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Exam

Name___________________________________

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Figure 15.1

Using Figure 15.1, match the following:

1) Ganglion cells. 1)

2) Bipolar cells. 2)

3) Horizontal cell. 3)

4) Amacrine cell. 4)

5) Rod. 5)

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Figure 15.2

Using Figure 15.2, match the following:

6) Protects and shapes the eyeball; provides a sturdy anchoring site for extrinsic eye muscles. 6)

7) Blood vessels that supply nutrition to most of the eyes' structures (excluding the lens and 7)
cornea).

8) Contains only cones; provides detailed color vision. 8)

9) Lacks photoreceptors; where optic nerve exits the eye. 9)

10) Consists of a pigmented layer and a neural layer. 10)

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Figure 15.3

Using Figure 15.3, match the following:

11) Acts as a reflexively activated diaphragm to vary pupil size. 11)

12) The only tissue in the body that can be transplanted from one person to another with little 12)
or no rejection.

13) Controls lens shape. 13)

14) Viscous liquid that holds the retina firmly against the pigmented layer. 14)

15) Increased pressure here causes glaucoma. 15)

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Figure 15.4

Using Figure 15.4, match the following:

16) Auricle. 16)

17) Tympanic membrane. 17)

18) Stapes. 18)

19) Semicircular canals. 19)

20) Cochlea. 20)

21) Balance organ. 21)

22) Houses organ of Corti. 22)

MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.

Match the following:

23) The sensory layer of the eye. A) Retina


23)

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24) The structure most responsible for A) Aqueous humor
24)
focusing light rays that enter the eye.
B) Lens
25) Helps maintain the intraocular
25)
pressure; located in the anterior part C) Fovea centralis
of the eye.

26) Area of greatest visual acuity.


26)

Match the following:

27) Ear stones. A) Pharyngotympanic tube


27)

28) Connects the middle ear with the B) Vestibule


28)
nasopharynx.
C) Otoliths
29) Separates external acoustic meatus
29)
from the middle ear. D) Tympanic membrane

30) Contains utricle and saccule.


30)

31) Detects linear acceleration.


31)

Match the following:

32) A condition that can result from a A) Glaucoma


32)
deficiency of vitamin A.
B) Otitis media
33) A condition of deafness that may
33)
result from otosclerosis. C) Conduction deafness

34) An inflammation of the lining of the D) Night blindness 34)


middle ear.

35) A condition often leading to blindness


35)
due to chronic persistent intraocular
pressure.

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Match the following:

36) Hair cells receptive to changes in A) Taste buds


36)
dynamic equilibrium are found in this
structure. B) Crista ampullaris

37) Chemically sensitive microvilli found C) Cochlear duct 37)


in this structure.
D) Vestibule
38) Hair cells receptive to changes in static
38)
equilibrium are found in this
E) Macula
structure.

F) Tympanic membrane
39) Chemically sensitive cilia are found in
39)
this structure.
G) Olfactory epithelium
40) Houses the spiral organ (of Corti).
H) Spiral organ (of Corti) 40)

41) The receptor organ for hearing.


41)

42) The central part of the bony labyrinth.


42)

43) A membrane that transmits sound


43)
vibrations to the auditory ossicles.

Match the following:

44) Loss of hearing resulting from A) Tinnitus


44)
prolonged exposure to high-intensity
sounds. B) Sensorineural deafness

45) Can result from the fusion of the C) Conduction deafness 45)
auditory ossicles.

46) A possible side effect of medications


46)
such as aspirin.

47) One of the most common results of


47)
otitis media.

48) Can result from impacted cerumen.


48)

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

49) The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and is reflected over the anterior surface of the 49)
eyeball is the conjunctiva.

50) Vitamin A needed by the photoreceptor cells is stored by the cells of the retina pigmented layer. 50)

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51) Static equilibrium involves the sensation of linear acceleration as well as changes in head rotation. 51)

52) The optic disc forms a blind spot where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball. 52)

53) Sour taste receptors are stimulated by hydrogen ions of acidic food substances. 53)

54) The fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth is called perilymph. 54)

55) Precision of eye movement is due to the fact that extrinsic eye muscle motor units typically 55)
innervate 8 to 12 muscle cells and in some cases as few as 2 or 3 muscle cells.

56) Ciliary muscles are considered voluntary, skeletal muscle. 56)

57) The structure that allows equalization of the pressure in the middle ear with the atmospheric 57)
pressure is the external auditory meatus.

58) The bending of light rays is called reflection. 58)

59) The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor. 59)

60) The neural layer of the retina prevents excessive scattering of light within the eye. 60)

61) In order for sound to reach the spiral organ (of Corti), the auditory ossicles must vibrate the oval 61)
window and set the endolymph in motion.

62) Sound is generally perceived in the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex. 62)

63) Light passes through the entire thickness of the neural layer of the retina to excite the 63)
photoreceptors.

64) Without a functioning crista ampullaris, the semicircular canals would not function. 64)

65) Contraction of the ciliary muscle causes the lens to bend the light less. 65)

66) Theoretically, an individual born without a middle ear would be able to hear by bone conduction 66)
with a hearing aid.

67) When we move from darkness to bright light, retinal sensitivity is lost, but visual acuity is gained. 67)

68) The function of the lens of the eye is to allow precise focusing of light on the retina. 68)

69) Odorants must be volatile to be smelled. 69)

70) Hair cells in the spiral organ of the ear are never replaced. 70)

71) The quality of a sound is based on the atmospheric pressure at the time the sound is generated. 71)

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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

72) Nutrients are delivered and waste products are carried away from the cells of the posterior 72)
segment of the eye by blood vessels. However, the cells in the cornea and lens (in the anterior
segment) are avascular. Which is the best explanation for how these cells are maintained?
A) The nutrients and waste products of the anterior segment diffuse into and through the
vitreous humor of the posterior segment.
B) The metabolic activity of these cells is very low. They produce little waste and need few
nutrients.
C) The aqueous humor is continuously replenished and flows from the ciliary process to drain
in the scleral venous sinus.
D) These cells, like the cells of the corneal layer of the integument are not living cells.

73) In a person who is color-blind, which of the following would you most expect to see? 73)
A) an inability to regenerate 11-cis-retinal after bleaching
B) a loss of their peripheral vision
C) absence of green or red cones in their foveae
D) a loss of functions in the rods of their retina

74) Which of the following is the best explanation of why it is difficult to discriminate the color of an 74)
object at night?
A) At night, dilation of pupils stimulates the retina, where more rods are located rather than
cones.
B) As many as 100 cones may converge on one ganglion cell.
C) The foveae are densely packed with cones.
D) Cones come in three types, each sensitive to different wavelengths of light.

75) Which of the following best describes the function of the iris? 75)
A) refracts light through the pupil B) adjusts the shape of the lens
C) gives the eye its color D) controls amount of light entering eye

76) Which of the following is the best explanation for our perception of color? 76)
A) The foveae are densely packed with cones.
B) Rods contain a single kind of visual pigment.
C) As many as 100 cones may converge on one ganglion cell.
D) Cones come in three types, each sensitive to different wavelengths of light.

77) The elasticity of the lens decreases with age. This leads to which of the following? 77)
A) lowered accommodation of the pupillary reflex and blurry vision
B) a clouding of the lenses known as a cataract
C) less light getting to the retina and diminished visual acuity
D) less accommodation of the lenses and difficulty focusing on nearby objects

78) Paralysis of which eye muscle would prevent the right eye from looking to the left? 78)
A) Inferior rectus B) Medial rectus C) Lateral rectus D) Superior rectus

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79) Overlap in the visual fields of our eyes ________. 79)
A) gives us higher visual acuity for small detail by doubling the number of photoreceptors that
are being stimulated
B) leaves a blind spot anterior to the nose and in the lateral fields of vision
C) is essentially a waste of brain processing for what is essentially the same image
D) allows us to subconsciously estimate the distance of objects based on the different angles the
image strikes our two retinas

80) If you shine a light into one eye both pupils will constrict. The best explanation for this is ________. 80)
A) a small portion of light always enters the other eye
B) sensory input from the retinas of both eyes converges at the optic chiasm and information
from each eye is delivered to both the left and right sides of the brain
C) information from one eye is directly and immediately transferred to the other eye to maintain
alignment of the eyes
D) This, in fact, does not occur; information from both eyes is always separated.

81) Select the statement below that is NOT true with regards to the process of light adaptation. 81)
A) Visual acuity is diminished.
B) The activity of rods is reduced by rapid bleaching of rhodopsin.
C) Rhodopsin is uncoupled from light transduction.
D) Retinal sensitivity decreases.

82) Humans can see several thousand shades of color but have cone photoreceptors that are sensitive 82)
to only three (perhaps four) wavelengths of light. What is the best explanation for why we see so
many colors?
A) Color perception is achieved by activation of various combinations between the three cone
types.
B) Color perception is dependent on the millions of rods as well as cone photoreceptors.
C) Shades of color are purely psychological and learned by association with age, infants only
seeing in black and white.
D) Colors are added and enhanced in the primary visual cortex of the brain.

83) Color vision has much greater resolution than night vision (vision that is mostly in shades of gray). 83)
Which of the following is the best explanation for why this is so?
A) There are many more cone photoreceptors in the eye than rod photoreceptors.
B) A larger proportion of the brain's visual cortex is active during the day when our cone
photoreceptors are most active.
C) There are several types of cone photoreceptors, each of which enrich the clarity and
resolution of vision.
D) A single cone photoreceptor often connects to a single bipolar cell and a single ganglion cell
while as many as 100 rods will converge to a single ganglion cell.

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84) Humans can smell as many as 10,000 different odors but have significantly fewer types of olfactory 84)
receptors. Which of the following is the best explanation for why humans can distinguish so many
smells?
A) The olfactory pathway travels to location in the brain in which memories are formed and we
simply mix this new sensory information with old memories.
B) Taste receptors that are active at the same time influence the subtlety of what we smell.
C) The sensation of a single, distinct smell is a combination of a variety of chemicals that
stimulate different combinations of olfactory receptor cells all at once.
D) The belief that we can smell so many different distinct odors is a psychological process
referred to as an uncinate fit or olfactory hallucination.

85) As light travels through the eye, it passes through several structures or chambers before reaching 85)
the retina. Which list below gives those structures in the correct order?
A) cornea, pupil, lens, anterior chamber, posterior segment
B) cornea, anterior chamber, pupil, lens, posterior segment
C) cornea, lens, pupil, anterior chamber, posterior segment
D) cornea, pupil, anterior chamber, lens, posterior segment

86) Labyrinthitis is a medical condition often caused by a viral infection, resulting in swelling and 86)
inflammation of the membranous labyrinth. Which of the following symptoms would you most
associate with the condition of labyrinthitis?
A) loss of balance and dizziness B) ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
C) loss of hearing D) auditory hallucination

87) The sensation of loudness or the volume of a sound is detected by ________. 87)
A) vibration along a greater length of the basilar membrane, stimulating a greater number of
hair cells
B) sounds that can travel all the way to the apex of the scala vestibule with enough energy
remaining to deflect hair cells
C) greater movement of the basilar membrane resulting in greater deflection of the hair cells
D) faster vibration of the basilar membrane resulting in a higher frequency of hair cell
stimulation

88) A patient has a loss of hearing in only one ear. Which of the following is likely to be a result? 88)
A) The patient will have a loss of balance with dizziness and vertigo.
B) The patient will not be able to localize the origin of sounds.
C) The patient will have increased sensitivity to sound in the unaffected ear.
D) The patient will not be able to track objects with the eye on the same side as the hearing loss.

89) Dancers will use a technique called "spotting" when they perform spins of the body. By holding 89)
their head and eyes on a fixed point in front of them as their body spins they reduce the amount of
head spinning and this prevents dizziness. Which of the following is the most likely explanation
for why this works?
A) This helps keep the motions detected by the eyes congruent (aligned) with the motions
sensed by the vestibular apparatus.
B) This will help to reduce the lateral flection of the head and will prevent hyper polarization or
depolarization of the hair cells in the macula.
C) When the eyes send a static vision of stability to the brain, it is tricked into believing the body
is still and therefore dizziness will not occur.
D) Reducing the inertia of head spin will reduce the flow of endolymph that deflects the hair
cells of the crista ampullaris.

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90) Tom is a 45-year-old male that has lost his ability to hear high frequency sounds. The most likely 90)
explanation for this would be ________.
A) a middle ear infection
B) an overgrowth of bony tissue, fusing the ossicles together
C) a perforated tympanic membrane
D) damage to the hair cells near the oval window in the cochlear duct

91) What is the main function of the rods in the eye? 91)
A) vision in dim light B) depth perception
C) color vision D) accommodation for near vision

92) What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye? 92)
A) cornea B) iris C) aqueous humor D) lens

93) Receptors for hearing are located in the ________. 93)


A) tympanic membrane B) semicircular canals
C) cochlea D) vestibule

94) Which of the following types of neurons are replaced throughout adult life? 94)
A) retinal ganglion cells B) retinal bipolar cells
C) auditory outer and inner hair cells D) olfactory receptor cells

95) Bitter taste is elicited by ________. 95)


A) alkaloids B) metal ions C) hydrogen ions D) acids

96) The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________. 96)


A) utricle B) macula
C) cochlear duct D) semicircular canals

97) The ability to clearly see objects at a distance but not close up is properly called ________. 97)
A) myopia B) hyperopia C) presbyopia D) hypopia

98) Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________. 98)
A) ears B) eye C) nose D) skin

99) Which of the following structures is NOT part of the external ear? 99)
A) pharyngotympanic tube B) pinna
C) external acoustic meatus D) tympanic membrane

100) Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ________. 100)
A) pass posteriorly without crossing over at the chiasma
B) divide at the chiasma, with some crossing and some not crossing
C) go to the superior colliculus only
D) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma

101) Ordinarily, it is NOT possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can be 101)
transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.
A) has no blood supply B) is not a living tissue
C) has no nerve supply D) does not contain connective tissue

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102) The oval window is connected directly to which passageway? 102)
A) scala vestibuli B) scala tympani
C) external acoustic meatus D) pharyngotympanic tube

103) There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the 103)
optic nerves?
A) rod cells B) bipolar cells C) cone cells D) ganglion cells

104) The first "way station" in the visual pathway from the eye, after there has been partial crossover of 104)
the fibers in the optic chiasma, is the ________.
A) superior colliculi B) lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
C) temporal lobe D) visual cortex

105) As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________. 105)
A) outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
B) inner hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
C) outer hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
D) inner hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

106) Which of the following is true about gustatory receptors? 106)


A) The receptors generate an action potential in response to chemical stimuli.
B) Complete adaptation occurs in about one to five minutes.
C) In order for a chemical to be sensed, it must be hydrophobic.
D) All gustatory receptors have the same threshold for activation.

107) Taste buds are NOT found ________. 107)


A) lining the buccal cavity B) in fungiform papillae
C) in circumvallate papillae D) in filiform papillae

108) Select the correct statement about olfaction. 108)


A) Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.
B) Olfactory receptors have a high degree of specificity toward a single type of chemical.
C) Substances must be volatile and hydrophobic in order to activate olfactory receptors.
D) Olfactory adaptation is only due to fading of receptor cell response.

109) Which of the following describes a response of the eye to sympathetic stimulation? 109)
A) ciliary muscle contraction B) pupil constriction
C) pupil dilation D) ciliary muscle relaxation

110) Which of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produce it? 110)
A) sweet-organic substances such as sugar and some lead salts
B) umami-triglycerides and fatty acids
C) salty-metal ions
D) sour-acids
E) bitter-alkaloids

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111) Which best describes the function of olfactory cilia? 111)
A) help move air through nasal passages
B) trap inhaled particulates before air reaches lungs
C) help transport mucus toward nasopharynx
D) increase surface area of neurons receptive to airborne chemicals

112) What is a modiolus? 112)


A) bone in the center of a semicircular canal
B) a bony area around the junction of the facial, vestibular, and cochlear nerves
C) bone around the cochlea
D) a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea

113) Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate? 113)
A) Visual pigment content is reduced in cones more than rods.
B) Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.
C) The impaired vision is caused by reduced cone function.
D) The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.

114) Dark adaptation ________. 114)


A) involves accumulation of rhodopsin
B) results in inhibition of rod function
C) primarily involves improvement of acuity and color vision
D) is much faster than light adaptation

115) Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________. 115)
A) chiasma B) occipital lobe of the cortex
C) superior colliculus D) thalamus

116) In the visual pathways to the brain, the optic radiations project to the ________. 116)
A) optic chiasma B) medial retina
C) primary visual cortex D) lateral geniculate body

117) Visual inputs to the ________ serve to synchronize biorhythms with natural light and dark. 117)
A) suprachiasmatic nucleus B) lateral geniculate body
C) pretectal nuclei D) superior colliculi

118) Which of the following types of receptors are located in the mouth? 118)
A) chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors only
B) chemoreceptors only
C) chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, and nociceptors
D) thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and nociceptors only

119) Motion sickness seems to ________. 119)


A) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs
B) respond best to medication that "boosts" vestibular inputs
C) respond best to medication taken after salivation and pallor begins
D) result from activation of nausea centers in the brain stem

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120) The only special sense NOT fully functional at birth is the sense of ________. 120)
A) smell
B) taste
C) hearing
D) vision
E) equilibrium

121) Most newborns ________. 121)


A) often use only one eye at a time
B) produce more tears when they cry than a toddler
C) see in tones of red and green only
D) are myopic

122) The blind spot of the eye is caused by ________. 122)


A) more rods than cones within the retina
B) an absence of cones in the foveae
C) the macula lutea interrupts the nerve pathway
D) an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve leaves the eye

123) The first vestiges of eyes in the embryo are called ________. 123)
A) optic discs B) mesenchyme C) optic vesicles D) optic cups

124) Which pairing of terms is incorrectly related? 124)


A) quality of a sound: frequency of the sound
B) frequency of sound waves: number of wavelengths
C) frequency of sound waves: loudness of the sound
D) amplitude of a sound: intensity of the sound

125) A patient who has experienced previous jaw and face trauma now reports difficulty tasting with 125)
the tip of her tongue. Which cranial nerve was likely damaged in that injury?
A) Trigeminal (V) B) Glossopharyngeal (IX)
C) Hypoglossal (XII) D) Facial (VII)

126) Which of the following could NOT be seen as one looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope? 126)
A) fovea centralis B) optic disc C) macula lutea D) optic chiasma

127) The cells of the retina in which action potentials are generated are the ________. 127)
A) rods and cones B) amacrine cells C) ganglion cells D) bipolar cells

128) During dark adaptation, ________. 128)


A) the rate of rhodopsin breakdown is accelerated
B) the sensitivity of the retina decreases
C) the cones are activated
D) rhodopsin accumulates in the rods

129) Tinnitus, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called ________. 129)
A) Ménière's syndrome B) strabismus
C) motion sickness D) conjunctivitis

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130) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells? 130)
A) They have a short life span of about 60 days.
B) They are chemoreceptors.
C) They are unipolar neurons.
D) They are ciliated.

131) An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________. 131)
A) spiral organ (of Corti) B) otoliths
C) scala media D) cupula

132) What is the primary function of cerumen? 132)


A) prevents water from entering middle ear
B) lubricates ossicles
C) cleans and lubricates the external auditory canal
D) softens tympanic membrane

133) Which of the following is true about photoreceptors? 133)


A) If all cones are stimulated equally, all colors are absorbed by the cones and the color
perceived is black.
B) Three types of color-sensitive photoreceptors exist: red, green, and yellow.
C) In dim light, images are focused directly on the rods in the fovea centralis.
D) Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.

134) Select the correct statement about equilibrium. 134)


A) Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.
B) Due to dynamic equilibrium, movement can be perceived if rotation of the body continues at
a constant rate.
C) Hair cells involved in both static and dynamic equilibrium hyperpolarize only, resulting in
an increased rate of impulse transmission.
D) The weight of the endolymph contained within the semicircular canals against the maculae is
responsible for static equilibrium.

135) The eye muscle that rotates the eye upward and turns the eye laterally is the ________. 135)
A) superior oblique B) inferior oblique
C) medial rectus D) lateral rectus

136) The receptor membranes of gustatory cells are ________. 136)


A) fungiform papillae B) taste buds
C) basal cells D) gustatory hairs

137) A perceived increase in the volume of sound is best explained by ________. 137)
A) an increase in the height of the sound wave
B) a combination of multiple sound waves
C) an increase in the width of the sound wave
D) a decrease in the width of the sound wave

138) Damage to the medial rectus muscles would probably affect ________. 138)
A) pupil constriction B) convergence
C) accommodation D) refraction

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139) Which movement of ions produces EPSPs in cochlea hair cells? 139)
A) Influx of Na+ B) Efflux of Ca++
C) Efflux of K+ D) Influx of K+ and Ca++

140) Fusing of the ossicles (otosclerosis) results in ________. 140)


A) Ménière's Syndrome B) sensorineural deafness
C) conduction deafness D) tinnitus

141) Visual processing in the thalamus does NOT contribute significantly to ________. 141)
A) depth perception B) night vision
C) high-acuity vision D) movement perception

142) The visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum fits between ________. 142)
A) UV and infrared waves B) infrared and microwaves
C) microwaves and radio waves D) X-rays and UV waves

143) Ceruminous glands are ________. 143)


A) modified apocrine sweat glands
B) modified taste buds
C) glands found in the lateral corners of your eye
D) saliva glands found at the base of the tongue

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

144) High frequency sounds are detected when the basilar membrane is displaced near the 144)
________.

145) The synapse of the olfactory nerves with the mitral cells is called a(n) ________. 145)

146) The middle ossicle in the ear is the ________. 146)

147) The ________ nuclei are in the visual pathway and mediate the pupillary light reflexes. 147)

148) Taste is solely a response to chemicals dissolved in ________. 148)

149) Hot chili peppers contain a chemical compound called capsaicin that stimulate which type 149)
of receptor?

150) The apex of the cochlea hears sounds in the range of ________ Hz. 150)

151) Describe the process of light and dark adaptation and include the role of the rods and 151)
cones.

152) What is the chemical composition of the rod pigment, rhodopsin, and how does it appear 152)
to act in the reception of light?

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153) After head trauma from an automobile accident, a man has anosmia. Define anosmia. 153)
Why is this condition fairly common after such injuries and in cases of severe nasal cavity
inflammation?

154) Explain why your nose runs during and immediately after a good cry. 154)

155) Trace the pathway of sound as it enters the external ear until it is perceived in the brain. 155)

156) Explain the role of the endolymph of the semicircular canals in activating the receptors 156)
during angular motion.

157) What two things does the ciliary body do? 157)

158) When you go to the fair and ride the roller coaster, where do those wild sensations come 158)
from?

159) What is the pharyngotympanic tube and what is its purpose? 159)

160) Explain why prolonged periods of reading tire the eye muscles and result in eye strain. 160)

161) Distinguish between the maculae and cristae ampullaris in terms of their sensory 161)
reception.

162) Explain why a bad cold can result in food not tasting the same as it normally does. 162)

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

163) Roger went for his yearly eye examination and was informed that his intraocular pressure was slightly elevated
(at 22 mm Hg). The physician expressed concern over this condition and noted that if the condition got worse,
eye drops would be merited. What is wrong with Roger's eyes, and what are the possible consequences of this
condition? Explain the function of eye drops used for therapy.

164) Baby Susie's pediatrician notices that one of her eyes rotates outward and that she does not appear to be using
it for vision. What is her condition and what does the pediatrician recommend?

165) A 60-year-old woman is experiencing vertigo. She ignores the symptoms initially, but now her attacks are
accompanied by severe nausea and vomiting. Following an attack, she hears a roaring in her ears that causes
temporary deafness for some time after. What do you think her problem is, and what is its suspected cause?

166) Ling, a 75-year-old grandmother, complained that her vision was becoming obscured. Upon examination by
an ophthalmologist she was told she had cataracts. What are they, how do they occur, and how are they
treated?

167) A nurse is administering Pilocarpine eye drops. The nurse instructs the patient to press on the nasolacrimal
duct for 30 seconds because the medication can have some systemic side effects, such as affecting the heart rate.
Explain the rationale for pressing on the nasolacrimal duct.

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Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED15

1) E
2) C
3) A
4) D
5) B
6) A
7) B
8) D
9) E
10) C
11) C
12) B
13) A
14) E
15) D
16) A
17) E
18) C
19) B
20) D
21) B
22) D
23) A
24) B
25) A
26) C
27) C
28) A
29) D
30) B
31) B
32) D
33) C
34) B
35) A
36) B
37) A
38) E
39) G
40) C
41) H
42) D
43) F
44) B
45) C
46) A
47) C
48) C
49) TRUE
50) FALSE
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Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED15

51) FALSE
52) TRUE
53) TRUE
54) FALSE
55) TRUE
56) FALSE
57) FALSE
58) FALSE
59) FALSE
60) FALSE
61) TRUE
62) FALSE
63) TRUE
64) TRUE
65) FALSE
66) TRUE
67) TRUE
68) TRUE
69) TRUE
70) FALSE
71) FALSE
72) C
73) C
74) A
75) D
76) D
77) D
78) B
79) D
80) B
81) A
82) A
83) D
84) C
85) B
86) A
87) C
88) B
89) D
90) D
91) A
92) B
93) C
94) D
95) A
96) B
97) B
98) B
99) A
100) D
19
Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED15

101) A
102) A
103) D
104) B
105) A
106) B
107) D
108) A
109) C
110) B
111) D
112) D
113) B
114) A
115) B
116) C
117) A
118) C
119) A
120) D
121) D
122) D
123) C
124) C
125) D
126) D
127) C
128) D
129) A
130) C
131) B
132) C
133) D
134) A
135) B
136) D
137) A
138) B
139) D
140) C
141) B
142) A
143) A
144) base
145) glomerulus
146) incus
147) pretectal
148) saliva
149) Nociceptors
150) 20
20
Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED15

151) Rods respond to low-intensity light that provides night and peripheral vision, while cones are bright-light,
high-discrimination receptors that provide color vision. During light adaptation, rods are inactivated and as cones
respond to the high-intensity light, high visual acuity results. In dark adaptation, cones do not function (visual acuity
decreases) and rod function resumes when sufficient rhodopsin accumulates.
152) Rhodopsin is a combination of retinal and opsin. Retinal is chemically related to vitamin A and is synthesized from it.
Retinal can form a variety of three-dimensional forms called isomers. The opsin protein combines with the 11-cis
retinal to form rhodopsin. The light-triggered changes in retinal cause hyperpolarization of the rods. This happens
because the light turns off sodium entry, which then inhibits the release of neurotransmitter, thus turning off electrical
signals.
153) Anosmia means the loss of chemical sense of smell due to some olfactory disorder. Most anosmia results from head
injuries or nasal cavity inflammations, allergies, smoking, and aging. The olfactory pathways are very sensitive to
irritations or to damage, especially if the ethmoid bones have been damaged due to trauma.
154) The tears flow into the lacrimal canaliculi and then into the nasolacrimal sac. As the sac fills, the tears begin to run
down the nasolacrimal duct and out your nose.
155) A sound wave passing through the external acoustic meatus causes the eardrum to vibrate at the same frequency as
the wave. The auditory ossicles amplify and deliver vibrations to the oval window. Pressure waves in the cochlear
fluids cause basilar membrane resonance that stimulates the hair cells of the spiral organ (of Corti). Impulses are then
generated along the cochlear nerve that travel to the cochlear nuclei of the medulla and, from there, through several
brain stem nuclei to the auditory cortex of the brain.
156) The crista ampullaris responds to changes in the velocity of head movement (angular acceleration). The crista consists
of a tuft of hair cells whose microvilli are embedded in the gelatinous cupula. Rotational movement causes the
endolymph to flow in the opposite direction, thus bending the cupula and exciting the hair cells.
157) 1. Constriction of the ciliary muscle that is attached to the lens via the ciliary zonule causes the lens to change shape.
2. The epithelium of the ciliary body secretes aqueous humor.
158) The wild sensations occur when the receptor for dynamic equilibrium, the crista ampularis, is excited by endolymph
moving in the semicircular canals. This movement is the result of rotational acceleration or deceleration. Many times
these wild rides spin us around enough that our eyes tell us we are going one way but the vestibule and semicircular
canal tell us something different. Conflicts like that can often cause us to get quite dizzy or even sick.
159) The pharyngotympanic tube links the middle ear cavity with the nasopharynx. Normally it is flattened and closed, but
swallowing or yawning opens it briefly to equalize pressure in the middle ear cavity with external air pressure. It also
replenishes air in the middle ear.
160) Reading or other close work requires almost continuous accommodation, pupillary constriction, and convergence,
which lead to tiredness of the eye muscles.
161) Maculae are sensory receptors for static equilibrium. They monitor the position of the head in space by responding to
linear acceleration forces. Cristae ampullaris respond to rotary (angular) movements.
162) Taste is 80% smell. When the ability to smell is blocked due to nasal congestion, taste is primarily via the taste
receptors which account for only about 20% of the taste sensation. This results in a distinct difference in the "taste" of
food. Additionally, you become a mouth breather and the oral mucosa becomes dry and reduces the ability to taste
163) If the drainage of the aqueous humor is blocked, pressure within the eye can increase, causing compression of the
retina and optic nerve, resulting in a condition called glaucoma. The resulting destruction of the neural structures
causes blindness unless the condition is detected early. Early glaucoma can be treated with eye drops that increase the
rate of aqueous humor drainage or decrease its production.
164) Susie has strabismus, caused by congenital weakness of the external eye muscles in her affected eye. To prevent this
eye from becoming functionally blind, the doctor will recommend either eye exercises or putting a patch on the
unaffected eye to force her to use the affected eye. If her case is deemed severe, surgery on the eye muscles will be
recommended.

21
Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED15

165) She most likely has a condition known as Ménière's syndrome. It affects both the semicircular canals and the cochlea.
The cause of the syndrome is uncertain, but it may result from distortion of the membranous labyrinth by excessive
endolymph accumulation. Less severe cases can usually be managed by antimotion drugs. For more debilitating
attacks, salt restriction and diuretics are used to decrease overall extracellular fluid volumes. Also, wearing a visor
(baseball hat) reduces the visual field and allows the person to enhance their depth perception and reduce the
dizziness.
166) A cataract is a clouding of the lens that causes the world to appear distorted, as if looking through frosted glass. Some
cataracts are congenital, but most are due to age-related hardening and thickening of the lens, or are a possible
consequence of diabetes mellitus. The direct cause is probably inadequate delivery of nutrients to the deeper lens
fibers. The metabolic changes that result are thought to promote unfolding of the lens proteins. Unprotected exposure
to the UV rays of sunlight over time is also associated with cataract formation. The lens can be removed and replaced
with an artificial lens.
167) Applying gentle pressure to the nasolacrimal duct prevents the delivery of the drug to the nasal mucosa and general
circulation, where it may affect heart rate.

22