to listen Gandhiji and
participated in Salt March.
ii. They picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
iii. They went to jail.
iv. These women were from high-caste families in urban areas.
v. In rural areas they came from rich peasant households.
vi. The Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority,
it was keen only on their symbolic presence.

Q1. Why was Swaraj Party formed ?

Ans. 1. In Feb 1922, ,Mahatama Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation
2. Within the congress leaders were not by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to
participate in elections to the provincial councils that h ad been set up by the Govt. of
India Act of 1919.
3. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils .
4. That is why they formed the ‘Swaraj Party’ within the congress to argue for a return
to council politics.
Q2. Mention two features that shaped Indian politics towards the late 1920s.
Ans. 1. Due to the effects of the worldwide economic depression, agricultural prices began to
fall from 1926 and collapsed after 1926.
2. As the demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined, peasants found it
difficult to sell their harvest and pay their revenue.
Q3. Why was Simon Commission set to India ?
Ans. 1. The New Tory govt. in Britain constituted a statutory commission under Sir John
Simon .
2. The commission was sent to India to look into the functioning of the constitutional
system in India and suggest changes.
3. It arrived in India in 1928.
Q4. Why and how was the Simon Commission opposed by the Indians ?
Ans. 1. The simon commission was boycotted by the Indians because the commission did not
have a single Indian member. They were all British.
2. When the simon commission arrived in India, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go
Back Simon’.
3. All parties , including the congress and the Muslim league, participated in the
Q5. What did Lord Irwin do to win Indians ?
Ans. 1. In an effort to win Indians, the viceroy ,Lord Irwin , announced in Oct 1929, a vague
offer of ‘dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future , and a Round Table
Conference to discuss a future constitution.
2. He invited political parties in a ‘ Round table conference ‘ to discuss a future
Q6. What is the difference between Non-cooperation and Civil disobedience movement ?
Ans. During the Non-Cooperation movement people were asked not to cooperate with the
But during the Civil disobedience movement people were asked not only to refuse
cooperation with the British but also to break the colonial laws.
Q7. Describe the different features of the civil disobedience movement .
Ans. 1. People in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and
demonstrated in front of govt. salt factories.
2. Foreign cloth was boycotted , and liquor shops were picketed.
3. Peasants refused to pay revenue, and chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned.
4. Forest people violated forest laws- going into reserved forests to collect wood and
graze cattle.
Q8. What did British Govt. do to control Civil disobedience movement ? How did Indian
nationalist then reacted ?
Ans. 1. They began to arrest the Congress leaders like Abdul Ghaffar Khan Ia devout disciple
of Mahatma Gandhi. Then angry Indians demonstrated in the street of Peshawar, facing
armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
2. Mahatma Gandhi ji was arrested a month later, then industrial workers in Sholapur
attacked police posts, municipal buildings, lawcourts and railway stations- all
structures that symbolized British rule.
3. Peaceful satygrahis were attacked , women and children were beaten, and about 1
lakh people were arrested.
Q9. What was Gandhi-Irwin Pact ?
Ans. 1. When British govt responded with a policy of brutal repression against the Civil
disobedience movement. Mahatama Gandhiji decided to call off the movement.
2. He entered into a pact with Irwin on 5th March 1931.
3. Under this pact , Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in
4. The British Govt. agreed to release the political prisoners.

Q10. Why was Second Round table Conference failed ?

Ans. 1. It was attended by the Indian princes and the representatives of the communal parties,
each of them had their own individual agenda.
2. Gandhiji, as a representative of the Congress , represented the national movemtn.
3. The British Govt. refused to concede the demand for a dominion status to India.
4. The talks broke down and Gandhiji returned to India to revive the Civil disobedience
Q1. How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop
A sense of collective belonging ?
Ans. 1. The sense of belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles.
2. There were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured
people’s imagination.
3. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part
in the making of nationalism.
4. Nationalism spread when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same
Q2. How did figure or image symbolizing nation unite the people ?
Ans. 1. Figure or image of nation or we can say image of Bharat Mata helps to create a
feeling of belongingness with the nation.
2. The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, which helped a lot
in the growth of nationalism . that the identity of the India came to be visually
associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
3. Abanindranath also painted his first image of Bharat mata, Devotion to this mother
figure came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.

Q3. How did idea of nationalism develop through a movement to revive Indian folklore ?
Ans. 1. In late 19th century India, nationalists began recording folktales sung by bards and they
toured villages to gather folk songs and legends.
2. These tales , they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been
corrupted and damaged by the outside forces.
3. It was essential to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover one’s national
identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.
4. In Bengal Rabindranath Tagore himself collected ballads, nursery rhymes and myths,
and led the movement for folk revival.

Q4. How did national flag become symbol in unifying people ?

Ans. 1. As the national movement developed, nationalist leaders became more and more
aware of such icons and symbols in unifying people.
2. During the swadeshi movement in Bengal, tricolour flag(red,green, and yellow) was
designed. It had 8 lotuses representing 8 provinces of British India, and had a
crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
3. By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag, It was a tricolour (red,green and
white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self
4. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

Q5. How did ‘Reinterpretation of history’ create a feeling of nationalism ?

Ans. 1. By the 19th century many Indians began feeling that to instill a sense of pride in the
nation, Indian history should be reinterpreted.
2. The british saw India as backward and primitive incapable of governing themselves.
3. In response, Indians began looking into the past to disvocer India’s great
4. Indians started writing about the glorious developments in ancient times, how art and
architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy,
crafts and trade flourished.
5. This glorious time was followed by a history of decline, when India was colonized.

Q1. Who explained Satyagraha ?
Ans. Gandhiji
Q2. Define satyagraha.
Ans. Satyagraha is a pure soul force. Truth is the very substance of the soul. It implies
Q3. Is the satyagraha a weapon of the weak ?
Ans. Non violence is Active resistance, it calls for intense activity. It can be used by strong
Q4. What is Non-violence ?
Ans. It is the supreme drama. No one should hit others.

Q1. Why was J.L. Nehru stopped by the police ?
Ans. He was stopped by the police, so that the law and order should not be disturbed .
Q2. Who behaved as brave man ?
Ans. The peasants.
Q3. Who was the great leader about whom Nehru Ji thought ?
Ans. Gandhiji was the Great Leader.
Q4. What was the moment , when Nehru ji’s blood was up ?
Ans. When police stopped Nehru ji, he became agitated and angry.

Q1. Mention the year of the Independence day Pledge.
Ans. 26 January, 1930 at Lahore Session.
Q2. What is the inalienable right of the Indian people.
Ans. To have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life.
Q3. How British Govt. ruined and exploited India on different points ?
Ans. They exploited the masses and has ruined India, economically , politically, and
Q4. How can we get Purna Swaraj ?
Ans. India must sever the British connection to attain Purna Swaraj.
Q5. In what two ways the British rule in India oppressive ?
Ans. The British Govt. deprived the Indian people of their freedom and also exploited them

Q1. Who spoke above words ?
Ans. Sir Mohd. Iqbal , Presidence of the Muslim League .
Q2. What did he think about the units of Indian Society ?
Ans. In his opinion the units of the Indian society were not territorial as in the European
Q3. Why did he wanted to retain separate electorates for the Muslims ?
Ans. Because of their (Muslims) general economic inferiority, enormous debts and their
insufficient majority to justify the demand for the creation of a Muslim India within

Q1. Mention any two causes for the rise of nationalism in British rule in India ?
Q2. What do you mean by the term ‘Satyagraha’ ?
Q3. What was Rowlatt Act’ ?
Q4. Why was non-cooperation movement started ?
Q5. What led to the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement by Gandhiji in 1922 ?
Q6. Why was the Simon Commission set up by the British .
Q7. What is the importance of the Lahore Session in the Indian National Movement ?
Q8. Why did Gandhiji Start the Dandi March ?
Q9. Name the two organisations set up by the industrialists .
Q10. When and who formed the Swaraj Party ?
Q11. What was Gandhi-Irwin Pact ?
Q12. Name the leaders of Kilafat and Non-cooperation Movememt.
Q13. Name the association started by B.R.Amedkar.
Q14. Who wrote Vande Matram ?
Q15. What do you mean by ‘Purna Swaraj’


Q1. When did Gandhiji return to India ? What were the his activities during the period 1915-
1918 in the freedom movement ?
Q2. Who were Swarajists ? What were their achievements in the national movement ?
Q3. What were the reaction of the Simon Commission by various political parties ?
Q4. What do you mean by the sense of collective Belonging ?
Q5. Discuss the impact of the First World war on our Indian National Movment.
Q6. How was the salt movement spread and how did the people view it ?
Q7. How did ‘Separate electorate ‘ lead to partition ?
Q8. Mention the steps taken by B.R.Amedkar for the upliftment of Backward classes.
Q9. Write a note on Poona Pact.


Q1. Which countries are included in Indo-China .
Ans. Vietnam. Laos and Cambodia.

Q2. What does the early history of Indo-china Show about their culture and people.?
Ans. a. Its early history shows that many different groups of people were living their .
b. They were living in this area under the shadow of the powerful empire of China.
c. Even after independence, its rulers continued to maintain the Chinese system of
Government as well as Chinese-culture.

Q3. Why did Vietnames resist against the French ?

Ans. A. The colonization of Vietnam by the French brought the people of the country into
Conflict with the colonizers in all areas of life.
b. French controlled was military and economic domination , and they tried to reshape
The culture of the Vietnamese.

Q4. Why the French thought colonies necessary ?

Ans. French thought that industries are necessary :-
a. To get supply of natural resources and other essential goods.
b. France thought it was the mission of the ‘ advanced ‘ countries to bring the benefits
of civilization to backward peoples.

Q5. Why and how did the French develop infrastructure in Vietnam ?
Ans. a. French build canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
c. The vast system of irrigation works – canals and earthworks built with forced labour,
Increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market.

Q6. Why did the French develop infrastructure in Vietnam ?

Ans. a. Infrastructure projects were developed to help transport goods for trade.
b. To move military garrisons .
c. To control the entire region.
d. French business interests were pressuring the government in Vietnam to develop the
infrastructure .

Q7. Why did writers like Paul Bernard believe in developing the economy of the colonies ?
Ans. a. He was an influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the economy of
The colonies needed to be developed.
b. Acc. To him the pupose of acquiring colonies was to to make profits.
c. If the economy of the colonies developed automatically the standard of living of the
people would improved, they would buy more goods, The market would expand,
leading to better profits for French business.

Q3. What were the three barrier to economic growth in Vietnam ? according to Bernard.
Ans. a. High population levels
b. Low agricultural productivity
c. Extensive indebtness amongst the peasants.

Q4. Mention measures to overcome these barriers.

Ans. a. To reduce poverty and agricultural productivity was necessary to carry out land
reforms as the Japanese had done in the 1890s.
b. When they found that it could not ensure sufficient employment, then they stressed
over industrialization to create more jobs.


Q1. What was the Vietnamese ‘Civilising Mission’ ?

Ans. a. French claimed that they were bringing civilization to the Vietnamese.
b. They took for gramted that Europe had developed the most advanced
civilization, so it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce these modern
c. In actual, this meant to destroy local culture, religions and traditions, because
these were seen as outdated and prevencted modern development.

Q2. What was the problem that the French had in the area of imparting education to
Vietnamese ?
Ans. 1. The Vietnam were powerfully influenced by Chinese culture and to
Consolidate their power, the French had to counter this Chinese influence.
2. It was essential for the French to dismantle the traditional education system
and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
3. Chinese , the language used by the elites so far, had to be replaced.
Q3. What was the dilemma that the French had in the area of imparting education to
Vietnamese ?
1. How far were the Vietnamese to be educated ?
2. The French needed an educated local labour force but they feared that education
might create problems, once educated, the Vietnamese may begin question
colonial domination.
3. French citizen living in Vietnam began fearing that they might lose their jobs- as
teachers, shopskeepers, policemen- to the educated Vietnamese. To they opposed
policies that would give the Vietnamese full access to French education.

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