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Contents

Block Diagram of Communication System with Detailed Explanation ...... 1


Communication System .............................................................................. 1
The Communication Process................................................................. 2
Block Diagram of Communication System ..................................................... 3
Input Transducer .................................................................................. 3
block diagram of a communication system .................................................... 4
Fdisk ........................................................................................................ 5
About FAT32 ............................................................................................. 6
Features ................................................................................................ 6
Compatibility .......................................................................................... 7
Performance ........................................................................................... 8
Creating FAT32 drives .............................................................................. 8
Why not add NTFS to Windows 95? ........................................................... 9
Technical implementations ....................................................................... 9
FAT32 FAQ ........................................................................................... 10
Which operating systems come with FAT32? .......................................... 10
Can I download FAT32? ....................................................................... 11
Can FAT32 be converted back to FAT16? ............................................... 11
Does Windows NT support FAT32? ........................................................ 11
Accessories ............................................................................................. 11
Backup ................................................................................................... 13
What is defragmentation? ......................................................................... 14

Block Diagram of
Communication System
with Detailed
Explanation
COMMUNICATION BY SASMITA JANUARY 25, 2019

Communication System
Communication is the process of establishing connection or
link between two points for information exchange.

OR

Communication is simply the basic process of exchanging


information.

The electronics equipements which are used for


communication purpose, are called communication
equipments. Different communication equipments when
assembled together form a communication system.
Typical example of communication system are line telephony
and line telegraphy, radio telephony and radio telegraphy,
radio broadcasting, point-to-point communication and mobile
communication, computer communication, radar
communication, television broadcasting, radio telemetry,
radio aids to navigation, radio aids to aircraft landing etc.

The Communication Process


In the most fundamental sense, communication involves the
transmission of information from one point to another through
a succession of process as listed below :

1. The generation of a thought pattern or image in the mind


of an originator.
2. The description of that image, with a certain measure of
precision, by a set of oral visual symbols.
3. The encoding of these symbols in a form that is suitable for
transmission over a physical medium of interest.
4. The transmission of the encoded symbols to the desired
destination.
5. The decoding and reproduction of the original symbols.
6. The recreation of the original thought pattern or image,
with a definable degradation in quality, in the mind of
recipient.
Block Diagram of Communication
System
Fig.1 shows the block diagram of a general communication
system, in which the different functional elements are
represented by blocks.

Fig 1

Input Transducer
A transducer is a device which converts one form of energy
into another form.

The message from the information source may or may not be


electrical in nature. In a case when the message produced by
the information source is not electrical in nature, an input
transducer is used to convert it into a time-varying electrical
signal.

For example, in case of radio-broadcasting, a microphone


converts the information or massage which is in the form of
sound waves into corresponding electrical signal.

or
block diagram of a
communication system

Or

The block diagram of a communication system will have five blocks,


including the information source, transmitter, channel, receiver and
destination blocks.
1.Information source :-
 The objective of any communication system is to convey
information from one point to the other. The information comes
from the information source, which originates it
 Information is a very generic word signifying at the abstract level
anything intended for communication, which may include some
thoughts, news, feeling, visual scene, and so on.
 The information source converts this information into physical
quantity.
 The physical manifestation of the information is termed as message
signal
2.Transmitter :-
 The objective of the transmitter block is to collect the incoming
message signal and modify it in a suitable fashion (if needed), such
that, it can be transmitted via the chosen channel to the receiving
point.
 Channel is a physical medium which connects the transmitter block
with the receiver block.
 The functionality of the transmitter block is mainly decided by the
type or nature of the channel chosen for communication.
3.Channel :-
 Channel is the physical medium which connects the transmitter with
that of the receiver.
 The physical medium includes copper wire, coaxial cable, fibre optic
cable, wave guide and free space or atmosphere.
 The choice of a particular channel depends on the feasibility and
also the purpose of the communication system.
4.Receiver:-
 The receiver block receives the incoming modified version of the
message signal from the channel and processes it to recreate the
original (non-electrical) form of the message signal.
 There are a great variety of receivers in communication systems,
depending on the processing required to recreate the original
message signal and also final presentation of the message to the
destination.
5.Destination:-
 The destination is the final block in the communication system
which receives the message signal and processes it to comprehend
the information present in it.
 Usually, humans will be the destination block.

Fdisk may refer to any of the following:

1. Pronounced eff-disk, fdisk is an external MS-DOS utility that is


used to configure the computers fixed disk drives. With fdisk,
you're able to delete, create, and partition different portions of
the hard drive. Fdisk was first made available in MS-DOS 3.3x and
was also available in all earlier versions of Windows including
Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows ME. With the introduction
of Windows XP, fdisk was replaced with the graphical
Windows Disk Management utility and Recovery Console diskpart
command.

About FAT32
The existing FAT (File Allocation Table) file system was invented
in 1977 as a way to store data on floppy disks for Microsoft stand-alone
Disk Basic. Although originally intended for floppy disks, FAT has since
been modified to be a fast, and flexible system for managing data on
both removable and fixed media. In 1996, Windows 95 OSR2 came out
with FAT32, a new and improved FAT.

A new generation of very large hard drives will soon be shipping,


and the existing FAT data structures have finally reached the limit
of their ability to support ever larger media. FAT currently can
support a single disk volume up to 2 Gigabytes in size. FAT32 is
an enhancement of the FAT file system that supports larger hard
drives with improved disk space efficiency.

System Requirements: FAT32 cannot be downloaded and is only


available with Windows 95 OSR2 and Windows 98.

 How to determine the version of Windows on a computer.

Features
FAT32 provides the below enhancements over previous
implementations of the FAT tile system:

Supports up to 2 terabytes in size.


Uses space more efficiently. FAT32 uses smaller clusters (e.g., 4
kb clusters for drives up to 8 GB in size), resulting in up to 5%
more efficient use of disk space relative to large FAT drives. The
below table demonstrates the cluster size for various sizes of hard
drives. As you can see, a 32 GB drive or larger will support the
same cluster size as FAT16.

Drive Size Default Cluster

Less than 512 MB 512 Bytes

< = 8 GB 4 Kilobytes

< = 16 GB 8 Kilobytes

< = 32 GB 16 Kilobytes

> = 32 GB 32 Kilobytes

More robust. FAT32 can relocate the root directory and use the
backup copy of the FAT instead of the default copy. The boot
record on FAT32 drives has also been expanded to include a
backup of critical data structures so they are less susceptible to a
single point of failure.

More flexible. The root directory a FAT32 drive is now an ordinary


cluster chain, so it can be arbitrarily larger and located anywhere
on the drive. FAT mirroring can be disabled, allowing a copy of the
FAT other than the first to be active. These features allow for
dynamic re-sizing of FAT32 partitions. Note, however, that while
the FAT32 design allows for this compatibility, it will not be
implemented by Microsoft in the initial release.

Compatibility
For compatibility with existing applications, networks, and drivers,
FAT32 was implemented with as little change as possible to
Windows 95's existing architecture, internal data structures, APIs,
and on-disk format. However, because 4 bytes are now required
to store cluster values, many internal add-on disk data structures
and published APIs will fail on FAT32 drives. Most applications will
be unaffected by these changes. Existing utilities and drivers
should continue to work on FAT32 drives. However, MS-DOS block
device drivers (e.g., ASPIDISK.SYS) and disk utilities for these
need to be revised to support FAT32 drives.

Microsoft's bundled disk utilities (format, fdisk, Defrag, MS-


DOS ScanDisk, Windows ScanDisk, and DriveSpace) have been
revised to work with FAT32. Microsoft has worked with leading
device driver and disk utility vendors to support FAT32.

Performance
For most users, FAT32 has a negligible performance impact. Some
applications may see a slight performance gain from FAT32. In
other applications, particularly those heavily dependent on large
sequential write operations, FAT32 may result in a modest
performance degradation. The overall effect on raw disk
performance is less than 5% however, and the overall impact on
application performance as measured by Winstone is typically less
than 1%.

Creating FAT32 drives


In OEM Service Release 2, if you run the fdisk utility on a large
system with a drive over 512 MB, it will ask whether to enable
large disk support. If you answer yes, any partition you create
that's greater than 5I2 MB will be marked as a FAT32 partition.
Why not add NTFS to Windows 95?
NTFS is an advanced file system, with support for many features
not present in FAT32, including per-file compression, security,
and transitioning. It is not feasible to implement NTFS in the
memory and compatibility constraints of the Windows 95
platform. Windows 95 still supports real mode MS-DOS for
booting and running some MS-DOS based games. Adding NTFS
support to the MS-DOS kernel would have required a significant
amount of MS-DOS memory, and that would have precluded the
use of many MS-DOS mode games and applications. Protect-
mode only support for NTFS would not have allowed Windows to
boot from an NTFS volume.

Technical implementations
Because of the compatibility onsiderations described above, the
implementation of FAT32 involved very little change to Windows
95. The Major differences between FAT32 and earlier
implementations of FAT are as follows:

Two new partition types are defined: OxB and OxC. Both
indicate FAT32 volumes; Type OxC indicates a FAT32 partition
that requires LBA (extended INTI3 support).

The boot record on FAT32 drives requires 2 sectors (due to


expansion and addition of fields in the BPB). As a result, the
number of reserved sectors on FAT32 drives is higher than on
FATI6, typically 32. This expanded reserved area allows two
complete copies of the boot record to be stored there, as well as
a sector, in which free space count and other file system
information is stored.
The FAT is now larger, because each entry now takes up 4 bytes
and there are typically many more clusters than on FAT16
drives.

The root directory is no longer stored in a fixed location.

A pointer to the starting cluster of the root directory is stored in


the extended BPB.

The on-disk format directory entries is unchanged, except that


the two bytes previously reserved for extended attributes now
contain the high order word of the starting cluster number.

MS-DOS APIs that rely on intimate knowledge of the file system


layout fail on FAT32 drives. For instance, GetDPB (int21 h,
function 32h), Int 25/26h Absolute disk read/write, and most of
the Int 21 h, function 440Dh IOCTLs will fail on FAT32 drives.
New forms of these APIs are provided in OEM Service Release 2
which work on all FAT drives.

Win32 APIs are not affected by FAT32, except for one additional
API called GetFreeSpaceEx() for determining the true free space
on a FAT32 volume.

FAT32 FAQ

Which operating systems come with FAT32?

Windows 95 OSR2, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000,


and Windows XP.

 How to determine the version of Windows on a computer.


Can I download FAT32?

We are unaware of any location that you can download FAT32.

Can FAT32 be converted back to FAT16?

Unfortunately, it cannot be converted without erasing all the


information that is on the hard drive. To remove the FAT32 and
re-initialize FAT16, you must fdisk the hard drive, delete all
partitions, and recreate without using extended support
(FAT32).

Does Windows NT support FAT32?

No

Accessories
Tools to meet special vision, hearing and ability needs
Here is how you find your Windows tools.
Click:Start > Programs > Accessories > Accessability
Let's start with a few vision, hearing and ability tools. The first one is:
The Magnifier

In all windows OS's


The Magnifier is a display utility that makes the computer screen more readable by people who
have low vision by creating a separate window that displays a magnified portion of the screen.
Magnifier provides a minimum level of functionality for people who have slight visual impairments.
Tip! Usually the Magnifier by default is set to show up at the top of the screen, but you can move
it around by using your left mouse button: Click ad hold down the left button and move the
magnifier window to where you want it, then let go of the button.
When you open the Magnifier a new window appears: The Magnifier Settings window. From that
window you can change the level of magnification, change the tracking and the presentation.To
get out of the magnifer mode simply click Exit
Here is another tool:
The Narrator

From Windows 2000 and newer


The Narrator is a text-to-speech utility for people who are blind or have low vision. Narrator reads
what is displayed on the screen—the contents of the active window, menu options, or text that has
been typed.
Note! The Narrator is designed to work with Notepad, WordPad, Control Panel programs, Internet
Explorer, the Windows desktop, and some parts of Windows Setup. Narrator may not read words
aloud correctly in other programs. Narrator has a number of options that allow you to customize
the way screen elements are read.
The third tool I will mention is:
The On-screen Keyboard

On–Screen Keyboard is a utility that displays a virtual keyboard on the computer screen. This tool
allows people with mobility impairments to type data by using a pointing device or joystick.
Besides providing a minimum level of functionality for some people with mobility impairments, On–
Screen Keyboard can also be helpful for people who do not know how to type.
Note! The program in which you want to type characters must be active while you are using On–
Screen Keyboard. The accessibility tools in the Windows operating system are intended to provide
a minimum level of functionality for users with special needs.
Windows tools to help you optimize your computers
performance
In the Windows Accessories you wil also find some very handy tools that will help you keep your
system running smoothly. It's a good idea to get aquanted with these tools and how to use them.
You find the tools by clicking System Tools from the Accessories menu
The most important accessories to know are:
Back Up
Disk Cleanup
Disk Defragmenter

Backup ! Where I come from, we have a saying "Real men do not back up!". The
very same "real men" always come to me for help, when they run into trouble from NOT having
backed up anything and their hard drive crashes. Unfortunately there is nothing I can do to help
them - other than point out to them that in MY opinion "real men" are smart men, who DO back up
important files on a weekly or monthly basis, - time frame depending on how much they use their
computers and how important to them their work is.
So take my advice and learn how to Backup!
The Backup accessory in the Windows Accessories menu makes it easy to backup all your
important files. If you click through the backup wizard presented to you when you click Backup
from the System Tools menu you will find several choices for backing up your files. If you took my
advice on how to manage your files and saved all your files in the Documents folder or on the D:
drive (if you have one), backing up your personal files is easy.
The Backup wizard gives you the oportunity to create a "System recovery Disk", too. This is a
handy tool if you're not TOO sure how well rotected you are from virus and other malware. The
restore dsc will include all data on your computer and the iles neccesary to restore windows in the
case of a major failure.
Note! Backing up means making a copy of files and store it on another media, such as a CD Rom
disk, a Smart drive or another hard drive. Choose the one that suites you the best.For the CD Rom
backup option - of course - you will need a "Burner" to make a copy.
An external hard drive attached to your USB port is a good choice for backup media.
The next of the important accessories is:

The Disk Defragmenter


When you click the Disk Defragmenter from the Windows accessories > System Tools menu
you will see this window.
The Disk Fragmenter sorts out the files on your drive(s) to optimize the space you are using.
Defragmenting you drive(s) perodically is a good tool for optimizing your computers performance.
If you click the Analyze button first, the defragmenter will analyze the specific drive selected in
the window and tell you, whether or not it is time to go through the defragmentation process.
If you want to know more about what defragmentation is and how it works

What is defragmentation?
The word "Defragmentation" might seem a bit intimidating, but it's really quite simple. Adding and
deleting files is something we all do quite frequently. The use of the HD space is not always as
good and efficient as it could be. Just imagine that every time you delete a small file, it leaves a
small amount of space of your HD. Then you add a bigger file, and the HD will split this file into
fragments. Every time to open this bigger file, the computer will still read this file as one file, but it
will have to look for it in several places on the HD. Of course this procedure will eventually slow
your computer down. In order to minimize the search time for each file, you'll need to do some
defragmentation. A defragmentation is pretty similar to cleaning and tidying your kitchen
cupboards ;-) You get more space and it's so much easier to find things afterwards.

SO...how do you do that?


Click your "Start button" If you have many programs on your computer, you may have to also
click the "all Programs" tab.
Click "accessories"
Click "System Tools"
Click "Defragmentation"

Do a defragmentation of your C drive. Depending on your HD size and amount of files saved on it,
it may take a while to do. You'll get a report ones the procedure is done.