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Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346

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Journal of Geochemical Exploration

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Morphology and mineral chemistry of monazite-zircon-bearing stream sediments of


continental placer deposits (SE Germany): Ore guide and provenance marker
Harald G. Dill a1 Berthold Weber b, Detlev Klosa a
a Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover, Germany b Burgermeister-Knorr Str. 8, D-92637 Weiden i.d.OPf., Germany

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C
T
Article history: Monazite and zircon, two heavy minerals which are rather stable against meteoric and intrastratal solutions, were
Received 3 May 2011 Accepted 21
investigated in drainage systems very much different as to the level of fluvial hierarchy (colluvial, alluvial, fluvial)
October 2011 Available online 20
and size (creek through trunk river) at the western edge of the Bohemian Massif, SE Germany, and in its
November 2011
immediate foreland. The variegated source rock lithologies and the good preservation potential of these minerals
are the basis for this study of applied economic geology, aimed at finding out if these placer minerals may play a
Keywords:
Monazite
role as an ore guide to localize mineral deposits, constrain fertile source rock lithologies in the hinterland or simply
Zircon be used as a provenance marker during the unroofing of a crystalline basement. In the current study
Crystal morphology mineralogical and chemical approaches were taken, involving the investigation of the crystal morphology of
Mineral chemistry monazite and zircon combined with the analyses of the most diagnostic elements in mon- azite (Ce, Th, La, Na, U).
Placer deposits SE Using the discrimination triplots and x-y plots for statistical treatments, may conduce to pinpoint a wide range of
Germany source rocks of monazite: (1) pegmatite and aplites, (2) carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, (3) granites, (4)
volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, (5) phosphorites, (6) paragneisses (plus clay), (7) evapo- rites and calcareous
sediments, (8) coal- and biolites, (9) ferricretes, (10) phoscretes, (11) orecretes, and (12) fluorine concentrations. To
draw a more precise picture of the source area the crystal morphologies of zircon and monazite were considered.
Zircon provides the best insight, offering a tool to characterize not only the source rocks of zircon but also
additional information to constrain the temperature of formation. The morphology of monazite is less variable and
as such may only be diagnostic to distinguish pegmatite/aplite-relat- ed REE phosphates from monazite derived
from gneisses and granites. On the other hand, recycling and redeposition play a much greater part among the
zircon populations than among those of monazite. Ultrabasic source rocks cannot be tracked down to the placer
deposits by means of monazite and zircon. The strong points of both minerals as marker minerals and ore guide lie
in drainage systems with catchment areas located in acidic and intermediate magmatic rocks, including their
pegmatitic and aplitic derivates, to a lesser extent in volcanic and gneissic areas. Some basaltic rocks containing
gemmy zircon may be identified by the morphology, color and fluorescence of zircon grains in the stream
sediments. Fluorescence in zircon disappears with the age of formation. The mineralogical and chemical
composition of placer deposits abundant in monazite and zircon are to be reviewed in view of the level on which the
placer deposits developed in the hierarchy of the drainage system. Joint mineralogical and chemical studies of
placer mineral assemblages containing monazite and zircon offer a tool to delineate fertile source areas in
basement blocks from tributary rivers (class II) to perennial and ephemeral drainage systems of small creeks (class
III). Class-I trunk rivers can provide a rough overview of the heavy mineral community in the hinterland.
© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1 Corresponding author.
E-mail address: dill@bgr.de (H.G. Dill).
URL: http://www.hgeodill.de (H.G. Dill).

0375-6742/$ - see front matter © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2011.10.006
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346 323

1. Introduction

Monazite and xenotime are the most important REE-bearing


phosphates (rare-earth elements) that occur in a wide range of magmatic
and metamorphic rocks as an accessory or even rock-forming mineral and,
hence, be upgraded to form mineral deposits such as in some carbonatites
(Chang et al., 1998; Dill, 2010; Nash, 1984; Orris and Grauch, 2002;
Overstreet, 1967). Both REE phosphates form part of the accessory
minerals of Sn-bearing granites and pegmatites and may be traced in
metapelites up to the granulite facies conditions (Finger and Krenn, 2007).
As it is with zircon often associated with these phosphates, the main focus,
when studying monazite, has been placed upon the U-Pb systematics and
the resultant age data that can be obtained from U/Pb and Th/Pb dating of
these REE
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346 324

phosphates (Kingsbury et al., 1993; Kusiak, et al., 2006). Zircon, mon- vergence in mid-Carboniferous times resulted in the deformation and
azite, and xenotime are rather stable against meteoric and intrastratal folding of these aforementioned rocks and the emplacement of synoro-
solutions and, hence, may survive even diagenesis upon to the deepest genic granites (Seltmann and Faragher, 1994). During the Upper Car-
burial as well as long distance transport in stream sediments so that they boniferous and Permian a basin-and range topography evolved in the
often may end up in coastal placer deposits (Duk-Rodkin et al., 2001; Hou uplifted Variscan orogen, with narrow basins acting as sedimentary traps
et al., 2008; Lalomov and Bochneva, 2008; Morton, 1991; Siegfried, 2008). collecting the debris of the Proterozoic and early Paleozoic basement rocks
The variegated source rock lithologies and the excellent preservation which underwent erosion. Continental and marine sequences made up of
potential of these minerals offer a clue to the provenance analysis and may clastic rocks alternating with calcareous and evaporitic beds were
contribute to the unroofing story of uplifted basement complexes (Dill, deposited during the Triassic, followed by a marine transgression during
1995). In terms of applied economic geology, these minerals may be used as the Jurassic leaving behind a vast carbonate platform. After an emersion
pathfinder minerals or as an ore guide to localize mineral deposits of a during early Cretaceous the sediments were drowned again and invaded
wider range of commodities and constrain fertile source rock lithologies in from the southern Thetis Ocean (Fig. 1). The continental-marine
the hinterland. It is especially the REE, which western nations are currently terrigenous sediments of the lower Triassic Bunter Series (Buntsandstein),
in short supply and consequently play an important part when it comes to the Middle Triassic Muschelkalk and the Upper Triassic Keuper were also
an in-depth study of monazite and xenotime. A great deal of REE are targeted in this study for their heavy mineral accumulations enriched in
concentrated in a few primary deposits, e.g., Tomtor, Russia, Mountain monazite, zircon and, locally, xenotime, as well.
Pass, USA, Kangankunde, Malawi, Bayan Obo (Baotou), China, Sarfartoq
and Qaqarssuk, Greenland,, Mount Weld, Nolans Bore, Australia and 2.2. Geographic outline
Hoidas Lake, Canada (Dill, 2010; Kanazawa and Kamitani, 2006; Orris and
A low-relief landscape in the basement evolved during the Neogene
Grauch, 2002). In addition to those primary deposits, large placer deposits
under subtropical climates (Borger et al., 1993). By the end of the glacial
spread across the coastal areas of Australia and India (Acharya et al., 2009;
period, channels of the present-day fluvial drainage systems incised into
Dhana Raju, 2008; Mohanty et al., 2003). Especially in search of the last-
the rocks and shaped the northeastern part of the NE Bavarian basement
mentioned type of sediment-hosted deposits, heavy mineral analyses can
which is characterized by a rather rugged terrain at an altitude of between
help delineate ore deposits. In the current study mineralogical and
500 and 1000 m a.s.l. with rivers draining it mainly toward the S (Villinger,
chemical approaches were taken, involving the investigation of the crystal
1998). Rivulets and gorges drain the Variscan basement area and flow into
morphology of monazite and zircon combined with the analyses of the most
the Naab River which is tributary to the Donau trunk river system. All of
diagnostic elements in monazite (Ce, Th, La, Na, U). These data were
them are host to stream sediments, locally forming placer-type deposit of
applied to constrain the source rock areas and unravel the way from the
colluvial, alluvial and fluvial origin.
primary host rock to the depocenter in drainage systems very much
The terms colluvial, alluvial and fluvial were used according to Gary et
different as to the level of fluvial hierarchy and size within the western edge
al. (1977) either in the strict sense or supplemented as to address the
of the Bohemian Massif, SE Germany, and in its immediate foreland (Fig. 1)
peculiar geomorphological situation in the study area. For that reason the
(Dill et al., 2008). While chemical analysis is not anything out of the
three terms are briefly explained below.
ordinary during the study of common heavy minerals such as garnet,
Colluvial deposits are loose, heterogeneous and incoherent mass of soil
amphibole, apatite or ilmenite, REE-bearing minerals particularly
material or rock fragments chiefly deposited by mass-wasting from fall to
monazite, have seldom been addressed (Basu and Molinaroli, 1991; Dill,
creep deposits. They are usually encountered at the base of slopes an at the
1994; Morton and Hallsworth, 1999; Schafer, 1996). Morphological studies
valley flanks.
of heavy mineral grains are very rare (Kostov and Kostov, 1999; Pupin,
Alluvial deposits are unconsolidated detrital material deposited by
1980; Pupin and Turco, 1981). In the succeeding sections the joint
stream or other bodies of running water as a semi sorted sediment in the
application of crystal morphology and chemical exploration methods is
bed of a stream or as cone or fan at the base of mountain slope. They may
described and the applicability of monazite and its associated mineral
consist of clay, silt, sand and gravel.
zircon discussed for different drainage systems as to their use as an ore
Fluvial deposits consist of material that was transported by, suspended
guide or as a marker mineral for peculiar source rocks in SE Germany, a
in or laid by river drainage systems.
region characterized by a variegated source lithology and wide spectrum of
Within the lines of placer development discussed in this paper, these
mineral deposit alike (see succeeding chapters).
terms were used as hierarchy consecution.

2. Geological and geographic setting 2.3. Metallogenetic outline

2.1. Geological outline The Saxothuringian-Moldanubian border zone along the western edge
of the Bohemian Massif has seen during 600 million years a variegated
The oldest rocks exposed in the SE part of the study area are of Upper spectrum of mineral deposits that may be categorized into four different
Proterozoic age (Franke, 1989) (Fig. 1). These pre-Variscan basement rocks types: type I stratabound (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Au, PGE, Mo, U, Sb, Ni); type II:
form part of the Moldanubian zone at the north- Gondwana margin and thrustbound (Sb, As, Hg, Au); type III: granite- bound (Sn, W, F, Li, U); and
were subdivided into the Monotonous and Varied Groups (Von Raumer et type IV: unconformity-related (Ba, F, Cu, Pb, Zn) (Dill, 1989). This sequence
al., 2003). The Monotonous Group consists of paragneisses derived from is more or less in line with the chronology of the lithological and
greywackes and arenites, whereas the Varied Group is made up of geodynamic evolution of the study area. Type-I deposits formed from the
amphibolites, metabiolites, marbles and calcsilicates which may be Late Proterozoic through the Devonian, type-II deposits from the Devonian
interpreted as a volcanosedimentary series (Dill, 1989). Locally some basic to the Lower
and ultrabasic rocks are intercalated with these metamorphic rocks.
During the Late Paleozoic granites and pegmatitic rocks were intruded into
the Proterozoic rocks.
Low to medium grade metamorphic Paleozoic and Upper Proterozoic
rocks of the Saxothuringian zone occupy much of the central part of the
study area in the NE Bavarian Basement. Toward the NW un-
metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Middle Cambrian
through Early Carboniferous age developed. The Munchberg Gneiss
Complex is interpreted as a tectonic klippen. Late stages ofVariscan con-
325 H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration U2 (2012) 322-346

Carboniferous and type-III deposits are bound to the Upper Carboniferous the various unconformities from the Late Carboniferous onward, providing
to Lower Permian granites, pegmatites and aplites which were intruded into a hydraulic plane to which many vein-type deposits (IV) are related to. The
the crystalline country rocks. Contemporaneously with the intrusion at newly formed platform sediments encroaching upon the basement rocks
depth the Variscides were uplifted and truncated by from the west became also host of some

a
Gevattergraben Erbendorf
(IIIb) (IIIa) IIIa

□ Quartz Lode
(„Pfahl“)

n 3asalt (Neogene)
□ Neogene sediments

□ Cretaceous sediments

□ Jurassic sediments
□ Triassic sediments

□ Paleozoic sedimentary
rocks(unmetamorphosed)

□ Granites

□ Amphibolite+diabas

□ Gneiss

Keuper

01
PP

Donau
I

| 800 700°0 1
850°0 800 0
0 J | 650°0 | Tittling

s
1 1
800 0 850°0 IIIa
|vb |ie ig ih
0
Fig. 1. Geological sketch map illustrating the western edge of the Bohemian Massif in SE Germany. The various sites sampled in the uplifted basement block and its foreland sediments are marked
by rectangular boxes and by the name of the locality (see also Table 1). The stippled line denotes the political border between Germany (D) and the Czech Republic (CR). The inset shows the study
area at the western edge of the Bohemian Massif relative to the uplifted basement block in Europe. a). The various crystal morphologies of zircon in the stream sediments are depicted in the margin
of the geological map for each site. The site “Reichsforst” only contains zircon derived from basic volcanic rocks. It is a IIIa — placer-type devoid of monazite and hence only mentioned for discussion.
Crystals framed in green are marker morphologies indicative of volcanic rocks, those framed in red are indicative of pegmatites, high lightening were zircon morphology works at its best in
constraining the source area. b). The various crystal morphologies of monazite in the stream sediments are depicted in the margin of the geological map for each site in a similar way as for zircon.

Gneiss
Granites
Jurassic
Cretaceous
Triassic
Upper
Quartz
Paleozoic sediments
sediments
sediments
Amphibolite+diabas
Carboniferous/
Lode study area
sedimentary
(„Pfahl“) Lower teiden Regensburg
Hof Donau25km Trutzhofmuhle
Pleystein
Hagendorf
Miesbrunn
Permian
Murach-
sediments
rocks(unmetamorphos
Trobesbach
D CR
(pegmatite) (Hagendorf+Trutzhofmuhle)
(pegmatite)
(pegmatite)
(gneiss-aploid
Basalt (Neogene)
+volcanic rocks Tittling
ed)
(granite) (granite) contact)

326 □ Neogene sediments


H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346









□ Fig. 1 (continued).

stratabound Fe, Pb and non-metallic deposits (type V), e.g., kaolin, glass compared with 60 samples of Triassic paleoplacers hit by drill holes which
sands. The various clastic sediments were incised during the late Cenozoic were sunken into the Mesozoic platform sediments laid down in the
by the rivers Naab and Donau that form the higher- order drainage systems foreland of the Variscan Basement (Table 1). The unconsolidated sediments
for some of the stream sediments under consideration in the succeeding were passed through sieves and the grain size fraction 63 to 630 pm was
paragraphs (Fig. 1). used for follow-up heavy mineral analyses. Neither grinding in a crusher,
nor diluted HCl acid, was used to disintegrate rocks. Doing so could spoil
3. Methodology the result of heavy mineral analyses by leaching phosphates and
introducing man-made changes to the grain surfaces and morphology.
A total of 130 samples were taken from modern placer deposits of
During routine analyses, the heavy minerals (density>2.9g/cm 3) were
Quaternary age in the basement and its foreland and their data
extracted by means of
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346 327

Na-polywolframate. While the translucent heavy minerals and gold with a standard peristaltic pump, a MicroMist concentric nebulizer, a
particles do not cause any problems during mineral separation, Peltier-cooled spray chamber, the Plasma Forward Power and the Shield
time-consuming hand-picking of PGE/PGM species based upon color and Torch System was used. The analytical procedure used is in accordance
shape cannot be avoided in these heavy minerals separates. After removal with the German norm DIN 38406-29 (ICP-MS). Several interference
of iron oxide coatings with Na dithionite, translucent heavy minerals were corrections were used for REE analyses. The PP screw caps were rinsed
mounted on glass disks using Canada balsam and identified under the twice with demineralized water (SERALPUR-90, 18.2 MH). Different rock
petrographic microscope for routine checks. certified reference materials were used for quality control (ZGI standards:
In some cases cathodoluminescence was used to identify the minerals GM, BM, Japanese standards: JG-1, JB-1; Chinese standards: GSS 1-8,
monazite, xenotime and zircon in the heavy mineral suite (Gorgen et al., NCS ZC 73006). A number of quintuple determinations were also carried
2009). In this paper a different approach has been taken. A combination of out with the sediment standard NCS ZC 73006. In addition, duplicates
false-color analysis and SEM has proved to have an edge over were analyzed at regular intervals. Sample blanks were measured over the
cathodoluminescence when it comes to investigate siliciclastic rocks (Dill et duration of the study.
al., 2005).
The SEM-EDX allows for a joint study of chemical composition, 4. Results
false-color-image analyses and grain morphology. There is no need to make
4.1. Monazite and rhabdophane in magmatic, sedimentary and
any coating of grains nor polished sections as it is the case with the electron
microprobe (EMP) which is more time-consuming and less economic. The metamorphic rocks
scanning electron microscope FEI QUANTA 600 FEG with an
4.1.1. Mineralogy and morphology of monazite and rhabdophane
energy-dispersive system (SEM-EDS), was used for the mineral
Particular attention has been paid to the mineralogical variation of
identification and image analysis for morphological studies. The SEM
monazite [monoclinic-prismatic/(Ce, La, Nd, Th)PO4] and the hydrated REE
QUANTA 600 FEG was linked with an EDX System (GEMINI) operated
phosphate rhabdophane [hexagonal-trapezohedral/(La, Ce) PO4-(H2O)] in
under three different pressure regimes: High vacuum (ca 10 E-6mbar), (2)
various magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks as a reference for
LowVac (approx. 1 to 10mbar), (3) ESEM (approx. 10 to 30 mbar). Due to
the placer-type minerals discussed in the succeeding chapters. The crystal
the use of low-vac conditions these minute hand-picked particles need not
morphology of monazite in the various lithologies as shown by Anthony
to be sputtered prior to measurement. To give an idea of the reproducibility
(1965) formed the centerpiece of this study. Due to the widespread
of the chemical analyses one grain of monazite was analyzed at for different
occurrence of fluorite deposits along the western edge of the Bohemian
station points randomly scattered across its surface (Table 2). The chemical
Massif, fluorite vein-type deposits have also been integrated into these
composition of the placer minerals was handled in two different ways. The
investigations to pinpoint potential source rocks of the REE phosphates in
more variegated the source rock lithologies of a heavy mineral under
placer-type deposits in SE Germany. Monazite in the calcareous matrix of
consideration is, the more likely reference fields used to overlap each other
carbo- natites developed well-shaped phenocrysts during cooling of the
within provenance-discriminant x-y or triangular plots (Fig. 2). Therefore
melt (Fig. 4a, b).
the common triangular plots were supported by a statistical treatment
Like carbonatite-hosted monazite, monazite in the quartzo- feldspathic
using the direction and skewness of trend lines of covariant elements in x-y
matrix of pegmatites and aplites occur in different wellshaped and
plots (Fig. 2, 3).
multicolored (bright brown, maroon, green, yellow brown) modifications
The second string to the bow is solely mineralogical. Faces and edges
(Fig. 4c, d, e, f). They show no evidence of corrosion or absorption during
identified during the morphological studies of the crystal shape under the
chemical reaction upon consolidation of the melt. Unlike carbonatite-,
SEM were depicted in the common notation using the Miller indices. The
pegmatite- and aplite-hosted monazite, resorption and corrosion cavities in
relative size of the faces typical of the morphological types is given in curled
monazite are quite common in REE phosphates from alkaline granites,
brackets and the variation of size is denoted by mathematical symbols. The
although some euhedral stubby crystals are still present in the
equation, e.g., {100}> {110} means, that faces labeled {100} are more
groundmass of alkaline feldspar and Na-bearing amphibole (Fig. 4h, i).
widespread and larger in size than faces labeled {110}. The crystal
Rounded 1st generation monazite was encountered rimmed by a
morphology is used to be determined with goniometry, a method not
rhomb-shaped 2nd generation mona- zite in a groundmass of alkaline
suitable for these placer minerals of this small size. Another method much
feldspar in the alkaline granite at Longido, Tanzania. At the margin of the
better suited than the aforementioned classical method makes use of a
basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Erbendorf Greenschist Zone, monazite
digital camera and a software program to draw the crystals and label their
crystals found there in the clastic apron are still tabular but with many of
faces.
their subordinate crystal faces eaten away and most of their edges strongly
The roundness and morphology of sediment grains were described
beveled (Fig. 4g). To find well-shaped crystals amenable to morphological
under the scanning electron microscope using common schemes and
studies in sedimentary and (meta)sedimentary rocks is a painstaking task,
comparison charts such as those designed by Pettijohn et al. (1973) and by
as demonstrated by the massive monazite in a claystone- siltstone
Illenberger (1991).
sequence at Kalimantan, Indonesia (Fig. 4j). Uraniferous monazite,
Moreover rock slaps of REE-bearing source rocks (SEM-EDX, for
intimately intergrown with schorl, constitutes irregular aggregates of
method see above) and chemical analyses (XRF, ICP-MS for method see
anhedral crystals interlocked with each other.
below) of monazite-enriched rocks were also involved in this study as a
In places, monazite, is more or less intensively altered and gradually
reference for provenance and source rocks analysis (572 samples).
replaced by rhabdophane-(Ce-La), and to a lesser extent by cerite and
Powdered samples were analyzed for their chemical composition using
minerals of the britolite group (Fig. 4k, l, m). In some of the fluorite veins
a PANalytical Axios and a PW2400 spectrometer. Samples are prepared by
along the western edge of the Bohemian Massif and druses of the Late
mixing with a flux material and melting into glass beads. The beads are
Variscan granites which were intruded into metamorphic rocks, stellate
analyzed by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
aggregates of prismatic rhabdophane-(Nd-La) and rhabdophane-(Ce) were
(WD-XRF). To determine loss on ignition (LOI) 1000 mg of sample material
discovered (Fig. 4n, o). Modern placer
are heated to 1030 °C for 10 min. After mixing the residue with 5.0 g
lithium metaborate and 25 mg lithium bromide, it is fused at 1200 °C for 20
min. The calibrations are validated by analysis of Reference Materials.
"Monitor” samples and 130 certified reference materials (CRM) are used for
the correction procedures.
The REE were analyzed also by inductively coupled plasma quad-
rupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analyses were carried out using clean
room procedures at the laboratory of BGR. An Agilent 7500ce equipped
Table 1
Modern and paleoplacers containing monazite and zircon. The table lists the locality and placer-type (see also Fig. 1), the shape and host rocks in the catchment area of the drainage system. The hierarchical order is given by Roman numerals and lower
caps. The typology of zircon (I through V) is interpreted as to the temperature of formation. Minerals associated with zircon and monazite are listed. Those which may be correlated with the chemical composition of monazite are given by bold-faced
characters. The chemical composition is characterized by the Ce-La trend and by the Th-Nd-U triplot, which were interpreted as to the source rocks given in the last column (Arabic numerals 1to12 refer to the source rocks below).
Site Locality Drainage type Morphological Associated minerals in the placer deposit types or zircon Chemistry Code (for source rock type see box below)

Placer-type Host and source rock in the catchment Class Type Temperature 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1
area

H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346


IId 900 °C cassiterite, gold, pyromorphite, platinum-(Fe),

Gevattergraben drainage Creek with a small catchment area IIIb Ia 800 °C Cassiterite, magnetite, rutile, ilmenite, baryte, Th-Nd-U + ++ + +
1
gold, arsenopyrite

system Volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks Ce-La + +


Colluvial, alluvial, (fluvial) placer
Erbendorf drainage system Branched drainage system small IIIa Ia 800 °C Cassiterite, magnetite, ilmenite (pyrophanite), Th-Nd-U + + ++ + + +
2
(+ Reichsforst) rivulets rutile, anatase, garnet (almandine, almandine >

Alluvial, fluvial, placer Upper Cretaceous siliciclastics, IIa >900 °C pyrope, almandine-spessartile, almandine- Ce-La ++ +
PermoCarboniferous sediments pyrope-grossularite), hematite, chromite,
and volcaniclastics, amphibolites

kyanite, scheelite, clinozoisite, amphibole, sphene, gold


3 Murach-Trobesbach drainage Branched drainage system IIIa Ia 800 °C Ilmenite, rutile, “leucoxene”, sphene, gold, Th-Nd-U + ++ + ++
system small rivulets cuprite, apatile, goethite, galena, garnet
Alluvial, ( fluvial) placer Gneiss, granite, quartz veins Ce-La + ++
(grossularite, almandine>spessartite), andalusite, scheelite
4 Pleystein-Lerau Branched drainage system of IIIa III 500-550 °C Rutile, rutile-(Nb), anatase, ilmenite, “nigrine”, Th-Nd-U + ++ + + +
drainage systems small rivulets IVa 600 °C garnet (spess-alm, gross), amphibole, sphene,
Alluvial, fluvial, placer Gneiss, migmatite, porphyry, IVb 600 °C garnet (spess > alm, alm, gross), epidote-
sediments of Tertiary age IIb 900 °C clinozoisite, magnetite, sillimanite, tourmaline, Ce-La + ++ + +
IIc 800-850 °C cassiterite, ferrocolumbite
5 Tittling-Loizersdorf Small rivulet IIIa Ib 700°C Rutile, corundum (sapphire), galena, cerussite, Th-Nd-U + ++ + ++ ++
drainage system magnetite, iron sulfate, ilmenite, pyrite, xenotime,
Alluvial, fluvial, placer Gneiss, migmatite, porphyry, sediments of Va 800°C garnet (alm> gross), apatite Ce-La +

Tertiary age
6 Naab-River drainage system Tributary river system II Ia 800 °C Magnetite, hematite, garnet (pyr>al>gross, alm, Th-Nd-U + + ++ + + + +
Fluvial placer Basement and Mesozoic through Ic 700 °C alm>spess, alm>pyr, gross), amphibole, xenotime,
Cenozoic foreland sediments Id 750-800 °C? ferrocolumbite, Fe-Mg spinel, uraninite-(Th), Ce-La + + +

rustenburgite, sperrylite, mercury, ilmenite, thorianite,


electrum, rutheniridosmine, iridosmine

(continued on next page)

327
328
Table 1 (continued)
Site Locality Drainage type Associated minerals in the placer deposit Chemistry Code (for source rock type see box below)

Morphological types or zircon


Placer-type Class Type Temperature 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Host and source rock in the catchment
1
area

(Fe), gold-(Pd), platinum-palladium,


isoferroplatinum, cinnabar
6 Donau-River drainage system Trunk river system I Ia 800 °C Ilmenite, tourmaline, garnet (alm, alm-gross-spess, Th-Nd-U + +++++++++
Fluvial placer Basement and Mesozoic through Ie 850 °C alm-gross, alm-pyr, pyr-alm-gross), goethite,

H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346


Cenozoic foreland sediments If 800 °C amphibole, magnetite-(Cr), hematite, rutile, Ce-La + ++

Ig 700°C cassiterite, iridosmine, isoferroplatinum (Pd),


Ih 650 °C isoferroplatinum, rutheniridosmine, gold, avaite

(Ru-Ir-Pt), paraavaite, Iridium-(Fe), iridium, sperrylite, gold


amalgam, platinum-(Fe), electrum, gold-silver-copper alloys,
“porpezite”, baddeleyite, hollingworthite, argentocuproaurite,
iridium-osmium sulfide unknown,
molybdenum-osmium-iridium- ruthenium alloy
(hexamolybdenum)
7 Keuper (upper Triassic) Braided to meandering drainage PP Vb 800 °C Tourmaline, rutile, anatase, pseudorutile, ilmenite, Th-Nd-U + ++ ++

system Mn oxide, staurolite, bravoite, Ni marcasite, pyrite,


Placers on an alluvial plain Basement and Mesozoic foreland chalcopyrite, sphalerite, baryte Ce-La (1) ++ +
proximal to a playa lake sediments Ce-La (2) +
8 Muschelkalk (middle Triassic) PP le 850 °C Apatite, marcasite, anatase, galena Th-Nd-U + ++ ++ + +++
Braided to meandering drainage system
Placers proximal to sabkha-like Basement and Mesozoic foreland Ce-La (1) ++
environments more basinward sediments Ce-La (2) ++
marine sediments
Source rock types Code

Pegmatite and aplites 1


Carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks 2
Granite and alteration zones 3
Volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks 4
Phosphorites 5
Gneisses (plus clay) 6
Evaporites and calcareous sediments 7
Coal- and biolites 8
Ferricretes 9
Phoscretes 10
Orecretes 11
Fluorine deposits 12
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346 329

Table 2 4.1.2. Chemistry of monazite and rhabdophane


Chemical composition of monazite determined at different station points across the surface of
Ternary plots were often used during provenance studies to dis-
the detrital mineral grain from stream sediments of the study area to show the reproducibility of
criminate various source rocks. Some make use of lithoclasts, others focus
chemical analyses.
on heavy mineral suites or the chemical composition of individual minerals
Number Ce (%) La (%) Th (%) Nd (%) U(%) (Dickinson, 1974; Ingersoll and Busby, 1994). Throughout the current
108030046a 47.0 22.7 7.8 21.0 1.5 investigations, the data arrays of Th, Nd and U were applied to construct
108030046b 46.6 23.8 7.3 20.4 1.8
frequency distribution patterns or lithological provinces for different source
108030046c 45.9 22.7 7.7 22.2 1.4
108030046d 46.7 23.5 8.2 20.0 1.6 rocks, using individual samples of monazite (Fig. 2). Phosphorites are
enriched in U and Th, upon supergene alteration and conversion into
phoscretes the data arrays shift toward the Th corner (Fig. 2). Magmatic
rocks scatter along the Nd-Th tie line with a strong tendency of toward the
deposits often are also rife with anthropogenic objects, derived from Nd corner where they overlap with data from the sedimentary rocks. In
mining, smelting and processing (Dill, 2008, 2009). Therefore dumps of conclusion, plotting of the chemical composition in a stand-alone-process
mining residues and slags adjacent to the drainage systems under study will not conduce to unequivocal results due to the numerous overlaps
were surveyed as to the presence of REE phosphates in these man-made among the reference fields (Fig. 2). Therefore another method, taking a
products. REE are not very widespread in the mining dumps under more statistical approach was taken to corroborate this method applied for
consideration. Relic monazite-(Nd) was identified only in slags made up of a triangular plots (Fig. 3).
wide variegated spectrum of minerals (Fayalite (Ca-, Mn-), apatite, quartz, The LREE (light rare earth elements) Ce and La are concentrated in
leucite, wuestite, christobalite, carbonate kermanite, magnetite, Mg-Al monazite, whereas xenotime is abundant in HREE (heavy rare earth
spinel and Fe phosphate) in a vitreous groundmass of a Cu-Fe slag at Naila, elements), e.g. Dy and Er. In the x-y plot of Fig. 3, it is possible to postulate
SE Germany (Fig. 4p). Based upon radio-carbon dating this slag-hosted for Ce and La some regular changes, displaying a clockwise arrangement of
monazite formed between 1045 and 1275 AC. They were mentioned here for their trend lines from pegmatites, through granites and basic volcanic
the sake of completeness, but nor further on discussed later as a potential rocks toward carbonatites. (Meta) sedimentary rocks are poorly or weakly
source of monazite in modern placer deposits, due to its scarcity. Hydrated negatively correlated as far as Ce and La are concerned (Fig. 3a). This is
REE phosphates used to be well-shaped in geogene and anthropogenic also the case with many duricrusts and fluorine deposits, where the
chemical compounds, where they form tabular and acicular stellate element couple shows a similar trend but separated from each other
aggregates. Some of them may also show up in placer-type deposits, e.g., conspicuously. Some data sets may easily be distinguished from each other
Klardorf (see below). such as fluorine deposits from

Magmatic rocks
Pegmatites and aplites
Larbonatites and alkaline
Magmatic rocks
igneous rocks bramte and alteration zones volcanic and volcaniclastic

(Meta}-Sedimentary rocks
Pnosphontes
Gneisses (plus clay) hvaporites and calcareous sediments
Coal- and biolites

Duricrusts and minerals deposits


Ferricretes
Phoscretes
Orecretes
Fluorine deposits

Duricrusts and
rocks rocks
(Meta) sedimentary Nd
mineral deposits

Fig. 2. Triangular plots showing the reference fields as to the Th-, Nd- and U variation in monazite of reference samples from different rock types. a). Legend. b.). Magmatic rocks. c).
(Meta)sedimentary rocks. d.). Duricrusts and mineral deposits (fluorite deposits were investigated in the current study, because of their widespread presence along the western edge of the Bohemian
Massif).
330 H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346

Fig. 3. Correlation of Ce and La in monazite (for legend see Fig. 2) high lightened by trend lines displaying different
inclinations and directions. a). Magmatic rocks. b). (Meta)sed- imentary rocks. c). Duricrusts and mineral deposits
(fluorite deposits were investigated in the current study, because of their widespread presence along the western edge
of the Bohemian Massif).

ferricretes and orecretes which coexist in gossans, while others such as sediments were incised into Late Devonian volcanic and volcaniclastic
gneissic, calcareous and phosphorites cannot be discriminated based upon rocks and gave host to a modern gold-titanium placer that was mined in the
that method alone (Fig. 3b). past and has currently been revisited for Au and Sn (Fig. 1) (Gumbel von,
In the following paragraphs for some sites under study the most 1879; Humboldt von, 1792) Table 1, Fig. 5a). Monazite grains are present in
diagnostic triangular and x-y plots are shown, to demonstrate how the stream sediment only in anhedral angular aggregates together with
monazites from the various drainage systems fit into the reference plots. An zircon forming subhedral grains with beveled edges. Both heavy minerals
overview of the various chemical and mineralogical discrimination methods are associated with rutile, ilmenite, cassiterite and baryte (Table 1). The
is given in Table 1. morphology of the stubby zircon grains can only be approximated due to
the roundness and categorized as morphological type la (Figs. 1, 6a). A
4.2. Modern placers in the Variscan basement and its foreland crystallographic fine- tuning has been achieved in sampling sites
mentioned below.
4.2.1. Gevattergraben drainage system
All heavy minerals associated with monazite and zircon are present as
The Gevattergraben drainage system is only periodically flooded with
anhedral detrital grains. Gold is locally intergrown with arse- nopyrite and
water during wet seasons. Its coarse- to medium-grained stream
quartz. The octahedral crystals are still discernible albeit
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration U2 (2012) 322-346 331

being subjected to some attrition upon transport. The remaining gold 4.2.2. Erbendorf drainage system
aggregates are irregularly shaped and coated with goethite. The Erbendorf drainage system resembles the drainage system of class
Interpretation: The chemical composition of monazite is characterized Ilia (Section 4.2.3) with respect to the depositional environment and
by a conspicuous lack in U, typical of magmatic rocks (Table 1). In the downflow textural gradient. It differs, however, with respect to the bedrock
ternary Th-Nd-U plot the data cluster in the reference field of groups 1, 3 underneath the channel system. The drainage system spreads across Late
and 4. Some of them also plot in reference fields 6 and 12. Using the Paleozoic, Triassic and Late Cretaceous sediments immediately in front of
discrimination diagrams of Ce and La the best fit exists between the the Franconian Line, a deep-seated fault zone, which separates the Upper
Gevattergraben data array and the reference data typical of volcanic and Cretaceous Parkstein fan complex from the NE Bavarian Basement
volcaniclastic rocks (Table 1, Fig. 7a). (Zitzmann, 1981). The basement

Fig. 4. Monazite and rhabdophane in different source rocks. a). Euhedral rhomb-shaped crystals of monazite in strontianite
of a carbonatite. Locality: Kangankunde, Malawi (thin section crossed polars). b). Euhedral platy crystal of monazite in
strontianite of a carbonatite partially coated with goethite. Locality: Kangankunde, Malawi (thin section crossed polars). c).
Aggregate of subhedral crystals ofbrown monazite intergrown with columbite-(Fe) in a phosphate-bearing pegmatite. Locality:
Hagendorf-South, SE Germany. d). Euhedral stubby crystal of monazite in a phosphate-bearing aplite. Locality:
Trutzhofmuhle, SE Germany. e). Well-shaped prismatic monazite wrapped around by flakes of muscovite in a
lazulite-scorzalite-bearing aplite. Locality: near Pleystein, SE Germany. f). “Pegmatite wash” of anhedral to sub/euhedral
monazite grains of different colors form quartzose pegmatites. The inset illustrates the same type of monazite intimately
intergrown with quartz at outcrop. Locality: near Pleystein, SE Germany (thin section crossed polars). g). Plate of monazite with
beveled edges from the alteration zone of the basic to ultrabasic magmatic rocks of the Erbendorf Greenschist Zone. Locality:
Erbendorf, SE Germany (thin section crossed polars). h). Platy crystal of monazite with corrosion cavities surrounded by
Na-bearing amphibole in a groundmass of alkaline feldspar. Alkaline granite: Locality: Longido, Tanzania (thin section plane
polarized light). i). Rounded 1st generation monazite is rimmed by a rhomb-shaped 2nd generation monazite in a groundmass
of alkaline feldspar Alkaline granite: Locality: Longido, Tanzania (thin section crossed polars). j). Mosaic of anhedral monazite
grains bounded toward the right by tourmaline (schorl/ black) in a hydrothermally altered claystone through siltstone series.
Locality: Kalimantan, Indonesia (thin section crossed polars). k). Monazite is replaced by aggregates of tabular rhabdophane in
Triassic sediments. Locality: Wackersdorf drill hole (SEM-EDX). l). Close-up view of monazite being replaced by tabular
rhabdophane in Triassic sediments. Locality: Wackersdorf drill hole (SEM-EDX). m). Rhabdophane-(Ce-La) closely interwoven
with britolite on fluorite. Saltendorf fluorite vein. (SEM-EDX). n). Stellate aggregates of prismatic rhabdophane-(Nd-La) plus
cerite. Siebenhitz fluorite vein (SEM-EDX). o). Acicular crystals of rhabdophane-(Ce) in the interstices of alkaline feldspar and
quartz of a Late Carboniferous granite. Waldstein, Germany (SEM-EDX). p). Relic monazite-(Nd) in a vitreous groundmass of a
Cu-Fe slag. Locality: Naila, SE Germany (SEM-EDX).
332 H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346

150

f
5 mm g

100|jm
100 |jm 50 |jm

Fig. 4 (continued).

comprises three major units with rocks ranging in age from Upper the aforementioned sampling site, but offering much better conditions for
Proterozoic to Carboniferous. These units are: (1) Saxothuringian (low its categorization using the Miller's indices. The prisms faces {100} are
grade to anchimetamorphosed clastic and volcanic rocks, Cambro- larger than equivalent faces labeled {110}. The pyramidal faces {211} are
Ordovician), (2) Moldanubian (low pressure gneisses with imprints of an enlarged relative to the faces {101}. Subordinate faces are {301}, {111} and
older, medium-pressure metamorphism), (3) Allochtonous Nappes {102} (type la). In a volcanic field, called Reichsforst, near Erbendorf,
comprising medium to high pressure metamorphic rocks (Weber and abundant alkaline basalts erupted during the Neogene and were washed
Vollbrecht, 1986). Amphibolites and gneisses of the Erbendorf- together in stream sediments of small creeks incised into the volcanic
Vohenstrauft Zone together with metamorphosed basic and ultrabasic edifices and its clastic apron around (Fig. 1) (Siebel et al., 2009). As they
rocks and graphite schists of the Erbendorf Greenschist Zone (Matthes and exclusively contain zircon as placer minerals they were not treated as much
Olesch, 1986) pertain to this allochtonous unit. During the waning stages as the zircon-monazite placer assemblages. lts zircon heavy mineral suite is
of the Variscan orogeny, S-type granites of Upper Carboniferous age were made up of simple tetragonal prisms {100} with no subordinated faces. The
intruded into these tectono-metamorphic units. prisms are terminated by a stubby pyramid {101} which does not show
The heavy minerals suite is a mirror image of these basement rocks: subordinate faces either (Fig. 1). This crystal habit is denominated as type
cassiterite, magnetite, ilmenite (pyrophanite), rutile, anatase, garnet lla. Unlike the other types of zircon, the Reichsforst zircon emits a strong
(almandine, almandine>pyrope, almandine-spessartite, almandine- yellow fluorescence when irradiated with ultraviolet light (short wave). This
pyrope-grossularite), hematite, chromite, kyanite, scheelite, clinozoi- site, zircon is the youngest type of zircon under study.
amphibole, sphene, gold (Table 1). Apart from blades similar to what has Interpretation: Considering the Th-Nd-U ternary plots, this mona- zite suite
been illustrated in Fig. 4g another subrounded type of mona- zite was is the only one which also "touches” the reference field of
identified in the stream sediments (Fig. 8b). Zircon is similar to
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration U2 (2012) 322-346 333

carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks (Fig. 7b, Table 1). In the Ce-La plot, of carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, and to a lesser extent the
the trend line lies just in between the reference line of granites and volcanic (meta)sedimentary field (Fig. 7c). In the Ce-La plot two populations can be
and volcaniclastic rocks (Fig. 7b). identified, one first-order trend parallel to the pegmatite- granite reference
line and a second-order trend parallel to the reference line typical of
4.2.3. Murach-Trobesbach drainage system volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks (Fig. 7c).
The alluvial-fluvial drainage system of the Murach and Trobes- bach is
incised into cordierite-sillimanite gneisses which, in places, were intruded
by Late Variscan granites (Fig. 5c). Monazite and zircon form part of a 4.2.4. Pflaumbach and Lerau drainage systems
gold-bearing titanium placer with rutile, ilmenite, sphene and “leucoxene” The drainage system of the Pflaumbach running into the Zott at
being the main constituents among the stream sediments (Table 1). Pleystein (Fig. 5d) and the Lerau creeks (Fig. 5e) belongs to the same class
Moreover cuprite, biotite, apatite, goe- thite, galena, garnet s.s.s. of drainage system mentioned above (class Ilia). The drainage systems in
(grossularite, almandine>spessartite) and andalusite were discovered in the the environs ofPleystein incised into gneisses, intercalated with quartz
heavy mineral suite. Gold nuggets of the Murach-Trobesbach drainage dikes. In the catchment area intrusive rocks of one of the most prominent
system are hooked. Relics of chloritized biotite are still clued to the detrital pegmatite province in Europe were eroded by the channel system in the
gold grains. Most mon- azite grains were categorized as very angular to Hagendorf-Pleystein area (Dill et al., 2009a; Strunz et al., 1975) (Fig. 5d).
subangular, a few grains display a well-developed crystal shape with The Lerau drainage system spreads across gneisses, metabasic
beveled edges of the prism (Fig. 8a). Attrition of zircon grains is less rocks/amphibolites and granites (Fig. 5e). Monazite occurs in two different
intensive than within the Gevattergraben drainage system and therefore categories one called “subrounded” and the other “subangular” (Fig. 8c, d).
assigning these zircon grains to the morphological type I is unquestionable Monazite occurs in more or less isometric grains and also shaped like
(Fig. 6b). blades. Zircon from this site strongly contrasts with the
Interpretation: In the ternary plot illustrating Th, Nd and U, the data transparent/colorless zircon recorded from other sites of the study area in
array covers the magmatic field, excluding the reference field SE Germany. It is opaque, its color is dark brown and its morphology
marked by a

□ Colluvial- alluvial-fluvial sediments


(Quaternary)


Volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks
(Upper Devonian)


Slates
(Lower Carboniferous)

X Sampling site Gevattergraben

□ Alluvial-fluvial sediments
(Quaternary)


Sediments
(Upper Cretaceous-Neogene)
Sediments, volcanic and

□ volcaniclastic rocks
(Upper-Carboniferous-Permian)

□ Granite

□ Gneiss


Amphibolite

Sampling site Tiefenbach


X

Fig. 5. Geological framework of the study areas intersected by high-order


0
drainage systems. See also Table 1 and Fig. 1 for overview and geological setting
on a smaller scale. The level within the hierarchy of drainage systems is given in
brackets. a). Gevattergraben drainage system (order: IIIb). b). Erbendorf study
area with the Tiefenbach drainage system (order: Ilia). c). Murach-Trobesbach
drainage system (order: Ilia). d). Pleystein study area with Pflaumbach drainage
system (order: Ilia). e). Lerau drainage system (order: Ilia). f) Tittling study area
(order: IIIa).
334 H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346

Alluvial-fluvial sediments
(Quaternary)

□ Granite

□ Gneis

s I I Quartz
X Sampling site Trobesbach

Alluvial-fluvial sediments
(Quaternary)

□ Gneiss

I I Aplite

□ Pegmatite

I I Quartz
X Sampling site Pflaumbach

Fig. 5 (continued).

significant bipyramidal habit. Locally stubby crystals show up in the carbonatites, and another which shows the best fit with fluorine min-
stream sediments (Fig. 6d, e, f). eralizations (Fig. 3c). Hidden in the magmatic trend, phoscretes have
The zircon types observed in the Pleystein area contrast with all types obviously also played a part (Fig. 3c).
recorded so far. Type III does not show almost any prism or at least a relic
stubby prism. It may simply be described as a type-II zircon compressed
along the [001] axis. Type IVa is characterized by the face combination 4.2.5. Tittling-Loizersdorf drainage system
{110}>{101}. Another morphological type IVb shares these faces at the same The class-IIIa drainage system cuts into migmatic gneisses which were
amount, leading to an almost isometric shape of zircon (Fig. 1). intruded by granitic dikes. A small embayment in this study area is filled
The zircon population in the Lerau drainage system differs from that of up with Tertiary sediments (Fig. 5f). One morphological type poses some
the Pleystein area but resembles to some extent what has been described problems to label subfaces of the isometric crystals (Fig. 8e), the other
from the Reichsforst (Fig. 1). Type-IIb zircon forms slender prisms with a crystal is rather well shaped but strongly etched (Fig. 8f). Zircon developed
pointed pyramid, whereas type-IIc zircon closely resembles the Reichsforst a wide range of morphological types, of which only one well-shaped
IIa-type but with a face combination of {100}>>{110}. prismatic crystal is displayed in Fig. 6g. The various crystallographic habits
Interpretation: In the ternary plots the majority of grains plot into the of zircon may be described as follows using the Miller's indices to label the
magmatic, gneiss and fluorite fields, with three wild points proximal to the most prominent faces and mathematic symbols to illustrate their relative
field of phoscretes (Fig. 7d). In the Ce-La plot two different populations may size (Fig. 1). Type Va has the faces {100} prevailing over {110} and a simple
be distinguished from each other. One which covers the range common to bipyramide labeled {211} terminating the crystal. Type Ib shows a prismatic
magmatic rocks in the area, excluding face combination of{110}>{100} and a bipyramidal stubby face combination
of {101}>{201}.
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration U2 (2012) 322-346 335

Alluvial-fluvial sediments
(Quaternary)

I I Granite

□ Gneiss

□ Amphibolite

X Sampling site Lerau

Interpretation: In the ternary plot the reference fields of magmatic rocks, displaying different face combination comes up. In addition to type Ia
fluorine and gneiss were covered (Fig. 7e). A more subtle classification is zircon, another subtype Ic has been identified with a face combination as
possible, using the Ce-La discrimination plots, which yield two different follows: {110}>{100}-{101} = {211}. Type Id is a bit out of the ordinary due to
trends: (1) granite-pegmatite trend, (2) fluorine trend (Figs. 3c, 7d). its very flat-topped pyramid {110}>{100}-{102}> {211} which is demonstrated
by the subordinate faces {102} instead of {101}. Xenotime is present in this
4.2.6. Naab River drainage system heavy mineral suite, too, which is characterized by a variegated association
The Naab River drainage system ranks higher in the fluvial hierarchy of of Sn, PGE, Au, Nb-Ta, Hg, Cr-Fe and Ti heavy minerals together with
the river systems under consideration in NE Bavaria and, thus, given the garnet, epidote-clino- zoisite s.s.s. (Table 1).
class II (Table 1). It is fed by the class-III river systems and tributary to a Interpretation: In the ternary plot all fields, excluding the reference data
trunk river, running into the River Donau (Danube) (Fig. 1). The drainage arrays of coal and biolites, calcareous rocks, phoscretes and ore- cretes
system is meandering down toward the south scavenging the debris from were covered (Fig. 7f). Considering the Ce-La plot, the data cluster near the
the uplifted basement rocks delivered by class-III rivulets. It is incised into granitic-pegmatitic field with its trend line running subparallel to these
Cretaceous and Neogene foreland sediments which spread across the reference trend lines (Fig. 7f).
basement. Monazite occurs in form of rounded to subrounded grains and,
in places, closely inter- grown with gold (Fig. 8g). Some of the well-shaped 4.2.7. Donau River drainage system
crystals are broken apart but still clued to the gold nuggets. The The Donau River takes the highest rank in the alluvial-fluvial hierarchy
combination of faces strikingly varies in the grains of monazite discovered - class I - acting as a trunk river which collects all the debris from the
in this class-II fluvial drainage system. Sporadically, tabular crystals of aforementioned drainage systems. A few small gorges of class III from the
rhab- dophane were found to overgrow biotite-mica aggregates (Fig. 8h). uplifted basement at its northeastern river banks directly debouch into this
Well-developed crystal aggregates of monazite were discovered also master river by-passing the class- II drainages system. The heavy mineral
sheltered by rutile. In the same aggregate, slender prisms of zircon with suite associated with mona- zite in the Donau River is more exotic than that
growth zones and face combinations of {110} and {101} faces are also placer mineral assemblage recorded from the Naab River (Table 1).
present (Fig. 6h) (Type IId). Not surprisingly in this fluvial drainage system Monazite formed stubby crystals common to many of the drainage systems
of higher order, a wide range of zircon types of lower rank (types III and II), it occurs in aggregates of twinned crystals
336 H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346

Fig. 6. Detrital zircon from the study sites at the western edge of the Bohemian Massif. a). Rounded grains of zircon. The poorly
preserved faces and strongly beveled edges still allow for an attribution of the zircon to the morphological types shown in Fig. 1a.
Locality: Gevattergraben (SEM). b). Subrounded zircon with its edges only weakly beveled of type Ia. Locality:
Murach-Trobesbach drainage system. c). Elongated prismatic crystal of zircon. Locality: Donau drainage system (SEM). d).
Stubby crystals of zircon. Locality: Pleystein- Lerau drainage systems (SEM). e). Bipyramidal opaque brown zircon. Locality:
Pleystein-Lerau drainage systems. f). Stubby opaque brown crystals of zircon. Locality: Pleystein- Lerau drainage systems. g).
Prismatic zircon. Locality: Tittling-Loizersdorf drainage system. h). Aggregates of rutile (ru) sheltering prismatic zircon (zr) and
stubby crystals of mon- azite (mz) during fluvial transport. Locality: Naab River drainage system (SEM).
and well rounded particles (Fig. 8i, j). Not unexpectedly, like mona- zite, a data array (Fig. 7g). In the Ce-La plot the data cluster along the gra-
variegated spectrum of morphological types of zircon may be identified in nitic-pegmatitic trend (Fig. 7g).
the stream sediments of the River Donau which is the ultimate continental
trap of a wide range of heavy minerals. Considering the morphology of 4.3. Paleoplacers in Mesozoic siliciclastic rock in the foreland ofVariscan
zircon a succession of habits may be established based on the ratio of {100} basement
vs. {110} modified absence or presence of certain subfacies in the pyramid.
Type Ie displays the faces arrangement {100}>>{110}-{211} = {101}-{301}. The paleodrainage system which evolved in the Triassic Muschelkalk
Type If differs from the aforementioned type by its shift in the ratio of the and Keuper siliciclastic sediments changed from alluvial-fluvial through
prismatic faces {100}>{110}-{211} = {101} and the lack of {301}. Type Ia sabkha-like representing the marginal facies of a marine ingression (Table
common to many sited under study takes an intermediate position in this 1) (Dill, 1990; Dill et al., 2007a; Hornung and Aigner, 2002; Reinhard and
succession (Fig. 1). Type Ig is akin to type but still with the prismatic faces Ricken, 2000). The Arabic term sabkha refers to a salt marsh in sheltered
well preserved {100}<{110}-{211}>{101} and type Ih shows a face relation lagoons and embayments sensu Evans et al. (1969) and Purser (1973), as
dominated by the faces {110} as follows: {100} <<{110}-{211} = {101}. they were studied by the senior author in Neogene series alongside the
Interpretation: In the ternary plot all fields, excluding the reference data Trucial Coast (Dill et al., 2007b, 2009b).
arrays of phosphorite and ferricretes were covered by the Donau Unlike its modern placer equivalents, any subdivision of the Mesozoic
drainage system into various levels of hierarchy is difficult to perform in
practice. Therefore only a simple code “PP” for
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346 337

I! Nd Nd
0 100 10 0 100 10

90 90

20 80 20 80

30 70 30 70

40 60 40 60

50 50 50 50

60 40 60 40

70 30 70 30

80 20 80 20

90 90

100 0 100 0
U Th U Th
90
80 100

Nd Nd
0 100 0 100

0 0
Th Th

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Fig. 7. Chemical discrimination diagrams of the modern and palaeoplacers based on the Ce-La-Th-Nd-U contents of monazite. a). Gevattergraben drainage system (Illb). b). Erbendorf drainage
system (IIIa). c). Murach-Trobesbach drainage system (Ilia). d). Pleystein-Lerau drainage systems (Ilia). e). Tittling-Loizersdorf drainage system (Ilia). f). Naab-River drainage system (II). g). Donau
drainage system (I). h). Keuper paleoplacer drainage systems (PP). i). Muschelkalk paleoplacer drainage systems (PP).
338 H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346

90

© Nd Nd
0 ^100 „ 90

20 80 20 80

30 70 30 70
40 60 40 60

50 50 50 50
60 40 60 40

70 30 70 30
80 20 80 20

10 10
100 0 100
U Th U

g Nd
0^/100

90
20 80

30 70
40 60

50 50
60 40

70 30
80 20

90

0
Th

Fig. 7 (continued).
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346 339

Fig. 7 (continued).
340 H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration U2 (2012) 322-346

paleoplacer has been introduced in the current study. Detrital mona- zite is Muschelkalk palaeoplacers and a subtype Vb in the Keuper paleopla- cer
rather fine-grained, of high sphericity and its grains are rounded to well systems. The heavy minerals accompanying monazite and zircon are rather
rounded in these terrigenous sediments, thereby escaping any precise monotonous as far as the detrital minerals are concerned (Table 1). Due to
attribution of its shapes to one or the other morphological categories. In an increase of authigenic sulfides and oxides, the entire heavy mineral
some cases, monazite has been hydrated and converted into rhabdophane suite becomes more exotic in the Keuper beds than in the underlying
(Fig. 4k, l). Its grain surface becomes more rugged and angular in the Muschelkalk beds (Table 1).
course of this alteration process. Zircon forms sub- hedral stubby crystals Interpretation: In the ternary Th-Nd-U plots, monazite from the
and rather well shaped bipyramidal crystals, yet also often fraught with Mesozoic paleoplacers cluster in a wide variety of reference fields. Only the
difficulties when it comes to labeling of its faces and subfaces using the cumulative results are listed in Table 1. In the Ce-La plots the data of the
Miller's indices. An approximation of the crystal morphology shows type Ie Keuper monazite cluster along the granitic-pegmatitic and the
to be present within the evaporite-calcareous trends (Fig. 7h). The older Muschelkalk

f g

HV Spot 20.0
kV 5.Q

Fig. 8. Detrital monazite from the study sites at the western edge of the Bohemian Massif. a). Well-developed crystal of monazite with its edges slightly beveled upon transport. Locality:
Murach-Trobesbach drainage system (SEM-EDX). b). Subrounded monazite. Locality: Erbendorf drainage system (SEM-EDX). c). Subrounded isometric monazite in alluvial to fluvial stream
sediments: Locality: Pleystein-Lerau drainage systems (SEM). d). Subangular blades of monazite in alluvial to fluvial stream sediments: Locality: Pleystein- Lerau drainage systems (SEM). e).
Isometric crystals of monazite: Locality: Tittling-Loizersdorf drainage system (SEM). f). Etched crystal of prismatic monazite. Locality: Tit- tling-Loizersdorf drainage system (SEM). g). Well-shaped
monazite crystals intimately in the cavity of a gold nugget. Locality: Naab River drainage system (SEM). h). Tiny plates of rhabdophane to overgrow rounded aggregates ofbiotite-chlorite. Locality:
Naab River drainage system (SEM). i). Stubby crystals of monazite from the trunk river system (Type I) Locality: Donau River drainage system (SEM). j). Twins of monazite form the trunk river system
(Type I) Locality: Donau River drainage system (SEM).
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346 341

ways, firstly using common triplots and secondly analyzing statistical


trends. In the first methods each individual grain is counted, during the
second the different populations of a sample set are considered. Based
upon these two chemical approaches, a first-hand selection as to the
provenance area of the placer types, which are different as to the level of
hierarchy in the drainage system may be achieved. A similar approach of
chemically-based discrimination of the source rocks has not been taken for
zircon either, because studies by Belousova et al. (2002), analyzing 26 trace
elements by means of laser-ablation microprobe ICP-MS analysis, showed
some chemical trends but failed to provide diagnostic fields clearly
separated from each other. Therefore a combined chemical and
morphological approach has been taken to determine the origin of
placer-type minerals.

5.1.1. Colluvially-alluvially-dominated placers (class IIIb)


Poorly rounded monazite at Gevattergraben has been derived from
volcanic to volcaniclastic rocks of Devonian age which form the immediate
surroundings of ephemeral drainage system. The heavy mineral suite may
be correlated with a set of fluorite-siderite veins crisscrossing the Paleozoic
rocks and which in places also bear cassiterite (Dill, 1985). This vein
mineralization is representative of the near-surface parts or distal parts of a
granite-hosted Sn deposit at the boundary between the Late Paleozoic roof
rocks and the apical parts of a granite that was intruded into
Saxothuringian low-grade to very-low-grade metamorphic rocks. In this
narrow catchment area characterized by episodic to periodic mass wasting
and alluvial processes operative in an area 5 km across, the chemical
composition of monazite may be used as an ore guide and provenance
indicator. The primary monazite accumulation is similar to that depicted in
Fig. 4j from Kalimantan, Indonesia (Busch, 1986).

5.1.2. Alluvial-fluvial placers (class IHa)


The catchment area of alluvial to fluvial placers measures up to several
tens of kilometers intersecting different lithologies (Table 1). In addition to
the volcanic- and volcaniclastic rocks, already mentioned in Section 5.1.1
pegmatites and granites may be claimed to have contributed significantly to
the stream sediments mineral assemblage bearing monazite. In two parts,
at Tittling and in the Pleys- tein-Lerau drainage system F-enriched rocks
form part of the monazite-bearing source rocks. The Ce-La diagrams
considering the entire data array and reflecting the main constituents of
monazite have an edge of over the ternary Th-Nd-U diagrams that represent
elements accommodated only at a minor quantity in the lattice of monazite
(Chang et al., 1998; Nash, 1984; Orris and Grauch, 2002; Overstreet,
1967). Thorium and uranium which are not part of the REE are more
susceptible to post-depositional alteration processes than REE and held
less significant when it comes to the source rock analysis of placer-type
minerals (Kingsbury et al., 1993; Kusiak et al., 2006). Neodymium contents
are lower than Ce and La contents (Gramaccioli and Segalstad, 1978). With
Fig. 8 (continued). this in mind even minor trends reflected in the Ce-La x-y plots may be used
for source rock analysis. The Murach-Trobesbach drainage system mirrors
two significant different trends which may be correlated with basic
sediments plot along the gneiss-clay and the phoscrete trends (Fig. 7i). magmatic rocks ("volcanic trend”) and pegmatitic and granitic rocks in the
catchment area (Fig. 7b). The Erbendorf drainage system follow suit, yet
5. Discussion: The origin of monazite and zircon in placer-type
less well pronounced and barren as to pegmatites (Fig. 7c). The Ce-La ratio
depositional systems at different levels within the fluvial-alluvial
In the Pleystein-Lerau drainage systems also reflects a trend similar to that
drainage hierarchy
of phoscretes. Phoscretes according to Dill and Kantor (1997) are not
exposed in the hinterland. However, there is a pervasive alteration of the
5.1. Mineral chemistry and the origin of monazite
Late Paleozoic phosphate-bearing LCT pegmatites
A closer review of the literature on REE phosphates reveals, that (lithium-cesium-tantalum) under supergene and hypo- gene conditions
monazites in spite of their different origins and mineral assemblages which down to a depth of more than 50 m below ground
they are associated with, only slightly differ from each other with respect to
their chemical compositions (Bea, 1996; Casillas et al., 1995; Gramaccioli
and Segalstad, 1978; Henderson, 1984; Park and Kim, 1995; Watt, 1995;
Zhu and O'Nions, 1999). Even REE trends and Eu anomalies do not provide
a clear picture of the derivation of monazite (Johan and Johan, 2005; Nagy
et al., 2002). Owing to that similarities in the chemical composition, a great
number of samples have been analyzed for the elements Ce, La, Nd, Th and
U abundant in monazite. The data arrays were treated in two contrasting
342 H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346

Fig. 9. Zircon typology in pegmatitic provinces. Types III and IV zircon as an ore guide to pegmatites. a).
Rare-element-phosphate-pegmatite with bipyramidal zircon from the K feldspar zone. La Independencia, Totoral Pegmatite Field, San Luis,
Argentina. b). Albite-enriched pegmatitic rocks of the Precambrian Basement Complex. The isometric opaque grains of zircon were released
by weathering form the nearby source rock and concentrated as colluvial-alluvial placers in the scree around the pegmatite. Mwanza,
Malawi. c). Brown opaque zircon of types III and IV in nepheline syenite pegmatites in the southern part of Seiland Island, Norway. d).
Bipyramidal zircon “floating” within the K feldspar matrix of a scorzalite-lazulite pegmatite in SE Germany.
that left also its imprints on the heavy minerals suite discovered in this this kind of magmatic rocks (Propach and Pfeiffer, 1998). The situation
drainage system (Dill et al., 2009a; Mucke, 1981, 2000; Mucke et al., 1990; faced with in the Naab River drainage system may be refound downstream
Strunz et al., 1975). The chemical composition of mona- zite (provenance in the Donau as well. Monazite as provenance marker for acidic igneous
marker) generally reflects the source rock lithology. In the Pleystein-Lerau rocks may still be identified in class-1 fluvial systems and upgraded to an
drainage systems this provenance marker is upgraded to the level of an ore ore guide in class-II fluvial systems (Nb- Ta-phosphate pegmatites). Ore
guide leading the exploration geologists to a Nb-Ta-bearing phosphate mineralization typical of (ultra)basic rocks cannot be discovered by the
pegmatite. chemical composition of monazite.

5.1.3. Fluvial placers (classes II and I) 5.1.4. Paleoplacer systems in Mesozoic terrigenous sediments
The Naab River system at a level superior to the aforementioned While the modern placer systems are controlled exclusively by erosion,
drainage systems in the hierarchy of drainage systems reflects a varied transport and deposition, paleoplacers underwent diagenetic and
mineral association in its fluvial placer deposits (Table 1). Apart from a epigenetic hydrothermal alteration. These postdepositional processes
rather diffuse trend reflecting the well-known pegmatite- granite source affected also the chemical composition of monazite and its hydrated form
rock area in the Hagendorf-Pleystein pegmatite province which was debated rhabdophane hosted by calcareous-evaporitic and phosphatic duricrusts
in the previous Section 5.1.2, there is also still evidence for the alteration of that are related to the evolution of the sabkha and playa during the
phosphates under supergene and hypogene conditions. Triassic. Pegmatitic through granitic and gneissic source rocks were
Spessartite-enriched garnet (alm>spess) fer- rocolumbite, uraninite-(Th) exposed to denudation in the hinterland during that time (Table 1). REE
and cassiterite are another indication for this pegmatite province in the phosphates may only be used as provenance indicator and as an indirect
fluvial placers of the Naab River. While the pegmatite deposits may well be ore guide to mineral deposits bound to ephemeral lakes. Abundant
traced down from the Pleystein-Lerau drainage system into the class-II Pb-Zn-Co-Ni-Ba sulfides and sulfates developed through evaporitic
fluvial placers. The variegated spectrum of PGE minerals observed in the pumping in these Triassic sediments. The syndiagenetic to epigenetic Pb
class-II placer is not represented by the monazite. Primary PGE mineralization in the Muschelkalk beds at Freihung, Wollau and Eichelberg
mineralization in the Bohemian Massif is sporadic and bound to small contain cerussite with subordinate amounts of galena, chalcopyrite,
intercalations of (ultra)basic magmatic rocks (Dill et al., 2010; Johan, 1989; sphalerite, bravoite, covellite, and baryte in the pore space of arenites (Dill,
Pasava et al., 2003). There are no large basic complexes at the western edge 1990, 2010; Schmid, 1981). The Pb mineralization bound to the marginal
of the Bohemian Massif which might contribute to the buildup of a heavy calcareous-siliciclastic beds of the Middle-Upper Triassic beds may well be
mineral spectrum typical of these igneous rocks and, on the other hand, explained by a brine-mixing model under arid climatic conditions.
monazite is an uncommon accessory mineral in Solutions, flowing basinward, contained Pb that has been
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346 343
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration U2 (2012) 322-346 344

derived from decomposition of K feldspar in gneisses and granites of the 2002).


Moldanubian basement. Well-shaped authigenic monazite grew during this Types III and IV: Types III and IV were discussed together because of
process (see below). their occurrence being restricted to the Hagendorf-Pleystein pegmatite
province and their dark-brown opaque outward appearance. As a result of
5.2. Morphology of zircon and its origin this, these morphological types are cast as an ore guide for pegmatitic
provinces worldwide (Fig. 1). They formed within a low-temperature regime
The crystal morphology of zircon shows an extreme variability and
of 500 to 550 °C (type III) and 600 °C (types IVa and IVb). They were found
consequently has encouraged many petrologists to correlate crystal habit
in class-IIIa drainage systems only and could have been traced into two
with the environment of formation (Benisek and Finger, 1993; Bingen et al.,
different source rock environments as in Portugal (Rosa et al., 2010). Type
2001; Bossart et al., 1986; Pupin, 1980). During applied sedimentology
III is typical of the core zone of the pegmatites, whereas IVa and IVb zircons
dedicated to placer deposits this methods has not attracted very much
formed closer to the country rocks in the wall zone or endocontact of the
attention (Friis et al., 1980). Constraining the environment and
pegmatite. The surrounding gneisses pertain to the cordierite-sillimanite
temperature of formation is mainly based on the work of the above
facies indicative of temperatures slightly higher (650 °C) than the
petrologists if not stated otherwise.
temperature determined for the pegmatite itself (500 to 600 °C) (Holdaway
Type I: Type Ia developed at a temperature of approximately 800 °C.
and Lee, 1977). Examples from the pegmatite in northern Norway, from
Owing to its presence already within the Devonian rocks of the
Malawi and the San Luis pegmatite province, NW Argentina, corroborate
Gevattergraben drainage system a derivation from the late Paleozoic
this idea of types III and IV zircon to be used as an ore guide to and within
calc-alkaline granites and granodiorites, including their aplites and
a pegmatite province (Dill, 2007; Dill et al., 2011; Oyarzabal et al., 2009;
pegmatites may be ruled out (Figs. 1, 5a). It is assumed, that this type of
Pedersen et al., 1989; Roberts et al., 2006) (Fig. 9).
zircon has been derived from recycled material of granulite-facies
Type V: Type-V zircon, which also can be easily identified in section by
metamorphic rocks of the core zone of the Bohemian Massif (Vrana et al.,
its lozenge-shaped crystal morphology reflect a temperature regime around
1995). It occurs throughout all drainage systems and as such has little
850 °C. The lozenge-shaped type V closely resembles what has been
meaning as a marker mineral during mineral exploration.
described by Zeck and Williams (2002) from Neogene dacites in Spain. In
Types Ib and Ic developed at around 700 °C. It is only found in drainage
the Tittling area these zircons may be traced back to the porphyritic dikes
systems categorized as Ilia and II draining metamorphic terrains of the SE
(Fig. 5f). In the paleoplacers of the Keuper beds, type Vb zircon may be
part of the Bohemian Massif which are underlain mainly by high-grade
correlated with acidic to intermediate volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of
metamorphic rocks of upper amphibolite facies. They do not reflect the
Carboniferous-Permian age, which were exposed to denudation during the
igneous activity which gave rise to several granite-bound mineral deposits
late Triassic (Dill and Klosa, 2011).
such as Sn, W and U.
Types Id, Ie and If point to a much higher temperature of as much as
5.3. Morphology of monazite and its origin
850 °C and held to be indicative of the granitic activity which lasted from
the Carboniferous through the early Permian at the western edge of the The monazite grains from the stream sediments under study are
Bohemian Massif. They may be taken as "long-range ore guide” for morphologically not as variable as the zircon grains associated with them.
granite-bound mineral deposits, but do not allow for a more subtle Nevertheless these phosphates may be used for a rough subdivision of the
distinction of the granites as to their fertility to one ore the other commodity placer-type minerals as to their source rock. Pegmatite- derived monazite
such as Sn, Li, U or W. from Hagendorf and Trutzhofmuhle pegmatites of the Pleystein-Lerau
Types Ig and Ih are representative of a lower temperature of formation study area display crystals elongated parallel the c axis, with {100} and
to have occurred during the emplacement of the granites within that area, {110} being the predominating faces of the prism similar to those recorded
covering the range 650 to 700 °C. The stubby types of zircon are well by Schnorrer et al. (2003) (Fig. 1b). Monazite goes a different way compared
resistant to abrasion during alluvial-fluvial transport and, hence, have the to zircon. In the pegmatitic stage which is representative of the lowest
highest preservation potential of all zircons under consideration. temperature regime under study, monazite developed elongated crystals,
Type II: Type Ila is indicative of a rather high temperature of formation whereas those of zircon got suppressed along the c axis. A similar
exceeding 900 °C. It is a suite of alkaline basalts, tuffs and volcanic well-shaped monazite type was recorded from the Donau River and may be
breccias that make up the hot rocks (Pollmann and Peterek, 2010). They correlated with the pegmatitic source rocks, proved by mineral chemistry.
were vented during the Neogene along the Eger Graben Rift which extends The same elongated morphological type of monazite grains encountered in
in SW-NE direction into the Czech Republic (Fig. 1). The zircon found in the the stream sediments was observed within the pegmatites closely
stream sediments are weakly translucent and multicolored, showing yellow associated with uraninite and columbite and of reddish brown color. The
to brownish tints and, in places, achieve jeweler's quality. Detrital zircon of second type met in the stream sediments closely resembles those monazites
this type were also observed in alkaline basalts in NSW, Australia, obtained during laboratory trials by Anthony (1965) and denominated as
Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Saxony, Germany, where zircon is also green "Piona Monazite” in pegmatites by Gramaccioli and Segalstad (1978).
associated with sapphire of gem quality (Garnier et al., 2005; Troger and The Miesbrunn type has a more tabular shape and paves the way from
Seifert, 1963; Zaw et al., 2006). In the chessboard classification scheme the aplitic and pegmatitic source rocks into the gneissic country rocks. This
sensu Dill (2010) this type of deposit has been categorized as 39B, zir- is also the case with the tabular crystals from the Murach- Trobesbach and
con-sapphire deposits within alkaline basalts. Type IIc is similar in its Tittling areas, which both have derived from granitic source rocks and are
outward appearance, its morphology, however, reflects a lower temperature rather stubby in shape.
of formation between 800 and 850 °C. Although displaying a grain shape 6. Conclusions
not very vulnerable to mechanical corrosion on transport, no clear evidence
The link of source ore mineral and placer ore minerals is of different
has been furnished that this type of zircon exists outside the class-III
type, involving, e.g. a statistical approach. Another connection as referred
drainage systems. This is true much more for type IIb zircon which also
to here has a more probabilistic character.
reflects volcanic host rocks, including their metamorphosed equivalents.
Zircon and monazite frequently observed in placer-type deposits open
Long-prismatic zircon is common to many volcaniclastic rocks, e.g.,
up different ways to disclose the provenance of heavy mineral assemblages.
tonsteins (Zhou et al., 1994). Type IId shows up in drainage systems of
Their value as an ore guide or provenance marker lies within a combination
class II, but only as "armored relics”. Sheltered in rutile it is able to survive
of both of their strong points rather than using zircon and monazite as
transport even over a longer distance unharmed. Only the pyramid of type
stand-alone marker minerals. Only in a few places they can be used as a
IId-zircon is corroded. Presumably, type IId is rather described as the result
marker mineral of its own.
of a longdistance transport of type-IIb crystals. Presence of minute acicular
Monazite may successfully be used to pinpoint a wide range of source
or long-prismatic zircon crystals, indicates a rapid cooling and solidifica-
rocks: (1) Pegmatite and aplites, (2) carbonatites and alkaline igneous
tion, i.e. a shallow or near surface emplacement level (Janousek et al.,
H.G. Dill et al. / Journal of Geochemical Exploration 112 (2012) 322-346 345

rocks, (3) granites, (4) volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, (5) phosphorites, REE-bearing accessory minerals in late-Variscan Granitic rocks from the Sierra de
Guadarrama. European Journal of Mineralogy 7, 989-1006.
(6) paragneisses (plus clay), (7) evaporites and calcareous sediments, (8)
Chang, L.L.Y., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J., 1998. Rock-forming minerals, Vol. 5 B, Nonsilicates:
coal- and biolites, (9) ferricretes, (10) phoscretes, (11) orecretes, and (12) sulfates, carbonates, phosphates and halides, 2 nd edition. Geological Society, London.
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Dhana Raju, R., 2008. Need for comprehensive, rapid exploration for atomic minerals and
distinguish pegmatite/aplite-related REE phosphates from monazite
value-added exploration-mining-processing of heavy mineral sands in India. Current
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Abhandlungen 118, 61 -73.
monazite.
Dill, H.G., 1994. Can REE patterns and U-Th variations be used a tool to determine the origin of
The grains under study do not show any fluorescence, excluding the apatite in clastic rocks? Sedimentary Geology 92,175-196.
youngest zircon grains which have been originated from Miocene alkaline Dill, H.G., 1995. Heavy mineral response to the progradation of an alluvial fan: implications
concerning unroofing of source area, chemical weathering, and paleo-relief (Upper
basalts.
Cretaceous Parkstein fan complex/SE Germany). Sedimentary Geology 95, 39-56.
Ultrabasic source rocks cannot be tracked down to the placer deposits Dill, H.G., 2007. A review of mineral resources in Malawi: with special reference to aluminium
by means of monazite and zircon. Their use is restricted to acidic and variation in mineral deposits. Journal of African Earth Sciences 47, 153-173.
intermediate magmatic rocks. Dill, H.G., 2008. Geogene and anthropogenic controls on the mineralogy and geochemistry of
modern alluvial-(fluvial) gold placer deposits in man-made landscapes in France,
The mineralogical and chemical composition of placer deposits Switzerland and Germany. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 99, 29-60.
abundant in monazite and zircon are to be reviewed always in view of the Dill, H.G., 2009. Pyrometallurgical relics of Pb-Cu-Fe deposits in south-eastern Germany: an
level on which the placer deposits developed in the hierarchy of the exploration tool and a record of mining history. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 100,
37-50.
drainage system. Zircon and monazite-bearing placers may be observed
Dill, H.G., 2010. The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: mineralogy and
from the colluvial-alluvial deposits near the source rock areas through the geology from aluminum to zirconium. Earth-Science Reviews 100, 1 -420.
fluvial deposits in the trunk river collecting the heavy minerals from a wide Dill, H.G., Kantor, W., 1997. Depositional environment, chemical facies and a tentative
classification of some selected phosphate accumulations. Geologisches Jahrbuch D 105,
range of channel system. Joint mineralog- ical and chemical studies of
3-43.
placer mineral assemblages from tributary rivers (class II) to perennial and Dill, H.G., Khishigsuren, S., Melcher, F., Bulgamaa, J., Bolorma, K.H., Botz, R., Schwarz-
ephemeral drainage systems of small creeks (class III), containing monazite Schampera, U., 2005. Facies-related diagenetic alteration in lacustrine-deltaic red beds of
and zircon offer a tool to delineate fertile source areas in basement blocks. the Paleogene Ergiliin Zoo Formation (Erdene Sum area, S Gobi, Mongolia). Sedimentary
Geology 181, 1 -24.
In paleoplacers, the hydrated alteration products of the REE Dill, H.G., Weber, B., Fuessl, M., 2007a. Mineralogische und sedimentpetrographische
phosphates which formed in situ may also successfully be used to describe Untersuchungen an Pb-Cu-Fe-fuhrenden Trias-Vererzungen zwischen Grafen- wohr und
the environment of deposition, in the test sites under study of sabkha-type. Freihung (Oberpfalz). Geologische Blatter Nordost-Bayern 57,105-118.
Dill, H.G., Wehner, H., Kus, J., Botz, R., Berner, Z., Stuben, D., Al-Sayigh, A., 2007b. The
Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments:
Acknowledgments environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential. lnterna- tional Journal of
Coal Geology 72, 89-123.
Dill, H.G., Techmer, A., Weber, B., Fuessl, M., 2008. Mineralogical and chemical distribution
We are indebted to I. Bitz for her assistance during the separation of
patterns of placers and ferricretes in Quaternary sediments in SE Germany: the impact of
heavy minerals and grain size analysis and F. Korte for doing the chemical nature and man on the unroofing of pegmatites. Journal of Geochemical Exploration
analyses with XRF. D. Weck has performed the XRD analyses. We extend 96,1-24.
our gratitude to an anonymous reviewer who reviewed our paper for the Dill, H.G., Weber, B., Gerdes, A., Melcher, F., 2009a. The Fe-Mn phosphate aplite “Silber- grube”
near Waidhaus, Germany: epithermal phosphate mineralization in the Hagendorf-Pleystein
Journal of Geochemical Exploration. We also thank the editor of the Journal pegmatite province. Mineralogical Magazine 72,1143-1168.
of Geochemical Exploration B. De Vivo for his editorial handling of our Dill, H.G., Henjes-Kunst, F., Berner, Z., Stuben, D., 2009b. Miocene diagenetic and epigenetic
manuscript. strontium mineralization in calcareous series from Cyprus and the Arabian Gulf:
metallogenic perspective on sub- and suprasalt redox-controlled base metal deposits.
Journal for Asian Earth Sciences 34, 557-576.
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