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# ENCI 402 – Hydraulics Midterm 1 Formula Sheet

3
𝑄(𝑆𝐼) = 1.84(𝐿 − 0.2𝐻)𝐻 2
Relevant Formulas
90 degrees V-notch weir:
Chapter 1 – Fundamental Properties of Water
𝑑𝑢 𝑄(𝐵𝐺) = 2.49𝐻 2.48 𝑄(𝑆𝐼) = 1.34𝐻 2.48
Newtonian Fluid Shear Stress: 𝜏 = 𝜇
𝑑𝑦
𝜇 Trapezoidal weir (Cipolletti weir):
Kinematic viscosity: 𝜈 = ⁄𝜌
3 3
Surface Tension: 𝑄 = 3.367𝐿𝐻 2 𝑄 = 1.858𝐿𝐻 2

## 𝑇 4𝜎 sin 𝜃 Broad crested weirs:

𝜎= ℎ= 1
𝐿 𝛾𝐷 𝑦1 2 3
𝑞 = 0.433√2𝑔 ( ) 𝐻2
Δ𝑉 𝑦1 + ℎ
Water Elasticity: Δ𝑃 = −𝐸𝑏 1
𝑉0 𝑦1 2 3
Bulk Modulus of H2O: 𝐸𝑏 = 2.2(109 ) 𝑃𝑎 = 𝑄 = 𝐿𝑞 = 0.433√2𝑔 ( ) 𝐿𝐻 2
𝑦1 + ℎ
3.2(105 ) 𝑝𝑠𝑖
Chapter 10 Hydraulic Similitude and Model Studies
Chapter 9 – Water Pressure, Velocity and Drainage Geometric Similarity
Measurements 𝐿𝑝
𝛾𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 Length Ratio: 𝐿𝑟 =
Specific Gravity (S.G.): 𝐿𝑚
𝛾𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 @ 4℃ 𝐴𝑝 𝐿2𝑝
Area Ratio: 𝐴𝑟 = = = 𝐿2𝑟
𝐴𝑚 𝐿2𝑚
∆𝑃 𝑉𝑝 𝐿3𝑝
Pitot Tubes: 𝑣 = √2𝑔
𝛾
Volume Ratio: 𝑉𝑟 = = 3 = 𝐿3𝑟
𝑉𝑚 𝐿𝑚

## Venturi meter discharge: Kinematic Similarity

𝐿𝑝 𝐿𝑝
𝑝 𝑣𝑝 𝑇𝑝 ⁄𝐿 𝐿𝑟
𝑚
𝑄 = 𝐶𝑑 𝐴1 √2𝑔∆ ( + 𝑧) Velocity Ratio: 𝑣𝑟 = = 𝐿𝑚 = 𝑇𝑝 =
𝛾 𝑣𝑚 ⁄𝑇 𝑇𝑟
𝑇𝑚 𝑚
𝐿𝑝 𝐿𝑝
1 𝑎𝑝 ⁄𝑇 2 ⁄𝐿
𝐶𝑑 = ∆𝑝 = 𝑝1 − 𝑝2 ∆𝑧 = 𝑧1 − 𝑧2 𝑝 𝑚 𝐿𝑟
Acceleration Ratio: 𝑎𝑟 = = 𝐿𝑚 = 2 =
2 𝑎𝑚 ⁄𝑇 2 𝑇𝑝 𝑇𝑟2
√(𝐴1 ) − 1 𝑚
⁄ 2
𝑇𝑚
𝐴2 𝐿3𝑝 𝐿3𝑝
⁄𝑇 ⁄3
𝑄𝑝 𝑝 𝐿𝑚 𝐿3𝑟
Discharge Ratio: 𝑄𝑟 = = 𝐿3 = 𝑇𝑝 =
𝑄𝑚 𝑚⁄ ⁄𝑇 𝑇𝑟
Horizontal venturi: ∆𝑧 = 0 𝑇𝑚 𝑚

## Orifice and Nozzle meters: Dynamic Similarity

Force Ratio: 𝐹𝑟 = 𝜌𝑟 𝐿4𝑟 𝑇𝑟−2
𝑝
𝑄 = 𝐶𝑣 𝐶𝑑 𝐴1 √2𝑔Δ ( + 𝑧) Mass Ratio: 𝑚𝑟 = 𝐹𝑟 𝑇𝑟2 𝐿−1
𝑟
𝛾
𝑉𝑑 Work Ratio: 𝑊𝑟 = 𝐹𝑟 𝐿𝑟
Reynolds Number:
𝜈
𝐹𝑟 𝐿𝑟
Uncontracted, horizontal weir: Power Ratio: 𝑃𝑟 =
𝑇𝑟
3 Reynolds Number Law
𝑄 = 𝐶𝐿𝐻 2
𝐹𝑟 = 𝜇𝑟 𝐿2𝑟 𝑇𝑟−1 (𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑠)
𝐻 𝐻
𝐶(𝐵𝐺) = 3.22 + 0.40 𝐶(𝑆𝐼) = 1.78 + 0.22 𝜌𝑟 𝐿𝑟 𝑣𝑟
𝑃 𝑃 =1
𝜇𝑟
Contracted, horizontal weir: Froude Number Law
3 𝑣𝑟
𝑄(𝐵𝐺) = 3.33 (𝐿 − 0.2𝐻)𝐻 2 [𝐹𝑟]𝑟 → =1
√𝑔𝑟 𝐿𝑟

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ENCI 402 – Hydraulics Midterm 1 Formula Sheet

## Chapter 3 – Water Flows in Pipes

𝐷𝑣
Reynolds Number: 𝑅𝑒 = 𝑁𝑅 =
𝜈

𝜇
Kinematic Viscosity: 𝜈 =
𝜌
Continuity: 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴2 𝑉2

⃗⃗ 𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑀
Momentum flux: ∑ 𝐹 = +𝑀 ⃗⃗ 𝑖𝑛 = 𝜌𝑄(𝑣2 − 𝑣1 )

𝑝 𝑣2
Energy Grade Line: 𝑧 + +
𝛾 2𝑔
𝑝
Hydraulic Grade Line: 𝑧 +
𝛾

𝑣12 𝑝1 𝑣22 𝑝2
Energy Equation: + + 𝑧1 = + + 𝑧2 + ∑ ℎ𝐿
2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾

𝐿 𝑣2
Darcy-Weisbach: ℎ𝐿 = ℎ𝑓 = 𝑓
𝐷 2𝑔
64𝜇 64
Friction factor (laminar): 𝑓 = =
𝜌𝑣𝐷 𝑅𝑒
Miscellaneous Notes
Friction Factors
1 𝑁𝑅 √𝑓
*Hydraulic Smooth Pipe: = 2 log ( )
√𝑓 2.51
1 𝐷
*Hydraulic Rough Pipe: = 2 log (3.7 )
√𝑓 𝑒
*Neither (Colebrook equation):
1 𝑒⁄𝐷 2.51
= − log ( + )
√𝑓 3.7 𝑁𝑅 √𝑓

Swamee-Jain Formula:
0.25
𝑓= ; 10−6 < 𝑒⁄𝐷 < 10−2 , 5000
𝑒⁄𝐷 5.74
[log ( + )]
3.7 𝑁𝑅0.9
< 𝑁𝑅 < 108

Hazen-Williams equation:
𝑉 = 1.318𝐶𝐻𝑊 𝑅ℎ0.63 𝑆 0.54 (𝐵. 𝐺. )
𝑉 = 0.849𝐶𝐻𝑊 𝑅ℎ0.63 𝑆 0.54 (𝑆. 𝐼. )

Manning Equation:
1 23 1
𝑉= 𝑅 𝑆 2 (𝑆. 𝐼. )
𝑛 ℎ
1.486 23 1
𝑉= 𝑅ℎ 𝑆 2 (𝐵. 𝐺. )
𝑛

Pipes in Series:
𝑄1 = 𝑄2 = 𝑄𝐸 ; ℎ𝑓𝐸 = ℎ𝑓1 + ℎ𝑓2

Pipes in Parallel:
ℎ𝑓1 = ℎ𝑓2 = ℎ𝑓𝐸 ; 𝑄𝐸 = 𝑄1 + 𝑄2

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