Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1


Isabela State University
Cabagan, Isabela
College of Education

September 10, 2019

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Three Domains of Knowledge

Information
Mental Procedures
Psychomotor Procedures

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Six (6) Levels of Processing Knowledge

1. Retrieval
2. Comprehension
3. Analysis
4. Knowledge Utilization
5. Metacognitive System
6. Self-System

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

The first four levels of processing knowledge are


cognitive, beginning with the lowest (retrieval)
then moving upward with increasing cognitive
complexity (comprehension, analysis and
knowlege utilization).

The metacognitive system involves the learner’s


specification of learning goals, monitoring of the
learner’s own learning process, clarity and
accuracy of the learner’s learning.

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Self-system involves the learner’s examination of


the importance of the learning task, his/her
self-efficacy, emotional response and motivation
of learning.

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 1. Retrieval
Process
1. Recognizing
The student can determine whether provided
information is accurate, inaccurate or unknown.

Useful verbs or phrases

recognize, select from, identify, determine if the


following statemets are true

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 1. Retrieval
Process
2. Recalling
The student can produce information on
demand.

Useful verbs or phrases

exemplify, name, list, label, state, describe, who,


what, where, when

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 1. Retrieval
Process
3. Executing
The student can perform procedures without
significant errors.

Useful verbs or phrases

use, demonstrate, show, make, complete, draft

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 2. Comprehension
Process
1. Integrating
The student can identify the critical or essential
elements of knowledge.

Useful verbs or phrases

describe how or why, describe the key parts of,


describe the effects of, describe the relationship
between, paraphrase, summarize
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 2. Comprehension
Process
2. Symbolizing
The student can depict critical aspects of
knowledge in a pictorial or symbolic form.

Useful verbs or phrases

symbolize, depict, represent, illustrate, draw, use


models, diagram, chart

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 3. Analysis
Process
1. Matching
The student can identify similarities and
differences in knowledge.

Useful verbs or phrases

categorize, compare and contrast, differentiate,


discriminate, distinguish, sort, create an analogy or
metaphor
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 3. Analysis
Process
2. Classifying
The student can identify super ordinate and
subordinate categories to which information
belongs.

Useful verbs or phrases

classify, organize, sort, identify, a brader category,


identify different types/categories
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 3. Analysis
Process
3. Analyzing errors
The student can identify and explain logical or
factual errors in knowledge.

Useful verbs or phrases

identify errors or problems, identify issues or


misunderstandings, assess, critique, diagnose,
evaluate, edit, revise
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 3. Analysis
Process
4. Generalizing
The student can infer new generalizations from
known knowledge.

Useful verbs or phrases

what conclusions can be drawn, what inferences can


be made, create a principle, generalization of rule,
trace the development of, form conclusions
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 3. Analysis
Process
5. Specifying
The student can make and defend predictions
about what might happen.

Useful verbs or phrases

make and defend, predict, judge, deduce, what


would have happen, develop an argument for, under
what conditions
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 4. Knowledge Utilization


Process
1. Decision-Making
The student can select among alternatives that
initially appear to be equal and defend their
choice.

Useful verbs or phrases

decide, select the best among the following


alternatives, which of these is most suitable
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 4. Knowledge Utilization


Process
2. Problem-Solving
The student can accomplish a goal for which
obstacles exist.

Useful verbs or phrases

solve, how would you overcome, adapt, develop a


strategy to, figure out a way to, how will you reach
your goal under these conditions
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 4. Knowledge Utilization


Process
3. Experimenting
The student generates and tests hypothesis by
conducting an experiment and collecting data.

Useful verbs or phrases

experiment, generate and test, test the idea that,


what would happen if, how would you test that, how
would you determine if, how can this be explained
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 4. Knowledge Utilization


Process
4. Investigating
The student generates a hypothesis and uses the
assertions and opinion of others to test the
hypothesis.

Useful verbs or phrases

investigate, research, find out about, take a position


on, what are the differing features of, how and why
did this happen, what would have happened if
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 5. Metacognition
Processes
1. Monitoring Accuracy
The student can determine how accurate their
understanding of knowledge is and defend their
judgement.

2. Monitoring Clarity
The student can determine how well they
understand knowledge.

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 5. Metacognition
Processes
3. Process Monitoring
The student self-monitor the process of
achieving a goal.

4. Specifying Goals
The student can set specific goals relative to
knowledge and develop a plan for accomplishing
the goal.

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 6. Self-System Thinking


Processes
1. Examining Motivation
The student can examine their own motivation
to improve their understanding or competence in
specific knowledge.

2. Examining Emotional Response


The student can identify emotional responses
associated with a piece of knowledge and
determine why those associations exist.
Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy
Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Level 6. Self-System Thinking


Processes
3. Examining Efficacy
The student can examine how they believe they
can improve their understanding of specific
knowledge.

4. Examining Importance
The student can analyze how important specific
knowledge is to them.

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy


Navaro, R.L., Santos, R.G., and Corpuz, B.B. (2019). Assessment of
Learning, OBE & PPST Based, Fourth Edition. Lorimar Publishing, Inc.

Lecture Notes in Assessment of Learning 1 Kendall’s and Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Оценить