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revised 2019/08/25 at 21:40:36

Sacred Heart Junior College


Math and IT Department

INTERMEDIATE ALGEBRA (MATH1004)


Semester I, 2019 – 2020
Worksheet 2: Laws of Exponents

Simplifying Exponential Expressions

If a is a real number and n is an integer greater than 1, then the symbol an represents the product of
n factors of a. That is,
an = a| · a · a{z· . . . · a}
n factors
n 1
When n = 1, a = a. That is, a = a. If a 6= 0, then
1
a0 = 1 and a−n = .
an
Thus,
am an = am+n , (am )n = amn , (ab)n = an bn ,
am m−n 1  a n an
= a = if a 6
= 0 , = if b 6= 0.
an an−m b bn
Properties of exponents are used to simplify exponential expressions. An exponential expression is
simplified when
• No parenthesis appear.

• No powers are raised to powers.


• Each base occurs only once.
• No negative or zero exponents appear.

Instructions: Attempt ALL questions and show ALL working where possible.
1. Multiply each expression using the product rule:

(a) b4 · b7 (f ) (2x3 y 7 )(5x6 y 8 )

(b) y · y 3 (g ) (−3x4 y)(2x7 y 2 )

(c) 33 · 32 (h) (25xy 2 z 3 )(3x3 y 2 z 7 )

(d ) 4x2 · 3x5 (i ) (−9x0 yz 5 )(6xz 9 )

(e) (−5y 9 )(−2y 3 ) (j ) (−2x2 y 3 )2

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2. Divide each expression using the quotient rule:

25 x9 y 12
(a) (f )
22 x4 y 5

x9 60x2 y 7
(b) (g )
x3 6xy

12x5 4x
(c) (h)
4x3 3x2

18x11 −24xy 2
(d ) (i )
6x7 3xy

x3 y 4 −56x9 y 7 z 6
(e) (j )
x2 y 2 8x3 yz 2

3. Use the zero-exponent rule to simplify each expression:

(a) 40 (f ) 17x0 y

(b) (−6)0 (g ) 3(xy)0

(c) −80 (h) −4(3x)0

(d ) 17x0 (i ) −(2x2 y 7 z 9 )0

(e) (30x)0 (j ) −30 y 0

4. Use the negative-exponent rule to write each expression with a positive exponent. Simplify, if possible:

(a) 2−2 1
(g )
4−2
(b) (−1)−4
2
(h)
(c) −5 −2 x−2

(d ) 3x−1 3
(i ) −
(−2)−3
(e) x2 y −2
x−2 y 7
(f ) 7x−5 y 8 (j )
z −3

5. Simplify each expression using the power rule:

(a) (x2 )3 (f ) ((x + 2)2 )2

(b) (y 2 )−3 (g ) ((x + y)−1 )2

(c) (b−1 )−2 (h) (π 2 )2

(d ) (25 )−1 (i ) (32 )1/2

(e) (4−4 )−5 (j ) (67 )2/7

6. Simplify each expression using the products-to-powers rule:

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(a) (3x)2 (f ) (−2x4 y 2 )4

(b) (−2x7 )2 (g ) (7x2 y −2 )3

(c) (−6x9 )2 (h) (3x−1 y 3 )−2

(d ) (3xy 2 )3 (i ) (−2x3 y 5 z 3 )−3

(e) (5x2 y)2 (j ) (−3x2 yz −2 )−1

7. Simplify each expression using the quotients-to-powers rule:


 2 −2
2−1

3
(a) (f )
x x2
3 2
x2 3x2 y
 
(b) (g )
y 2z
2 −2
2x−1

4x

(c) − (h)
3y 3y −2
−1 −1
x3
 
1
(d ) (i )
y2 (2x−1 y 2 )2
3 3
x3
 
3
(e) (j )
y −2 2 (x2 y −3 )
−1

8. Simplify:

(a) (−4)
2 x−2 z yx3
(j ) (q ) −1
xz 2 (2x2 y −1 )
(b) 3−6 · 34 3 2
(−2) x4 (yz)
(k ) 2a3 b4 · 2ab
32 xy 3 z (r ) 3
−2 −1 (2a2 b−2 )

(c) 3
−2
3x−1

(l ) 2
(d ) 8x2
4
4y −1 (s) (2xy) · 2x−4 y −1
2 −1
−2 24 (t) u3 v 6 −v −4
(e) −4y 5 (m) −3
2−1 · (2−2 )
6
(f ) 4−1 + 3−2 2 (u) (−y 5 )2 · x−3 y 2
2 · 24
(n) 3
23 (v ) −x−2 · −yx4
(g ) 1−3 − 4−2
24
−1
3 (o) 4

ex
− 12
(h) x y 2 · (22 ) (w )
ex−2
3 2
y −1 2x−4 y

x2 y 4
(i ) (p) (x ) (x + y)
0
xy 4 x2 y 2

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9. Simplify:
5
(a) 5b2 · 4b0 mn4 · m3 p5 (r ) (2a5 b3 · ba5 )3

(j )
nm2 p5
(b) 6n6 · 2n6 (s) (2a4 )2 · 2a5 b−1
x6 y 3
(c) 2p5 · p5 (k )
(2x0 y 0 · 2x2 y 0 )4 (t) (x4 y −4 )3 y −1
5n2 · n4 yx2 z 2 · 2xy 5 z 3
(d ) (l ) (u) (x3 y 3 )2 · 2x
n0 (x4 y 4 z)
6

6a5 · 4a3 (v ) 2x2 y 0 · (−2x3 y 5 )0


(e) 2y 3
2a3 (m)
x y · (x3 )−2
3 −4

6a4 · 4a0 (w ) (xy)3 · yx4


(f ) −6 5 −2
(x y )
a2 (n)
2yx0 · y 2 2 · 20
(x )
2r4 · 4r4 2−4 · (2−3 )−2
(g ) (2a)4
2r5 (o)
(2a−2 b5 )6 · 2a−3 −4
(−2)4 · (−2)−4

x2 z 3 (y )
(h) 2x−1 y −5 · xy 5 (−2)3
(2x5 y 2 z 4 )2 (p)
(2x2 )4
(x3 y 5 )3 (2−2 )−4
(i ) (q ) (−a −1 4 0 −3
· 2a b ) (z )
zx4 y 3 · x3 y 0 z 4 (2−2 )−1 · (24 )4

10. Simplify each exponential expression. Assume that all variables used as exponents represent integers
and that all other variables represent nonzero real numbers.
−1  3
3x4 2x3 x3t−1 x3t · x4t−1

(a) (g ) (m)
y −4 y2 xt xt


2−1 x−2 y
−2 
xy −3
3 y 4p−2 z 5x · z x−7
(b) (h) (n)
x4 y −1 x−3 y y 3p zx

3  −2 (i ) y 2p · y 9p (o) xn−1 · x3n+4


2x2 2x5

(c)
y4 y
(p) (x−4n · xn )−3
(j ) x9y · x−7y
2  −1
3z −2 9y −4

−2
(d ) x3−n

y z −3 z 6x (q )
(k ) 7 x6−n
z
(e) x5 · x7a
3
y6 xn y 3n+1

(f ) x4a · x7 (l ) 4z (r )
y yn
 a −1  a −m  m
b b
11. Is = ? Thus, is = ?
b a b a

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