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1. Oscilloscope is a---------------measuring device?

A) Current B) Frequency C) Voltage D) None of these
2. In superposition theorem voltage sources are converted into-----------circuit?
A)Open B) Short C) Current Source D) None of these
3. ------------- phase like 3 phase provide constant power transfer to linear loads?
A)Single B) 02 C) Poly D) HV DC
4. Super position theorem converts a circuit into its --------- equilent?
A)Norton B) Thevenin C)Both D) None Of these
5. In IM requirement of variable speed can be met by using-------------?
A)Variable Freq device B)Wound rotor C)Traction Motor D) Shunt motor
6. Transformer are designed to have----------leakage inductance?
A)zero B) Low C) High D) Unity
7. Difference between synchronous speed and----------speed is called slip?
A)Shunt B) Series C) Actual Or Rotor D)None
8. Fourier transform imposes---------parity to fourier cosines ?
A)Odd B) Even C) Negative D) None
9. Clamping circuit adds------------level?
A)AC B) DC C) Smooth D) None
10. Device used to measure refraction of Eye is called--------?
A)Drumometer B) Ellipsograph C) Dioptometer D)None
11. CRO has two calibrations volt/div and------------------?
A)Freq/Div B) Current/Div C) Time/Div D)None
12. Ampere circuital law is electrically equilent to ---------- law?
A) Lens B)Biot-Savarts C)Faraday D) Gauss
13. Current density of armature winding in DC motors is in the range of--------?
A) 1 amp-5 amp B)10 amp-20amp C) 20amp-30amp D) None E) 4 to 7 A/m2
14. which cell is rechargeable ?
A)Primary B) Secondary C) Galvanic D) None
15. If current is decreased by 2% then power decreases by---------%?
A)2 B)4 C)8 D) 16
16. 33Kv-66Kv is referred as-----------transmission voltages?
A)Primary B) Secondary C) Variable D) None
17. Polarization is caused by---------------nature of EM waves?
A)Longitudinal B)Transverse C) Reflex D) None
18. DIAC is a-----------terminal-----------layer device?
A) 02,04 B)03,02 C)02,03 D)02,05
19. Electric lines of force tends to---------------------- each other?
A)Move Parallel to B) Move Orthogonal to C) Move Away from D)None
20. Critical value of resistance in large transmission lines is------------ohm?
A)500 B)1000 C)2000 D)None
21. Thermal power station moderate------------kv?
A)11 B)33 C)66 D)None
22. Efficiency of thermal power station is-----------%?
A)33 B)40 C)50 D)60
23. Insulation in high voltage transmission is--------type?
A)Pin B)Disk C)Suspension D)None
24. Above 220Kv transmission line is called-----------?
A)Moose (400kv) B)Zebra C)Panther(132kv) D)Dog(66KV)
25. Diversity Factor of a group is always----------?
A)Unity B)Zero C)Greater than 1 D)Less than 1
26. Load factor is given by --------?
A)max load/avg load B)Avg load/max load C)Avg load/Connected load D)None
27. Minimum Transmission voltage is------------KV?
A)33 B)66 C)110 D)120
28. Active devices are those which --------------?
A)Delivers power B) Absorbs power C) Both D)None
29. If electrons are moving towards the +ve terminal then power is --------------?
A)Delivered B)Absorbed C)Both D)None
30. In IM when air gap increases then the short circuit current----------------?
A)Decreases B)Increases C)Remain the same D)First increases then decreases
31. Simplest active device is-------------------?
A)Inverting amp B)Non inverting amp C)Half wave rectifier D)Full wave rectifier
32. Rectifier using Oscilloscope to stop diode drop is called------------rectifier?
A)Active B)Passive C)Saturating D) Non-Saturating
33. For non repetitive signals--------------transform is used?
A)Fourier B)Wavelet C)Laplace D)Z-
34. For discrete stability of characteristic polynomial equation,--------- method is used?
A)Nyquest B)Hurwitz C)Bode plot C)Root locus
35. Delta service is cheap because of----------------?
A)No Ground Wire B)No Neutral wire C)No Phase wire D)No Line wire
36. In Analog intensity modulation,---------------applied to the LED is increased?
A)Current B)Voltage C)Frequency D)Amplitude
37. For Multiple video channels, --------- diodes are required?
A)Zener B)LED C)Schottky D)None E) Laser
38. Logic gates are made of-----------?
A)Diodes B)Simple Transistor C)FET D)None
39. For 02 inputs, ----------- Boolean functions are required ?
A)04 B)02 C)08 D)16
40. Advantages of open loop system are simplicity & ---------- ?
A)Construction (COST) B)Noise Reduction C)Accuracy D)Reliability
41. Open loop system is also called------------?
A)Manual B)Automatic C)Stable C)Passive
42. Circuit Breakers-----------on fault detection?
A)Opens B)Closes C)No Action D)Triggers alarm
43. Curl of a vector is ------------?
A)Vector B)Scalar C)Gradient of That vector D)All of the above
44. Voltage is closed -------------integral of E?
A)Surface B)Line C)Volume D)Area
45. Aero turbine don't have ---------?
A)Stator B)Compressor C)Fan D) Fuel Intake System
46. Disadvantages of non inverting amplifier is -------------?
A)Limited speed B)Noise (Distortion) C)Error D)Unpredictability
47. Voltage is a Difference between -------------- Pressure?
A)Magnetic B)Electric C)Ohmic D)Lorentz
48. For zero surface charge density, normal component of -------------- is continuous?
A)EMF B)MMF C)EF density D) MF Intensity
49. Number of state variables are ------------ the order of the Differential equation?
A)Greater Than B)Equal To C)Smaller Than D)None
50. Resistivity of a material depends on----------?
A)Length B)Area C)Material D)None
51. When a resistor is removed from star connection, total power ------------?
A)Reduce by Under root 3 B)Increase by Under root 3 C)Remain the same D)None
52. Holding current is--------------latching current?
A)3 Times B)1/3 times C)2 Times D)1/2 Times
53. Stepper motor is a ------------- Motor?
A)DC B)AC C)Synchronous D)None
54. O/P voltage in voltage dividing rule is---------------?
A)R1/R2 B)(R1+R2)Vin/R1 C)R1 Vin/(R1+R2) D)None
55. Cu oxide ------------- is used for passing currents through meter in one direction?
A)Transistor B)Diode C)Voltmeter C)Rectifier E)Diac
56. Match Filter is used to improve ----------?
A)Impedance Matching B)SNR C)BER D)Design
57. Ipv4 is a -------------bits?IPV6 is 128bits
A)8 B)16 C)32 D)24
58. Diff Amp is basically used as -------------?
A)Current amp B)BW amp C)Push Full amp D)Voltage amp
59. Coupling used in Diff Amp is-------------- coupling?
A)RC B)Direct C)RL D)Transformer
60. In closed loop transient function, different variables are represented as ---------?
A)Scalar B)Vector C)Arrow diagram D) None
61. Impedance is given by -----------?
A)R/L B)R/C C)Phasor V/ Phasor I
62. In OSI Model Link layer is also called ----- Layer?
A)Data Link B)Transport C)Physical D)None
63. Natural Uranium contains ---------------% U235?
A)Zero B)0.2 C)0.5 C)0.7
64. Green function is used to solve ----------- order differential equation?
A)1st B)2nd C)3rd D)4th
65. Emission of photo electrons depends on -------------- of light?
A)Wavelength B)Frequency C)Intensity D)None
66. Voltages above 230 kV are considered as -------------voltages?
A)High B)Low C)Extra High D)None
67. Lactometer is used to find specific gravity of milk and ----------- in Milk?
A)Impurity B)Water C)proteins D)None (Density is best suitable if given)
68. Null detector used in Wheat Stone bridge is a/an
A) Ammeter B) Voltmeter C) Galvanometer D) Wattmeter
69. A signal can be reconstructed from its samples if the sampling period is........... the signal period
A) Equal B) Twice C) Thrice D) Half
70. There are 02 types of over current protections, Instantaneous over current and .................... over current?
A)Variable Time B)Constant (Definite) Time C)Delay feedback D)None
71. Which of the following is not a purpose of disturbance monitor?
A) Model Validation B)Disturbance Investigation C)Increase Protection Settings D)Assessment Of performance
72. ............ voltage is a small voltage (less than 10) that can be measured between two points ?
A)Dim B)Tame C)Stray D)Ground
73. .............. is used to sense fault and initiate a trip?
A)Circuit Breaker B) Alternator C)Protection Relay D)Cut Outs
74. The Principal of ............ can be used to analyze faults in power systems?
A)Thevenin B)Norton C)Superposition D)Jordon
75. The ripple frequency for bridge rectifier is.....................?
A)Same as I/P B)Twice of I/P C)Half of I/P D)None
76. For conversion high impedance to low impedance .................. amplifier is used?
A)Inverting B)Non Inverting C)Summation D)Voltage Follower
77. It is desirable to avoid differentiator because,................?
A)It is costly B)It High Impedance C)It creates Noise/Distortion D)None
78. Speed of rotation of stepper motor can be determined from..........?
the step angle and the command pulse rate of a stepper motor
79. ............... is based on heating effect of current?
A)Hot wire Instrument B)Megger C)Watt meter D)Voltmeter
80. The motor in which Primary windings is stationary and secondary rotates, also called transformer motor is .................. Motor?
A)Magnetically coupled B)DC Motor C) Asynchronous D)Induction
81. Types of generators are..................?
A)01 B)05 C)03 D)02
82. In synchronous motor current is provided by ................ ?
A)Rotor B)DC Current source C)AC I Source D)None
83. Circuit current is ........................ at series resonance?
A) Minimum B)Maximum C)Zero D)Infinite
84. At parallel resonance the Impedance is ........................ ? (Check parallel resonance On Web)
A)Min B)Max C)Zero D)Unity
85. If all the conductors in a power system are grounded to the same location, then the risk of electric shock will be..................?
A)Max B)Min C)Zero D)Neglected
86. For charging batteries we have................Generators?
A)Shunt B)Series C)Compound D)None
87. Transmission lines mostly use High Voltage.....................Phase AC?
A)Single B)Two C)Three D)Neutral
88. In submarine power systems, power is transmitted through ................... cables?
A)HV DC B)LV DC C)Under Ground D)Over Head

The electric force on a test charge in an electric field is proportional to density of the lines...................?

1)Two type of over-current relay one is instantaneous current protection relay other one is.constant time overcurrent......
2)............. fuses, thermal cut-outs, MOV's, TRIAC's, DIAC's, reed switches/relays, and lots more. protection
detects both A.c D.c
3).............synchronous Generator which has good control frequency Watt Var etc
4) Reactive power at load determine by square root(apperent^2 – active power^2)..........
5) ohmic power loss related question was their

From the physics of electric power transmission, when a conductor is subjected to

electric power (or voltage), electric current flows in the medium. Resistance to the flow produces
heat (thermal energy) which is dissipated to the surroundings. This power loss is referred to
as ohmic loss
6)............Transformer use for high frequency

• Alternative energy inverters

• Electronic switching devices
• Military Power Supplies
• LED Lighting
• Plasma Generation
• Personal electronics
7)types of power switches 4 Spst,dpdt, spdt,dpst........
8)............semicontrol swtich

Power Electronics devices are static switches which can be switch on/off by a small control signal. ...
Some devices like SCR can be switched ON by a small control signal but once device start
conducting doesn't switch OFF when control signal is removed, these devices are called half
or semi-controlled
9)one was rankine cycle related

The Rankine cycle is a model used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems. It was also
used to study the performance of reciprocating steam engines. The Rankine cycle is an idealized
thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work while undergoing
phase change.
10)Semiconductor is forward biased current flows which one will be least voltage range
I 0.2-3 V II 0.7-7 V 0.6 to 0.7 etc
11) In bulb current reduced to 2% power will reduced to
I 2% II 4% II 8%

These were the only questions from power section as far as i remember
1. Why hollow conductors are used in transmission line corona effect
2. How load is modeled in load flow analysis
Load flow analysis is mainly used in analyzing the normal operation state, while static
security analysis is used when some elements are out of service. Its purpose is to check
whether the system can operate safely, i.e., if there are equipment overloads, or some node
voltages are too low or too high.

The study of load flow involves the following three steps:

1. Modeling of power system components and network.

2. Development of load flow equations.
3. Solving the load flow equations using numerical techniques.
3. Series capacitor is transmission line results in
Series capacitors are used to compensate the inductance of transmission line. Series
capacitors will increase the transmission capacity and the stability of the line. Series
capacitors are also used to share the load between parallel lines. Depending on the size of the
bank, each phase consists of one or two segments.

4. What limits design of long transmission line

Stability consideration, Ferranti effect etc

5. What is the zero sequence current if fault current is 90A

Ia=Ib=Ic= 1/3(ia +ib +ic) notsure
6. Series reactor in transmission line is used for
To compensate Ferranti effect

1. increase directivity of antenna depends on

A. high gain high bandwidth B. low gain low bandwidth C. high gain low bandwidth

D. low gain high bandwidth

2. gsm uses tdma, fdma

3. orthogonal means two line perpendicular to each other
4. amps uses fdma
5. Which modulation has higher data rates fm,am,qam,qpsk
6. fly back converter for dc/dc,ac/dc,dc/ac,ac/ac conversion

The flyback converter is used in both AC/DC and DC/DC conversion with galvanic isolation between the
input and any outputs
7. large phase mercury rectifier advantage

(A) it is noiseless in operation

(B) it responds quickly to varying load demands
(C) it has high efficiency
(D) all of the above.

8. cmrr ratio of powers of differential gain over common mode gain

9. series capacitance in transmission line for steady state stability,protection

10. shunt reactors used for

A. To boost receiving end voltage under light loads

B. To boost receiving end voltage under heavy loads
C. To bring down receiving end voltage at light loads
D. To bring down receiving end voltage under heavy loads
Answer: decrease voltage at low loads

11. In a transfer function k=0 root loci roots are at the poles

11a. In a transfer function gain k=0 root locus roots are

A. Observable
B. Unobservable
C. Stable
D. unstable system

12. For System stability roots must be __ right half of s plane,left half of s plane, jw

13. TDMA uses

Harmonized Differential Quaternary Phase-Shift Keying H-DQPSK and Harmonized Continous phase
modulation CPM
14. Output occurring due to only input with zero initial conditions called

A. zero state
B. zero input
C. absolute state
D. real state
Answer: Zero state

15. The maximum loads attached to a device called fan in,fan out

Fan In: The fan-in defined as the maximum number of inputs that a logic gate can accept. If number
of input exceeds, the output will be undefined or incorrect. It is specified by manufacturer and is
provided in the data sheet.

Fan Out: The fan-out is defined as the maximum number of inputs (load) that can be connected to
the output of a gate without degrading the normal operation. Fan Out is calculated from the amount
of current available in the output of a gate and the amount of current needed in each input of the
connecting gate. It is specified by manufacturer and is provided in the data sheet. Exceeding the
specified maximum load may cause a malfunction because the circuit will not be able supply the
demanded power.

16. Definition of gauss law(Gauss's law states that the net flux of an electric field in a closed surface is
directly proportional to the enclosed electric charge flux=Q/epsilon-not) ,farady law(Faraday's law of
induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric
circuit to produce an electromotive force —a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction.) ,ampere
circuital law(Ampere's Circuital Law states the relationship between the current and the magnetic field
created by it. This law states that the integral of magnetic field density (B) along an imaginary closed path
is equal to the product of current enclosed by the path and permeability of the medium), biot-savart law(In
physics, specifically electromagnetism, the Biot–Savart law is an equation describing the magnetic field
generated by a constant electric current. It relates the magnetic field to the magnitude, direction, length, and
proximity of the electric current)

17. Calculate voltage of toaster with joules=7500 ,i=13.64A ,t=5, v?

P=7500/5= 1500W => P=IV => V=P/I=1500/13.64 = 110V

18. Differential amplifier amplifies Difference between two inputs.

19. link layer design also called

Datalink layer
20. tcp/ip address 32 bits

21. multiply two 16 bit numbers result is 4 bytes

22. power factor true power or Active Power or Actual Power/apparent power
23. differential amplifier couples transistors direct coupling
24. 2 bjt,s replaced with Darlington pair what happens

In electronics, a multi-transistor configuration called the Darlington configuration (commonly called

a Darlington pair) is a compound structure of a particular design made by two bipolar transistors connected in
such a way that the current amplified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one.

A typical Darlington transistor has a current gain of 1000 or more, so that only a small base current is needed
to make the pair switch on higher switching currents.
Another advantage involves providing a very high input impedance for the circuit which also translates
into an equal decrease in output impedance.
The ease of creating this circuit also provides an advantage. It can be simply made with two separate NPN
transistors, and is also available in a variety of single packages.

25. Fault current 1500A zero sequence current 500A

26. Induction motor torque proportional to slip, inversely to slip,square of slip current,
27. waves reach at the antenna which modulated digital, modulated analog, aligned waves
28. Dc motor pole tip chamfered to reduce armature reaction effect

29. Primary and secondary voltages in transformer are in 180 out of phase
30. Definition of

Electrical flux density: Electric

flux density is a measure of the strength of an electric field generated by a
free electric charge, corresponding to the number of electric lines of force passing through a given area.

Magnetic flux density: The flux

density is the number of magnetic lines of flux that pass through a certain
point on a surface. The SI unit is T (tesla), which is weber per square metre (Wb/m2) and the unit in the
CGS system is G (gauss). 1 tesla is equivalent to 10,000 gauss.

Magnetic induction: Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an
electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

31. Why Impedance matching performed for signal transferring to reduce noise,reduce attenuation,

A. To reduce external noise

B. To keep the line balanced
C. To reduce reflected energy
D. To reduce attenuation

32. At no load losses occurring in transformer are due to

A. eddy current
B. hysteresis
C. core loss
D. copper loss
Answer: core losses

33. At no load transformer the applied voltage _ leads/lags by 90/lags somewhat by 90 to current

34. laplace transform of unit step function 1/s impulse function is 1

35. for 8 pole generator how much hz respond to one revolution

A. 2
B. 4
C. 8
D. 16
Answer: 4hz
36. Why hollow conductors are used in transmission line
A. reduce weight of copper
A. improve stability
B. reduce corona
C. increase power transmission capacity
Answer: reduce corona
Corona: A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air
surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged. Spontaneous corona discharges occur naturally in high-
voltage systems unless care is taken to limit the electric field strength.

37. What limits design of long transmission line thermal considerations/conductor area

A. thermal considerations
B. conductor area
Answer: conductor area

38. Generally in load flow solutions the load is modelled as

A. constant impedance load
B. constant power load
C. constant current load
D. Dynamically varying load
Answer: Constant power

Subject [83 questions]

Q-1: hollow conductors are used in transmission lines? To reduce corona
Q-2: Shunt Reactors are needed to boost? To compensate for the leading power Factor they boost reactance
Q-3: GSM use which of the following multiplexing Technique? According to the examiner mentality answer would be TDMA,
otherwise in GSM each channel based on FDMA is subdivided using TDMA, and so both FDMA + TDMA are used
Q-4: In a line ground fault system, fault current is 15 Amp, what would be zero sequence current? 5Amps

Q-5: To reduce cost of power generation? Answer: Load factor(higherincrease)+Diversity factor(higherincrease)

Q-6: In a transformer with no load condition? Voltage leads or lags behind and by what degree approximately 900? Answer: Its
perfectly in phase < = not sure about this answer

Q-7: which of the following are predominant input losses in a no load transformer? Eddy losses/copper losses/windage losses?

Core losses only which contains eddy and hysteresis losses

Q-8: In a DC machine what is the angle between rotor and stator fields? 45°/90°? Answer: its 90°

Q-9: A numerical with energy consumed by a heater given in joules, time given in second, also current drawn was given and
voltage was asked?

Q-10: Why the pole tips are chamfered wound? Answer: In order to reduce concentration of flux at the leading pole tips: of a
dyanamo and to reduce armature reaction effect as well.

Q-11: What is the main task of power electronics ? ac-dc/ac-ac/dc-ac conversion? Answer: All of the above

Q. What is the main purpose of power electronics?

A. The main task of power electronics is to control and convert electrical power from one form to another.
AC to DC conversion: Rectifier is used for converting an AC voltage to a DC voltage. Rectifier
applications: Variable speed dc drives, Battery chargers, DC power supplies and Power supply for a
specific application like electroplating.
DC to AC conversion: Inverter circuit is used to convert DC voltage to an alternating voltage.
Inverter applications: Emergency lighting systems, AC variable speed drives, Un-interrupted power
supplies and Frequency converters.
DC to DC conversion: A dc-to-dc converter circuit was called a chopper.
Chopper applications: DC drive, Battery charger and DC power supply.
AC to AC conversion: A cycloconverter converts an AC voltage to another AC voltage. Cycloconverter
applications: It is rarely used. Can be used for controlling the speed of an AC traction motor

Q-12: Flyback converter is used to? Answer: It is used in both ac-dc and dc-dc conversion
Q-13: Series capacitors are used in transmission line to? Answer: for voltage regulation
Q-14: load convey capacity of AC line is limited by ? Answer: size
Q-15: AMPS use which of the following multiplexing technique? Tdm/fdm/cdm? Answer: FDMA
Q-16: Orthogonal coordinate system has? Parallel/perpendicular? Answer: This system has surface that meet at right angle so
the answer is Perpendicular
Q-17: TDMA uses which of the following technique? Answer: Time division technique
Q-18: laplace Transfer of unit step function is? s or 1/s? Answer: 1/s
Q-19: Torque of induction motor is proportional to? Slip/current? Answer: I think its directly proportional to slip
Q-20: Which motor has the highest torque? Series/dc/shunt? Answer: Series Dc Motor
Q-21: Motor that should not be used with load removed? Answer: Series Motor again
Q-22: An Ideal voltage source has? Answer: 0Ω Resistance
Q-23: An Ideal current source has? Answer: ∞Ω Resistance i-e opens circuited resistance?
Q-24: Two questions related to mercury arc rectifier?

Q-25: Sensors in industry send data in analog form, and before feeding them to system, which of the following converts them to
digital? Of course it was ADC (analog to digital converter)

Q-26: One question was from transistor biasing technique that discussed property of a particular technique

The biasing in transistor circuits is done by using two DC sources VBB and VCC. It is economical
to minimize the DC source to one supply instead of two which also makes the circuit simple.
The commonly used methods of transistor biasing are

• Base Resistor method

• Collector to Base bias
• Biasing with Collector feedback resistor
• Voltage-divider bias
All of these methods have the same basic principle of obtaining the required value of
IB and IC from VCC in the zero signal conditions.
Q-27: What is power factor? Real power/Apparent power
Almost 5 questions were from control engineering that talked about, if inputs are zero than state response is what?

The zero-input response, which is what the system does with no input at all. This is due to initial
conditions, such as energy stored in capacitors and inductors. The zero-state response, which is the
output of the system with all initial conditions zero. ... If a = 0 then a zero input requires
a zero output,

other were related to nature of poles and zeros? And planes?

The location of the poles in the s-plane therefore define the n components in the homogeneous
response as described below:
1. A real pole pi = −σ in the left-half of the s-plane defines an exponentially decaying component
, Ce−σt, in the homogeneous response. The rate of the decay is determined by the pole
location; poles far from the origin in the left-half plane correspond to components that decay
rapidly, while poles near the origin correspond to slowly decaying components.
2. A pole at the origin pi = 0 defines a component that is constant in amplitude and defined by
the initial conditions.
3. A real pole in the right-half plane corresponds to an exponentially increasing component Ceσt
in the homogeneous response; thus defining the system to be unstable.
4. A complex conjugate pole pair σ } jω in the left-half of the s-plane combine to generate a
response component that is a decaying sinusoid of the form Ae−σt sin (ωt + φ) where A and
φ are determined by the initial conditions. The rate of decay is specified by σ; the frequency
of oscillation is determined by ω.
5. An imaginary pole pair, that is a pole pair lying on the imaginary axis, }jω generates an
oscillatory component with a constant amplitude determined by the initial conditions.
6. A complex pole pair in the right half plane generates an exponentially increasing component.
These results

Q1=The number of loads connected to the gate circuits are called fan-out?

Q2=A question about computer organization and programmer?

Q3=In a transformer the primary and seconday voltage has a phase difference of 1800?

Q4=To transfer maximum,which property is used? (Impedance matching property)

Q5= The main goal of Power electronics is to?

. The main task of power electronics is to control and convert electrical power from one form to
Q6=Calculate the voltage of 50W toaster if the 12.5 amperes current passes through it for 5 seconds?

Already Solved.
Q7= If guage of copper is increased in impedance matching transformer what will happen ?
One increment in wire gauge is (approximately) a 20% decrease in cross-section area, and a
25% increase in (dc) resistance.

I'm making some simplifying assumptions here, like the lengths and packing factors of the #16
and #22 portions are the same, skin effect and coating thickness are negligible, and so on
In your example, you have 100 turns of #22 wire in series with 100 turns of #16 for a total of
200 turns. #16 wire is 1.95 times the diameter of #22, so it takes up 79% of the winding cross-
section area. The resistance of the #22 portion is 3.8 times the resistance of the #16 portion, so if
the resistance of 100 turns of #16 is R, then the total resistance of the dual-gauge winding is
4.8 R.
For comparison, #18 wire has an area 64% of #16 wire, so 200 turns of #18 would have about
the same winding cross-section as 100 turns of #16 plus 100 turns of #22. Its resistance would
be 1.56 R for 100 turns, or 3.12 R for 200 turns. So using #18 for the entire winding would have
35% lower resistance.

5. ____ is defined as the measure of instrument by which it is error free

A. Accuracy
B. Precision
C. Resolution

The following terminology are often used in relation to the measurement uncertainty:

• Accuracy: The error between the real and measured value.

• Precision: The random spread of measured values around the average measured values.
• Resolution: The smallest to be distinguished magnitude from the measured value.

6. Electrical lines of force about a negative charge are

A. Circular, anticlockwise
B. Circular, clockwise
C. Radial, inward
D. Radial, outward
Answer: C

7. A _____ meter is used a null detector in wheatstone bridge

A. Ammeter
B. Voltmeter
C. Galvanometer

8. A moving iron ammeter coil has few turns of thick wire in order to have:
A. Low resistance
B. High sentivity
C. Effective damping
D. Large scale

9. A permanent magnet coil meter has which features

A. Low power consumption
B. no hysteresis loss
C. reduced eddy current
D. reduced damping
E. all

10. A digital signal is what in

A. Dicrete
B. Discrete in time
C. Discrete in amplitude
D. Discrete in neather time nor amplitude
E. Discrete in both amplitude and time
Answer: E
11. The EM field and current are concentrated close to the surface of the conductor. The phenomenon is called?
Answer: Skin Effect
12. The wavelength of an EM wave after reflection at an angle on a surface
Answer: Increases in the actual direction of propagation
13. When electric field is parallel to the plane of incidence, the electromagnetic wave is said to be
Answer: Parallel polarized
14. Δ x H = J + D is Maxwell equation
15. Bucholz relay is used in Transformer Protection
16. Gates between following range reffered by MSI 10-100
17. Gates between following range reffered by LSI 100-10000
18. Which type of system is referred by pneumatic system
A. Pressure
B. Hydraulic
C. Fluid
19. Solid grounding is used for voltages upto 33kv
a. above 220 kV
b. above 11 kV
c. below 660 V
d. below 115 V
Answer: C
20. Cross over distortion is
Answer: Class B
21. The channel of a JFET is between the
A. Gate and drain
B. Drain and source
C. Gate and source
D. Input and output
Answer: B
22. Velocity saturation in MOSFET is

That means that above a critical electric field, they tend to stabilize their speed and eventually
cannot move faster. Velocity saturation is specially seen in short-channel MOSFET transistors,
because they have higher electric fields.
23. Which type of engine uses maximum air fuel ratio
A. Petrol engine
B. Gas engine
C. Diesel engine
D. Gas turbine
E. Hydro turbine

24. If ROC (Region of Convergence) does not converge then which transform will converges?
If ROC (Region of convergence) does not include unit circle then
a. Fourier transform converges
b. Z-transform converges
c. Harley transform converges
A discrete Hartley transform (DHT) is a Fourier-related transform of discrete, periodic data similar to
the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), with analogous applications in signal processing and related fields.
25. Transfer function is
A. Mathematical model
B. System with no physical structure
C. Can be calculated through differential equations

26. In LTI system is characterized by

A. Impulse input
B. Step input

28. Question about Convolution

29. Which bulb operates on lowest power

A. Night bulb
B. Neon bulb
C. GLS bulb
D. Torch lamp
Answer: D

30. Which thing happens in gas discharge lamps

Answer: Ionization in vapor or gas
31. Continuous signal in the time domain in frequency domain discrete

32. Superposition theorem relates to

33. Which of the following relay is used in Motor protection

Answer: Thermal relay
34. Kilowatt hour is the unit of
Answer: Energy
35. In z transform cos pi/4 is the period is equal to
36. What will be the sampling frequency that reveals the same sampled signal

It must be at least twice the highest frequency present within the wanted spectrum of the sampled signal.
37. Which transistors are used in TTL? Bipolar

38. Which system used dc to dc high voltage gain

A. Solar system
B. Battery backup

39. Which statement is false for switching regulators in

40. To decrease the power in control system we use

41. Power plant the availability of power is least for

A. Wind
B. Solar
C. Tidal
D. Geothermal
E. Bio gass

42. A diode that has a negative resistance characteristics is the

A. Schottkey diode
B. Tunnel diode
C. Hot-carrier diode
D. Laser diode
E. Zener Diode
Answer: B
43. Common mode rejection ratio is the ratio of
Answer: Differential mode gain to Common Mode gain
44. Resolution of ADC is defined as the no of bits in
Answer: Output
45. The control system is used for

46. Horizontal line in the s plane is for transfer Function

47. Recharge able batteries are called? Secondary batteries

48. The batteries which are charged and discharged continuously
49. Which system needs more stability
A. Automatic washing machine
B. Traffic signal system
C. Home heating system
D. Motor with position control

50. Natural frequency in the control system represents

51. For measuring small resistance we use
Answer: Kelvin bridge
52. Hay bridge is used for the measurement of
Answer: Inductance
53. ____ bridge used for the measurement of resistance
Answer: Wheatstone bridge
54. In three phase 4 wire system how many voltages are available
Answer: Two
55. _____ acts as voltage controlled variable capacitor
Answer: Varactor
56. By which a meter after checking with no current returns to its previous state
Answer: Controlling Torque
57. By connecting a shunt of higher value in ammeter what will decrease
Answer: Current sensitivity decreases
58. If z transform lies in ROC then
A. System is stable
B. Inverse of system is stable
C. Both system and its inverse are unstable
D. Both system and its inverse are stable
59. If R1 is the resistance of a coil of copper at t oC and RT is the resistance at T oC and also the resistance temperature
coefficient of copper per degree centrigrade at 0oC is 1/234.45, then Rt/RT
(A) (1+t) / (1+T)
(B) (1+ 234.45t) / (1+234.45 T)
(C) (234.45 + t) / (234.45 + T)
(D) (234.45 + t2 ) / (234.45 + T 2).
60. The shunt winding of a motor has a resistance of 85 ohm at 22oC. When the motor runs at full load, its resistance increases to
100 ohms. The resistance temperature coefficient of winding per 0oC is 0.004. The rise in temperature of the winding will be
(A) 20oC
(B) 50oC
(D) 100oC.
61. Wimbledon Tournament is for? Lawn Tennis
62. All organizations share
63. For minimum input a person has got the output he has used the resources
64. Sharjah is in? UAE
65. Against Nehru’s Report Qaid-e-Azam proposed a solution of how many points? Answer: 14 points
66. the punishment for robbery in Islam
67. on simple series question (___, 15, 19, 24,) answer 12
68. Which of the following Rukn-e-Islam is called a shield? Answer: Fasting
69. What is the literal meaning of word Qiblah? Answer: In front of
70. Northern end of Pakistan is occupied by western range of which of following? Answer: Himalayan range
71. The ancient name of IRAN
72. TLRIA is to WOULD then YBVLKA is for? BEYOND
73. Which word will be in the middle select and tick that one
A. Rigorous
B. Retrospective
C. Remove
D. Revive
E. rumor
74. on 6th September India attacked
75. Washington DC is called ____ (City of Magnificent Distance)

MCQs of MEPCO test Jr.Engr Electrical 2015

Some of the MCQs that I remember are :

1. If the height of the transmission towers is increased, which of the following parameters is likely to change?
a. capacitance b. inductance c. resistance d. No change
Ans: a

2. If ROC (Region of convergence) does not include unit circle then

a. Fourier transform converges b. Z-transform converges
c. Harley transform converges

3. The MSI (Medium Scale Integration) technique, the number of transistors on the single IC package can be fabricated are:
a. less than 10 b. 10 to 100
c. 100 to 1000 d. 1000 to 10000
Ans: b

4. The LSI (Large Scale Integration) technique, the number of transistors which can be fabricated on the single IC are:
a. 10 to 100 b. 1000 to 10000
c. 100 to 1000 d. greater than 10000
Ans: c

5. TTL (Transistor - Transistor Logic) of chip integration uses

a. Bipolar junction b. Field effect
c. complementary symmetry metal oxide
Ans: a

6. In 3-phase 4-wire system, how many voltages are available?

a. three b. four c. nine d. two

7. For the signal Cos(pi/4), the fundamental period is

a. 8 b. 4 c. 2 d. 16
Ans: 8

8. In Z-transform, ROC always lies around:

a. origin b. pole c. zero d. z=1 e. z=-1

9. For getting the sampled signal without any distortion, according to Nyquist criteria, the minimum sampling period must be
a. double the max period b. equal to the max period
c. greater than the max period d. half the max period
Ans: d
10. Electrical lines of force about a negative charge are
a. Circular, anticlockwise b. Circular, clockwise
c. Radial, inward d. Radial, outward
Ans: c

11. Which meter is used a null detector in wheatstone bridge

a. Ammeter b. Voltmeter
c. Ohm-meter d. Galvanometer
Ans: d

12. The LTI (Linear Time Invarient) system can be completely characterized by
a. Ramp input b. Sinusoidal input
c. Impulse input d. Step input
Ans: c

13. When the current in the light bulb decreases by 2%, its power decreases by
a. 4% b. 2% c. 8% d. 40%
Ans: a

14. The fact that a conductor carries more current on the surface as compared to core is known as:
a. Faraday's effect b. Ampere's Effect
c. corona d. Skin effect
Ans: d

Q: There was one more question in which two options becomes correct:

When the current in the light bulb decreases by 2%, its power decreases by
a. 4% b. 2% c. 8% d. 40%

Solution no 1
answer = 2%

Solution no 2
answer = 4%

Repeated Questions in White Booklet

1. KWh is the unit of energy

2. Motor overload protection
3. i think bucholz relay question was coming two times if i am not wrong

NPGCL Questions

Share technical questions here i will Update and will complete all questions in NPGCL Test
1.Vertex is also called=Node
2.Bulb power is 2% then current will be =4%
3.What is transformer part Primary coil secondary coil & = Core
4. Electric lines of force about negative point charge are =radial inwards
5.Which is Semiconducter Switch = Thyristor
6. How thyrister is turned off= Forced Commutation
7. Protection relay used are =Instantanous and Time Over current
8.Current transformer is used with Protection device for measuring
9.Which is not Part of Steam Turbine??Moderator
10.Diode Operation voltage 0-0.7v?
11.Power Plants run on Natural Gas ,Steam coal , etc are =Fossil Fuel Plants
12.Which Plant donot used Heat Exchangers or turbines= Geothermal
13.steam power plant flow chart or something how many steps=4
14. in a generator of 60 HZ and 10 Pole what will be N Speed = 120*60/10=720
15. In a Substation where no transformer is Switchig Substation
16.high frequency application we use --Air core Transformer
17.Sin wave is characterized by amplitude, frequency and (phase)
18.Dynamic Disturbance Recorders (DDRs), which record incidents that portray power system behavior during dynamic events
such as low-frequency
19.Induction motor rotor are Squirrel cage and Wound type
20. A sinosoid is representd by Phasor
21.If there are less then 4 free electron then its =Conductor
22.Which is Not a substation = Line Substation
23.Which is not at type of thyristor?= inverter Grade
24. Efficency of thermal plant =33-48%
25.What is basic pronciple behind motor operation?=electromagnetism
26. induction motor is similar to=asynchronous
27.Synchronous generators are used, because they offer precise control of voltage, frequency, VARS , watts.
28.Voltage Regulation in generation voltage = i think +-3 4 was not in opt
29. SEIMENS is unit of Conductance
30.System protection devices which includes .Reliablity selectivity, cost , speed , simplicity
31.2 types of Exciters 1. Rotating and 2. static
32. Which transfomrmer is used in arc Welding???? Leakage
33.When admittance increases current increases or Decrease? Increase
34.Power switch is characterized into how many groups
35. stator core is made of many thin metal sheets called lamination
36.most squirrel cage rotor are made bye die casting of Alumunium conductor bars
37.all process system consist of three main factor or trem, varriabel control variable uncontrolled
38.The sensitivity of measurement is a measure of the change in the instrument output, which occurs when the quantity being
measured changes by a given amount.
39.Substation transform voltage from high to low . and reverse and perform many of the several important function
40. The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or subtransmission lines
41. Generators are cooled by Air-water cooled and Fins
42.A process control system consists of process, measurement control:= Analysis
43.Generator voltage is determined from excitation is island operation
44.The matrix obtained by deleting the column corresponding to the reference node in the element node incidence matrix A is
called bus incidence matrix A
45 Stainer is used to prevent foreign particles to reach turbine alongwith steam.
46. is used for emergency stop of steam along (throttle valve )
47.Complex quantities in power system are represented by (phasor)
48.When a small resistance or impedance is accidentally or intentionally inserted b/w two points of different potential, it is called
short circuit)
49.The loss in a T/F due to reversal of direction of current is called: Hysterisis loss.
50.The frequency of generator depends on speed and (no of poles)
51.Higher efficiency can be obtained at higher temperature, this is dictated by (carnot efficiency)
52.The boiler in which tubes are placed in a horizontal cylinder is called (horizontal , fin tube)?????

Q 1:power system-------- is a word used in connection with AC current power system condition? a)range b)loop
c)gaind)conservation stability .

Q 2:the terminal of an element is called ------? a)edge b)limit c) zero d)mode d)rim?

Q 3:what are two broad types of coils of transformer?

Q 4:which analysis deals with the effect of disturbances on power system? a)fault trend analysis b)sinusoidal analysis c)stability
analysis d)line power analysis e)load flow analysis

Q 5:sinusoidal voltage and current at constant frequency is characterized by 2 parameters,a max value and --------? a)angle
b)value of load angle c)R value d)load angle

Q 6:reactive power can be generated at L load is determined by -----? a)field current cooling limit b)field current heating limit
d)peak load c)potential difference d)rate of variable output.

Q 7------interepting contacts of circuit breaker is a set of contancts which enable cicuit break to be removed ? a)widrawal
b)discontinue c)plug in d)current limiting e)moulded case.

Q 8:what are examples of semi controlled,uncontrolled and controlled power switches ? Q:WHICH BOILER HAS A

Q 9:which one is not a transformer ? 1) laminated 2)resonance 3)single instrument transformer 4)ferrite circuit transformer
5)caste iron transformer .?

Q10:stability of LC tuned circuit depends on what ?

Q11 figuration of high impedance to low impedance depends on what criterion ?

Q12:which bridge is used to measure low resistance accurately?

voltage less than 10 volts is called----? a)dim b)Tame c)Tray d)ground voltage.

Q 13:which theorem is used to analyse fault power?

Q:which transformer splits secondary voltage into two equal voltages a) circuit transformer b)dual purpose transformer c)
grounding transformer d)poly phase transformer e)variable transformer
i think its variable transformer.

Q:defined as subgraph of connected element when not more than two elements connected to any node . a)plane graph b)path
c)route d)linear graph tree ?

Q uring __ generator voltage is determined by excitation?

Q:which type of exciter gets operating field power for generating output voltage?

Q:stator core is made up of many thin metal sheet,wallet pastes ,slots,lamination poles. and ? a)Internal part motor evironmental
elements b)water frame housing enclosure c)capsule d)casing

1) Period of infinite continuous fourier series == ?
a. N
b. N+M
c. infinite
d. 2*pi/n

2) ROC converges if poles and zeros lie inside == ?

a. Origion
b. Z=1

3) Which modulation has higher data rates == ?

a. fm
b. am
c. qam
d. qpsk

4) In LTI system is characterized by == ?

a. Impulse input
b. Step input

5) Transfer function is == ?
a. Mathematical model
b. System with no physical structure
c. Can be calculated through differential equations

6) If ROC (Region of convergence) does not include unit circle then == ?

a. Fourier transform converges
b. Z-transform converges
c. Harley transform converges

7) Fastest achievable Response without overshooting == ?

a. under damped
b. overdamped
c. critically damped

8) If z transform lies in ROC then == ?

A. System is stable
B. Inverse of system is stable
C. Both system and its inverse are unstable
D. Both system and its inverse are stable

9) Under damped response have

a. damping ratio>1
b. 0>damping ratio<1
c. damping ratio =1
d. damping ratio =0

10) We built control systems for _______ == ?

a. remote control,
b. stability,
c. overcomingdisturbances,
d. All of above

11) The DSB category of AM system is generally used in ___________ == ?

a. Oscillator
b. Color information TV
c. Oscilloscope

12) Which is used to prevent power wastage on … _______ == ?

a. FDM
b. SSB
c. DSB

13) If ROC does not lie inside unit circle, then == ?

1) FFT converges
2) Z-Transfrom converges
3) Z-Transform Diverges

14) The control system is used for == ?

15) To decrease the power in control system we use == ?

16) What will be the sampling frequency that reveals the same sampled signal == ?
17) z transform is used when the system is not == ?

18) For a LTI system if all the zeroes and poles are inside the unit circle then == ?

19) Which modulation technique has carrier signal either 1 or 0 state == ?

20) Pole of s-plane gives the information about == ?

21) ROC converges if poles and zeros lies inside == ?

22) Which equation best represents AM power? == ?

1) Infinite
2) Origin
3) QAM
4) Impulse Response
5) Mathematical model
6) Z-transform converges
7) critically damped
8) System is stable
9) 0>damping ratio<1
10) All of above
11) ?
12) ?
13) Z-Transfrom converges

What are the different operation regions of the thyristor (SCR)?

A. SCR or thyristor will have three regions of operations based on the mode in which the device
is connected in the circuit.
Reverse blocking region: When the cathode of the thyristor is made positive with respect to the
anode and no gate signal is applied. In this region SCR exhibits the reverse blocking
characteristics similar to diode.
Forward blocking region: In this region the anode of the thyristor is made positive with respect
to the cathode and no gate signal is applied to the thyristor. A small leakage current flow in this
mode of operation of the thyristor.
Forward conduction region: when the forward voltage applied between the anode and cathode
increases at particular break over voltage avalanche breakdown takes place and thyristor starts
conducting current in forward direction. By this type of triggering the device damages the scr.
Hence a gate signal is applied before the forward break over voltage to trigger the scr.

Q. What is holding current in SCR?

A. Holding current is the minimum current required to hold the SCR in forward conduction state.
When the forward current becomes less than holding current (If< Ih ), SCR changes from
forward conduction state to forward blocking state.

Q. What is latching current in SCR?

A. Latching current is the minimum current required to latch (turn on) the SCR from forward
blocking state to forward conduction state.

Q. What are the losses that occur in a thyristor during working

A. Forward conduction losses
Loss due to leakage current during forward and reverse blocking
Switching losses at turn on turn off
Gate triggering loss

Q. What are the different TURN ON methods of SCR?

A. Forward voltage triggering
Gate Triggering
dv/dt triggering
Thermal triggering (Temperature Triggering)
Light triggering (Radiation triggering)

Q. What is firing angle?

A. The angle between the zero crossing of the input voltage and the instant the SCR is fired is
called as delay angle or firing angle.

Q. What are the advantages of freewheeling diode in rectifier

A. The input power factor is improved. It prevents the output voltage from becoming negative.
Load current waveform is also improved.

Q. Explain the function of cyclo-converter?

A. It is also known as frequency changer. It converts input power at one frequency to output
power at another frequency with one stage conversion.

Q. What are the types of cyclo-converters?

A. Step up cyclo-converter: In this output frequency is less than the input frequency.
Step down cyclo-converter: In this output frequency is more than the input frequency.

Q. What is AC voltage controller?

A. It is the one which converts fixed alternating voltage to a variable voltage without change in

Q. What is an inverter?
A. A device which converts dc power into ac power at desired output voltage and frequency is
called as Inverter.

Q. What are the types of inverter?

A. Voltage Source Inverter
Current Source Inverter

Q. What do you mean by duty cycle?

A. It is the ratio of the on time of the chopper to total time period of the chopper.
D = Ton / [Ton + T off]

pesco test mcqs........

1. ____ is defined as the measurement’s of instrument by which it is error free
A. Accuracy
B. Precision
C. Resolution
Ans: Precision
2. A _____ meter is used a null detector in wheatstone bridge
A. Ammeter
B. Voltmeter
C. Galvanometer
Answer: Galvanometer
3. A moving iron ammeter coil has few turns of thick wire in order to have:
A. Low resistance
B. High sentivity
C. Effective damping
D. Large scale
Answer: A
4. A permanent magnet coil meter has which features
A. Low power consumption
B. no hysteresis loss
C. reduced eddy current
D. reduced damping
E. all
Ans: E
5. The EM field and current are concentrated close to the surface of the conductor. The phenomenon is called?
Ans: Skin Effect
6. The wavelength of an EM wave after reflection at an angle on a surface
Ans: Increases in the actual direction of propagation
7. When electric field is parallel to the plane of incidence, the electromagnetic wave is said to be
Ans: Linear Polarized
8. Δ x H = J + D is
Ans: Maxwell equation
9. Bucholz relay is used in
Ans: Transformer Protection
10. Solid grounding is used for voltages
a. above 220 kV
b. above 11 kV
c. below 660 V
d. below 115 V
Answer: C