Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

THE ULTIMATE GUIDE TO

FLEET MANAGEMENT AND AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY


A glossary of frequently used phrases, terms and questions
related to telematics and automotive technology.

Steering wheel angle Hard braking

Tire pressure Ignition status


GLOSSARY

1. FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEM STANDARD 5. FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


• FMS Standard overview • AVL
• FMS Standard 1.0 • BOARD COMPUTER
• BUS FMS Standard • CONTACTLESS CAN
• FMS Standard 2.0 • E TYPE APPROVAL
• FMS Standard 3.0 • FMS
• FMS GATEWAY
2. FUEL CONSUMPTION MONITORING • GALVANIC ISOLATION
• FUEL LEVEL
• HIGH RESOLUTION FUEL CONSUMPTION 6. ECO-DRIVING
• PTO - POWER TRANSMISSION OUTPUT • CARBON FOOTPRINT
• TFU - TOTAL FUEL USED • ECO-DRIVING
• FUEL ECONOMY
3. CAN BUS COMMUNICATION
• CAN BUS PROTOCOL 7. DRIVER IDENTIFICATION AND DRIVING TIMES
• CAN BUS TOPOLOGY • TACHOGRAPH
• CANOPEN • DRIVER ID
• CAN 2.0A • DRIVING TIMES
• CAN 2.0B • CUMULATIVE BRAKE TIME
• DEVICENET • CURRENT DURATION OF SELECTED ACTIVITY
• HIGHER LAYER PROTOCOLS • CUMULATED DRIVING TIME PREVIOUS AND CURRENT WEEK
• IES CAN • REMOTE DOWNLOAD
• ISO 11898 • COMPANY CARD
• ISO 11898-2, HIGH-SPEED CAN • CONTROL CARD
• ISO 11898-3, FAULT TOLERANT CAN • DRIVER CARD
• LOWER LAYER PROTOCOLS • WORKSHOP CARD
• PROPRIETARY CAN PROTOCOL
• SAE J1939 8. TRAILER INFORMATION
• ISO 11992
4. OTHER IN-VEHICLE COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS • EBS – ELECTRONIC BRAKE SYSTEM
• SAE J1708 • TEBS – TRAILER ELECTRONIC BRAKE SYSTEM
• SAE J1587
11
1. FLEET MANAGEMENT FMS STANDARD 1.0 TCO1: Tachograph Information
• Drive recognize
FMS Standard 1.0 issued in 2002.

SYSTEM STANDARD
• Overspeed
Available information:
2 • Direction indicator
CCVS: Cruise Control / Vehicle Speed • Driver 1 card status
• Wheel based speed • Driver 2 card status

3 FMS STANDARD • Clutch switch • Driver 1 working states


• Brake switch • Driver 2 working states
In the beginning of the XXI. century, GPS based vehicle
• Cruise control activation • Driver 1 time related states
tracking systems became more and more affordable, but they
• PTO state • Driver 2 time related states
4 still could not provide vehicle related technical information.
• Tachograph performance
In 2002, six major truck manufacturers (Volvo, Scania, Iveco, EEC2: Electronic Engine Controller #2 • Handling information
MAN, DAF, Mercedes-Benz) decided to create a standardized • Accelerator pedal position • System event
5 vehicle interface for these GPS based tracking systems, called
• Tachograph vehicle speed
the FMS standard. TFU: Fuel consumption
• Total fuel used ET1: Engine Temperature 1
FMS standard is the result of an agreement between these
6 six major European truck manufacturers to standardize the DD: Dash Display • Engine coolant temperature
specific in-vehicle communication systems of the different • Fuel level
types of vehicles. BUS FMS STANDARD
EEC1: Electronic Engine Controller #1
7 There are great numbers of vehicle manufacturers having
• Engine speed
(Ver. 00.01 issued in 2007, specialized standard for buses and
different types of vehicles on the market. They all have coaches including specific signals like door openings, etc.
specific (individual) in-vehicle communication systems. To be VW: Vehicle Weight Since then the original “FMS Standard 1.0” was also referred
8 able to “understand” each vehicle, one has to learn all these • Axle location as “Truck FMS Standard”)
specific “languages”. • Axle weight
BUS-FMS
Since the establishment of the FMS standard, there is no
HOURS: Engine Hours, Revolutions For buses and coaches there was no common interface
need to learn many, just one “language”: the FMS protocol.
• Total engine hours standard for Fleet Management Systems, so the most
No matter which OEM produced the particular vehicle, if it is
significant European bus manufacturers decided to design
equipped with an FMS interface (FMS Gateway), you get the VI: Vehicle Identification
an interface based on the (Truck) FMS Standard according to
same output, as you would do for all vehicles equipped with • Vehicle identification number
the J1939 standard. This common interface was called as Bus
FMS interfaces. The standard itself was a huge step forward
FMS: FMS-Standard Interface FMS Standard.
in fleet management, since telematics devices (AVL) could
access vehicle technical information without the need of • Request supported
These establishing manufacturers were: Daimler Buses -
vehicle specific developments. • Diagnostic supported
EvoBus GmbH, MAN Truck & Bus AG, Scania CV, Volvo Bus
• SW-version supported
Corporation, IrisBus Iveco, VDL Bus International B.V.
FMS Standard lower layer protocols:
VDHR: High Resolution Vehicle Distance
• Application layer – SAE J1939/71 Until the issue of FMS Standard 3.0, the Bus FMS Standard was
• High resolution total vehicle distance
• Data link layer – SAE J1939/21 developed separately from the original (Truck) FMS Standard.
• Physical layer – ISO 11898-2 High-speed CAN, 250 kbit/s SERV: Service Distance FMS Standard 3.0 contains the two different standards
bus speed • Service distance harmonized in one documentation.
• Physical connectors – Not standardized

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 3
11 TRUCK-FMS
FMS Standard until version 2.0 is also called as Truck-FMS
Standard. See FMS standard for more information.
2
FMS STANDARD 2.0
Extended standard issued in 2010. This standard took over
3 some signals from the Bus FMS Standard, but FMS Standard
2.0 was still handled separately for Trucks.

4 The additional information compared to FMS Standard 1.0 is


the followings:

EEC2: Electronic Engine Controller #2


5 • Engine percent load at current speed

AMB: Ambient Conditions


6 • Ambient air temperature

DI: Driver’s Identification


• Driver 1 identification
7 • Driver 2 identification

LFE: Fuel Economy


• Fuel rate
8 • Instantaneous fuel economy

PTODE: PTO Drive Engagement


• At least one PTO engaged

HRLFC: High Resolution Fuel Consumption


• High resolution engine total fuel used

FMS STANDARD 3.0


FMS Standard 3.0 issued in 2012 contains (Truck) FMS Standard
and Bus FMS Standard harmonized in one documentation.
From now on there is only FMS Standard 3.0, but there are
separated sections inside for buses and trucks.

The development of FMS-standard is now under the umbrella


of the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association
(ACEA). The dedicated working group “Heavy Truck Electronic
Interface Group” meets regularly to discuss the needs of the
FMS-standard.

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 4
1
2. FUEL CONSUMPTION TOTAL FUEL USED (TFU)

MONITORING
Stands for Total Fuel Used. It is a parameter defined by the
22 FMS Standard 1.0, meaning the cumulative amount of fuel
burnt by the engine during its lifetime (since starting the
Fuel consumption monitoring is one of the most important engine).
functions of a fleet management system. Reducing the
3 operational costs can easily be achieved by reducing the
vehicle’s fuel consumption.

4 In this section you can understand the difference between fuel


level monitoring and fuel consumption monitoring reported
by the engine. You can also find definitions for regularly used
5 abbreviations and phrases.

FUEL LEVEL
6
The parameter is defined by FMS Standard 1.0. This is an TFU
indicator of the current level of the fuel tank. Because of the

7 generally low precision of the sensors used by most of vehicle


manufacturers, it is not recommended to use solely this
parameter to monitor fuel consumption. It is recommended
to use fuel level together with TFU or High Resolution Fuel
8 Consumption for a precise fuel usage monitoring.

HIGH RESOLUTION FUEL CONSUMPTION


The parameter is defined by FMS Standard 2.0. This values is
similar to TFU but in a much higher (more precise) resolution. Fuel

POWER TRANSMISSION OUTPUT (PTO)


A power take-off or power transmission output (PTO) is a
method for taking power to external devices from a running
internal combustion engine. Usually it is used for driving
an external mechanical device (adapter) via a mechanical
shaft or in most of the cases via hydraulics. In the latter case
the engine drives a hydraulic pump that provides hydraulic
energy to the attached equipment (adapter) or a separate
machine.

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 5
1
3. CAN BUS
function of the connected ECUs. There are dedicated CAN based on ISO 11898, such as
buses inside a vehicle like Power train CAN, Comfort CAN, • MILCAN for Military Land Vehicle subsystem

COMMUNICATION
Infotainment CAN, Lighting CAN, Trailer CAN and so on. communications,
2 • SAE J1939 31-81 for in-vehicle communication,

CAN stands for Controller Area Network, meaning a computer CANOPEN • SeaCAN for nautical applications,
• CAN Aerospace for aircraft applications,
network formulated by the vehicle’s electronic control
33
CANopen is a higher-layer CAN protocol for embedded control • CANopen for industrial automation
units (ECU). CAN was primarily developed for automotive systems. CANopen is a highly customizable protocol for a • IES-CAN for commercial vehicles
applications but later - due to its simplicity, reliability and wide range of applications, but mainly in the field of industrial • Smart Distributed Systems (SDS) for industrial
electromagnetic immunity - it appeared also in industrial automation. These application and communication profile automation
4 (CANopen), military (MilCAN), aerospace (CANaerospace) and sets are developed and maintained by CiA members. • CANkingdom for industrial automation
nautical (SeaCAN) applications. • DeviceNet for industrial automation

5 CAN 2.0A IES CAN


CAN BUS PROTOCOL The CAN communication protocol originally was developed
IES CAN is an OEM specific CAN protocol developed and used
CAN bus is an asynchronous (time-shifted) serial bus system, by Bosch during the mid 80s in the XX. century. The protocol
by Mercedes-Benz heavy-duty commercial vehicles. The
6 originally developed by Robert Bosch GmbH from 1983 to specification came out in 1993 as ISO-11898 Standard. The
structure is completely different from the J1939.
interconnect electronic control units (ECU) in motor vehicles first version of the standard only defined standard frames
and was introduced in different steps to reduce cable (CAN 2.0 Part A) with 11 bits identifiers.
ISO 11898
7 harnesses and thereby weight. Instead of using an electrical
circuit for each transmitted signal, the “bus” is based on The standard was released in 1993 summarizing the CAN
a communication platform that regulates the relaying of CAN 2.0B communication protocol, but the standard itself contains
messages between several devices. In 1995 an extended version of ISO11898 CAN Standard came
8 out. It defines the 29-bit long extended identifier message
only the physical layer and the data link layer descriptions.
In a practical context, the process is as follows: While the rear Higher layer protocol implementations are widespread
light was actuated by means of guiding a current to the rear format (CAN 2.0 Part B). available due to the simplicity and reliability of the system
light, the bus system only relays a message: “Light switch not only in the automotive industry but also in industrial
automation and other application areas.
to rear light: Switch on!” Translating all control signals into DEVICENET
messages requires a “greater intelligence” of the connected • 11898-1 => CAN protocol
devices, at the same time this implies that many devices can DeviceNet is a complete protocol standard based on CAN,
• 11898-2 => HS-CAN
exchange information, virtually at same time, using a very mostly used in industrial automation to connect actuators,
• 11898-3 => FT-CAN
limited number of cable connections. sensors, IOs and controllers. DeviceNet is using trunk-line
topology, there can be maximum 64 nodes in logical network.
DeviceNet standard specifies all layers according to ISO/
ISO 11898-2, HIGH-SPEED CAN
CAN BUS TOPOLOGY OSI model, the higher layers using CIP (Common Industrial ISO11898-2 is a physical layer description of the CAN standard
The CAN bus topology describes the layout of the CAN Protocol) the intermediate layers are CAN protocol. The lower protocol also called as High-speed CAN. This is the most often
communication network inside a vehicle. It is usually a layers (physical and connectors) are standardized as well. used physical layer of CAN communication in the automotive
drawing that clearly shows the number of CAN buses, list industry. The physical layer description not defines exactly
all the ECUs and the connecting CAN lines as a schematic the mechanical aspects such connectors, labels, and pin-
diagram. There are usually several separate CAN buses can
HIGHER LAYER PROTOCOLS outs. So the ECU (electronic control unit) manufacturers often
be found in one vehicle based on the requirements and the There are some application specific higher layer protocols use custom connectors for CAN-Bus connection.

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 6
1 In CAN bus measurement applications a commonly used SAE J1939
connector type is the D-SUB-9 connector set, where the pin-
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) develops and
out is the following:
maintains standards for the industrial applications like inter
2 • pin 2 – CAN-Low ECU communication in motor-vehicles. The J1939 standard
• pin 3 – Ground is a recommended practice used for communication and
• pin 7 – CAN-High diagnostics among different ECUs in the vehicle. It is the
33 • pin 9 – Power most widespread CAN protocol standard mostly used in
commercial vehicle applications like trucks, caterpillars, etc.

ISO 11898-3, FAULT TOLERANT CAN


4 ISO11898-3 is a physical layer description of the CAN standard
protocol also called as Low-speed CAN. This type of physical
layer enables the CAN communication even in case if one of
5 the wires is cut (open circuit) or short circuited to VBATT or
GND.

In the automotive industry Fault tolerant CAN is often used in


6 safety-related systems such as direct motor control.

7 LOWER LAYER PROTOCOLS


The ISO 11898-1 part of the CAN bus standard defines only the
data link layer without exact definitions of the physical layers,
8 but there are multiple physical layer definitions used in CAN
communication depending on the application:

• ISO11898-2, High-speed CAN


• ISO11898-3, Low-speed CAN, Fault tolerant CAN
• ISO 11992-1, Truck/Trailer CAN
• SAE J1939 11-21

PROPRIETARY CAN PROTOCOL


Most vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) are using their own
developed higher layer protocol on the CAN network.
These OEM dependent, not standard protocols are called
proprietary vehicle CAN protocols. FMS Gateways are able to
process specific OEM vehicle CAN (proprietary CAN) data and
make it available in a standardized FMS CAN protocol format
for all types of vehicles. This can be easily connected to an AVL
device for further processing.

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 7
1
4. OTHER IN-VEHICLE
2 COMMUNICATION
PROTOCOLS
3 There are some in-vehicle communication protocols that
are CAN based. These are mainly historic protocols, that
were started and developed before the appearance of CAN
44 protocol.

SAE J1708
5
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) develops and
maintains standards for the industrial applications like
inter ECU communication in motor-vehicles. The J1708 is a
6 physical layer standard.

7 SAE J1587
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) develops and
maintains standards for the industrial applications like inter
8 ECU communication in motor-vehicles. The J1587 is a higher
layer protocol description based on the physical layer of
J1708.

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 8
1
5. FLEET MANAGEMENT
safety issues can be avoided. The non-galvanic (galvanic A Fleet Management System can include many functions:
isolated) connection guarantees that no signal to be sent
• Vehicle maintenance

SYSTEMS
back to vehicle CAN bus.
• Vehicle tracking and diagnostic
2 Contactless CAN interfaces can either be used with FMS • Fuel management
Gateways, or independently, with any telematics (AVL) • Driver management
Fleet Management is a basic requirement in modern vehicle
devices. • Tachograph management (Remote download)
fleets to provide cost efficient operation. These systems
3 are complex with many electronic components installed in
• Health and safety management

vehicles (FMS gateway, AVL, Board computer, etc.) and in the E TYPE APPROVAL
back office.
As a part of the UN Vehicle Regulations (1958 Agreement),
4 the “World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations” FMS GATEWAY
AVL (WP.29) defines all the different type approval requirements FMS Gateway is a device that connects to one or more vehicle
for road-vehicles and their components in so called CAN-Buses and collects information about the vehicle’s
55 The abbreviation of AVL stands for Automatic Vehicle Locator,
Regulations, numbered from 1 to 131. For example the type operation. This information is available on standardized
most commonly called as vehicle tracking device. There are
approval requirements for vehicles and vehicle components output format regulated by the corresponding FMS Standard
GPS and/or GLONASS based positioning systems integrated
with regard to electromagnetic compatibility can be found in documentation.
together with an industrial GSM/UMTS modem, which sends
6 the positioning information on-line to a central computer
UNECE Regulation No. 10.
The FMS Gateway default output protocol is CAN as defined
server. AVL devices may be extended with vehicle technical The E approval mark affixed to a vehicle or a vehicle component in the standard but there are manufacturers who make serial
information such as fuel tank level, engine revolution, fuel means that it has been approved in Hungary (E7) pursuant to (RS232 based) output protocol available in their devices. The
7 used, etc. Regulation No. 10 under approval No. 041203. The approval Inventure FMS Gateway is much more than a simple protocol
number indicates that the approval was granted according to converter, since it contains special algorithms e.g. for fuel
the requirements of Regulation No. 10 as amended by the 04 consumption calculations and for driving style estimation.
BOARD COMPUTER
8 series of amendments.
A Board Computer in a vehicle refers to an electronic control
unit used to monitor vehicle electrical components and to GALVANIC ISOLATION
process data (such as fuel consumption, vehicle distance,
average speed, etc.) for the instrument panel. Board
E7 10 R - 04 1203
Galvanic isolation is a separation technique of electric circuits,
meaning electrical current flow is impossible between two
computer can also serve as a Human Machine Interface (HMI) electrical systems. Signals can pass through the galvanic
for displaying the measured and calculated information isolation, but electrical current flow is blocked. There are
about the vehicle. FMS several methods for non-galvanic information transmission
such as electromagnetic waves (induction, capacitance) or
Most of modern vehicles have a factory-installed on board In transportation there is an increasing need of the
optical coupling.
computer providing basic fuel and trip information. There are continuous surveillance of vehicle fleets that can be solved
aftermarket products which can produce more information by Fleet Management Systems. There are two categories of
including detailed fuel consumption, trip data, driver Fleet Management Systems, depending on the data location.
behaviour, eco-driving, etc. If there is a recording unit in the vehicle and the recorded
data are processed and evaluated afterwards, it is called
Off-line Fleet Management System. When all the vehicles are
CONTACTLESS CAN connected on-line to a computer server over mobile internet,
Contactless CAN interface ensures safe data read from vehicle real-time information and data evaluation are available, it is
CAN bus without any disruption. This way any warranty and called On-line Fleet Management System.

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 9
1
6. ECO-DRIVING
ECO-driving is a driving attitude focusing on energy efficient
2 using of vehicles. While transportation takes a significant
share of the global carbon footprint of the world, ECO-driving
helps to reduce fuel consumption thereby reduce fuel costs
3 and CO2 emission. 34% 67%

CARBON FOOTPRINT
4
The total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly
and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in

5 equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2).

ECO-DRIVING
66 Some of modern fleet-management devices are supporting
ECO-driving by indicating the driver performance computed
from vehicle data. This driver behavior information can be
7 displayed immediately to the driver to increase fuel economy
and sent to Back-Office for further processing and driving
performance analysis.
8
FUEL ECONOMY
The fuel economy of a vehicle is the fuel efficiency
relationship between the distance travelled and the vehicle’s
fuel consumption. Fuel consumption is mostly expressed as
the distance travelled per a given amount of fuel (i.e. MPG –
miles per gallon) or the amount of fuel consumed per a given
distance (i.e. liters/100km).

There are many factors that can reduce fuel consumption:

• Sufficient tire pressure


72% 85%
• Disabled air conditioning
• Reduction of air resistance
• Reduction of vehicle weight by removing unnecessary
load
• Appropriate driving behaviour

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 10
1
7. DRIVER ANALOGUE TACHOGRAPH data from the speed sensor, calculating distance travelled,
monitoring driving times of the drivers and storing all these
Analogue tachograph were produced before 2006 when

IDENTIFICATION AND
data into the a memory (capacity is enough for 365 days
digital tachographs became mandatory.
2 constant driving). Digital tachographs also store information
on driver cards, such as driver activity (driving, rest, breaks,
DRIVING TIMES
The most important difference between digital and analogue
tachograph is the recording type. Analogue tachograph work), driving times, vehicle identification, licence plate
records trace lines on a paper disc also called as tachograph number. Driver cards have enough capacity for minimum of
3 All commercial vehicles must be equipped with a tachograph chart. This chart can store information about one day of 28 days’ information.
unit. In the EU law there is a regulation about driving hours activities, speed and distance. The chart must be archived
Recorded information of a digital tachograph and the stored
and rest time to avoid the crashes caused by driver fatigue. In and replaced in every 24 hours.
4 this section you can read about the operation of tachograph
data on driver cards can be downloaded remotely using a
remote download device.
The only advantage of analogue tachographs is that recorded
units, the difference between analogue and digital types,
data can be easily retrieved in a visual way. Different
tachograph card, driver’s identification types and driving
5 times.
products (Motometer, VDO, Actia, Vederoot, ect.) differ by DRIVER ID
functionality based on the number of drivers (1 or 2), the size
Driver ID is a unique identifier of the driver. This ID and driver’s
(oval, flat, or DIN modular design) and principle of operation
name are printed also on driver card. On digital tachograph
TACHOGRAPH (pure mechanics, mechanics extended with electronics,
6 Tachograph is basically a vehicle speed logging device. It microprocessor controlled, CAN interface equipped, etc.)
equipped vehicles some newer FMS gateways are able to
provide Driver ID information on standard FMS output (as
originates its name from the Greek takhos(velocity) and defined in FMS 2.0 Standard documentation).
graphos (drawn or written). Tachograph main function is to DIGITAL TACHOGRAPH
77 record vehicle speed, travelled distance with the selected
driver activity. Tachograph recording unit is connected to a
The digital tachograph or the DTCO was introduced in Europe DRIVING TIMES
in 2004 as an advanced and more secure alternative for the In the road transport industry there is high pressure on
speed sensor mounted to the vehicle gearbox.
8 analog tachograph. Main digital tachograph manufactures vehicle drivers to transport their load in time. They often
The recording unit can be analogue or digital type. are: VDO, Stoneridge, Actia and Efkon. drive even when they are exhausted. This causes a significant
A digital tachograph system consist of: percentage of heavy commercial vehicle crashes.
Digital tachographs became mandatory in new commercial
heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars with more than 8 • Digital tachograph unit itself, also called as the vehicle To prevent driver fatigue EU law regulates the driving time
seats in May 2006. Digital tachographs have many advantages unit (VU) for drivers using heavy commercial vehicles over 3.5t and
over the analogue ones: • Speed sensor (with encrypted communication with the passenger vehicles with more than 8 passenger seats.
VU) All of these vehicles must be equipped with tachograph unit.
• Much more precision of recording
• Tachograph cards
• Safe communication between recording unit and speed The key rules for driving and rest times are as follows:
• Driver card
sensor
• Company card • A driver cannot drive more than 4.5 hours in a row.
• More capacity (365 day over the 1 day of an analogue • Workshop card After 4.5 hours, taking a break of at least 45 minutes is
chart)
mandatory. The rest time can be distributed over the 4.5
• Drivers identification Control card hours.
• Driving time measurement and display • A driver cannot drive more than nine hours per day or 56
Digital tachographs became mandatory in new commercial
• Fault and error management hours per week. This may be extended to 10 hours twice
heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars with more than 8
• Remote download functionality during a week.
seats in May 2006.
• A driver cannot drive more than 90 hours in two
The main functions of digital tachographs are collecting speed consecutive weeks.

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 11
1 The average working time and the amount of rest that must recordings related to the current period where no card was COMPANY CARD
be taken daily and weekly is also regulated by the EU law. inserted and related to the relevant slot.
A tachograph card issued by the authorities of a Member
Some FMS Gateways are able to provide driving times for source: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1360/2002 State to the owner or holder of vehicles fitted with recording
2 each driver such as: equipment. The company card identifies the company and
• Continuous driving time allows for displaying, downloading and printing the data
• Cumulative rest time
CURRENT DURATION OF SELECTED stored in the recording equipment which has been locked by
3 • Current duration of selected activity ACTIVITY this company.
• Cumulated driving time previous and current week The parameter shall indicate the current duration of the

These driving times can help the fleet manager to meet the EU
selected activity, since selected and which may be the current CONTROL CARD
4 regulation about driving hours and rest times.
driving period, availability period, rest period or work period.
Tachograph card issued by the authorities of a Member State
source: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1360/2002 to a national competent control authority. The control card
CONTINUOUS DRIVING TIME identifies the control body and possibly the control officer
5 The parameter shall be computed as the current accumulated and allows for getting access to the data stored in the data
driving times of a particular driver, since the end of his/her CUMULATED DRIVING TIME PREVIOUS memory or in the driver cards for reading, printing and/or
last availability or break/rest or unknown period of 45 min or AND CURRENT WEEK downloading.
6 more — the 45 min may be split into several periods of 15 min
The parameter shall be computed as the current accumulated source: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1360/2002
or more.
driving times of driver, for the previous and the current week.
The computations involved take into account, as needed, past
77 source: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1360/2002 DRIVER CARD
activities stored on the driver card. When the driver has not
inserted his/her card, the computations involved are based A tachograph card issued by the authorities of a Member State
on the data memory recordings related to the current period REMOTE DOWNLOAD to a particular driver. The driver card identifies the driver and
8 where no card was inserted and related to the relevant slot.
Digital tachograph units support remote authentication and
allows for storage of driver activity data. The card can store all
relevant driver data required for EU Drivers’ Hours regulations
source: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1360/2002 data downloading. That means it is not necessary to get in including break and rest times.
the vehicle and insert the company card to download data.
Remote download solution allows to hold your company card Features of the driver card:
CUMULATIVE BREAKTIME in the office. Authentication and data downloading can be • Unique to the individual driver and valid for five years
The parameter shall be computed from driving time as the scheduled and it works automatically, even when the vehicle • Contains information about the driving activity for the
current accumulated availability or break/rest or unknown is in motion or the ignition is switched off. last 28 days
times of 15 min or more of a particular driver, since the end source: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1360/2002
Data available for remote download:
of his/her last availability or break/rest or unknown period of
45 min or more — the 45 min may be split into several periods 1. Tachograph mass memory
of 15 min or more. WORKSHOP CARD
a. Overview
Tachograph card issued by the authorities of a Member State
The computations involved take into account, as needed, b. Event and faults
to a recording equipment manufacturer, a fitter, a vehicle
past activities stored on the driver card. Unknown periods of c. Technical information manufacturer or workshop, approved by that Member State.
negative duration (start of unknown period to end of unknown
d. Activities for selected days The workshop card identifies the cardholder and allows for
period) due to time overlaps between two different recording
e. Detailed speed testing, calibration and/or downloading of the tachograph.
equipment, are not taken into account for the computation.
2. Driver 1 card data source: COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1360/2002
When the driver has not inserted his/her card, the
computations involved are based on the data memory 3. Driver 2 card data

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 12
1
8. TRAILER TEBS – TRAILER ELECTRONIC BRAKE
SYSTEM
2 INFORMATION Trailer Electronic(ally Controlled) Brake System (TEBS) is a
high-level brake control system for vehicle combinations.
Almost every running heavy duty vehicle with gross vehicle The trailer EBS module is controlled by the motor vehicle
weight over 7.5t has a trailer connected. For fleet managers EBS module via ISO 11992 (Trailer CAN) bus and collects
3 it is important to know trailer specific information like gross information about the vehicle state (speed, acceleration
vehicle weight, axle weight, brake status, tire pressure, ABS and other braking related parameters) to perform optimum
activation, roll-prevention activation, door statuses and EBS braking of the vehicle combination. Other sensors are directly
4 braking related information. connected to TEBS module such as tire pressure, temperature
sensors, axle weight information, etc.

ISO 11992 •
5
The ISO 11992 based motor-vehicle and trailer connection is
often just referred as the “Trailer CAN” communication. It is
different from the ISO11898 in the following 3 ways:
6
1. the voltage levels of ISO11992 are 24V
2. the topology can only be point-to-point connection
7 3. the ISO11992 has also a single wire operating mode,
enabling to maintain full communication between towing
and towed vehicle also in case of a wire problem
88
EBS – ELECTRONIC BRAKE SYSTEM
EBS (Electronic Brake System) is a new generation of
commercial vehicle braking systems. Since 1996 it contains
several functions like ABS, ASR, CFC and VDC integrated into
one system. The braking is controlled electronically to get
shorter response time and braking distance. The pneumatic
control is only supported in backup mode to have redundancy
in braking control (and for backward compatibility).

EBS has many extra functions over the pneumatic systems,


such as optimum braking force distribution (also between
tractor and trailer), yaw control and roll over prevention
for safe grip on the road, brake pad wear control, tire
management, trailer weight calculations, and many others.

EBS systems core components are EBS modules located in


the motor vehicle and in the trailer (TEBS module), changing
information via the ISO 11992 (Trailer CAN) bus.

T h e u lt i m a t e g u i d e t o F l e e t m a n a g e m e n t a n d A u t o m o t i v e t e c h n o l o g y 13
Looking for more About Inventure
information or have a • Industry leading expertise in automotive electronics and CAN bus
technology for 15 years

specific question? • Global research and development, production and distribution

• Intelligent, fully comprehensive solutions

V i s i t o u r w e bs i t e • Satisfied customers in 41 countries across various industries

• Highly qualified engineers

Inventure Automotive is among the very few companies in the world


that are able to offer contactless CAN bus reading and processing
solution to the clients, independently from the vehicle manufacturers.

Currently the focus application of our products is to serve fleet


management service providers with telematics and vehicle data
through our own developed FMS Gateway. We provide data to our
clients according to the FMS Standard, including high resolution fuel
related information, vehicle status information, service distance, total
engine hours, vehicle weight, axle weight, etc. The data provided
is used to analyze and improve vehicle efficiency, eco-driving and
maintenance planning.

Inventure Automotive is a global supplier of CAN data retrieving


www.inventure-automotive.com
solutions. We have customers in five continents with major markets
especially in the EU, Turkey, Canada, USA, Brazil, Saudi-Arabia and
linkedin.com/company/inventure-
South Africa.
automotive-electronics-r&d-inc-

youtube.com/channel/
UCLs0KKITotYMENzkl7hrx3A