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PEPSI 1

PEPSI Screening

Jazmyn Macias

College of Southern Nevada


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Biography

Carlos Macias is a 15-year-old freshman at Spring Valley High School. He is the

youngest of four children and the only boy with three sisters. Being the only boy and the

youngest he is highly shielded from life’s obstacles. He was born in Texas where the major focus

in life was family, he only experienced this for maybe two years before his family moved the Las

Vegas. In Las Vegas there were very few extended family in the area and the immediate family

was busy with work or school. His older sister took care of him and took on more of a motherly

role than siblings. His one sister closer to his age was very different from him and so their bond

did not grow much. As a result, he now displays a sort of only child mentality. He is very much

involved with himself with little interaction with his family. During his time at home he is

always alone in his room playing video games with his friends and a few cousins. He detaches

himself from his family to the point that even at the dinner table he does not interact with them

and puts in headphones. His relationship with his immediate family and his extended family is

almost nonexistent except for the virtual interaction with a few cousins through video games.

His father and his mother try and protect him as much as they can. His father very rarely

lets him wander outside of their household without himself or his mother present. Except for

very few outings with other family members his day to day life is home and school. His father

has a tendency to pick up interest and quit them shortly after very rarely following things through

to the end. Carlos has picked this trait up as well, he had very short stints in football, soccer, and

baseball. He did not like the physical confrontation that football brought, the tackling scared him.

Soccer he claims was too physically demanding for him to succeed, his parents chose these two

sports for him so his disinterest was justified. Baseball however he chose and was very proactive

about, even going to intramurals in the fall but he ultimately decided he did not like it before he
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even started. His father’s “quit before you can fail” attitude followed him in soccer and baseball.

In football his father’s overprotectiveness ended his footballs days. His mother builds on his fear

of failure and overall self-esteem. Her parenting style can be demeaning at times, she sees his

failures as completely his own fault and a result of him not trying hard enough despite either of

them putting in no effort beyond the minimum requirement.

Carlos’ home life is very secluded, very rarely interacting with family beyond the request

of a video game. There is a stark contrast between Carlos at home and Carlos at school. His

personality and demeanor at home gave no clue to the way he was at school. In school Carlos

blossoms. He jokes around with his friends, they talk about new cool trends, girls, school work,

and even current events. Unfortunately, because of his protective family he is not allowed to

have outings with these friends. He does not show a great amount of interest in this though

preferring to play with them strictly through their video games. His friends give him courage and

heighten his self-esteem to the point that he was able to ask a girl out without hesitation.

Compared to how he is at home this was a surprising revelation as he comes across as someone

with very low self-esteem. He seems to take a follower role within his group of friends which

contribute to his willingness to do things that may make him feel uncomfortable but also to take

sides on issues without much knowledge on the subject.

Physical Development

Carlos’ physical development seems to be normal if not a tiny bit accelerated he just

turned 15 about four months ago. He is already experiencing a very small amount of facial hair

growth, voice deepening and a growth spurt.(Health Link) While he is on the shorter side this is

not unexpected as his family runs short and he is not yet done developing as males tend to finish

growing by age 16. He still has some time before his final height is reached. (KidsHealth 2015)
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His lifestyle is very sedentary and so his muscle mass is minute. As I mentioned before his short-

lived participation in sports were met with very little support from anyone and so his interest

died apart from that his life includes little to no physical activity.

Although he is growing at a normal rate and is showing interest in the opposite sex, he

still shows very little interest in his appearance. He showers very irregularly, he tends to forget to

brush his teeth, and he does not choose his own clothing. His mother buys his clothes without

much input from him, but this may change as he goes through this stage of physical

development. His lack of personal hygiene is not very concerning at the moment as he just

entered this stage in development less than 6 months ago.

Obesity is an issue in his family but prevention is minimal in the household, because of

this he goes through periods of time where he diets to the point of hunger but as a growing teen

those periods do not last long and he reverts back to his usual eating habits. This is abnormal,

teenage boys in this stage in life usually show interest in bulking or creating more muscle mass.

(Nishina 2006) Carlos does not show this interest but instead is more concerned with shrinking

this may affect him in other developmental areas. I recommend eating more healthy balanced

meals as a family and encouraging Carlos to try baseball again with more support and

proactiveness toward him being successful. This will up his activity level and maybe give him a

push to be self-motivated to keep up with personal hygiene.

Emotional Development

Emotionally Carlos is right on time with exhibiting some concerning behavior. He has

joked around about depression and has showed signs that he may develop bulimia. Although it is

uncommon in males to develop an eating disorder it isn’t abnormal for it to appear at this age of

development. He has also showed interest in the use of recreational drugs like marijuana, even
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asking a family member to provide him with the drug. Although all of these are scary to think

about it is normal for them to be appearing at this stage. (ParentFurther 2015)

Carlos is developing normally when it comes to the sexual aspect of emotional development. He

has become interested in the opposite sex. Although he has not fully grasped the concept of

personal hygiene things like smelling good, he does try and look good. His does his hair to the

best of his ability. Now realizing that this affects his chances at a close relationship with a girl.

He has also asked his siblings if they would help by buying him condoms. (Morin )

He is more open with his friends and siblings than with his parents. While being open

with his siblings, he has for a while now chosen friends over family as far as his interests. He

manages his anger with his parents very rarely losing his temper and abides by their rules for the

most part he does very little to try and become more independent which is something teenagers

usually are trying to do. His household chores do not promote any sense of independence and his

parents make all his decisions. He has yet to mention anything about learning to drive or getting

a job when he turns 16 but again he still has about 9 months till that happens so I would say he is

just a tad bit under normal for this stage.

At this age it is also normal for teens to start to develop self-esteem issues. (Witmer)

Carlos seem to exhibit characteristics of low self-esteem. He tends to make remarks about

himself that are a bit degrading and also claims he is unable to do many things. His

aforementioned behavior of quitting before something even starts are also an indicator of low

self-esteem. My recommendations would be for his parents to be more aware of what he is

discussing with his friends. Also, to assign chores that encourage independence like washing his

own clothes or making his bed. Further questioning about his feelings of depression is also

recommended as they may need to seek professional.


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Philosophical Development

Teenagers who are developing normally start to set up their own belief systems and start

to look at the bigger picture instead of seeing themselves as an individual. (Ellsworth) Carlos

struggles to find his place in his day to day life. When promoted to label himself in his friend

group he could not find an answer. He prefers being told where he should be and where exactly

he belongs. He has conflicting view of himself in gatherings of adults and children he leans

towards the children, but in his mind he would like to be a part of adult conversation so that he

may voice his opinions. His intentions are developmentally in the right place but his actions put

him behind, this may be due to a low self-esteem. When asked about the most important thing to

him he stated it was himself. He said he cared most about his need and how something would

benefit him. He has very little interest in community but is growing and starting to form opinions

on world events.

Older adolescences are more concerned about their adult lives and what the future may

hold (Hart 1998) Carlos shows very little interest in his future and is not even the slight bit

worried as to his place in life beyond school. Carlos stated his tumultuous grades were du to

laziness and a lack of commitment to do well in school. He places very little importance on his

performance in high school and has an understanding that things will eventually work out how

they are supposed to. His two older sisters also struggled to find their place as well and his third

sister is on the same path. This may be attributed again to the parents “quitter” attitude.

He is very aware of his peer’s thoughts about him and also their opinions and beliefs. He

bases his belief systems off of his friends and his own individual experiences. He has a tendency

to lie to cover up his shortcoming without being sensitive to who those lies may hurt. For

example, when asked late at night if he has already fed the dog, he will say yes so avoid being
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scolded but does not take into consideration that the dog is probably starving. This highlights his

lack of awareness for community. My recommendation for Carlos would be to maybe try and

have more situations where teamwork is necessary, and emphasizing a sense of community in

the household showing that we all need to pitch in so that everything is functioning. Giving him

more chores that directly affect the household would be a good idea for example maybe packing

lunches this not only creates a sense of community but also helps with his independence. The

parents could also show more interest in his future, and help him explore subject he may be

interested in.

Social Development

Socially Carlos is somewhere in the middle. His stronger relationships stem from his

friends on line whom he plays video games with, but these relationships only influence him so

much. His friends at school are the major driving force behind his choices. The only abnormal

thing I have observed is that while Carlos is more open with his friends he does not make an

active effort in going out with his friends. He very rarely asks to do anything outside of the house

but even in the house does not interact with his parents. His parents do not allow or like the idea

of him being out without one of them present which may influence his desire to even ask to go

out. A normal teenager would be seeking more independence from their parents. (CDC 2017)

Carlos does confine himself to his room but does very little to seek independence from his

parents. His only social outings are with his parents and if he ever needs or wants anything his

parents willingly buy it for him. Therefore there is no need for him to seek independence.

During this developmental stage teenagers tend to want to have a closer relationship with

their peers and to be accepted by them as well. (Witmer 2017) It is abnormal for him to choose to
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respect his parents’ wishes over his want for closer relationships with his friends but again he is

just entering this stage of development and may advocate for more independence a little later on.

Despite his neutrality with his friendships, he does however crave an intimate

relationship with a girl. (CDC 2017) When questioned about the subject of girls he has high

hopes that he will meet someone in the near future. He is also proactive in his search already

having asked out one girl. The girl told him no but he surprisingly took the rejection very well

after commenting that there will be many more opportunities. My recommendations again are to

instill more independence and also to encourage that he joins a club where social outings are the

norm. this way his parent and himself can both get used to the idea of him being out without their

supervision.

Intellectual Development

In this age of development intellectually teens learn to solve more complex problems,

how to deal with the higher demands of a high school environment, and can even become

arrogant because of these new abilities (Health Wise) Teenagers learn to think more abstractly,

they are critical, practical, and insightful. (Cognitive Development 12-19) Carlos has trouble in

many of these areas his grades are reflective of this he has varying grades from As to Ds. He

states that he is trying his best so this leads me to believe he struggles with practical knowledge

and generalizing concepts. The extracurricular activities he chooses to take part in like video

games and his Robotics club show a keenness to problem solving/critical thinking.

While he does like to try and solve complex problems he has trouble doing so. Even

though he enjoys robotics he has a D in his class dedicated to it. As far as seeing something from

another point of view he is a little behind as well he has trouble seeing thing abstractly. His lack

of practical knowledge may be due to his parent’s willingness to tackle any obstacles he may
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encounter instead of letting him face the challenges. My recommendations would be to

encourage more activities that involve problem solving. More reading to encourage reading

comprehension which would help with critical thinking skills.

Overall Carlos only major problems are his parents need to protect him from life’s

lessons. He is developing physically and emotionally at a normal rate but needs help when it

comes to philosophical, social, and intellectual areas. His parents need to learn to let go and to

encourage him to be more independent and venture out on his own. Without developing this

skills adulthood can potentially be like jumping into a pool full of ice water. The world is less

forgiving and ultimately it would benefit Carlos the most for his parents to allow him to develop

the skills he will need later, now.


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Carlos Macias’ Developmental Graph


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Work Cited

Nishina, A., Ammon, N. Y., Bellmore, A. D., & Graham, S. (2006). Body dissatisfaction and

physical development among ethnic minority adolescents.Journal of Youth and

Adolescence, 35(2), 179-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-005-9012-7 Retrieved

from

http://ezproxy.library.csn.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/204650592

?accountid=27953

Physical Development, Ages 15 to 18 Years. (n.d.). Retrieved 2018, from

https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/te7284

Child Development. (2017, October 24). Retrieved 2018, from

https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/adolescence2.html

Ellsworth, J. (n.d.). Pepsi as a Screening Tool. Retrieved 2018, from

http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jde7/ese504/class/pepsi/lesson2-1-1.html

Snowman, J. (2014). Psychology applied to teaching. Place of publication not identified:

Cengage Learning.

Denise Witmer | Reviewed by Steven Gans, MD. (n.d.). What You Can Expect of the Emotional

Development in 15-Year-Olds. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from

https://www.verywellfamily.com/social-and-emotional-development-your-15-year-old-

teen-2609027

Gavin, M. L. (Ed.). (2015, January). Growth and Your 13- to 18-Year-Old. Retrieved March 11,

2018, from https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/growth-13-to-18.html


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Ages 15-18: Developmental Overview. (2015, March 26). Retrieved March 11, 2018, from

https://www.parentfurther.com/content/ages-15-18-developmental-overview

Morin, A. (n.d.). Developmental Milestones for Typical High-Schoolers. Retrieved 2018, from

https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/signs-symptoms/developmental-

milestones/developmental-milestones-for-typical-high-schoolers

HealthWise. (n.d.). Cognitive Development, Ages 15 to 18 Years - Topic Overview. Retrieved

March 11, 2018, from https://www.webmd.com/children/tc/cognitive-development-ages-

15-to-18-years-topic-overview

Cognitive Development: Age 12–19. (n.d.). Retrieved March 11, 2018, from

https://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-guides/psychology/development-psychology/physical-

cognitive-development-age-12/cognitive-development-age-1219

Hart, D. (1988). The Development of Personal Identity in Adolescence: A Philosophical

Dilemma Approach. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 34(1), 105-114. Retrieved from

http://www.jstor.org/stable/23086419