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Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 1st December

to 7th December – 2019


iasbaba.com/2019/12/press-information-bureau-pib-ias-upsc-1st-december-to-7th-december-2019

December 7,
2019

Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 1st to 7th


December, 2019
Table of Contents

Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 1st to 7th December, 2019
GS-2
Parliament passes
Election Commission of India to implement “Political Parties Registration
Tracking Management System” (PPRTMS)
Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)
National Action Plan for Drug Demand Reduction (NAPDDR) for 2018-2025
INDIA and ADB sign $206 million loan to strengthen urban services in 5 Tamil
Nadu cities
India & Sweden
GS-3
Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)
Measures to Increase Solar Energy Generation
Promotion to Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles
Blue Flag Certification for beaches
Tiger corridors in Country

ARCHIVES

GS-2

Parliament passes
Special Protection Group (Amendment) Bill, 2019

As per the intent of the original law, SPG focusses on Prime Minister’s security, as the PM
is constitutionally the Head of the Government. It looks after the Prime Minister’s
personal security, health, communication and secures the PMO and Prime Minister’s
residence.
1/19
There is a perception that the amendment in SPG Act is being brought only for the
purpose to remove the SPG security cover for the Gandhi family. Opposed to that, the
Gandhi family’s security level was not being removed but was changed from SPG to Z+
with ASL (Advance Security Liaison) and 24X7 Ambulance provision. This has been done
on the basis of threat perception as per the original version of the law and the family’s
security cover is at par with that of the HM, Defence Minister etc.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (Merger of Union Territories) Bill, 2019

This will –

Fruitful utilization of manpower


Improve administrative efficiency
Reduce administrative expenditure
Improve service delivery
Facilitate better monitoring of schemes
Ensure better cadre management of employees

There will be no change in administration and service conditions and reservation.


Similarly, there will be no change in the status of Group III and IV employees. The merger
would bring about administrative convenience, speedy development and effective
implementation of central and state government schemes. The new entity would be
called the UT of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu and would be governed
under the jurisdiction of the Bombay High Court.

Why?

Having two separate constitutional and administrative entities in both the Union
territories leads to lot of duplicity, inefficiency and wasteful expenditure.
Further, this also causes unnecessary financial burden on the Government.
Besides these, there are various challenges for cadre management and career
progression of employees.
Availability of more officers and infrastructure would help in more efficient
implementation of flagship schemes of the government

Election Commission of India to implement “Political


Parties Registration Tracking Management System”
(PPRTMS)
(Topic: Elections)

The Election Commission of India has reviewed the system and process of registration of
political parties. The new guidelines will be effective from 1st January, 2020. Accordingly
the “Political Parties Registration Tracking Management System” (PPRTMS) will be

2/19
implemented through an online portal, to facilitate tracking of status of application by
applicants. The salient feature in the Political Parties Registration Tracking Management
System is that

The applicant (who is applying for party registration from 1st January, 2020
onwards) will be able to track the progress of his / her application and will get
status update through SMS and email.
The applicant is required to provide contact mobile number and email address of
the party / applicant in his application if he/she wishes to track the progress of the
application.

The Registration of Political Parties is governed by the provisions of section 29A of the
Representation of the People Act, 1951. A party seeking registration under the said
section with the Commission has to submit an application to the Commission within a
period of 30 days following the date of its formation in prescribed format with basic
particulars about the party such as name, address, membership details of various units,
names of office bearers, etc., as required under sub-section (4) of the said section, and
such other particulars that the Commission has specified under sub-section (6) of Section
29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, as mentioned in the Guidelines for
registration.

Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups


(PVTGs)
(Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable population)

There are certain tribal communities who have declining or stagnant population, low
level of literacy, pre-agricultural level of technology and are economically backward.
These groups are among the most vulnerable section of our society as they are few in
numbers, have not attained any significant level of social and economic development
and generally inhabit remote localities having poor infrastructure and administrative
support. 75 such groups have been identified and categorized as Particularly Vulnerable
Tribal Groups (PVTGs).

Coverage for activities like education, housing, land distribution, land development,
agricultural development, animal husbandry, construction of link roads, installation
of non-conventional sources of energy for lighting purpose, social security or any
other innovative activity meant for the comprehensive socio-economic
development of PVTGs.
Under the scheme, State Governments submits Conservation-cum-Development
(CCD) Plans on the basis of their requirement.
100% grants-in-aid are made available to States as per the provisions of the
scheme.

3/19
National Action Plan for Drug Demand Reduction
(NAPDDR) for 2018-2025
(Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable population)

The Plan aims at reduction of adverse consequences of drug abuse through a multi-
pronged strategy.

The activities under the NAPDDR, inter-alia, include

Awareness generation programmes in schools/colleges/Universities,


workshops/seminars/ with parents
Community based peer led interactions intervention programmes for vulnerable
adolescent and youth in the community
Provisioning of treatment facilities
Capacity building of service providers

INDIA and ADB sign $206 million loan to strengthen


urban services in 5 Tamil Nadu cities
(Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or
affecting India’s interests)

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $206 million
loan to develop water supply and sewerage infrastructure in 5 cities of Tamil Nadu and
strengthen capacities of urban local bodies (ULBs) for improved service delivery.

This is the second project loan for the ADB-supported $500 million multi-tranche
financing for Tamil Nadu Urban Flagship Investment Programme, approved in
September 2018 that will overall develop climate-resilient water supply, sewerage, and
drainage infrastructure in 10 cities of Tamil Nadu. The first project under the Programme
with $169 million financing is currently under implementation.

The project is aimed at improving the lives of the urban people in the identified
cities of Tamil Nadu by providing universal access to water supply and sanitation,
and improving sewage treatment and drainage systems.
The project interventions will benefit residents, workers and industries in the
state’s economic corridors thereby building industrial competitiveness and creating
good jobs.
It also supports urban reform agenda such as better service delivery through
private operators and with quality benchmarking

The Plan

4/19
The project will target four cities — Ambur, Tiruchirappalli, Tiruppur, and Vellore —
for developing sewage collection and treatment and drainage systems by setting
up or rehabilitating sewage treatment plants, pumping stations, and connecting all
households in the project area to the sewerage network, including below poverty
line households.
Wastewater reuse for industry will also be achieved in at least 4 cities.
Improvement to water supply systems would be targeted in the cities of Madurai
and Tiruppur through commissioning of over 1,260 km of new distribution lines to
connect nearly 190,000 households with metered water supply, including below
poverty line households.
In addition, nearly 200 km of new transmission mains and 230 km of feeder mains
would be constructed along with two new water treatment plants.
The project will also strengthen capacity of the Commissioner of Municipal
Administration in Tamil Nadu for new project development, and monitoring and
benchmarking quality of services across the 135 urban local bodies in the state.

India & Sweden


(Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s
interests)

India sees Sweden as a key partner in its Make in India, Start-up India, Clean India, Digital
India and Smart City programmes. Swedish companies have made significant investment
in India. There is potential for them to do a lot more, especially in clean technologies,
circular economy, water partnership and next generation infrastructure.

Defence: India’s growth and potential in the defence sector also presents significant
opportunities for Swedish companies to manufacture in India for the domestic market
and for exports.

Health sector is another area of close cooperation. India and Sweden sign Memorandum
for India-Sweden Healthcare Innovation Centre

The India-Sweden Healthcare Innovation Centre in collaboration between the


Swedish Trade Commissioner’s Office, AIIMS Delhi and AIIMS Jodhpur aims to
develop an ecosystem of open innovation that start-ups and the healthcare
delivery stakeholders can use to collaborate and address current and future
challenges in the healthcare sector.
It will operate on well-defined challenges and services for stakeholders to build
capabilities and methodologies and, help socialize and scale up innovative
solutions across the country’s healthcare delivery network.
A holistic view of innovation shall be taken which shall include technology, data,
protocols and processes, skill development and business models.

5/19
The key components of this Centre to drive innovation are innovation challenges,
incubation, mentorship, live Centre of excellence, skilling, global reach,
conferences, digital showroom, white papers and support to access capital sources.

Technology: An impressive number of Indian companies have invested in Sweden


especially in the areas of IT and technology solutions. Three agreements in the fields of
polar research, science and technology and sea-faring were exchanged in the presence
of the President and the Swedish King.

Climate Change: Both India and Sweden are committed to tackling climate change. The
co-leadership in the Industry Transition Track would be very helpful to the cause.
Invitaion was extended to Sweden to join the International Solar Alliance. India is also
keen to engage with Sweden in the Arctic region.

The world of machine-intelligence must be accompanied by equity, for meeting basic


needs of people, to protect our natural resources and to preserve our planet. India
wants to engage with Sweden on circular economy, resource efficiency and climate-
smart models.

GS-3

Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP)


(Topic: Agriculture)

Aim: To empower women in agriculture by making systematic investments to enhance


their participation and productivity, as also to create and sustain their agriculture-based
livelihoods.

Under MKSP, a total number of 36.06 lakh Mahila Kisans have been benefitted
through 84 projects in 24 States/UTs in the country, out of which 1.81 lakhs women
have been benefitted in the State of Maharashtra.
A total Central allocation of Rs.847.48 crore has been made towards
implementation of the approved projects, out of which an amount of Rs. 52.15
crore has been allocated for projects in Maharashtra State.
The Department of Agriculture Cooperation and Farmers Welfare is also providing
additional support and assistance to female farmers, over and above the male
farmers under various Schemes namely Agri-Clinic & Agri-Business Centre (ACABC),
Integrated Schemes of Agricultural Marketing (ISAM), Sub-Mission of Agricultural
Mechanization (SMAM) and National Food Security Mission (NFSM).

Measures to Increase Solar Energy Generation


(Topic: Infrastructure)
6/19
1. Announcement of a target of installing 100 GW of solar energy capacity by
December, 2022.
2. Waiver of Inter State Transmission System (ISTS) charges and losses for inter-state
sale of solar power for projects to be commissioned up to December, 2022.
3. Permitting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) up to 100 percent under the automatic
route.
4. Notification of standard bidding guidelines to enable distribution licensees to
procure solar and wind power at competitive rates in cost effective and
transparent manner.
5. Declaration of trajectory for Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) up to year 2022.
6. Implementation of Green Energy Corridor project to facilitate grid integration of
large scale renewable energy capacity addition.
7. Notification of Quality Standards for deployment of solar photovoltaic
system/devices.
8. Launch of various schemes including. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam
Utthan Mahabhiyan Yojana (PM-KUSUM), CPSU (Government Producers) Scheme -
Phase II and Solar Rooftop Phase II program.

Promotion to Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles


(Topic: Pollution, Climate Change)

National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP) and FAME

India has a “National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP)” in place to
“achieve sales” of 60-70 lakh units of electric vehicles (that includes buses, two-
wheelers and cars) by 2020.
In 2015, the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric vehicles (FAME) scheme
was launched to fast-track the goals of NEMMP.
FAME India Phase II, with an emphasis on electrification of public transport, was
also launched from April 1, 2019.

In India

Electric two wheelers have been the major part of EV sales with sales of around
54,800 in 2018.
Indian market share in electric cars is only 0.06%.
Uttar Pradesh topped the list of the States with highest EV sales of 6,878 units in
2017-18.

Phase –II Fame-India Scheme

7/19
Based on outcome and experience gained during the Phase-I of FAME India Scheme and
after having consultations with all stakeholders including industry and industry
associations, the Government notified Phase-II of FAME India Scheme on 8th March
2019, which is for a period of three years commencing from 1st April 2019 with a total
budgetary support of Rs. 10,000 crore. This phase will mainly focus on

Supporting electrification of public & shared transportation


Support through incentives about 7000 e-buses, 5 lakh e-3 wheelers (e-3W), 55000
e-4 wheelers (e-4W) passenger cars and 10 lakh e-2 wheelers
In addition, creation of charging infrastructure will be also supported to address
range anxiety among users of electric vehicles

Under Phase-II of FAME-India Scheme, incentives is being provided to the consumers on


purchase of electric vehicles, used for public transport or those registered for
commercial purposes in e-3W, e-4W (including Strong Hybrid) segment however,
privately owned registered e-2W are also be covered under the scheme. The demand
incentive to these electrical vehicles is linked to battery capacity i.e. Rs. 10,000/KWh
subject to capping of 20% cost of these vehicles. Demand incentive is restricted to
vehicles with prices less than the threshold value which is Rs 1.5 Lakh for e-2W, 5 lakh for
e-3W and 15 Lakh for e-4W.

Renewable energy in India

India’s adoption of electric vehicles was part of its larger thrust towards increasing
the share of renewable energy and reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
The share of renewables (excluding hydro above 25 MW) in total power generation
was around 10% in 2018-19 compared with around 6% in 2014-15.
India stands fourth in wind power, fifth in solar power and fifth in renewable power
installed capacity.

Blue Flag Certification for beaches


(Topic: Environment conservation)

The ‘Blue Flag’ beach is an Eco-tourism model endeavouring to provide to the


tourists/beach goers clean and hygienic bathing water, facilities/amenities, safe and
healthy environment and sustainable development of the area.

The Ministry has embarked upon a programme for ‘Blue Flag’ Certification for select
beaches in the country. This Certification is accorded by an international agency
“Foundation for Environment Education, Denmark” based on 33 stringent criteria in four
major heads i.e.

(i) Environmental Education and Information

(ii) Bathing Water Quality


8/19
(iii) Environment Management and Conservation

(iv) Safety and Services in the beaches

13 pilot beaches that have been identified for the certification, in consultation with concerned
coastal States/UTs:

1. Ghoghala Beach (Diu)


2. Shivrajpur beach (Gujarat)
3. Bhogave (Maharashtra)
4. Padubidri and Kasarkod (Karnagaka)
5. Kappad beach (Kerala)
6. Kovalam beach (Tamil Nadu)
7. Eden beach (Puducherry)
8. Rushikonda beach (Andhra Pradesh)
9. Miramar beach (Goa)
10. Golden beach (Odisha)
11. Radhanagar beach (Andaman & Nicobar Islands)
12. Bangaram beach (Lakshadweep)
13. Rushikonda beach (Andhra Pradesh)

Tiger corridors in Country


(Topic: Environment, Wildlife conservation)

The National Tiger Conservation Authority in collaboration with the Wildlife Institute of
India has published a document titled “Connecting Tiger Populations for Long-term
Conservation”, which has mapped out 32 major corridors across the country,
management interventions for which are operationalised through a Tiger Conservation
Plan, mandated under section 38V of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

3 pronged strategy to manage human-tiger negative interactions:

1. Material and logistical support: Funding support through the ongoing Centrally
Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger, is provided to tiger reserves for acquiring
capacity in terms of infrastructure and material, to deal with tigers dispersing out
of source areas. These are solicited by tiger reserves through an Annual Plan of
Operation (APO) every year which stems out from an overarching Tiger
Conservation Plan (TCP), mandated under Section 38 V of the Wildlife (Protection)
Act, 1972. Inter alia, activities such as payment of ex-gratia and compensation,
periodic awareness campaigns to sensitize, guide and advise the general populace
on man-animal conflict, dissemination of information through various forms of
media, procurement of immobilization equipment, drugs, training and capacity
building of forest staff to deal with conflict events are generally solicited.

9/19
2. Restricting habitat interventions: Based on the carrying capacity of tigers in a
tiger reserve, habitat interventions are restricted through an overarching
TCP. In case tiger numbers are at carrying capacity levels, it is advised that
habitat interventions should be limited so that there is no excessive spill over
of wildlife including tigers thereby minimizing man-animal conflict. Further,
in buffer areas around tiger reserves, habitat interventions are restricted
such that they are sub-optimal vis-à-vis the core/critical tiger habitat areas,
judicious enough to facilitate dispersal to other rich habitat areas only.
3. Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs): The National Tiger Conservation Authority
has issued following three SOPs to deal with man-animal conflict which are
available in public domain:

1.
1. To deal with emergency arising due to straying of tigers in human dominated
landscapes
2. To deal with tiger depredation on livestock
3. For active management towards rehabilitation of tigers from source areas at
the landscape level.

Sl. Landscape Corridor States/ Country


No.

1. Shivalik Hills 1. Rajaji-Corbett Uttarakhand


& Gangetic
Plains
(ii) Corbett-Dudhwa Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh,
Nepal

(iii) Dudhwa-Kishanpur- Uttar Pradesh, Nepal


Katerniaghat

2. Central India (i) Ranthambhore-Kuno- Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan


& Eastern Madhav
Ghats
(ii) Bandhavgarh- Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
Achanakmar

(iii) Bandhavgarh-Sanjay Madhya Pradesh


Dubri-Guru Ghasidas

(iv) Guru Ghasidas- Chhattisgarh & Jharkhand


Palamau-Lawalong

(v) Kanha-Achanakmar Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh

(vi) Kanha-Pench Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra

10/19
(vii) Pench-Satpura- Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
Melghat

(viii) Kanha-Navegaon Madhya Pradesh,


Nagzira-Tadoba-Indravati Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh,
Andhra Pradesh

(ix) Indravati-Udanti Chhattisgarh, Odisha


Sitanadi-Sunabeda

(x) Similipal-Satkosia Odisha

(xi) Nagarjunasagar-Sri Andhra Pradesh


Venkateshwara National
Park

3. Western (i) Sahyadri-Radhanagari- Maharashtra, Goa


Ghats Goa

(ii) Dandeli Anshi- Karnataka


Shravathi Valley

(iii) Kudremukh-Bhadra Karnataka

(iv) Nagarahole- Karnataka


Pusphagiri-Talakavery

(v) Nagarahole-Bandipur- Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu


Mudumalai-Wayanad

(vi) Nagarahole- Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu


Mudumalai-Wayanad

(vii) Parambikulam- Kerala, Tamil Nadu


Eranikulam-Indira Gandhi

(viii) Kalakad Kerala, Tamil Nadu


Mundanthurai-Periyar

4. North East (i) Kaziranga-Itanagar Assam, Arunachal Pradesh


WLS

(ii) Kaziranga-Karbi Assam


Anglong

(iii) Kaziranga-Nameri Assam

11/19
(iv) Kaziranga-Orang Assam

(v) Kaziranga-Papum Pane Assam

(vi) Manas-Buxa Assam, West Bengal, Bhutan

(vii) Pakke-Nameri-Sonai Arunachal Pradesh, Assam


Rupai-Manas

(viii) Dibru Saikhowa- Assam, Arunachal Pradesh


D’Ering-Mehaong

(ix) Kamlang-Kane-Tale Arunachal Pradesh


Valley

(x) Buxa-Jaldapara West Bengal

Prelims oriented News

Navy Gets its First Woman Pilot: SLt Shivangi

India based Neutrino Observatory: Theni district in Tamil Nadu (under discussion)

Electricity: Concurrent subject

Anaemia Control

As per the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) – IV (20015-16), 54.2 percent
women (15-49 years) and 59.5 percent children (6-59 months) in rural area of the
country are anaemic.
As per Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (2016-18), 19% children aged 1-4
years, 17 % children aged 5-9 years and 32% adolescents aged 10-19 years have
zinc deficiency in the country.
The most common cause of anaemia is iron deficiency, caused by inadequate
dietary iron intake or absorption, increased needs for iron during pregnancy or
growth periods, and increased iron losses as a result of menstruation and
helminth (intestinal worms) infestation.
Other important causes of anaemia include hemoglobinopathies such as Sickle Cell
anemia, Thalassaemia, etc., Malaria and Flurosis.

1st December:

Statehood day of Nagaland

12/19
Worlds AIDS Day
Focus on Three Zeros’ – i.e. zero new infections, zero AIDS-related deaths and
zero discrimination
In sync with the Ministry’s ‘Digital India’ campaign, NACO has strengthened its
monitoring mechanism with more than 35,000 reporting units providing
information on completely IT enabled system
NACO has not only signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with 18 key
Ministries/Departments to augment a comprehensive AIDS response but also
with more than 650 industries of public and private sectors to mobilize their
support.

3rd December:

International Day of Persons with Disabilities


Jayanti of the first President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad
In office from 1952 to 1962
A supporter of Mahatma Gandhi, Prasad was imprisoned by British
authorities during the Salt Satyagraha of 1931 and the Quit India movement
of 1942
In his speech before the Constitution was adopted, Dr Rajendra Prasad
rightly noted that the successful working of democratic institutions requires
willingness to respect the views of others, and capacity for compromise and
accommodation. He said, [quote] “Many things which cannot be written in a
Constitution are done by conventions. Let me hope that we shall show those
capacities and develop those conventions.” [Unquote] Seventy years later, we
have reasons to believe that the nation has lived up to his hopes to a fair
degree.

First Manned Mission – Gaganyaan

The Human Space Mission: Gaganyaan is targeted for December 2021. The
Gaganyaan Programme has been approved by the Government of India. The
design and configuration of major subsystem are finalized. The procurement and
system/ subsystem realisation for tests and flight has commenced.
GSLV Mk III launcher which is ISRO’s heavy lift launcher is identified for Gaganyaan
mission. It has requisite payload carrying capacity for Orbital module in desired
elliptical orbit. Process for human rating of GSLV Mk-III is progressing well.

Ministry of Culture updates

The Government has de-classified all records relating to Netaji Subhash Chandra
Bose and Azad Hind Fauj

13/19
A new museum of antiquities proposed to be opened in Purana Quila by April
2020: Central Antiquity Collection Section is a centre for housing the collection of
antiquities explored and excavated by Archaeological Survey of India. These
antiquities date backfrom the Prehistoric period to post Independence era. The
objective to open newmuseum is to display antiquities such as tools, potteries,
terracotta, beads of semi-precious stones, sculptures, architectural fragments, etc.
for general public, students andresearch scholars.

Exercise Mitra Shakti -VII: 2019 – Aimed at enhancing interoperability and operational
efficiency amongst the armies of both India and Sri Lanka when deployed as part of
United Nations peace keeping forces

MSMEs contribute 29.7% of GDP and 49.66% of Indian Exports. Government has taken
various initiatives to enhance the competitiveness of Micro, Small and Medium
Enterprises (MSMEs) through schemes such as Credit Linked Capital Subsidy and
Technology Upgradation Scheme (CLCS-TUS), Micro and Small Enterprises – Cluster
Development Programme, Procurement and Marketing Support and support for MSMEs
to participate in international exhibitions / trade fairs, conferences / summits/
workshops.

Compressed Bio-Gas from Paddy Stubble

Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG) can be produced from biomass and organic waste sources
including paddy stubble. Compressed Bio-Gas has properties similar to the commercially
available natural gas and can be used as an alternative renewable fuel.

Government of India has launched Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable


Transportation (SATAT) initiative to promote CBG as an alternative, green
transport fuel for efficient management of biomass and organic waste.
As part of the SATAT scheme, Public Sector Oil Marketing Companies, Gail (India)
Limited and Indraprastha Gas Limited had launched Expression of Interest (EoI) for
procurement of CBG from the entrepreneurs at an assured price.

Maternity Benefits under PMMVY

The maternity benefits under Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) are
available to the eligible beneficiaries for first living child. Normally, the first pregnancy of
a woman exposes her to new kinds of challenges and stress factors. Hence, the scheme
provides support to the mother for safe delivery and immunization of her first living
child.

14/19
The Government has accorded high priority to the issue of malnutrition and is
implementing several schemes like Anganwadi Services, Scheme for Adolescent
Girls and Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojna (PMMVY) under the Umbrella
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme as direct targeted
interventions to address the problem of malnutrition among women and children
in the country.
Government has set up POSHAN Abhiyaan for a three-year time frame
commencing from 2017-18. The goals of POSHAN Abhiyaan are to achieve
improvement in nutritional status of Children from 0-6 years, Adolescent Girls,
Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers in a time bound manner during the three
years with fixed targets.
The Abhiyaan aims to reduce malnutrition in the country in a phased manner,
through a life cycle approach, by adopting a synergised and result oriented
approach.
The Abhiyaan has mechanisms for timely service delivery and a robust
monitoring as well as intervention infrastructure.
It targets to bring down stunting of the children in the age group of 0-6 years
from 38.4% to 25% by the year 2022.
The major activities undertaken under this Abhiyaan are ensuring
convergence with various other programmes; Information Technology
enabled Common Application Software for strengthening service delivery
and interventions; Community Mobilization and Awareness Advocacy leading
to Jan Andolan- to educate the people on nutritional aspects; Capacity
Building of Frontline Functionaries, incentivizing States/ UTs for achieving
goals etc.

A multi-pronged strategy to address the issue of road safety based on Education,


Engineering (both of roads and vehicles), Enforcement and Emergency Care

The National Road Safety Policy outlines various policy measures such as promoting
awareness, establishing road safety information data base, encouraging safer road
infrastructure including application of intelligent transport, enforcement of safety laws
with regard to Road Safety. In addition, the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 provides for Road
Safety Councils and Committees at National, State and District level to discharge function
relating to Road Safety Programmes.

The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act, 2019 focuses on road safety and includes, inter-
alia, stiff hike in penalties for traffic violations and electronic monitoring of the same,
enhanced penalties for juvenile driving, computerization/automation of vehicle fitness
and driving, tests, recall of defective vehicles, extending the scope of third party liability
and payment of increased compensation for hit and run cases etc.

1. Advocacy/Publicity campaign on road safety through the electronic media and


print media to create awareness.
2. Issue of Guidelines for protection of Good Samaritans.

15/19
3. Setting up of model driving training Institutes in States.
4. Sanction of 24 Inspection and certification Centres for testing the fitness of the
commercial vehicles through an automated system
5. Launch of mobile app for highway users i.e. “Sukhad Yatra 1033” which enables
highways users to report potholes and other safety hazards on National Highways
including accidents.
6. Observance of Road Safety Week every calendar year for spreading awareness and
strengthening road safety.
7. Road safety has been made an integral part of road design at planning stage.
8. The threshold for four laning of national highway has been reduced from 15,000
Passenger Car Units (PCUs) to 10,000 PCUs.
9. Safety standards for automobiles have been improved.
10. High priority has been accorded to identification and rectification of black spots
(accident prone spots) on national highways.
11. Ministry has delegated powers to Regional Officers of MORTH for technical
approval to the detailed estimates for rectification of identified Road Accident black
spots for expediting the rectification process to ensure safety of road users.
12. Guidelines for pedestrian facilities on National Highways for persons with
disabilities have also been issued to all States / UTs.
13. A Certification Course for Road Safety Auditors has been commenced in Indian
Academy of Highway Engineers (IAHE) and 42 Auditors are certified.
14. Removal of Liquor Shops as per directions of Hon’ble Supreme Court vide circular

Personality in News

Mahaparinirvan Diwas: Death Anniversary of Ambedkar

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as
Babasaheb Ambedkar, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social
reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against
social discrimination towards the untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the
rights of women and labour.
He was independent India’s first law and justice minister, the principal architect of
the Constitution of India, and a founding father of the Republic of India.

His autobiography: Waiting for a Visa

His books:

Annihilation of Caste – It strongly criticised Hindu orthodox religious leaders and


the caste system in general, and included “a rebuke of Gandhi” on the subject.
Who Were the Shudras? – Ambedkar tried to explain the formation of
untouchables. He saw Shudras and Ati Shudras who form the lowest caste in the
ritual hierarchy of the caste system, as separate from Untouchables.

Reserve Bank of India


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Ambedkar was trained as an economist, and was a professional economist until 1921,
when he became a political leader. He wrote three scholarly books on economics:

1. Administration and Finance of the East India Company


2. The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India
3. The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin and Its Solution[98][99]

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), was based on the ideas that Ambedkar presented to
the Hilton Young Commission.

Ambedkar and Untouchability

While practising law in the Bombay High Court, he tried to promote education to
untouchables and uplift them. His first organised attempt was his establishment of the
central institution Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha, intended to promote education and socio-
economic improvement, as well as the welfare of “outcastes”, at the time referred to as
depressed classes. For the defence of Dalit rights, he started five periodicals –

1. Mooknayak (the leader of the dumb, 1920)


2. Bahishkrit Bharat (Ostracized India, 1924)
3. Samta (Equality, 1928)
4. Janata (The People, 1930)
5. Prabuddha Bharat (Enlightened India, 1956)

Manusmriti Dahan Din: In a conference in late 1927, Ambedkar publicly condemned


the classic Hindu text, the Manusmriti (Laws of Manu), for ideologically justifying caste
discrimination and “untouchability”, and he ceremonially burned copies of the ancient
text. On 25 December 1927, he led thousands of followers to burn copies of Manusmrti.
Thus, annually 25 December is celebrated as Manusmriti Dahan Din (Manusmriti Burning
Day) by Ambedkarites and Dalits.

Kalaram Temple movement: About 15,000 volunteers assembled at Kalaram Temple


satygraha making one of the greatest processions of Nashik. The procession was headed
by a military band, a batch of scouts, women and men walked in discipline, order and
determination to see the god for the first time. When they reached to gate, the gates
were closed by Brahmin authorities.

Poona Pact:

In 1932, British announced the formation of a separate electorate for “Depressed


Classes” in the Communal Award.

Gandhi fiercely opposed a separate electorate for untouchables, saying he feared


that such an arrangement would divide the Hindu community. Gandhi protested
by fasting while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of Poona. Following the fast,
Congress politicians and activists such as Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar
Baloo organised joint meetings with Ambedkar and his supporters at Yerwada.
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On 25 September 1932, the agreement known as Poona Pact was signed between
Ambedkar (on behalf of the depressed classes among Hindus) and Madan Mohan
Malaviya (on behalf of the other Hindus). The agreement gave reserved seats for
the depressed classes in the Provisional legislatures, within the general electorate.
Due to the pact, the depressed class received 148 seats in the legislature, instead
of the 71 as allocated in the Communal Award earlier proposed by British Prime
Minister Ramsay MacDonald. The text uses the term “Depressed Classes” to denote
Untouchables among Hindus who were later called Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes under India Act 1935, and the later Indian Constitution of 1950.
In the Poona Pact, a unified electorate was in principle formed, but primary and
secondary elections allowed Untouchables in practice to choose their own
candidates.

Must Answer:

1. Examine in detail the ideas and ideals of Dr. Ambedkar to make India a modern
nation.
2. How far do you agree with the statement of Dr. BR Amedkar that the CAG is the
most important functionary in the Constitution? Substantiate your views.
3. What were the views of Dr. Ambedkar regarding the Indian Constitution? Did in his
views the mere existence of a constitution guaranteed the freedoms envisaged by
it? Discuss.
4. During Constitutional debates, Dr B R Ambedkar advocated for reservation of
socially and economically backward classes. Now, even after almost seven decades
of independence, reservation still exists. Recently demands are being raised for
reverse discrimination. What is reverse discrimination? What steps can be taken to
check these demands?

Quotes

The Vice President, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu

‘International Day of Persons with Disabilities’ must be renamed as ‘International Day of


Persons with Special Abilities’, to reflect the enormous potential and capabilities that
differently-abled people possess and to dispel the stigma that society attaches to
disability.

We must build an inclusive society that is respectful and sensitive to the needs of
the differently-abled. There is a need to provide right nutrition and care to
pregnant mothers and young children and to create good and accessible medical
facilities across rural India.
Early identification of disability is crucial to undertake effective interventions from
the beginning for rehabilitation measures and empowerment of the affected
persons. There is also a need to harmonize the immunization and disease
prevention programmes with appropriate rehabilitatory models at least at the
District level.
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A change in society’s attitude towards disability is crucial and added that
differently-abled persons are not objects of ‘sympathy’ and ‘pity’ and must instead
be given ‘empathy’ and ‘support’.
There is a need to develop collaborative efforts among all stakeholders for
developing barrier free environment for the Persons with Disabilities.

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