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SCIENCE UNIT 2- THE WORLD OF THE LIVING (5.

HEALTH AND HYGEINE)

Questions with Answers


# Q1. What is health?
A1. Health is a state of being free from illness and injury.

# Q2. What are nutrients?


A2. Nutrients are substances essential for the proper growth and functioning of the body. Our food
contains five main components- proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. These
components are called nutrients.

# Q3. What is a balanced diet?


A3. A balanced diet that gives our body the nutrition it needs to function right amount of nutrients that
our body requires. It is imperative to have a balanced diet to keep ourselves healthy.

# Q4. Name two important components needed by body apart from nutrients. What is the
importance to drink water?
A4. Water and roughage are two important components needed by the body apart from nutrients.
Importance of water- 1. Water gets rid of wastes from our body in the forms of sweat and urine.
2. It helps to maintain the body temperature.

# Q5. Draw a chart on five main nutrients.


A5.

Nutrients Sources Functions


1. Proteins Pulses, egg, meat, milk and milk 1. They are body building
products nutrients. 2. They help us to grow
and repair our body cells.
2. Carbohydrates Wheat, rice, corn, potato, bread 1. Carbohydrates are energy
and sugar giving nutrients.
3. Fats Meat, vegetable oil, milk, butter, 1. They provide us energy .
cheese, ghee, cream 2. They protect vital organs by
cushioning.
4. Minerals Fruits, vegetables, egg and fish 1. Minerals keep our body fit and
healthy
5. Vitamins Fruits, green leafy vegetables, 1. Vitamins fight against diseases
egg, fish and keep our body healthy.

# Q6. Why should we exercise?


A6. We should exercise because regular exercise tones up our muscles and improves the blood circulation
in our body. When we exercise the heart beats at a faster rate, more oxygen is taken in and more
carbon dioxide and water vapour is taken out.

# Q6. List any four things that are essential for remaining healthy.
A6. The four things essential for remaining healthy are-
1. Proper food,
2. Rest
3. Exercise
4. Correct posture

# Q8. Define hygiene. Mention any four ways to maintain proper hygiene.
A8. Hygiene may be defined as practises that help to ensure cleanliness and good health.
The four ways are: 1. We should wear clean clothes. 2. We should take bath daily. 3. We should at
least brush our teeth twice a day. 4. We should comb our hair and trim our nails properly.

# Q9. Define vaccination.


A9. Vaccination is the use of the special substances called vaccine to prevent specific disease.

# Q10. Explain the different ways in which we get communicable diseases.


A10. Communicable diseases can be spread-
1. Through direct contact
2. Through food and water
3. Through air
4. Through animals and insects
5. Through infected equipments
# Q11. What are deficiency diseases?
A11. Deficiency diseases are those diseases that happen because of deficiency of any one food
component of food in the diet. These are also called non-communicable diseases. Example: Scurvy,
night blindness, etc.

# Q12. Differentiate between communicable and non-communicable diseases.


A12.

Communicable Diseases Non-Communicable Diseases


1. Diseases that can be passed from 1. These diseases cannot be spread
one person to another are called from one person to another hence
communicable diseases. are called non-communicable
diseases.
2. Examples- Typhoid, malaria, cholera, 2. Examples: Beri-beri, scurvy, rickets,
common cold, etc. anaemia, night blindness.

# Q13. Chart on Vitamins and Minerals.


A13.

Vitamins/Minerals Food rich in its nutrients Deficiency disease


1. Iron Apple, dates Anaemia
2. Iodine Iodized salt, seafood Goitre
3. Phosphorous Milk, cereals Bones become weal and brittle
4. Vitamin A Carrot mango Night blindness
5. Vitamin B Beans, meat Beri-Beri
6. Vitamin C Lemon, amla Scurvy
7. Vitamin D Fish, egg Rickets
8. Vitamin E Milk, egg Early ageing
9. Vitamin K Milk, egg Delayed blood clotting
10. Calcium Milk, egg Bones become weak and tooth
decay.

# Q14. Chart on communicable diseases and their germs.


A14.

Germs Diseases
Protozoa Malaria, Dysentery
Bacteria Pneumonia, typhoid
Virus Common cold, chickenpox
Fungi Infections of skin, eyes and hair.

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