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Experiment No.

3
Preparation of HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER Circuit and Analysis of Its
Waveform

OBJECTIVE
 To become familiar with positive half wave rectifier.
 To become familiar with negative half wave rectifier

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
Instruments: Components:
 Oscilloscope with probes  Resistor 2.2 kΩ
 Function Generator  Diode: 1N4007
 DMM
 24V center tapped transformer.

THEORY
The rectifier circuit converts the AC voltage furnished by the utilities company into the DC
voltage required to operate electronic equipment. Many common electrical products use voltages
provided by a rectifier. Without the rectifier to convert the AC voltage to the DC voltage
required to operate these electrical units, it would be virtually impossible to have the
conveniences that we enjoy today. A television without a rectifier would require several
extremely large batteries. These batteries would have to be large because of the current that is
required. In other words, a television without the rectifier would be so large that it would occupy
an entire room. The rectifier is the heart of the electronic unit.

Half-Wave Rectifier
Figure.3 shows the schematic diagram for a half- wave rectifier. The half- wave rectifier is the
simplest type of rectifier; it consists of only one diode. For explanation purposes, a load
resistance must be placed in the circuit to complete the path for current flow and to develop t he
output signal.

Electronics Devices and Circuits Lab Manual


In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the
other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output, it is very
inefficient if used for power transfer. Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode
in a one-phase supply, or with three diodes in a three-phase supply. Half wave rectifiers yield a
unidirectional but pulsating direct current.

POSITIVE HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER


The half-wave rectifier in Figure 4 is a positive half-wave rectifier. It is called a positive
half- wave rectifier because it only uses the positive portion of the input sine wave and produces a
positive pulsating DC signal. During the positive alternation of the input voltage, the positive
alternation of the sine wave causes the anode of the diode to become positive with respect to the
cathode. The diode is now forward-biased and will conduct. Current will flow from the negative
side of the transformer secondary, through the load resistor, through the diode, to the positive
side of the transformer secondary. This path for current flow will exist during the complete
positive alternation of the input waveform because the diode will remain forward-biased as long
as the positive signal is applied to the anode. The resulting output of the rectifier will be
developed across the load resistor and will be a positive pulse very similar to the positive
alternation of the input waveform. Figure 4 illustrates the output waveform across the load
resistor. During the negative alternation of the input sine wave, the anode is negative with
respect to the cathode and the diode will become reverse-biased. As long as this condition exists,
no current will flow in the circuit and an output signal cannot be developed across the load. The
circuit gives the appearance of producing a series of positive pulses. A negative half-wave
rectifier operates very similar to a positive half- wave rectifier, except the output will be a series
of negative pulses.

Electronics Devices and Circuits Lab Manual


NEGATIVE HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER
During the positive alternation, the diode is reverse-biased; no current will flow through
the circuit, and no signal will be developed across the load. This cond ition will exist any time a
positive alternation is present on the cathode. When the negative alternation is present on the
cathode, the diode is forward-biased; current flows from the negative side of the secondary
through the diode, through the load resistance, to the positive side of the secondary. This
condition allows a negative pulse to be developed across the load resistance and continues until
the negative cycle is removed from the cathode. The output of a negative half- wave rectifier will
be a series of negative pulses. The amplitude of the output is approximately the same as the peak
voltage of the input signal if measured with the oscilloscope.

Electronics Devices and Circuits Lab Manual


PROCEDURE
PART 1: Cut-in- voltage
Determine the cut-in-voltage, Vo using the diode checking capability of the DMM.

PART 2: Half-wave Rectification


a) Construct the circuit of Figure -5. Record the measured values of the resistance.
Rmeas=

b) Set the input to 1000Hz, 8 Vp-p sinusoidal volts.

Figure-5

c) Trace the input on Figure-6 as seen on the oscilloscope.

Figure—6

d) Using the oscilloscope AC/DC Switch to DC, obtain the voltage Vout and sketch the
waveform on Figure-7.

Electronics Devices and Circuits Lab Manual


Figure-7
e) Reverse the direction of the diode as shown in Figure-8.

Figure-8

f) Record the resulting wave-form on the Figure-9

Figure-9

g) Using the oscilloscope AC/DC Switch to DC, obtain the voltage Vout and sketch the
waveform on Figure-10.

Electronics Devices and Circuits Lab Manual


Figure-10

Electronics Devices and Circuits Lab Manual

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