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Republic of the Philippines

Philippine Science High School System

AGRICULTURE
LEARNING RESOURCE PACKAGE

AGRICULTURE
Teaching Guide
Contributing Authors:
Arfe G. Castillo (SST-IV, Cordillera Administrative Region)

Content Reviewers:
Dr. Saturnina Halos (Professor, UP Los Banos)

Digital Work:
Rolex Emmanuel C. Padilla (SST-III, Eastern Visayas)

The Curriculum Materials Development Project featuring the Learning Resource Packages
for the Specialization Years Program is supported by a grant from the Philippine Science High
School System- Office of the Executive Director.

Copyright @2016 by the Philippine Science High School System.

All rights reserved. This Instructional Guide or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any
manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the PSHS System except for educational
purposes.
Foreword

Agriculture is often viewed unjustly as a field for non- or minimally-schooled


individuals who are forced by circumstances to face and endure nature’s elements to
produce the bounty that is served daily on our tables. Rarely do we out rightly recognize
the science, research, engineering and technology involved in the production of the
food we eat. Definitely, agriculture is an interesting field considering the myriad of
opportunities and challenges it offers in terms of providing sufficient and safe food
supply to the fast growing population amidst climate change.

This Learning Resource Package in Agriscience 1 and 2 has been envisioned and
produced for students to develop or deepen their appreciation of the course with the
end in view of enticing them to pursue agriculture and related courses when they go to
college. The presentation slides, downloaded video clips and articles, references and
other materials contained in this package are to aid in providing a picture as to what
Agriscience is all about and the requisite knowledge, skills and attitudes that have to be
acquired and developed.

Since Agriscience is also a fast-evolving field, these materials need constant


updating. The laboratory activities suggested are just some of the activities that students
can perform under the supervision of their teachers. Teachers may freely revise the
activities and even add their own to suit regional settings.

We recognize the immense contributions of Dr. Saturnina Halos, the content


expert and consultant for the Agriscience curriculum, as well as that of our resource
speakers and facilitators during the PSHS System Agriscience teachers’ training in
UPLB in July 2016 for generously sharing to us some of the materials included in this
learning resource package. We may not be able to name all of you but our profound
respect and gratitude goes to you all.

Arfe G. Castillo
Contributing Author
Table of Contents
Crop Production Activities
AgriScience (Crop Production) Activities .................................................................................................. 1
The Essential Elements: Mineral Deficiency Symptoms ............................................................................ 3
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 4
Hydroponic Method ................................................................................................................................ 5
Solution culture technique .................................................................................................................. 5
Aeroponic technique ............................................................................................................................ 5
Nutrient film technique ....................................................................................................................... 5
Sand culture technique ........................................................................................................................ 5
Pre Laboratory Activity ........................................................................................................................ 6
Materials ............................................................................................................................................. 7
Procedure ............................................................................................................................................ 8
Results .................................................................................................................................................. 9
Post-Laboratory Questions ............................................................................................................... 10
Asexual Plant Propagation ........................................................................................................................ 12
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 13
General Capabilities and Student Learning Outcomes Scientific Capability ......................................... 14
Specific Learning Outcomes ............................................................................................................... 14
Pre-Laboratory Questions .................................................................................................................. 15
Materials ............................................................................................................................................ 15
Procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 16
Cuttings ........................................................................................................................................ 16
Layering ........................................................................................................................................ 16
Tip Layering .......................................................................................................................... 17
Simple Layering ..................................................................................................................... 17
Compound layering .............................................................................................................. 18
Mound Layering .................................................................................................................... 18
Air layering ........................................................................................................................... 18
Division ......................................................................................................................................... 18
Stolons and Runners ............................................................................................................ 19
Offsets ................................................................................................................................... 19
Separation .................................................................................................................................... 19
Bulb ...................................................................................................................................... 19
Corms .................................................................................................................................... 20
Crowns ................................................................................................................................. 21
Grafting .......................................................................................................................................... 21
Post-Laboratory Questions ................................................................................................................. 22
Survey on Plant Diseases and their Management .................................................................................. 24
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 25
Specific Learning Objectives .................................................................................................................. 26
Pre-Laboratory Questions ...................................................................................................................... 26
Materials ................................................................................................................................................ 27
Procedure ............................................................................................................................................... 27
Post-Laboratory Activities ...................................................................................................................... 28
Dish Gardening Activity ............................................................................................................................ 30
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 31
Specific Learning Objectives .................................................................................................................. 31
Pre-Laboratory Questions ...................................................................................................................... 32
Materials ................................................................................................................................................ 32
Procedure ............................................................................................................................................... 33
Post-Laboratory Activities ...................................................................................................................... 34
Project Planning ....................................................................................................................................... 36
Proposed Agribusiness Plan ................................................................................................................... 37
Cover Page ................................................................................................................................... 37
Business Description ..................................................................................................................... 37
Products/Services ......................................................................................................................... 37
Market ........................................................................................................................................... 37
Marketing Strategies and Sales ..................................................................................................... 38

Management ................................................................................................................................. 38
Operations .................................................................................................................................... 38
Financials ....................................................................................................................................... 39
How to Create an Income Statement ..................................................................................................... 40

How to Create an Income and Expense Log ........................................................................................... 42

Learning Resource List ............................................................................................................................... 44


AgriScience (Crop Production) Activities

Activity No. Title of Activity Instruments/Materials/Supplies


Needed
Activity 2A.1 The Essential Elements:  16 identical dark bottles (or
Mineral Deficiency other suitable containers)
Symptoms  masking tape
 permanent marker
 Hoagland’s culture solution
 nutrient solutions (for the
treatments)
 tomato seedlings
 beaker with distilled or
demineralized water
 foam
 scissors
 pH paper or meter
Activity 2A.2 Propagation of  small plastic plant bags
Ornamental Plants  potting soil
 trowel or soil scoop
 mother plant/s
 rooting medium
 pruning shears
 pail or basin with water
 watering can or hand sprinkler
with water
 plant propagator (commercial
or improvised)
 masking tape
 permanent marker
 apron or lab gown
 sharp knife
 plant tray
 moist sphagnum moss
 clear plastic sheet
 yarn or straw
 clear plastic strip
 ice candy plastic bag
Activity 2A.3 Survey on Plant  notebook/record book
Diseases and Their  ballpen
Management  list of interview questions
 tape recorder
 camera
Activity 2A.4 Dish Gardening  plant dish of choice
 gravel
 charcoal
 small and compatible plants
 soil mixture)
 moss or sand
 decorative materials
 water
 old newspaper
 gardening tools (pruning
shears, hand trowel, watering
can, etc.)
 apron/lab gown

Activity 2A.5 Flower Arrangement  flowers and foliage of the


students’
 container for the
arrangement
 stem support materials (floral
foam, pinpoint holder, etc.)
 cutting tools (knife, shears,
Styrofoam cutter, etc.)
 wiring tools (florist wire, picks,
etc.)
 adhesive materials (floral
tape, waterproof tape, etc.)
 other accessories and
materials needed (ribbons
and the like)
Crop Production Capstone Farm Visit  pen
Activity  record notebook
 camera/video recorder/tape
recorder/video camera
 list of interview questions
Adapted from Alejar, A. A., Bautista, N. S., Cadiz, N. M., Dionisio-Sese, M. L., and Sotto, R. C.
2013. Laboratory Manual in Elementary Plant Physiology, 5th ed. Institute of Biological Sciences,
College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna.
I. INTRODUCTION

Much of the skeletal material for organic compounds such as proteins,


lipids and nucleic acids contain inorganic elements that are crucial to the
stability of their chemical structure. The plant obtains these inorganic
elements from the environment in the form of ions. The functions or roles
of these mineral elements are generalized as:

structural constituent of all organic material


electron/energy transfer reactions
establishment/maintenance of osmotic potentials
enzymatic processes

Thus, the failure of the plant to extract these elements in sufficient


quantity will, in one way or another, lead to its poor growth and
development. External visible symptoms characteristic of the insufficient
mineral element accompanied poor growth. These symptoms are termed
deficiency symptoms and the deficient element responsible for the
abnormality is called an essential element.

There are at least 17 elements, which have been established as


essential for all higher plants, required either in relatively large
(macronutrients) or small amounts (micronutrients). According to Arnon
and Stout (1939) an element is essential when:

its deficiency prevents the plant from completing its life cycle;
its deficiency symptom is specific to the element and can be corrected only
by supplying that element; and it has a nutritional role apart from
correcting any unfavorable microbial or chemical condition of the soil.

An important concept in plant nutrition is the critical nutrient concentration. It is defined


as the concentration of a nutrient or element in the tissues below which deficiency symptoms
are likely to occur (hence crop failure) and above which optimum growth is obtained. The
establishment of this level serves as an important guide in fertilizer management. However, this
level could vary from species to species and can be influenced by several factors such as (a) the
stage of plant development, (b) concentration of the element in the growth medium, and (c) pH
of the growth medium.

One method used by plant nutritionists to evaluate the importance of a particular nutrient
to plant growth is to grow plants hydroponically. This technique involves exposing the roots in
nutrient solutions containing all the essential elements except the nutrient element being
evaluated. This approach is simple and inexpensive and provides a controlled environment for
observing the effect of a specific element on plant growth. Over the years, the hydroponic
method has undergone several modifications, mostly in the manner in which the plant roots are
exposed to the nutrient solution.

1. Solution culture technique. This involves the growing of plants in suitable containers
with their roots immersed in a dilute aqueous solution of the mineral salts. Several
salt combinations have been found suitable for growing plants of various species. The
more frequently used is the Hoagland’s culture solution. As long as optimum
conditions for growth are provided such as the right pH, osmotic concentration of the
culture solution, aeration, and that all the essential elements are available in
adequate amounts, the plants can be expected to grow and develop as if they were
grown in fertile soil. However, a disadvantage of this method is the poor root
anchorage and the need for constant aeration. Moreover, algae are likely to grow on
the root surface.
2. Aeroponic technique. This entails confining the root system in a humidity-rich airtight
container with the culture solution supplied to roots as a spray or whipped into a fine
mist by a driver attached to the motor shaft.
3. Nutrient film technique. The nutrient solution is pumped as a thin film down a shallow
trough surrounding the plant roots. In this system, the composition and pH of the
nutrient solution can be automatically controlled. Most commercial greenhouse
cultures use this technique.
4. Sand culture technique. The use of solid growth medium such as white sand, perlite
or vermiculite affords the plant better root anchorage and aeration. The sand
medium, however, may have some amount of nutrient elements, especially the
micronutrients. Hence, micronutrient deficiencies are difficult to evaluate. The culture
solution can beaded to the sand in two ways: (1) slop method – where a specified
volume of culture solution is added to the solid medium, and (2) drip or sub-irrigation

method – where the culture solution is delivered to the rhizosphere and regulated
using a mechanized irrigation system.
Assessment of the plants’ nutrient status includes visual observations of abnormality
related to deficiency or toxicity of a particular element. A more definite and quantitative
assessment is made through chemical analysis of plant tissues to determine how much was
assimilated. This information can be supplemented by soil analysis to establish how much was
initially available to the plant.

At the end of the activity, the students shall be able to:


1. associate visual deficiency symptoms with the major essential elements;
2. gain an understanding on techniques related to the formulation of culture
solutions;
3. design experiments to investigate nutrient deficiencies in plants; and
4. appreciate the work of plant nutritionists.

PRE-LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

1. Review the following concepts and relate them to plant nutrition, growth, and
development:
a. ions
b. electron/energy transfer reactions
c. osmosis
d. osmotic potential
e. pH
2. Compare and contrast the following pairs of terms:
a. growth – development
b. oxidation reaction – reduction reaction
c. organic compound – inorganic compound
d. deficiency – toxicity
e. acidic - alkaline

TIME FRAME
1 meeting for the preparation of the experimental set-ups
1 month for the observations which will be done outside of regular class hours (excluding
Saturdays, Sundays and holidays)

MATERIALS

16 identical dark bottles (or other suitable containers)


masking tape
permanent marker
Hoagland’s culture solution
nutrient solutions (for the
treatments)
tomato seedlings
beaker with distilled or demineralized
water
foam
scissors
pH paper or meter

PROCEDURE

1. Clean thoroughly 16 dark bottles (or other suitable containers).


2. Label the containers as to the following treatments: Complete, -N, -P, -K, -Ca, -
Mg, -S, and –Fe.
3. Replicate each treatment twice.
4. Prepare the culture solutions. The Hoagland’s culture solution will serve as the
standard solution for this exercise. Avoid cross-contaminations of the solutions.
5. Fill the bottles (or other suitable containers) about an inch from the brim. Cover
and set aside the remaining solutions for needed refilling of the bottles during the
conduct of this exercise.
6. Select uniform tomato seedlings with respect to plant size, color and number of
leaves.
7. Immediately place the seedlings in a beaker containing distilled or
demineralized water to prevent wilting and dehydration of the plants.
8. Transfer a seedling to each prepared container making sure that the
roots are not damaged and that they are completely immersed in the
nutrient solutions. Stabilize the seedlings by wrapping their lower
stems with a piece of dry foam, taking utmost care not to have them in
contact with the nutrient solutions otherwise their stems will rot.
9. Place the set-up inside the greenhouse or any well-lighted but covered
area.
10. Visit your set-ups everyday to aerate the culture solutions and to
monitor the possible occurrence of visual changes in the plants.
Aeration may be provided by gently shaking the bottles for about two
minutes.
11. Make a record of all discoloration or deficiency symptoms manifested
by the plants. Take note of the number of days of the initial appearance
of the deficiency symptoms.
12. All insects should be removed immediately.
13. All culture solutions should be maintained at their initial levels by the
addition of the remaining solutions.
14. In case the source of Fe is FeCl3, add two drops of FeCl3 solution
(0.05%) every other day to all the cultures except the –Fe cultures.
15. Check and maintain the pH of your growth medium.
16. Grow your plants in this medium for about four weeks.

RESULTS

Treatment Visual Deficiency Start of Other


Symptom/s Observed Appearance of Observations/Comments
Symptoms (in
days)

Complete
-N

-P

-K

-Ca

-Mg

-S

-Fe

POST-LABORATORY QUESTIONS

1. What were the various visual deficiency symptoms observed among the plants?
Did you observe any patterns, similarities or differences in terms of
discolorations?

2. Why is it important to regularly monitor the pH of the solutions? What happens


to ions when the solutions become basic? When the solutions become acidic?

3. Why do we have to provide continuous aeration to the roots of the plants?

4. Why is it important to conduct a soil analysis first before the application of


fertilizers?
CONCLUSION/REFLECTIONS

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

SUGGESTED READINGS

Herren, R. V. 2012. The Science of Agriculture: A Biological


Approach. 4th ed. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning.
I. INTRODUCTION

New plants can also be produced using parts of the old plants instead of
growing them from seeds. We call this type of reproduction asexual or
vegetative reproduction. The resulting plants through this manner are
genetically identical to the plants that produced them (Herren, 2012).
Asexual or vegetative propagation is considered the best way to maintain
some species, particularly an individual that best represents that species
(Relf, 2008).

The major methods of asexual or vegetative propagation are cuttings,


layering, division, and budding/grafting. Cuttings involve rooting a severed
piece of the parent plant. Layering involves rooting a part of the parent and
then cutting it off. Budding and grafting involve joining two plant parts from
different varieties. (Relf, 2008)

The production of plants by vegetative or asexual means offer the


following advantages to producers:

1. Superior plants can be reproduced without losing the desirable


qualities that make them superior because the plants have the
same genetic makeup as the parent plants.
2. Plants produced through an extensive process of crossing which
cannot reproduce sexually can be propagated by asexual or
vegetative means.
3. Vegetative or asexual reproduction offers a faster way of
producing higher quality plants.
4. Vegetative or asexual reproduction enables producers to grow
seedless plants.
General Capabilities and Student Learning Outcomes Scientific Capability

Specific Learning Outcomes/Objectives

At the end of this module, the students will be able to:


1. familiarize themselves with the asexual methods of propagating plants,
2. explain the concepts and principles behind asexual plant propagation;
3. enumerate and explain the functions of asexually propagating plants;
4. give examples of local plants that can be asexually propagated using
cuttings, layering, division, and separation;
5. demonstrate the methods of cutting, layering, division, and separation on
appropriate and available local plants; and
6. appreciate the importance of asexual plant propagation methods.
Pre-Lab Questions

1. Explain the role of meristematic tissues in asexual plant propagation.


2. Why is the plant hormone auxin important in the asexual propagation
of plants?

Time Frame: 2 Meetings

MATERIALS

Parent plants (the use of available local plants is encouraged)


Sharp blade/knife
Bleach
Distilled water
Rooting hormone (any brand from a reputable provider)
100-ml beaker
500-ml beaker
Grafting tape
PROCEDURE

A. Cuttings

Many types of plants, both woody and herbaceous, are frequently propagated by
cuttings. A cutting is a vegetative plant part which is severed or cut off from the parent
plant in order to regenerate itself, thereby forming a whole new plant.

Procedure:

1. Take cuttings with a sharp blade to reduce injury to the parent plant. (Tip: Dip the
cutting tool in rubbing alcohol or a mixture of one part bleach to nine parts water to
prevent transmitting diseases from infected plant parts to healthy ones.)

2. Remove flowers and flower buds to allow the cutting to use its energy and stored
carbohydrates for root and shoot formation rather than fruit and seed production. With
large-leaved cuttings and limited space in the propagation container, trimming up to
half the leaf length can improve efficiency, as well as light and air circulation for all
the cuttings.

3. To hasten rooting, increase the number of roots, or to obtain uniform rooting (except
on soft, fleshy stems), use a rooting hormone, preferably one containing a fungicide.
(Tip: Prevent possible contamination of the entire supply of rooting hormone by
putting some hormone in a separate container for dipping cuttings. Discard this
hormone after all the cuttings are treated.)

4. Place stem and leaf cuttings in bright, indirect light. Root cuttings can be kept in the
dark until new shoots appear.

B. Layering

Stems still attached to their parent plants may form roots where they touch a
rooting medium. Severed from the parent plant, the rooted stem becomes a new plant. This
method of vegetative propagation, called layering, promotes a high success rate because it
prevents the water stress and carbohydrate shortage that plague cuttings.

Some plants layer themselves naturally, but sometimes plant propagators assist the
process. Layering may be enhanced by wounding one side of the stem or by bending it very
sharply. The rooting medium should always provide aeration and a constant supply of
moisture.

For this part of the laboratory activity, perform only one among the following types
of layering.

Types of Layering:
1. Tip layering

Procedure:

a. Dig a hole 3 to 4 inches deep.

b. Insert the shoot tip and cover it with soil.


(The tip grows downward first, then bends
sharply and grows upward. Roots form at
the bend, and the recurved tip becomes a new plant.)

c. Remove the tip layer and plant it.

2. Simple layering

a. Bend the stem to the ground.

b. Cover part of it with soil, leaving


the last 6 to 12 inches exposed.

c. Bend the tip into a vertical position and stake in place. (The sharp bend
will often induce rooting, but wounding the lower side of the branch or
loosening the bark by twisting the stem may help.)

3. Compound layering

a. Bend the stem to the rooting medium as for simple


layering, but alternately cover and expose stem sections.

b. Wound the lower side of the stem sections to be covered.


4. Mound (stool) layering

a. Cut the plant back to 1 inch above the ground in the


dormant season.

b. Mound soil over the emerging shoots in the spring to


enhance their rooting.

5. Air layering

a. Slit the stem just below a node.

b. Pry the slit open with a toothpick.

c. Surround the wound with wet unmilled sphagnum moss.

d. Wrap plastic or foil around the sphagnum moss and tie in place.

e. When roots pervade the moss, cut the plant off below the root ball.

C. Division

Division entails cutting of the plant part into sections and growing a new plant for
each section (Herren, 2012). Propagation from the following plant parts can be considered
a modification of layering, as the new plants form before they are detached from their
parent plants.

For this part of the laboratory activity, perform division for both plant parts.

a. Stolons and runners

A stolon is a horizontal, often fleshy stem that can root, then produce new shoots
where it touches the medium. A runner is a slender stem that
originates in a leaf axil and grows along the ground or
downward from a hanging basket, producing a new plant at its
tip. Plants that produce stolons or runners are propagated by
severing the new plants from their parent stems. Plantlets at the
tips of runners may be rooted while still attached to the parent,
or detached and placed in a rooting medium.
b. Offsets

Plants with a rosetted stem often reproduce


by forming new shoots at their base or in leaf axils.
Sever the new shoots from the parent plant after
they have developed their own root system.
Unrooted offsets of some species may be removed
and placed in a rooting medium. Some of these
must be cut off, while others may be simply lifted
off the parent stem.

D. Separation

Separation is a term applied to a form of propagation by which plants that produce


bulbs or corms multiply Relf et al, 2008). In separation, the plant parts are simply pulled
apart because the plant naturally separates the parts for the production of new plants
(Herren, 2012).

a. Bulbs

There are two kinds of bulb – tunicate and


non-tunicate. Tunicate bulbs have dry outer layers
of membranes that are the result of previous year’s
growth and are made up of layers of leaf-like
membranes. Bulblets form around the originally
planted bulb. On the other hand, non-tunicate
bulbs have layers of scales on them that is why
they are also called scaly-type bulbs. A new plant
can be grown from each of these scales. (Herren, 2012)

Procedure:

i. Separate the bulb clumps every 3 to 5 years for largest blooms and
to increase bulb population.

ii. Dig up the clump after the leaves have withered.

iii. Gently pull the bulbs apart and replant them immediately so their
roots can begin to develop. (Small, new bulbs may not flower for
2 or 3 years, but large ones should bloom the first year.)
b. Corms

Corms are underground stems which may also


be used in propagating new plants. Corms differ
from bulbs by having nodes and inner nodes.
Corms are solid unlike bulbs. (Herren, 2012)

Procedure:

i. A large new corm forms on top of the old corm, and tiny cormels
form around the large corm.

ii. After the leaves wither, dig up the corms and allow them to dry in
indirect light for 2 or 3 weeks.

iii. Remove the cormels, then gently separate the new corm from the
old corm.

iv. Dust all new corms with a fungicide and store in a cool place until
planting time.

c. Crowns

Procedure:

i. Plants with more than one rooted crown may be divided and the
crowns planted separately.

ii. If the stems are not joined, gently pull the plants apart.

iii. If the crowns are united by horizontal stems, cut the stems and
roots with a sharp knife to minimize injury.

iv. Divisions of some outdoor plants should be dusted with a


fungicide before they are replanted.

E. Grafting
Grafting describes any of a number of techniques in which a section of a stem with
leaf buds is inserted into the stock of a tree. Aside from being used in the reproduction of
an original cultivar, it is also used to repair injured fruit trees or for topworking an
established tree to one or more different cultivars. Topworking is the operation of cutting
back the branches and top of an established tree and budding or grafting part of another
tree on it. Grafting are of different types - whip graft, cleft graft, modified cleft graft, and
side graft (Hertz, 2016).

Nurseries often use the budding method to produce fruit trees. Budding is a form
of grafting in which a single bud is used as the scion instead of a section of the stem. It is
the most commonly used method for fruit tree production in the nursery, but can also be
used for topworking (Hertz, 2016).

Bud Grafting Procedure:

a. Look for a plump, healthy looking bud from the outside/sunny side of the
tree that is not dry and shrivelled or with obvious damage to create your
scion.

b. Using a grafting knife, cut a small slit into the bark ½ an inch underneath the
bud and slowly pull the knife upwards taking in the cambium layer and outer
bark without cutting into the heartwood, or inner part of the branch. End the
slice ½ an inch above the bud, so it comes away neatly.

c. Cut a 1 inch vertical slit into the branch where the bud will be placed, cutting
only into the bark layer. At the top of this incision, cut a cross-wise slit,
creating a T-shape.

d. Then, gently lifting the corners where they meet, slide in the scion bud with
the growing tip pointing upwards, ensuring that the cambium layers on each
are touching.
e. Wrap the join in grafting tape to keep dry and in the following spring prune
off the tip of the branch as soon as the grafted bud begins to grow.

POST-LAB QUESTIONS

1. Enumerate and explain the advantages of asexual plant propagation.

2. Describe the procedure involved in propagating plants by cutting, layering, division,


separation, and grafting.

3. Compare and contrast the following pairs of words:


a. stolon – offset
b. bulb – corm
c. tunicate bulb – non-tunicate bulb
d. tip layering – air layering
e. cutting - grafting

References

Herren, R. V. 2012. The Science of Agriculture: A Biological Approach. 4th ed. New York: Delmar
Cengage Learning.

Hertz, L. B. 2016. Grafting and budding fruit trees. Retrieved from


http://www.extension.umn.edu/garden/yard-garden/fruit/grafting-and-budding-fruit-trees/ on March 20,
2016.

Relf, P. D. and E. Ball. 2009. Propagation by Cuttings, Layering and Division. Retrieved from www.
ext.vt.edu on March 20, 2016.

The Urban Orchard Project. How to graft fruit trees. Retrieved from
http://www.theurbanorchardproject.org/guides-and-advice/how-graft-fruit-trees on March 20, 2016.
SUGGESTED READINGS

The Grafter's Handbook by R.J. Garner


INTRODUCTION

Plant pathology is a science concerned with the study of plant diseases. It attempts to
“improve the chances for survival of plants when they are faced with unfavorable environmental
conditions and parasitic microorganisms that cause disease and protects the food available for
humans and animals.” (Agrios, 2005). The presence of plant diseases thwarts the cultivation and
growth of food plants in some areas or food plants may still be cultivated and grown but plant
diseases may attack them. Plant diseases destroy parts or all of the plants, and reduce much of
their produce before they can be harvested or produced (Agrios, 2005).

Agrios as cited by Hodson and Bryant (2012) defines plant disease as ‘any disturbance
brought about by a pathogen (organism which causes disease), or an environmental factor which
interferes with the manufacture, translocation, or utilization of food, mineral nutrients, and
water in such a way that the affected plant changes in appearance and/or yields less than a
normal, healthy plant of the same variety’. According to Hodson and Bryant (2012), plant disease

Plant disease results from a complex interaction of factors associated with the host plant,
the pathogen, and the environment. Disease will not build up unless there is an active pathogen,
a susceptible host and suitable environmental conditions (Hodson and Bryant, 2012).

Plant Diseases diseases may attack different systems in the plant. If the root system is
affected, the plant may not be able to take in water and other nutrients. If the leaves are affected,
photosynthesis may be compromised and the plant may not be able to manufacture food. If the
flowers are attacked, the plant may not be able to reproduce or produce fruit. If the stems are
damaged, by disease the plant may not be able to translocate water and food nutrients to other
parts of the plant (Herren, 2012).

Diseases, in general, lead to symptoms like discolorations, abnormal growth, rots, and
physiological wilts. Some diseases, however, do not give obvious symptoms at all stages of their
life cycle (asymptomatic). In addition, many symptoms are attributed to factors other than
invasion by a pathogen like poor weather conditions, spray damage from agrochemicals, pest
damage and nutrient deficiencies (Hodson and Bryant, 2012).

Plants have defense systems that fight disease. After When pathogens gain entry to a
plant, biochemical processes combat the disease agents. Some plants have the ability tocan
secrete chemicals that are toxic to pathogens. AlsoIn addition, certain chemicals are produced
inside the plant as a response to pathogen invasion. These chemicals help to rid the plant of the
infections (Herren, 2012). Aside
from depending on the natural ability of plants to develop resistance against diseases, plant
diseases may also be managed by biological, mechanical, chemical, genetic means.

SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES

At the end of the activity, the students should all be able to:
5. familiarize themselves with the different groups of disease-causing organisms
(pathogens) in plants;
6. give some examples of local plant diseases and the specific pathogens that
cause them;
7. identify and explain the principles behind plant disease management;
8. cite some practices employed to control local plant diseases; and
9. demonstrate appreciation for e the works and contributions of plant
pathologists in ensuring the quality and quantity of agricultural produce.

TIME FRAME

Five (5) Meetings

PRE-LABORATORY QUESTIONS

1. What are the components of the disease triangle? Explain each component briefly.

2. How does the gene-for-gene concept explain disease susceptibility and resistance?

3. What is a key-informant interview? How is it conducted?

4. What is the etiquette to be observed when conducting interviews?

notebook ballpen
camera tape recorder
MATERIALS

list of interview questions

PROCEDURE

1. The teacher divides the class into several groups with three to five members.
2. The groups may be given the chance to decide as to what particular local crops
they are going to study on a first-come first-served basis or the teacher may
identify beforehand the crops the groups will be working on to avoid duplications
and/or to save on time. In the latter strategy, the teacher writes on pieces of paper
the crops and lets the group representatives take part in the drawing of lots. The
crops may include rice, corn, cassava, sweet potato, ornamentals, vegetables, or
fruit-bearing trees like coconut or jackfruit.
3. Data-gathering Tool. The groups will make use of key-informant (KI) interview as
the major tool for the gathering of relevant data. Key informants could include
plant pathologists, plant breeders, agriculturists, horticulturists, farmers, among
others. The teacher should provide a brief discussion on key informant interview
as well as on the etiquette that should be observed when conducting interviews
should s/he feel the need to do so. The groups may also substantiate the data to
be gathered from the KI interviews with review of literature.
4. The groups prepare the questions to be asked for the interviews. They should
present to their teacher their list of questions for his/her comments and approval.
5. The teacher helps in the preparation of formal communications should these be
required in the course of data gathering by the students.
6. Pertinent information on the following aspects of the plant diseases are desired:
a. Pathogen involved
b. Life cycle of the pathogen
c. Crop/s affected by the disease
d. Symptoms of the disease
e. Impact of the disease on crop production
f. Management of the Disease
7. The groups will be given five meetings to prepare for and conduct the interviews,
consolidate their data, prepare the formal report following a given format,

prepare the materials/aides for the oral presentation, present orally in class their
findings, and make the peer and group ratings.
8. The formal report shall be limited to 3-5 pages only (excluding the cover page,
references, and appendices).
9. Each group will be given a maximum of 15 minutes (10 minutes for the
presentation proper and 5 minutes for the Q&A Portion) to present before the
class their findings.
10. The performance of each group will be determined by combining the points
obtained from peer, group, and teacher ratings.

POST-LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

1. Preparation of the Formal formal Written written Reportreport


2. Oral Presentation presentation with Question question and Answeranswer
3. Peer Ratingrating
4. Group Ratingrating
5.Teacher Ratingrating

SUGGESTED READINGS

Agrios, G. N. 2005. Plant Pathology (5th ed.). Massachusetts, USA: Elsevier Academic
Press.

Herren, R. V. 2012. The Science of Agriculture: A Biological Approach. 4 th ed. New York:
Delmar Cengage Learning.

Hodson, M. J. and Bryant, J. A. 2012. Functional Biology of Plants. West Sussex, UK:
Wiley-Blackwell.

APPENDIX

I. Parts of the Formal Written Report


A. Cover Page (contains the name and address of the campus, title of the activity, group
number/name, names of group members, name of teacher, date of submission)
B. Introduction (about ½ or 2/3 of a page)
C. Body (about 2-4 pages; may include tables, graphs, pictures, illustrations)
a. Disease(s) affecting the crop
b. Pathogen(s) involved
c. Life cycle(s) of the pathogen(s)
d. Symptom(s) of the disease(s)
e. Impact of the disease(s) on crop production
f. Management of the disease(s)
D. Conclusion/Reflection (about ½ or 2/3 of a page)
E. References/Bibliography
F. Appendix (may include a copy of the letter to the interviewees, list of interview
questions, etc.)

II. Formatting Guidelines


A. Font and Font Size: Times New Roman, 12
B. Spacing: Double-spaced
C. Margins: Default margins
D. Number of Columns: 1
INTRODUCTION

A dish garden is a group of small and compatible plants grown together in an open and
shallow container (Lantin-Rosario and Tayobong, 2001). A dish garden is regarded as a miniature
ecosystem and is therefore landscaped to represent a scene in nature. The medium should be
well-drained, but hold adequate moisture and should not be very fertile, since a fertile medium
would tend to encourage rapid growth (http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu).

Fig. 2. Sample dish gardens using succulents (left) and tropical plants (right).

In this activity, students will familiarize themselves with the basic techniques involved in
the construction of dish gardens and get to apply them.

SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES

At the end of the activity, the students shall be able to:


1. apply the basic techniques of constructing and caring for a dish garden;
2. identify some of the plants suitable for dish gardens;
3. express their resourcefulness and creativity in the dish gardens they will make
in class; and
4. develop an appreciation of dish gardening as a hobby or a source of income.
PRE-LABORATORY QUESTIONS

1. What are the environmental conditions that have to be met in the establishment
and maintenance of dish gardens?

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.

2. How does a dish garden differ from a terrarium?

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.

MATERIALS

dish
gravel
charcoal
small and compatible plants
soil mixture)
moss or sand
decorative materials
water
old newspaper
gardening tools (pruning shears, hand trowel, watering can, etc.)
PROCEDURE

(Note: The teacher may opt to first provide a demonstration on dish gardening before
asking his/her students to perform the activity. If the teacher feels not competent enough to give
a satisfactory demonstration, he/she may show a video presentation or invite a resource person
to give the demonstration instead.)

1. Line the top of your workbench with old newspaper.


2. Choose a container for the dish garden. You can choose from containers such as
pottery, glass, plastic, wood or wicker baskets. The dish should be at least 3” deep.
Choose a container of a natural color so as not to contrast strongly with the
planting.
3. Sprinkle 1/2 to 1 inch layer of gravel into the container. Add one to two
tablespoons of charcoal to the gravel layer. Then fill the container just short of the
top with potting mix.
4. Choose a group of compatible plants for the dish garden. Usually this would be
three to five plants, three in the smaller sized containers and as many as five for
larger containers. The plants should be compatible with each other, all should be
able to survive in similar environmental conditions. Choose plants that have varied
characteristics (height, habit, etc.). Moreover, choose plants with varied leaf
textures, shapes and colors.
5. Remove the plants form the pots. Carefully inspect the plants before putting them
in the dish garden. Check for pests and control them if present. Remove old,
yellowing leaves, dead flowers and other unwanted plant material. If the plant is
a little too large for the container, prune some of its leaves and/or stems so that
it will fit. Very small plants of the same type could be grouped to give them more
weight in the dish garden. The roots may also need some trimming.
6. Position the plants in the dish garden in an aesthetically pleasing arrangement
based on how the dish garden will be viewed. Remember that you are creating a
miniature landscape. If the garden is to be viewed from all sides, the tallest plant
should be set in the center, but gardens that are to be viewed from one side should
have the tallest plant or plants set to the side that is to be the back. The tallest
plant should go in first, then the intermediate plants and finally the smallest
plants. Don’t crowd the dish garden, save space for the plants to grow!
7. Look at your dish garden from a distance to ensure that it is aesthetically pleasing.
When you are convinced that the placement of plants is proper, water the dish
garden. Add the water in increments to avoid over-watering. In general you would

add a volume of water equivalent to one-fourth to one-third the volume of the


container.
8. Add decorative items to your dish garden. A path may be created from gravel or
stones. Driftwood could give the appearance of a decaying log and rocks or
petrified wood could be used to represent rocks or hills. Avoid artificial flowers
and artificially colored stones or pebbles or critters. Small artificial birds, toads and
lizards are acceptable, but only if naturally colored and used to complement the
plants. Tuck these items in with a top-dressing of moss or sand so that there is no
bare soil showing.
9. Clean your workbench and discard all trash in the appropriate bins.
10. The dish gardens will be judged using an evaluation score cards. (Note: The teacher
may invite other school personnel to be part of the panel of judges.)

POST-LABORATORY QUESTIONS

5. Why do we need to lay pebbles or gravel at the bottom of the dish?


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________.
6. What is the purpose of adding in charcoal to the pebbles or gravel?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________.
7. Why do we have to use a not so fertile soil mixture in creating dish gardens?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________.
8. Why is it important to use compatible plants in creating dish gardens?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________.
9. What are the benefits we can get from dish gardening?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

CONCLUSION/REFLECTIONS
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.

SUGGESTED READINGS

Lantin-Rosario, T. and Tayobong, R. A. 2001. Ornamental Horticulture Laboratory


Manual. College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College,
Laguna.

Dish Gardens retrieved from http://aggie-


horticulture.tamu.edu/syllabi/302/new/topic/dish.htm on June 27, 2016.

How to Make a Dish Garden retrieved from http://www.marthastewart.com/869996/how-


make-dish-garden on June 27, 2016.

(Note: www.marthastewart.com also contains a video on dish gardening that may be


viewed in lieu of an actual demonstration.)
Proposed Agribusiness Plan Template (SAEP Form 1)

The agribusiness plan is a document that aims to provide readers a clear and comprehensive
description of the key components of the proposed agribusiness. It should be brief and simple but
informative enough so the readers will know what your business is all about. The following are the
recommended parts of the SAEP agribusiness plan:

Agribusiness Plan Outline

I. Cover Page. This section contains basic information about your agribusiness.

A. Name of the Business


B. Business Logo (optional)
C. Owner(s)
D. Complete Business Address
E. Contact Details (mobile number(s), email address, website, etc.)
F. Date of Submission of Business Plan

II. Business Description. This section should be able to provide a brief description of your
company. It should introduce what you will do and from where and should convince the
readers of the uniqueness of the proposed agribusiness and gain a clear idea of the market in
which it will operate. The vision, mission, and objectives of the business should also be stated
in this section.

A. Industry Overview
B. Business Description
C. Mission, Vision, Objectives
D. Critical Success Factors
E. Company Ownership

III. Products/Services. This section should include a very brief overview and description of your
products and services, with emphasis on distinguishing features.

A. Product/Service Description
B. Unique Features or Proprietary Aspects of Product/Service
C. Research and Development
D. Production
E. New and Follow-on Products/Services (if any)

IV. The Market. In this section, provide a brief description of the market you will be competing
in. You should be able to define your market, point out how large it is, and how much of the
market share you expect to capture. Also, include how you will market the products/services

and what particular channels are you going to use to deliver your products/services to your
target market(s) (i.e. website, direct sales force, Value Added Resellers, channel partners,
etc.). Moreover, it is also important to show that you have investigated the competition by
identifying your direct and indirect competitors, with analysis of their pricing and promotional
strategies, as well as an assessment of their competitive advantage.

A. Industry Analysis
B. Market Analysis
C. Competitor Analysis

V. Marketing Strategies and Sales. This section should reveal the various marketing strategies
you, the owner(s) of the agribusiness, are going to employ in order to meet your
agribusiness’ vision, mission, goals, and objectives.

A. Market Segmentation Strategy


B. Targeting Strategy
C. Positioning Strategy
D. Product/Service Strategy
E. Pricing Strategy
F. Distribution Channels
G. Promotion and Advertising Strategy
H. Sales Strategy

VI. Management. This section should include a brief description of the organizational structure
of the proposed agribusiness, the composition of the management team (if any), and the
management structure and style which shall be adopted for its operations.

A. Business Organization
B. Management
C. Management Structure and Style
D. Ownership

VII. Operations. Operations is defined as “the processes used to deliver your products and
services to the marketplace and can include manufacturing, transportation, logistics, travel,
printing, consulting, after-sales service, and so on.” Included in this section are relevant
information as to the area(s) to be covered by the operations of the agribusiness, number of
personnel and their respective tasks/responsibilities (if hiring of additional personnel is
involved), production procedures, and projected operations expenses. It is also in this section
that pertinent information on inventories, suppliers, and credit policies are laid out.
A. Operations Strategy
B. Scope of Operations
C. Location
D. Personnel
E. Production
F. Operations Expenses
G. Inventory
H. Suppliers
I. Credit Policies (if any)

VIII. Financials. The financial section of the business plan will help you estimate how much money
will be required to start your agribusiness and how much profit and sales are projected to be
generated. You have to clearly state the capital needed to start and sustain your agribusiness
throughout the required duration of the SAEP.

A. Start-up Funds
B. Operating Forecast

References:

www.business-in-a-box.com

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2014. Starting and Growing My Business.
Utah, USA: Intellectual Reserve, Inc.
How to Create an Income Statement
Reference:

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2014. Starting and Growing My Business. Utah, USA:
Intellectual Reserve, Inc.
How to Create an Income and Expense Log
Reference:

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2014. Starting and Growing My Business. Utah, USA:
Intellectual Reserve, Inc.
LIST OF LEARNING RESOURCES

Google book
The Science of Agriculture A Biological Approach - Ray V Herren
Handout
Biotechnology – handout
Broiler Production – handout
Causes of Plant Diseases – handout
Duck Egg Production – handout
Goat production – handout
Intro to Agriculture – handout
Livestock Production Systems –handout
Origins of Agriculture – handout
Plant Propagation – handout
Swine Production – handout
PowerPoint Presentation
Biotechnology
Causes of Plant Diseases
Broiler Production
Duck Egg Production
Intro to Agriculture
Livestock Production Systems
Origins of Agriculture
Goat production
Plant Propagation
References
Annuals Culture and Maintenance
Aquaculture - Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants (2nd Ed)(gnv64)
Aquaculture Workbook
Building Healthy Soil
Fish Farming in the Tropics - Dr Guerrero
Flowering Bulbs Culture and Maintenance
Food Science Lab Activities – LEMopera
Home Hydroponics
Integrated Pest Management Ideas for Vegetable Gardens
Introduction to Plant Physiology, [William_G._Hopkins,_Norman_P._A._Hüner] (BookZZ.org)
Minimum-Chemical Gardening
Ornamental_horticulture__science, [Jack_E_Ingels] (BookZZ.org)
Plant Pathology 5th edition 2005, Agrios_G_
Plant_Propagation, [Beyl,_Caula_A.;_Trigiano,_R._N] (BookZZ.org)
Perennials Culture Maintenance and Propagation
Pest Management for Water Quality
Plant Propagation by Alan Toogood
Plant Propagation from seed
Planting Trees
Portable Fish Ponds
Propagation by Cutting Layering and Division
Seed for the Garden
Storing Pesticide Safely
Swine Production Dr CAS Estrella
The Value of Landscaping
Using Compost in your Landscape
Vegetable Gardening in Containers
Weeds in the Home Vegetable Garden
Software
CLC Genomics Workbench v3.6.5 portable version
Farming Simulator 15
Plant Propagation Concepts And Laboratory Exercises