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As a partial fulfilment for the award of Diploma in Mechanical Engineering.



Submitted by:
REG. No. - 157ME17023

Under the Guidance of:

Mr. H N RAVI M.Tech



Abstract –
This project contains preparation of experimental setup to determine the various
performance parameter of 4-STROKE MULTI CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE. In this, the
Morse test setup with Rope brake dynamometer will be prepared for the measurement of
engine performance parameters such as Break power, Indicated power, Friction power, Mass
flow rate, Brake thermal efficiency, etc.
The power developed by an engine and measured at the output shaft is called the brake
power. Calculating brake power for single cylinder engine is easy. But, in case of multi
cylinder engine its quite difficult because of the inertia forces developed. In such cases the
Morse test can be used to measure the indicated power and mechanical efficiency of multi
cylinder engines.

Introduction -
ENGINE” consists of experimental setup for 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, petrol engine
(Morse test) will be developed to determine the various engine performance
parameters such as Break power, Indicated power, Friction power, Mass flow rate,
Brake thermal efficiency, etc.

The basic task in the design and development of engines is to reduce the cost of
production and improve the efficiency and power output. In order to achieve the
above task, the development engineer has to compare the power developed by an
engine with power developed by the other engines in terms of its output and
efficiency. Towards this end, he has to test the engine and make measurements of
relevant parameters that reflect the performance of the engine. For this the various
test performed on engine are as follow:

 Willan’s line method

 Morse test
 Motoring test
 Retardation test

From this set-up of Morse test is simple and comparatively easy to conduct.
Here, Rope brake dynamometer is used to measure power output.
Morse test -
The purpose of Morse test is to obtain the approximate indicated power of a
Multi cylinder engine. It consists of running the engine against the dynamometer
at a particular speed, cutting out the firing of each cylinder in turn and noting the
fall in BP each time while maintaining the speed constant. When one cylinder is
cut off, power developed is reduced and speed of engine falls. Accordingly, the
load on dynamometer is adjusted so as to restore the speed of the engine. This is
done to maintain Frictional power constant, which is considered to be independent
of the load and proportional to the engine speed. The observed difference in BP
between all cylinder firing and one cylinder cut off is the IP of the cut off cylinder.
Summation of IP of the entire cylinder would then give the IP of the engine under

The Morse Test is performed to find the power developed in each cylinder
in a multi cylinder internal combustion engine. It basically gives the relationship
between indicated power and brake power. It is assumed that friction and pumping
losses do not change and remains same when the cylinder is in firing condition as
well as in inoperative condition. Using these test, frictional losses in the IC engine
can be easily calculated. It is a simple approach to find the mechanical efficiency
of the engine.

Fig: Test rig of Morse test on 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, petrol engine with rope brake dynamometer
The test is carried out as follows: -

First power developed by all the cylinders is determined experimentally. Then

using the power supply cut off to the spark plug of cylinder, powers developed by
individual cylinders are determined. Then for the remaining cylinders, power
developed by engine is determined experimentally and obtained value is subtracted
from the first value and this gives power developed in the cylinder whose spark
plug was cut off. In the similar fashion, this test is performed on all the cylinders
of the engine individually. The main intention of carrying out the Morse test in an
IC engine is to provide an easy method of calculating the frictional losses. It
provides a kind of top-down approach in calculating frictional losses easily and
helps calculate mechanical efficiency. The total break power of the engine is first
calculated using a dynamometer. The process is repeated with one cylinder off at
each step. This the difference between total break power and break power of the
remaining cylinders gives the indicated power of the first cylinder; and so on. In
this way, indicated power of all cylinders are calculated and summed to obtain the
indicated power of the engine.

Friction power = Indicated power - Total brake power.

Once friction power is obtained, the mechanical efficiency and of the engine
can be calculated.

Future scope -
It becomes easy to calculate the performance of the Multi cylinder IC
engine with the help of Morse test. In future it may be most useful engine testing
technique over any other because of the increase in the use of high-speed vehicles
and the high-speed vehicles mainly contains the Multi cylinder engines. Slow
speed vehicles are going to escape very soon as every consumer demands the high-
speed vehicle. And the manufacturers also like to produce the Multi cylinder
engines. In that case for the testing of multi cylinder engines, Morse test will be
more useful. In future this manual test rig can be computerized using software’s
which would be operator friendly. Modifications can be made for Morse test and
also for specific Fuel consumption which can be measure by volume difference or
by weight difference. Radiator can be eliminated with direct connection. And flow
meter is required to measure mass and flow of exhaust gas.

A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-

ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels.

In petrol engines, the fuel and air are usually mixed after
compression. The pre-mixing was formerly done in
a carburetor, The process differs from a diesel engine in the
method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark plugs to
initiate the combustion process.

Parts of 4-stroke petrol Engine:

Cylinder block: -
The cylinder block is the main supporting structure for the various
components. The cylinders of multi-cylinder engine are cast as
single unit, called cylinder block. The cylinder head is mounted on
the cylinder block. The cylinder head and cylinder block are
provided with water jacket for cooling.

fig: Cylinder block

Cylinder: -
As the name implies it is a cylindrical vessel or space in which the
piston makes a reciprocating motion. The varying volume created in
the cylinder during the operation of the engine is filled with the working
fluid and subjected to different thermodynamics processes such as
suction, compression, combustion, expansion and exhaust. The
cylinder is supported in cylinder block.
fig: Cylinder head
Combustion chamber: -
The space enclosed in the upper part of the cylinder, by the cylinder head and the piston top during
the combustion process, is called the combustion chamber.

Piston: -
Piston is the heart of the engine. The function of the piston is to
compress the charge during the compression stroke and to transmit
the gas force to the connecting rod and then to the crank during power

fig: Piston, Piston ring &

gudgeon pin
Piston Ring: –
Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of the
cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:

1. They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the
sump during compression and combustion.

2. They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and

A piston ring is an open-ended ring that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of a piston in an
internal combustion engine. The gap in the piston ring compresses to a few thousandths of an inch
when inside the cylinder bore.

Gudgeon pin: –
It forms the link between the small end of the connecting rod and the

Inlet manifold: -
The pipe which connects the intake system to the inlet valve of the
engine and through which air or air-fuel mixture is drawn in to the fig: Intake manifold
cylinder is called inlet manifold.

Exhaust manifold: -
The pipe which connects the exhaust system to the exhaust valve of the engine and through which the
product of combustion escape in to the atmosphere is called the exhaust manifold.

Inlet and exhaust valve: -

Valves are commonly mushroom shaped poppet type. They are provided either
on the cylinder head or on the side of the cylinder for regulating the charge
coming in to the cylinder (inlet valve) and for discharging the products of
combustion from the cylinder (exhaust valve).

fig: Inlet & exhaust valve

Connecting Rod: –

The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate
at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and the
crankshaft rotates.

fig: Connecting rod

Spark Plug: –
The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that
combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment
for things to work properly.

fig: Spark plug

Crank shaft: –
The crankshaft is the part of an engine which translates reciprocating linear
piston motion into rotation. It typically connects to a flywheel, to reduce the
pulsation characteristic of the four-stroke cycle, and sometimes a torsional
or vibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsion vibrations
often caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest from
the output end acting on the torsional elasticity of the metal.

fig: Crank shaft

Cam shaft: -
The camshaft and its associated parts control the opening and closing
of the two valves. The associated parts are push rods, rocker arms,
valve springs and tappets. This shaft also provides the drive to the
ignition system.

fig: Cam shaft

Cam: -
These are made as integral parts of the camshaft and are designed in such way to open the valves at
the correct timing and to keep them open for necessary duration.

Fly wheel: -
The net torque imparted to crankshaft during one complete cycle of
operation of the engine fluctuates causing a change in the angular velocity
of the shaft. In order to achieve a uniform torque an inertia mass in the
form of a wheel attached to the output shaft and this wheel is called the

fig: fly wheel

Sump: -
The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in the bottom of
the sump.P