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Composition of all water on

About 71 percent of the Earth's surface is Water Cycle
water-covered, and the oceans hold about
96.5 percent of all Earth's water. Water also The water cycle refers to the transfer of
exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and water from one state or reservoir to another.
lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground Reservoirs include atmospheric moisture
HYDROSPHERE as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in (snow, rain and clouds), streams, oceans,
you and your dog. rivers, lakes, groundwater, subterranean
There are 5 main subsystem in Earth, these aquifers, polar ice caps and saturated soil.
are the Atmosphere, Geosphere, Solar energy, in the form of heat and light
Hydrosphere, Cryosphere, and Biosphere. (insolation), and gravity cause the transfer
Hydrosphere, is the combined mass of water from one state to another over periods from
found on, under, and above the surface of a hours to thousands of years. Most
planet, minor planet or natural satellite. evaporation comes from the oceans and is
returned to the earth as snow or rain.[6]:27
The total mass of the Earth's hydrosphere is Sublimation refers to evaporation from snow
about 1.4 × 1018 tonnes, which is about and ice. Transpiration refers to the
0.023% of Earth's total mass. At any given expiration of water through the minute pores
time, about 20 × 1012 tonnes of this is in the or stomata of trees. Evapotranspiration is the
form of water vapor in the Earth's term used by hydrologists in reference to the
atmosphere (for practical purposes, 1 cubic “Water is a basic necessity of three processes together, transpiration,
meter of water weighs one tonne).
Approximately 71% of Earth's surface, an
life. Since 2/3 of the Earth is sublimation and evaporation.

area of some 361 million square kilometers covered by water, the Earth
(139.5 million square miles), is covered by is also called the blue planet
ocean. The average salinity of Earth's oceans
is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea and the watery planet”
water (3.5%)
-Ronald Greeley
Planetary Geologist
well as gases such as carbon dioxide and The gases helium and hydrogen were
Importance of oxygen are dissolved in water. These later ejected from the atmosphere. And
compounds play an integral role in the the gases and water vapor produced as
Hydrosphere existence of life in water. the Earth cooled became its current
atmosphere. The volcanoes also released
The hydrosphere is of great importance other gases and water vapor, which
as it plays an integral role in the survival 3. Climate Regulation entered the atmosphere.
of all life forms. Here are some of the
significant functions of the hydrosphere One of water’s exceptional features is its This process is estimated to have
on Earth: high specific heat. Namely, water takes occurred about 400 million years ago.
not only a long time to heat up but also a
long time to cool down. You know
1. A Component of Living what’s the significance of this? 5. Human Needs
It plays a significant role in regulating The hydrosphere benefits humans in
Each cell in a living organism is temperatures on earth, ensuring numerous ways. Besides drinking, water
composed of at least 75% water. This temperatures remain within a range that is used for domestic purposes like
promotes the normal functioning of the is suitable for the existence of life. Ocean cooking and cleaning as well as for
cell. Most of the chemical reactions that currents also play a critical role in heat industrial purposes.Water can also be
occur in living organisms involve dispersion. used for transportation, agriculture, and
materials that are dissolved in water. No to generate electricity through
cell would survive or be able to carry its hydropower.
normal functions without water. 4. Existence of
2. Habitat for Many
Hydrosphere has a significant
Life Forms contribution to the existence of the
atmosphere in its present form. When the
The hydrosphere provides an important earth was formed it comprised only a
place for a wide range of plants and very thin atmosphere.This atmosphere
animals to live. Many nutrients such as was packed with helium and hydrogen
nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium ions, as similar to Mercury’s current atmosphere.