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Semester Examination

M.A. English (Year II)


English Language (MAENG202)

Time Duration: 3:00 Hrs. Max. Marks: 70


Min. Marks: 28
Attempt any five questions: - (5*14)

I. Discuss about the style and dialect development of English Language.


II. Describe the following:
a) Allomorph Word Formation
b) Morphology
III. Elaborate the nature, Characteristics and features of Semantic.
IV. Examine the Aspects of following:
a) Aspects of Passivity
b) Aspects of Perfectively
V. Give a detail introduction to the Phrase and its types.
VI. Explain the Speech Mechanism and Speech Sounds.
VII. Write a detail note on the Sound Sequences.
Answers:--

7. A sound sequence is as the name implies a series of sounds that are played
sequentially. The most common sound sequences are used for sector movement,
such as doors opening or platform lowering: these typically have a sequence
made of a "start" sound played once, followed by a "moving" sound played on a
loop until the sector stops moving the a "stop" sound is played once.
However, sound sequences can be used for other purposes. Heretic uses sound
sequences for its ambient sounds, and they can be scripted with ACS functions
such as SoundSequence and its variants. The console
command playsequence can be used to test sound sequences.
To override a sector's default sound sequences, use
the UDMF soundsequence property with the sound sequence name, a sound
sequence thing with the relevant sequence index, or
the Sector_ChangeSound special with the sequence index. For polyobjects, use
the sound parameter in Polyobj_StartLine or Polyobj_ExplicitLine.
Note that a sector has only one sound sequence. If a sector behaves both as a
door and a platform, it will use the same sound sequence name (in UDMF) or
index (with sound sequence thing) for both its door movements and its platform
movements. Sector_ChangeSound can be used to attempt to work around this
limitation, setting a door sound before running a door special and a platform
sound before running a platform special.
Standard sound sequences
The following sequences are defined in ZDoom:

 AFX_Bells
 AFX_Drops
 AFX_FastFootsteps
 AFX_Growl
 AFX_Heartbeat
 AFX_Laughter
 AFX_Magic
 AFX_Scream
 AFX_SlowFootsteps
 AFX_Squish
 CeilingNormal
 CeilingSemiSilent
 DoorAirlock
 DoorChain
 DoorCloseAirlock
 DoorCloseBlazing
 DoorCloseChain
 DoorCloseLargeMetal
 DoorCloseLargeWood
 DoorCloseNormal
 DoorCloseSmallMetal
 DoorCloseSmallWood
 DoorCloseStone
 DoorLargeMetal
 DoorLargeWood
 DoorNormal
 DoorOpenAirlock
 DoorOpenBlazing
 DoorOpenChain
 DoorOpenLargeMetal
 DoorOpenLargeWood
 DoorOpenNormal
 DoorOpenSmallMetal
 DoorOpenSmallWood
 DoorOpenStone
 DoorSmallMetal
 DoorSmallWood
 DoorStone
 Floor
 HereticAmbience
 HereticDoor
 HereticDoorClose
 HereticDoorOpen
 Platform
 Silence
The following sequences are defined in the Hexen IWAD:

 DoorCreak
 DoorHeavy
 DoorMetal
 DoorMetal2
 DoorNormal
 Earth
 Ice
 Lava
 Platform
 PlatformMetal
 PlatformMetal2
 Silence
 Water
When playing Hexen, the DoorNormal, Platform, and Silence sequences are overridden by those from
the Hexen IWAD. The Silence sequence is identical for obvious reasons, so only DoorNormal and Platform
are redefined.

6.Answer:- Speech Mechanism Or Production of speech Language has a very important


social purpose, because it is mainly used for linguistic communication. It can be used in two
ways. It can be spoken or written. But the medium of speech is more important than the medium
of writing. Linguistic is a systematic study of language. Phonetics is a branch of Linguistics and it
is branch dealing with the medium of speech. It deals with the production, transmission and
reception of the sounds of human speech. Now we discuss ‘speech Mechanism’ in a depth.
It is important to understand the mechanisms of speech production because almost always
speech is affected by hearing loss. Here is a basic overview of what takes place inside our
bodies during the act of speech production.
The steady stream of air as we exhale is the energy source for speech production. Sounds
which come from our mouth, or even our nose, are the result of interruptions of a stream of air
moving from the lungs through:
--trachea
--larynx
--pharynx
--oral cavity
--nasal cavity

The speech process itself consists of 3 structures:


1.) Structure of respiration
2.) Structure of resonation
3.) Structure of articulation

The first structure, structure of respiration, is the structure which is our power source to
speak. The exhaled air is our energy source for speech. The organs involved in respiration are
the trachea, rib cage, thorax, abdomen, diaphragm, and lungs.
How it works:
Our lungs first expand which creates negative pressure and makes air available for
speaking. Then to actually speak, our lungs deflate and our rib cage contracts forcing the air
out, up into our trachea.

The second structure, structure of resonation, is the structure which vibrates/makes


sound. The organs invovled in this structure are the larnyx, and the vocal cords/folds. The
vocal cords are part of the larynx. The vocal cords are the organ responsible for sound!
How it works:
When we talk, the vocal cords open and close rapidly. Air travels up the larynx, causing
pressure to build up which causes the vocal cords to be pushed apart. A reduction of pressure
causes the vocal cords to be pulled back together. This vibration (pushing/pulling of the vocal
cords) is what is responsible for making sound (pitch and loudness). The larynx also acts as a
gate between the lungs and mouth. It opens and closes to control the flow of air from the
lungs. The larynx also closes so that food or liquid do not enter the trachea and lungs. Hence
the saying, "It went down the wrong pipe."

The third structure, structure of articulation, is responsible for creating different sounds of
speech. The joining together of speech organs for production of speech sounds is called
articulation. The organs involved in this structure is everything from the lips up to the vocal
cords. This includes the lips, teeth, tongue, alveolar ridge, soft/hard pallate, and jaw.
How it works:
By moving and shaping these articulators, it enables us to produce different speech sounds.

In brief, the air flow from the lungs provides energy for speech production, which in turn allows
for the vocal cords to convert this energy into an audible noise. The articulators--through
altering the shape of the vocal tract--transform the noise into detectable speech sounds.
Human beings are capable of uttering hundreds of sounds. If we fall and hurt
ourselves, we may well let out a shriek or a pained, strangled sound of hurt –
something akin to “Ow!” or “Argh!” However, not all uttered sounds such as
these are speech sounds. That is to say, not all of the sounds we are capable
of uttering are used to communicate using speech.

Verbal communication involves turning our non-linguistic experiences


(thoughts, feelings, ideas, wishes, wants, and so on) into language and then
transmitting the resulting linguistic units (words) through some appropriate
medium. Other people are then able to decode the words and, thereby, regain
the sense of what we were intending to communicate. There are three main
ways that we transmit linguistically encoded messages:

1. speaking
2. writing
3. signing

It is apparent that all typically developing people learn to speak: speech


acquisition is a natural process. However, not all people learn to read and
write. Literacy skills have to be taught: they are not the product of a natural
process. In this sense, speech is prior to writing as a transmission system. In
fact, speech is the primary medium through which people communicate using
language.
There are 24 different individual consonant speech sounds in the English
language and another 20 vowel speech sounds (remember, there are 26 letters
of the alphabet…21 consonants and 5 vowels). We call these
sounds phonemes. Each phoneme, or speech sound, has a symbolic
representation. All these symbols make up the International Phonetic
Alphabet or IPA.

5.Answer:- A phrase, therefore, is a group of words which has no finite verb in it and acts to
complete the sentence for making it meaningful.
“A phrase is a small group of words that form a meaningful unit within a clause.” -Oxford
Dictionary

“In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that
functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within
agrammatical hierarchy.”- Osborne, Timothy, Michael Putnam, and Thomas Gross (2011)
Types of Phrases
The phrases are generally of six types.
 Noun Phrase
 Adjective Phrase
 Adverbial Phrase
 Prepositional Phrase
 Conjunctional Phrase
 Interjectional Phrase

Noun Phrase
A noun phrase is usually assembled centering a single noun and works as a subject, an object or a
complement in the sentence.
Example:
o I like to swing the bat hard when I am at the crease. (An object)
o Reading novels is a good habit. (A subject)
o The probability of happening that match is not much. (A subject)
o We are sorry for her departure.

Adjective Phrase
An adjective phrase is comprised of an adjective and works as a single adjective in the sentence.
Example:
o Alex is a well-behaved man.
o He is a man of friendly nature.
o Julie is a woman of gorgeous style.
o She leads a very interesting life.
o A lot of people do not sleep at night.

Adverbial Phrase
An adverbial phrase modifies the verb or the adjective and works as an adverb in the sentence.
Example:
o The horse runs at a good speed.
o I was in a hurry then.
o I ran as fast as possible.
o He works very slowly.

Prepositional Phrase
A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition and connects nouns.
Example:
o He sacrificed his life for the sake of his country.
o In the end, we all have to die.
o He is on the way.
o By working aimlessly, you will not get success.
o In spite of working hard, he was insulted by his boss.
Note: Prepositional phrases include all other types of phrases.

Conjunctional Phrase
A conjunctional phrase works as a conjunction in the sentence.
Example:
o As soon as you got in, he went out.
o We have to work hard so that we can win the next match.
o I will attend the ceremony provided that you come.
o John started working early in order that he could finish early.

Interjectional Phrase
Interjections that have more than one words are called the interjectional phrases.
Example:
o What a pity! He is dead.
o What a pleasure! I won the first prize.
o Oh please! Don’t say that again.
3.Answer:- Semantics (from Ancient Greek: σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is
the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in language, programming languages, formal logics,
and semiotics. It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs,
and symbols—and what they stand for in reality, their denotation.
In International scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology. The word semantics was first used
by Michel Bréal, a French philologist. It denotes a range of ideas—from the popular to the highly technical. It
is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word
selection or connotation. This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over
a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics. In linguistics, it is the study of the
interpretation of signs or symbols used in agents or communities within particular circumstances
and contexts. Within this view, sounds, facial expressions, body language, and proxemics have semantic
(meaningful) content, and each comprises several branches of study. In written language, things like
paragraph structure and punctuation bear semantic content; other forms of language bear other semantic
content.[3]
The formal study of semantics intersects with many other fields of inquiry,
including lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology and others. Independently, semantics is also a well-
defined field in its own right, often with synthetic properties.
Semantic features represent the basic conceptual components of meaning for any lexical item.[1] An
individual semantic feature constitutes one component of a word's intension, which is the inherent sense or
concept evoked. Linguistic meaning of a word is proposed to arise from contrasts and significant differences
with other words. Semantic features enable linguistics to explain how words that share certain features may
be members of the same semantic domain. Correspondingly, the contrast in meanings of words is explained
by diverging semantic features. For example, father and son share the common components of "human",
"kinship", "male" and are thus part of a semantic domain of male family relations. They differ in terms of
"generation" and "adulthood", which is what gives each its individual meaning.
The semantic features of a word can be notated using a binary feature notation common to the framework
of componential analysis.[11] A semantic property is specified in square brackets and a plus or minus sign
indicates the existence or non-existence of that property.[12]

 man is
o [+human],
o [+male],
o [+adult]
 woman is
o [+human],
o [−male],
o [+adult]
 boy is
o [+human],
o [+male],
o [−adult]
 girl is
o [+human],
o [−male]
o [−adult]
Answer:--- 1. Language style is the way of speaking/writing depending on circumstances of
doing that, person (or people) to whom you are speaking or writing.
There are many language styles. Examples can be seen in letters' beginings or endings.
In officicial style you would use forms like:
Dear Sir/Madam or Dear Mr. X for beginning and Yours faithfully or Your cincerely for endings.
In unofficial or coloquial style you can begin your letters with Hi or Dear X and end them
with Love or things like that.
These are only two basic examples of language style used mainly in writing. There can be even
more language styles in speaking. They can be seen in the grammar structures, vocabiulary,
tone, etc.
They depend on speakers' education, economical situation, current events in life (a person
speaks differently when he/she has just got a better job, and differently when he/she has just
lost someone)

"A dialect is a variety of English which is associated with a particular region


and/or social class. To state the obvious, speakers from different geographical
regions speak English rather differently: hence we refer to 'Geordie' (Newcastle
English), 'New York English' or 'Cornish English.'
Dialect Usage and Language Development Everyone who speaks a language speaks a dialect of that
language, defined generally as a variety associated with a specific region or social group and identified by
consistent patterns of phonology, lexicon, and grammar. Certain dialects, such as "broadcast English"--or
"academic English" in the school setting--are considered to be the standard against which other dialects are
judged. However, "standard" is a social judgment, not a linguistic one. There is no linguistic superiority of one
dialect over another, but in practice, the dialect associated with mainstream culture in a country has broad
institutional support in mass media, education, and legal and political discourse which facilitates its
acquisition. The same institutions often stigmatize the non-mainstream dialect and label its speakers poor
language learners. In contexts that do not value their first dialect, children born into a non-mainstream
linguistic community must learn to communicate in mainstream contexts without losing their core linguistic
identity as members of the social groups of family and neighborhood. The universal processes of language
development do not differ for different dialect groups, but mainstream educational programs to promote
language development are less effective for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) children and often work
against their optimal development. CLD children's input is more variable, and the relationship between the
elements of their two target dialects is not well understood.

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