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RAPID ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

FOR

THE PROPOSED SILK PARK


BY
M/s. Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Ltd.,
Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu

AT
Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India

Project Management Consultant EIA Consultant

M/s. C.S and Associates. Pvt. Ltd., M/s. Vimta Labs Limited
Salem, Tamil Nadu Coimbatore / Hyderabad
QCI/NABET Accredited EIA Consultant

FINAL EIA REPORT - NOVEMBER 2015


PREFACE

PERARIGNAR ANNA HANDLOOM SILK PARK LIMITED


Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India

RAPID ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


FOR

THE PROPOSED SILK PARK AT KILKADHIRPUR VILLAGE,


KANCHIPURAM TALUK & DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA

For and on behalf of VIMTA LABS LIMITED

Approved by : K. S. Muneeswaran

Signed :

Designation : Senior Manager / EIA coordinator

Date : 2015/11/06

This EIA report has been prepared for the purpose of obtaining Environmental
Clearance from SEIAA, Tamil Nadu in line with the ToR issued by SEIAA vide
letter no. SEIAA – TN/F.No.683/M-XXXVI/TOR–111/2012 Dated: 15.04.2013 and
ToR Extension by SEIAA vide letter no. SEIAA-TN/F 683/7(c) and 7(h)/TOR-
EXTN/227/2015 dated 09.10.2015

This report has been prepared by ‘Vimta Labs Limited’ with all reasonable skill,
care and diligence within the terms of the contract with the client, incorporating
our General Terms and Conditions of Business and taking account of the
resources devoted to it by agreement with the client.
Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
_______________________________________________________________
Chapter # Title Page #
_______________________________________________________________
Preface 3
Table of Contents 5
List of Figures 8
List of Tables 9
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Purpose of the report 11
1.2 Identification of the project & project proponent 12
1.3 Brief description of the project 12
1.4 Scope of the study 21

2.0 Project description


2.1 Project details 23
2.2 Process description 25
2.3 Master plan 34
2.4 Project requirements 50
2.5 Waste/effluent generation & management 53
2.6 Landscaping and greenbelt development 72

3.0 Description of the environment


3.1 Introduction 75
3.2 Land use studies 76
3.3 Soil characteristics 82
3.4 Geology 86
3.5 Meteorology 93
3.6 Air quality 102
3.7 Water quality 107
3.8 Noise level survey 112
3.9 Flora and fauna studies 115
3.10 Demography and socio-economics 120

4.0 Anticipated environmental impacts & mitigation measures


4.1 Identification of impacts 125
4.2 Impacts during construction phase 125
4.3 Impacts during operational phase 128
4.4 Indirect impacts 137
4.5 Mitigation measures 137
4.6 Greenbelt development 143

5.0 Environmental monitoring programme


5.1 Implementation schedule of EMP 145
5.2 Environmental monitoring 145
5.3 Environmental monitoring during construction phase 146
5.4 Environmental monitoring during operation phase 147
5.5 Cost provision for environmental measures 148

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 5


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd.)


_______________________________________________________________
Chapter # Title Page #
_______________________________________________________________
6.0 Additional studies
6.1 Risk assessment 149
6.2 Hazard assessment and evaluation 151
6.3 Disaster management plan 151
6.4 Social impact assessment 156
6.5 Rehabilitation & resettlement action plans 157

7.0 Project benefits


7.1 Improvement in the physical infrastructure 159
7.2 Improvement in the social infrastructure 159
7.3 Employment potential 159
7.4 Economic benefits 160

8.0 Administrative aspects of environment management plan


8.1 Introduction 161
8.2 Environmental management system 161
8.3 Environment Management Cell 165

9.0 Summary & conclusion


9.1 Introduction 167
9.2 Project description 169
9.3 Description of the environment 171
9.4 Anticipated Environmental 172
Impacts and Mitigation Measures
9.5 Environmental Monitoring Program 174
9.6 Project benefits 174
9.7 Justification for Implementation of the Project 175
9.8 Summary of Anticipated Environmental 175
Impacts and Mitigation
9.9 Conclusion 175

10.0 Disclosure of consultant


10.1 Introduction 181
10.2 The quality policy 181
10.3 Milestones and accreditations 181
10.4 Management and board of directors 182
10.5 Services offered 183
10.6 Services 183
10.7 Facilities 184
10.8 Quality systems 185
10.9 Achievements 185

QCI/NABET accreditation certificate of consultant 187

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 6


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Table of Contents

LIST OF ANNEXURES
_______________________________________________________________
Annexure # Title
_______________________________________________________________

Annexure –I TOR issued by SEIAA


Annexure – Ia Executive Summary
Annexure – II Topomap of the project site
Annexure - III Contour map of the project site
Annexure – IV Master plan of the project site
Annexure –V Landuse as per DTCP
Annexure – VI Land use of the study area as per satellite imagery
Annexure – VII Geology of the study area
Annexure – VIII Soil classification of the study area
Annexure – IX AAQ Results
Annexure –X Demography of the study area
Annexure – XI Ecological survey data
Annexure – XII Anna university report on locating the Palar river distance
Annexure – XIIa Distance of the project from river in map
Annexure – XIIb G.O relaxation order
Annexure – XIII Applicable environmental standards
Annexure – XIV Methodology adapted for sampling
Annexure – XV Water & wastewater Management Proposals
Annexure – XVI Public Hearing Advertisement
Annexure – XVIa Minutes of Public Hearing from TNPCB
Annexure – XVII Photos of Public hearing
Annexure – XVIII NABET RE-accreditation

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 7


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Table of Contents

LIST OF FIGURES
_______________________________________________________________
Figure# Title Page#
_______________________________________________________________

1.1 Index map showing proposed project site 17


1.2 10 km study area map 18
1.3 Aerial view of the proposed site 19
2.1 Process flow chart 27
2.2 Contour map 35
2.3 Master Plan 36
2.4 Storm water network 43
2.5 Pipeline Layout 47
2.6 Water Balance 52
2.7 Common sewage treatment plant (500 KLD) 55
2.8 Effluent treatment plant for cotton yard dyeing (3200 KLD) 59
2.9 Effluent treatment plant for cotton yard dyeing (3200 KLD) 60
2.10 Effluent treatment plant for silk dyeing (450 KLD) 67
2.11 Greenbelt/ landscaping layout 73
3.1 Flow chart showing methodology of land use mapping 78
3.2 Details of land use 82
3.3 Soil sampling locations 84
3.4 Geology of Kanchipuram district 88
3.5 Soil profile 90
3.6 Status of groundwater 92
3.7(A) Windrose for pre monsoon & monsoon season 97
3.7(B) Windrose for post monsoon & winter season 98
3.7(C) Annual wind rose 99
3.8 Site specific wind rose (March – May 2013) 101
3.9 Air quality sampling locations 105
3.10 Water sampling locations 109
3.11 Noise monitoring locations 114
4.1 Short term 24 hourly incremental GLCs of PM 134
4.2 Short term 24 hourly incremental GLCs of SO2 135
4.3 Short term 24 hourly incremental GLCs of NOX 136
8.1 Organizational structure of environment cell 166

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 8


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Table of Contents

LIST OF TABLES
_______________________________________________________________
Table# Title Page#
_______________________________________________________________

1.1 Project details 14


1.2 Environmental setting of the proposed project 20
1.3 Environmental attributes and frequency of monitoring 22
2.1 Details of proposed Land use 25
2.2 Raw materials / Production details 26
2.3 Components of infrastructure 38
2.4 Shed area 40
2.5 Details of road network 42
2.6 Parameters considered for design of distribution network 45
2.7 Technical details of street lighting system 49
2.8 Specification for the proposed standby system 49
2.9 Building material requirement 50
2.10 Manpower Break-Up 50
2.11 Details of water requirement 51
2.12 Details of fuel requirement 53
2.13 Details of sewage / effluent generation 53
2.14 Characteristics of inlet and outlet from sewage treatment 57
plant
2.15 Characteristics of inlet and outlet from cotton yarn & dyeing 64
Unit CETP
2.16 Characteristics of inlet and outlet from silk yarn & dyeing 70
unit CETP
2.17 Details of hazardous waste generation 71
2.18 Details of non-hazardous waste generation 72
3.1 Different land use classes around 10 km radius 81
3.2 Details of soil sampling locations 79
3.3 Soil analysis results 85
3.4 Standard soil classification 86
3.5 Generalized stratographic succession of the geological
formations 87
3.6 Characteristics of the Arasanatham soil 89
3.7 Soil profile description 90
3.8 Soil class description 91
3.9 Status of groundwater 92
3.10 Climatological data [IMD, Chennai (Minambakkam)] 96
3.11 Seasonal frequencies of cyclones in east coast of India 96
3.12 Summary of wind pattern – IMD, Chennai 96
3.13 Summary of the meteorological data at site 100
3.14 Details of ambient air quality monitoring locations 102
3.15 Monitored parameters and frequency of sampling 103
3.16 Techniques used for ambient air quality monitoring 104
3.17 Summary of ambient air quality results 106
3.18 Details of water sampling location 108
3.19 Ground water quality 110
3.20 Surface water quality 111
3.21 Details of noise monitoring locations 113

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 9


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Table of Contents

LIST OF TABLES
_______________________________________________________________
Table# Title Page#
_______________________________________________________________

3.22 Noise levels in the study area 115


3.23 Class wise distribution of plant species in the study area 117
3.24 Fauna observed at the study area 119
3.25 Distribution of population 121
3.26 Distribution of population by social structure 121
3.27 Distribution of literate and literacy rates 122
3.28 Occupational structure 122
4.1(A) Details of expected stack emissions 132
4.1(B) Details of expected stack emissions 132
4.2 Predicted 24-hourly incremental concentrations 133
4.3 Resultant concentrations of proposed project 137
5.1 EMP implementation schedule 145
5.2 Environmental monitoring schedule during construction phase 146
5.3 Environmental monitoring schedule during construction phase 147
5.4 Budget allocation for environmental protection 148
6.1 Applicability of GOI rules to fuel 150
6.2 Properties of storage fuels 150
6.3 Preliminary hazard analysis for process and storage areas 151
6.4 Preliminary hazard analysis in general 152
6.5 Damage due to incident radiation intensities 153
6.6 Radiation exposure and lethality 153
7.1 Employment generation 159
7.2 Estimated production capacity 160
7.3 Expected investment 160
7.4 Economy benefits 160
9.1 Environmental Setting around the proposed site 168
9.2 Salient features of the proposed silk park 170
9.3 Anticipated adverse environmental impacts and mitigation 176

Details of Personnel Involved In Current EIA Report 186

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 10


Chapter - 1
Introduction
Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose of the Report

M/s. Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Limited (herein after referred to as
PAHSPL) proposes to commence an Integrated Hi-tech handloom silk park at S. No.
3/3B, Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk of Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu
with state of the art manufacturing facilities for the entire silk value chain for
domestic and export markets. The total plot area of the proposed project is 30.35
ha (75 acres). Estimated total project cost for infrastructure development under this
project is Rs. 266 Crores (Project cost eligible under Scheme for Integrated Textile
Parks (SITP) is Rs. 83.83 Crores). The proposed project also envisages a ZLD-CETP
for handling textile & dyeing effluents generated from the proposed units within the
park.
In order to obtain Environmental Clearance from SEIAA, Tamil Nadu and Consent
for Establishment (CFE) from the Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB),
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report with detailed Environmental
Management Plan (EMP) are essential as per the EIA notification and its subsequent
amendments.

As per the EIA Notification dated 14th September 2006, the proposed project falls
under Schedule. No. 7(c) (Industrial estates/parks/complexes/areas, export
processing Zones (EPZs), Special Economic Zones (SEZs), Biotech Parks, Leather
Complexes & 7(h) (Common Effluent Treatment Plants) and categorized under
‘Category B’. The above stated activity is proposed to be located 1.559 km from
the Palar river.

The project was presented in the 36th TN-SEAC meeting held on 22.02.2013 and
received TOR vide letter No. SEIAA-TN/F.No.683/M-XXXVI/TOR-111/2012 dt.
15.04.2013 (Annexure – 1). In-line with new EIA Notification, this EIA report has
been prepared for the purpose of obtaining exemption order from the State Govt.
exempting this proposed activity from the purview of the G.O. Ms. No. 127, E&F
Dept., dated 8.5.98. .

The objective of REIA is to foresee the potential environmental problems that would
crop up out of proposed silk and address them in the project planning and design
stage.

The specific objectives of this REIA are as follows:

 To review the current environmental status of the project site, and its
surrounding area, to estimate the pollution that would occur after
commissioning the proposed silk park, and its impact on the surrounding
environment

 To suggest an EMP including pollution control methods to ensure that the


pollution will be well within the limits prescribed by the CPCB and TNPCB
and minimize the adverse environmental impacts of the development, so
that the quality of environment is not only preserved but also enhanced

 To propose a Post Project Monitoring Plan (PPMP) to ensure that the EMP
achieves its desired objectives
VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 11
Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

PAHSPL has availed the services of M/s. Vimta Labs Limited, Hyderabad /
Coimbatore to undertake Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies for
assessing the impact of the proposed project on various environmental parameters
in the study area and to prepare an Environment Management Plan for negating
the adverse impacts of the proposed project.

1.2 Identification of Project & Project Proponent


The proposed Hi-Tech Integrated Silk Park is identified based on the growing
demand for Silk saree value chain.

1.2.1 The Promoters


To establish a Hi-Tech integrated silk Park at Kilkadhirpur, Kanchipuram district,
Tamilnadu, with State of Art Manufacturing facilities for the entire silk value chain
for Domestic and Export markets, an SPV has been registered in the name of
“Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Limited” with all the promoters (115
Entrepreneurs) from families who have been engaged in various line of activities
in the silk industry and have business links all over the country and overseas for
marketing of the products proposed to be manufactured in the units to be setup
in the park.

1.2.2 Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP)


In order to assist the Indian Textile industry to take advantage of post quota
global trade regime, Government of India has introduced a new scheme namely
Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP) by merging the Apparel Parks for
Exports Scheme (APES) and the Textile Centre Infrastructure Development
Scheme (TCIDS). The objective of the scheme is to provide world-class
infrastructure facilities to the industry in order to support production of textiles on
modern machinery.
The benefits of Schemes for Integrated Textile Park (SITP) and the Modified
Technology Up gradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) of Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of
India are expected to enable the members of the park to achieve the goal for
manufacturing quality fabrics, garments, Home furnishings and value added
finished fabrics conforming to international standards at globally competitive
prices.

1.3 Brief Description of Project


1.3.1 Project Objectives
 To establish a Hi-Tech integrated Silk Park with State of the Art Manufacturing
facilities for the entire silk value chain for domestic and export markets.
 To consolidate and prepare the entrepreneurs in Kanchipuram, Tamilnadu in
segments like Silk & cotton processing, Warping, Weaving and Garmenting
and to enable the weavers and saree manufacturers to upgrade their
machinery in order to manufacture superior quality sarees and garments
meeting international standards.
 To avail the opportunity of the post quota regime and to prepare the Textile
Industry to face the emerging realities of global competition.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 12


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

1.3.2 Project Background

Kanchipuram hosts one among the ancient Silk handloom cluster in India. Its’
past history of weaving rates back to 2nd Century AD. Over the years,
Kanchipuram has emerged as the finest quality silk saree manufacturing centre.
This development led to a number of parallel business activities like
establishment of Silk and Zari market and creation of processing facilities,
predominantly dyeing due to availability of good quality water in abundance from
river Palar on the banks of which Kanchipuram is located.

In other Handloom clusters, due to low productivity and high labor costs products
manufactured on handlooms were losing out to mill-made cloth and their survival
was heavily dependent upon the subsidies given by the central and state
governments. Since the Kanchipuram silk sarees are manufactured in a variety of
designs, for example not more than 10 sarees are woven with the same design,
the sarees cannot be duplicated in the power looms. Unique features like this led
to the development of this cluster.

1.3.3 Nature and Size of the Project

The proposed Park envisages 115 entrepreneurs to set up units in the park. The
project envisages setting up of Handlooms with Jaquards lifted by modern
pneumatic devices with the required back processes and garmenting units to
enter export markets for saree and garments. It will be a state-of-the-art textile
park with modern plant & machinery together with modern physical and social
infrastructure and would enable the entrepreneurs to produce high value added
products, enhance their productivity and meet international procurement
standards.

The fabrics produced would be processed and stitched / garmented in the


Garment units, according to the designs of the manufacturers, the sarees
produced will be sold in the domestic / export markets.

The details of the project are given in Table-1.1.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 13


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

TABLE-1.1
PROJECT DETAILS

Sr. No. Description Details


1. Name of the project or activity “Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park
Limited”
2. Registered address of the SPV Mr. N.V. Rajesh
Chairman & Managing Director
M/s. Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park
Ltd.,
No. 41, Thumbhavanam street
Kanchipuram – 631 501
Tamil Nadu
3. Telephone numbers Ph :044 27294861
Fax: 044 27228865
4. Email ID of the organization kanchisilkpark@yahoo.com
5. Location of the Proposed S. No. 3/3B
project or activity Kilkadhirpur village
Kanchipuram taluk and district
Tamil Nadu
6. Proposed product mix  Silk sarees with designs in border and
pallu (Weaving and Printing)
 Cotton processing
 Silk ladies dress material / Garments.
 Silk sarees with embroidery and
embellishments
7. Installed capacity / Production Plot area: 30.35 ha ha (75 acres)
details Total Built-up area: 55,000 Sq.m.

Proposed Activities:
Proposed construction of factory sheds for
Handloom Weaving, Silk dyeing, Cotton
dyeing & Sizing, Embroidery and
Garmenting
S. No. of Prod. Capacity
Activity
No. plots Qty. UOM
1. 96 Silk loom 22 13500 Running
shed Metres
2. 24 Silk loom 2 /day
shed
3. Silk Dyeing 22 4500 Kg/day
shed
4. Cotton 54 38.5 MT/day
dyeing shed
5. Embroidery 5 1000 Pieces
& /day
Readymades
shed
6. Cotton 10 6500 Kg/day
warping &
sizing sheds
Total 115 -- --
_

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Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

8. Power requirement Electricity demand: 17.3 MVA


Source: Tamil Nadu Generation and
Distribution Corporation (TANGEDCO)
9. Fuel requirement
(i) DG Set (500 KVA x 4 no.) 100 Lit/hr/DG Set
Ultrapure low sulphur content diesel for
standby DG-Set
(ii) Boiler (For CETP operation) 1 x 6 TPH
Biomass: 2000 Kg/hr
10. Water Requirement  Total water requirement: 4542.0 KLD
 Fresh water requirement: 792.0 KLD
Source: Proposed bore wells within plant
site after obtaining necessary approval
from CGWA
11. Details of Land use/Land
Area in ha Area in %
Cover within proposed site
(i) Factory buildings footprint 5.50 18.12
(ii) OSR area 3.05 10.05
Common Facilities (STP, TNEB,
(iii) 2.76 9.09
WBRIG, Museum & OHT)
(iv) Parking area 0.41 1.35
(v) Road area 6.96 22.93
(vi) Greenbelt & Landscaping 10.72 35.32
Hazardous waste storage area
(vii) 0.95 3.13
(CETP Bio-Sludge)
Total Plot Area 30.35 100.0
12. Total investment of the Estimated total project cost for
project/activity. infrastructure development under this
project is Rs. 85.12 Crores (Project cost
eligible under SITP is Rs. 83.83 Crores).
The project envisages a total investment
of Rs. 266 Crores.
 Land, Factory, Plant & Machinery – Rs.
180.88 Crores
 Common infrastructure & Facilities –
Rs. 85.12 Crores
13. Funds allocated for EMP Capital cost: 4071.6 Lakhs
(capital cost and recurring cost  STP/CETP: Rs. 3500 Lakhs
per annum)  Storm water drainage: 246.61 Lakhs
 Gardening / Landscaping: 75 Lakhs
 Sludge management: 200 Lakhs
 APC: 50 Lakhs
Recurring cost: Rs. 3116 Lakhs/annum
14. Estimated Employment  Direct Employment – 7000
Park employees – 247
Employees of member units - 6753
 Indirect Employment - 11000

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 15


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

15. Name of the Environment M/s. VIMTA LABS LIMITED


Consultant involved in EIA Branch office:
report preparation No. 8 – Azad Road
R. S. Puram,
Coimbatore - 641002

Regd. office:
142, IDA, Phase-II,
Cherlapally, Hyderabad-500 051
 QCI/NABET Accredited EIA Consultancy
Organization, NABL Accredited, ISO
17025 Certified and MoEF Recognized
Laboratory

1.3.4 Location of the Project

The proposed Integrated silk park is intended to develop over 30.35 ha at


Kanchipuram district, Tamilnadu and the proposed site falls within 12o49’30.55”
»» 12o49’54.01” North latitude and 79o38’43.31” »» 79o39’14.87” East longitude.
The entire area falls in Survey of India topo sheet no. 57 P/9 & P/10. Proposed
project site is 4.2 km, south of National Highway – 4. The nearest Railway Station
is New Kanchipuram R.S., which is at a distance of about 5.6 km in ENE direction.
The nearest airport is Anna International Airport, Chennai which is located at a
distance of 57.2 km in ENE direction. The project site falls in Survey No. 3/3B,
Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk, Kanchipuram District, Tamilnadu State.

The environmental setting of the project is given in Table-1.2. The location map
of the project site is shown in Figure-1.1 and study area map of 10 km radius is
shown in Figure-1.2.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 16


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

Project site

FIGURE – 1.1
INDEX MAP SHOWING PROPOSED PROJECT SITE

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 17


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur
Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District, Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

FIGURE-1.2
10 KM STUDY AREA MAP

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 18


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur
Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District, Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

C
A
B
Site Co-ordinates
A 12° 49’ 51” N 79° 38’ 43” E
E B 12° 49’ 51” N 79° 39’ 12” E
C 12° 49’ 52” N 79° 39’ 13” E
D 12° 49’ 31” N 79° 39’ 11” E
E 12° 49’ 45” N 79° 38’ 49” E

FIGURE-1.3
AERIAL VIEW OF THE PROPOSED SITE

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 19


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

TABLE-1.2
ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT

Sr. No. Particulars Details


1. Site - Coordinates
A 12° 49’ 52” N 79° 38’ 43” E
B 12° 49’ 51” N 79° 39’ 12” E
C 12° 49’ 55” N 79° 39’ 14” E
D 12° 49’ 30” N 79° 39’ 13” E
E 12° 49’ 45” N 79° 38’ 49” E
.
2. Elevation 314 ft. AMSL
3. Climatic Conditions Annual Max. Temp: 43.40C
Annual Min. Temp: 16.00C
Annual Total Rainfall: 1214.6-mm
Site Predominant Wind Direction: W, E &
SE
4. Land use Agricultural – As per LPA, Kanchipuram
5. Nearest Highway NH-4, 4.2 km, North
6. Nearest Railway Station New Kanchipuram R.S. – 5.6 km, ENE
7. Nearest Airport Anna International Airport, Chennai -
57.2 km, ENE
8. Nearest habitations Narapakkam – 0.8 km, SSW
Vippedu – 0.8 km, S
Alavandharmedu – 0.8 km, SW
9. Densely populated area Kanchipuram – 5.3 km, East
10. Inland water bodies Palar River – 1.56 km, SSW
Vegavati River – 1.8 km, NNE
Narapakkan Periya Eri – East
Thangal Eri – South
Karaitangal Eri – 0.2 km, SE
Edayantangal Eri – 0.8 km SE
Gundukulam Eri – 0.9 km, East
Sevilimedu Lake – 3.0 km, SE
Kolivakkam Lake – 3.8 km, South
Mamandur Tank – 5.8 km, South
Ponneri Lake – 6.4 km, NE
Periyakarumbur Lake – 7.8 km, N
Nathapettai Lake – 8.4 km, East
Damal Lake – 8.7 km, NW
Vaiyavoor Lake – 8.9 km, ENE
11. Ecologically sensitive zones Nil within 15.0 km from project
like Wild Life Sanctuaries, boundary
National Parks and
biospheres
12. Defense Establishments None within 10 km radius
13. Socio-economic factors No Resettlement and Rehabilitation
issues
14. Nearest Sea Port Port of Chennai – 75.1 km, NE
VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 20
Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

15. Seismicity Zone Zone-III as per IS: 1893 (Part-1) 2002


16. Nearest Sea Coast Bay of Bengal – 64.5 km, East
17. Reserve Forests Nil within 15.0 km from project
boundary
18. Historical / Archaeological Kailasanathar temple – 4.0 km, ENE
places Siva temple – 4.7 km, ENE
Ekambareswarar temple – 5.2 km, NE
Madhangeshwarar temple – 5.6 km, ENE
Sri Kanchi Kamakshi Amman Temple –
5.7 km, West
Kuberan temple 5.6 km, NE
Iravatanesvara temple – 6.7 km, East
Vaigundaperumal temple – 5.9 km, East
Sri Varadharaja Perumal temple – 7.8
km, ESE

1.4 Scope of the Study

The area falling within 10 km radius from the proposed silk park is defined as the
study area. The scope of this study broadly includes:

 To conduct literature review and to collect data relevant to the study area;
 Establishing the baseline environmental aspects in and around the proposed
site;
 Identifying various existing pollution loads due to various activities;
 Predicting incremental levels of pollutants in the study area due to the
proposed project;
 Evaluating the predicted impacts on various environmental attributes in the
study area by using scientifically developed and widely accepted
Environmental Impact Assessment methodologies;
 To prepare an Environment Management Plan (EMP), outlining the measures
for improving the environmental quality in view of future expansion for
environmentally sustainable development; and
 Identifying critical environmental attributes that are required to be monitored
in the post-project scenario.

The monitored environmental attributes and frequency of monitoring are


presented in Table-1.3.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 21


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-1
Introduction

TABLE-1.3
ENVIRONMENTAL ATTRIBUTES AND FREQUENCY OF MONITORING

Sr. Attributes Parameters Frequency


No.
1. Ambient air PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOX, Two consecutive days per
quality CO, Pb, As, Ni, C6H6, BaP, week at 8 locations
O3, NH3, Hg
2. Meteorology Wind speed, Direction, One hourly recording of wind
temperature, Relative speed, wind direction, cloud
humidity, Rainfall, cloud cover, temperature (13-
cover and atmospheric weeks) at 1 location
pressure
3. Water quality Physical, Chemical and Grab samples were collected
Bacteriological parameters. from seven locations once
As per IS-10500 and EPA during the study period
Act as applicable
4. Ecology Existing terrestrial and Through field studies once
aquatic flora and fauna in during the study period and
the study area based on the review of
secondary data
5. Noise levels Noise levels in dB (A) Once during study period at
ten locations
6. Soil Parameters related to At six locations once during
Characteristics agricultural and the study period
afforestation potential
7. Land use Establishing land use Based on the land use data
pattern published in District Census
Handbook, 2001 & based on
Satellite Imagery
8. Socio-Economic Socio-economic and work Based on published statistics
aspects force characteristics and of 2001 Census
other demographic aspects
9. Geology Geological history Geological data based on
data collected from secondary
sources & based on Satellite
Imagery
10. Hydrology Drainage area and pattern, Based on data collected from
nature of streams, aquifer secondary sources
characteristics, recharge
and discharge areas

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 22


Chapter - 2
Project Description
Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.0 INTRODUCTION

This chapter highlights the factors supporting the selected site, features of the
proposed Silk Park site with layout, process details, utilities and services,
infrastructural facilities and sources of waste generation details and proposed
measures for safe disposal of the waste.

2.1 PROJECT DETAILS

The proposed project is a silk park with facilities for manufacture of Silk sarees
and other products like Silk Dress material, Cotton processing etc.. The silk park
is proposed to be developed in 30.35 ha area in keeping with the need for
developing common facilities and also making provision for establishing individual
industrial units by prospective entrepreneurs. The location and environmental
setting of the proposed project site is already presented in Chapter-1 of this
report.

2.1.1 Project objectives

The Integrated Silk Park is proposed in Kilkadhirpur village, Kanchipuram District,


Tamilnadu

i. To consolidate and prepare the entrepreneurs in Kanchipuram State of


Tamilnadu in segments like Silk & Cotton processing, Warping, Weaving and
Garmenting.

ii. To enable weavers and saree manufacturers upgrade their machinery in order
to manufacture high-quality sarees and Garments conforming to International
standards.

iii. To avail the opportunity of post quota regime and prepare the Textile Industry
face the emerging realities of global competition.

The benefits of Schemes for Integrated Textile Park (SITP) and the Modified
Technology Up gradation Fund Scheme of Ministry of Textiles (GoI) are expected
to enable the members of the park to achieve the goal for manufacturing quality
fabrics, garments, Home furnishings and value added finished fabrics conforming
to international standards at globally competitive prices.

2.1.2 Need for the proposed project

Kanchipuram is one among the oldest Silk handloom cluster in the country. The
history of weaving is from 2nd Century AD, over the years, Kanchipuram has
emerged as the fine quality silk handloom saree manufacturing centre. This
development led to a number of parallel business activities like establishment of
Silk market and creation of processing facilities, predominantly dyeing due to
availability of good quality water in abundance from river Palar on the banks of
which Kanchipuram is located.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 23


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

In other Handloom clusters, due to low productivity and high labor costs products
manufactured on handlooms were losing out to mill-made cloth and their survival
was heavily dependent upon the subsidies given by the central and state
governments. Since the kanchipuram silk sarees are manufactured in a variety of
designs, for example not more than 10 sarees are woven with the same design,
the sarees cannot be duplicated in the power looms. Unique features like this led
to the development of this cluster.

2.1.3 Proposed project

The limitations of conventional handlooms and mechanical jacquards for


manufacturing of complex design, high quality silk sarees and lack of adequate
physical and social infrastructure are some of the constraints that restrain the
existing textile entrepreneurs from moving up the textile value chain.

Non-tariff trade and regulatory barriers like compliances with stringent quality,
environment, occupational health and safety and social standards are also
impeding the ability of the existing textile businesses in Kanchipuram to exploit
international market opportunities.

A group of entrepreneurs led by Mr.V. Singara mudaliar, Mr.YM. Nayaranaswamy,


Mr.A.B.Ganesan, Mr.V.Kandasamy, Mr.P.Rajendiran, Mr.S.Ravichandran,
Mr.B. Perumal, Mr.S.Manoharan, Mr.T.Sundarganesh, Mr.N.V.Rajesh and
Mr.A. Srinivasan, leading silk saree manufacturers of Kanchipuram have joined
hands to create a silk park with world class infrastructural facilities.

The proposed Park envisages 115 entrepreneurs (24 Weaving, 5 Garmenting, 22


silk dyeing, 54 cotton dyeing and 10 cotton warping & sizing) to set up Units in
the Park.

The project envisages setting up of Handlooms with Jaquards lifted by modern


pneumatic devices with the required back processes and garmenting units to
enter export markets for saree and garments. It will be a state-of-the-art textile
park with modern plant & machinery together with modern physical and social
infrastructure and would enable the entrepreneurs to produce high value added
products, enhance their productivity and meet international procurement
standards.

The fabrics produced would be processed and stitched / garmented in the


Garment units, according to the designs of the manufacturers, the sarees
produced will be sold in the domestic / export markets.

The entire process wastewater generated from the proposed park along with the
dyeing effluents will be treated in an Integrated ZLD-CETP with two modules of
effluent treatment system and a common sewage treatment plant. Cotton yarn
dyeing effluent & sizing effluent will be treated in ETP (Module – 1) whereas, the
silk yarn dyeing effluent will be treated in ETP (Module – 2) and the domestic
sewage will be treated in a common STP.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 24


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.1.4 Project location

The proposed project will be developed in the outskirts of Kanchipuram. The


project site location and surrounding features are shown in Figure-1.2. & Table-
1.2 of Chapter – 1.

2.1.5 Magnitude of the project


The proposed project will be developed in 30.35 ha (75 acres) land with a total
built-up area of 55,000 Sq.m. The proposed project consists of processing zone,
OSR area, common infrastructures like road, drainage, etc., and service area
including CETP, RWH area. The details of land use of the project are given in the
Table-2.1.

TABLE-2.1
DETAILS OF PROPOSED LAND USE

Area
Sr. No. Particulars
ha (%)
1. Factory buildings footprint 5.50 18.12
2. OSR area 3.05 10.05
Common Facilities (STP, TNEB, WBRIG,
3. 2.76 9.09
Museum & OHT)
4. Parking area 0.41 1.35
5. Road area 6.96 22.93
6. Greenbelt & Landscaping 10.72 35.32
Hazardous waste storage area
7. 0.95 3.13
(CETP Sludge)
Total plot area 30.35 100.0

2.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION


The proposed silk park will be installed with facilities for silk looms, silk dyeing,
cotton dyeing, warping, sizing, embroidery & garment manufacturing. The details
of the units proposed for the project along with the production capacity is given in
Table 2.2.

Proposed product mix


Yarn dyed wider width fabrics woven for garments and home textiles for export
would be the specialty of this park. Out of 2160 looms proposed in the park, all
are handlooms with technically advanced attachments like pneumatic jaquard
lifting mechanism etc. There would be 10 warping units with sectional warping
machines to prepare weavers beams from silk & cotton yarn.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 25


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

TABLE-2.2
RAW MATERIALS / PRODUCTION DETAILS
T/m or
Name of the raw
S. No. Quantity KL/m or Principal use
material
Nos./m
CETP Chemicals
1. Ferrous sulphate 23.0 T/m Coagulant
2. Lime 46.0 T/m Neutralisation
3. Membrane clean 0.1 KL/month Neutralisation
chemicals (Conc.
H2SO4)
4. Flocculants 0.1 T/m Flocculation
Activity to be Prod. Capacity / day
Operating
S. No. carried by Member Plots
units Qty. UOM
units
1. 96 Silk loom shed 22 22 13500 Running
2. 24 Silk loom shed 2 2 Metres/
day
3. Silk Dyeing shed 22 16 4500 Kg/day
4. Cotton dyeing shed 54 30 38.5 MT/day
5. Embroidery & 5 5 1000 Pieces/
Readymades day
6. Cotton warping & 10 10 6500 Kg/day
sizing sheds
Total 115 85 -- --

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 26


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE-2.1
PROCESS FLOW CHART

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 27


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.2.1 Silk winding, doubling, twisting, warping and pirn winding

Before the raw silk is woven into fabric, it goes through a series of operations
which conditions/prepares for the loom. The series of preliminary preparatory
processes involved for which the following machineries are required.

Winding
The main functions of winding are to put the yarn in a long continuous length to
suit later processes and also to eliminate imperfections such as slubs, seak
places, dirt and so on.

Doubling
The object of doubling is to double the individual threads. Doubling avoids
unevenness and the strength of doubled yarn is correspondingly better than the
single thread.

Twisting

Silk Twisting machine is of up twister principle. There is a vertical spindle on


which doubling bobbin is mounted and yarn from this is wound on to a perforated
bobbin mounted horizontally and driven by surface contact. Twist is imparted on
account of difference between the speed of the spindle and winding drum.

Rewinding
Re-winding machine is practically like winding machine. Its production capacity is
more, since normally double yarn is wound on this. If two ply yarn is re-wound,
production rate would be more than two times as compared to winding machine.

Warping
In silk weaving, normally sectional warping is followed because of the fine denier
of silk thread and consequently higher number of ends required. Warping
machine mainly consists of two parts (I) Warping creel (II) Warping drum.

Pirn Winding
Pirn winding is necessary to prepare weft yarn. Pirns or bobbins are prepared in
the traditional way at weaver’s end.

2.2.2 Dyeing Of Silk

The dyeing is the colouring of a yarn or textile by the chemical bonding of the dye
with the fibres.

Dye is a water soluble, transparent colouring agent that saturates and bonds with
the fibre of the cloth / yarn. Direct dye also known as hot-water dye can be used
with hot water and requires no leveling or exhausting agents. It is convenient but
lacks in light fastness and wash fastness. Acid dyes are the best for solid colour
dyeing of silk and others of protein origin.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 28


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

These powdered dyes are intended for tub-dyeing and require very hot water to
dye effectively. Hence indirect steam is used. Vinegar, citric acid or acetic acid is
also used. Acid dyes are very economical, as they react fast, exhaust well and the
results are very permanent-light and wash fast. For tub-dyeing this is the best
dye. The colour depends on the temperature, the quantity of dye used, time, and
quantity of yarn. Acetic acid changes the pH of the dye bath, making it mildly
acidic, which causes the colour to strike on the yarn.

The process

1. Segregation of the lot - to remove entanglements etc.


2. Degumming to remove the natural gum
3. Washing
4. Dyeing or colouring in the tub - indirect steam heated.
5. Washing - to remove excess dye
6. Hydro extraction - to remove water
7. Drying in shade

2.2.3 Dyeing of Cotton

Common forms are the package form and the hanks form. Cotton yarns are
mostly dyed at package form, and acrylic or wool yarn are dyed at hank form. In
the continuous filament industry, polyester or polyamide yarns are always dyed
at package form, while viscose rayon yarns are partly dyed at hank form because
of technology.

The common dyeing process of cotton yarn with reactive dyes at package form is
as follows:

 The raw yarn is wound on a spring tube to achieve a package suitable for
dye penetration.
 These softened packages are loaded on a dyeing carrier's spindle one on
another.
 The packages are pressed up to a desired height to achieve suitable
density of packing.
 The carrier is loaded on the dyeing machine and the yarn is dyed.
 After dyeing, the packages are unloaded from the carrier into a trolly.
 Now the trolly is taken to hydro extractor where water is removed.
 The packages are hydro extracted to remove the maximum amount of
water leaving the desired color into raw yarn.
 The packages are then dried to achieve the final dyed package.

After this process, the dyed yarn packages are packed and delivered. If things go
wrong in the dyeing process, the dye already applied is removed by a process
called "stripping". This normally means destroying the dye with powerful reducing
agents such as sodium hydrosulphite or oxidizing agents such as hydrogen
peroxide or sodium hypochlorite. The process often risks damaging the substrate
(fiber). Where possible, it is often less risky to dye the material a darker shade,
with black often being the easiest or last option.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 29


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.2.4 Handloom weaving

The dyed warp received from the dyer is spread on pole stands and checked for
entanglements, number of ends, leases etc. and taken to the raised pit loom. Part
of warp is again spread, drawn through the mail eyes of the harness - set. The
rest of the warp is tied and released as weaving proceeds and would be spread
and used after the 1st portion of warp has been woven into saree.

The harness is connected to the Jacquard/Jacquards (as per motif requirements).


The silk warp is drawn through the bamboo reed/steel reed, which maintains the
parallelism, spacing and of course the density of warp threads in the saree/fabric.
Zari threads are also introduced, based on cost angle and design requirements.

By operating the treadle levers (by legs), connected to the jacquards, the
handloom weaver is able to create required shed or opening through which
shuttle carrying the weft yarn is inserted.

The lifting order of warp threads, to create the required design, is again decided
by the chain of punched cards loaded on to the Jacquards. That is to say, the
punched card will decide the sequence of lifting of warp threads by the Jacquard.

To ease the strain on the weaver to physically lift the threads by operating the
Jacquard by the legs, assistance is envisaged by the introduction of a pneumatic
cylinder operated by air which will function to take up the Jacquard knives
carrying the selected hooks, in turn lifting the desired warp threads and create a
“shed.”

In conjunction with the operation of Jacquard in the above said manner, the
weaver throws the shuttle carrying the weft on pirn, into the shed, full width or
partial(as per design requirement) and catch the shuttle on the other side of the
shed, laying the weft yarn in the process(to the desired extent of width of fabric).

Now, the weaver will bang or beat-up the sley carrying the reed to make the
inserted weft yarn to form a part of the fabric.

The process of shedding (by operating the Jacquard), picking (throwing the weft
yarn into the open shed), and beat-up (banging or moving the laid weft yarn in
the shed to form part of the fabric) constitute the primary functions of fabric
forming by the weaving process. These operations are repeated again and again
to complete the fabric.

In between, the weaver does a host of secondary, ancillary functions and checks
like, manually winds up the fabric in the front, loosens the tied warp as per
required tension in warp, removes potential entanglements, and ensures the
correct functioning of Jacquard and the loom so that the motifs are woven exactly
as per the overall design.

The complex multi-functional nature of hand loom weaving is an art and calls for
high skill and attentiveness on the part of the weaver, to produce exquisite fault-
free designs.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 30


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.2.5 Garmenting
Receiving Fabrics

Garment factories receive fabric from textile manufacturers in large bolts with
cardboard or plastic center tubes or in piles or bags. The fabric typically arrives in
steel commercial shipping containers and is unloaded with a forklift. Garment
factories often have a warehouse or dedicated area to store fabric between arrival
and manufacturing.

Fabric Relaxing

“Relaxing” refers to the process that allows material to relax and contract prior to
being manufactured. This step is necessary because the material is continually
under tension throughout the various stages of the textile manufacturing process,
including weaving, dyeing, and other finishing processes. The relaxing process
allows fabrics to shrink so that further shrinkage during customer use is
minimized.

Garment manufacturers perform the relaxing process either manually or


mechanically. Manual fabric relaxing typically entails loading the bolt of fabric on
a spinner and manually feeding the material through a piece of equipment that
relieves tension in the fabric as it is pulled through. Mechanical fabric relaxing
performs this same process in an automated manner.

Many garment manufacturers will also integrate quality assurance into this
process to ensure that the quality of the fabric meets customer standards. This
step is performed by manually spot-checking each bolt of fabric using a backlit
surface to identify manufacturing defects such as color inconsistency or flaws in
the material. Fabrics that fail to meet customer standards are returned to the
textile manufacturer.

Spreading, Form Layout, and Cutting

After fabric has been relaxed, it is transferred to the spreading and cutting area
of the garment manufacturing facility.

The fabric is first cut into uniform plies and then spread either manually or using
a computer-controlled system in preparation for the cutting process. Fabric is
spread to:

 allow operators to identify fabric defects;


 control the tension and slack of the fabric during cutting; and
 ensure each ply is accurately aligned on top of the others.

The number of plies in each spread is dependent on the fabric type, spreading
method, cutting equipment, and size of the garment order. Next, garment
forms—or patterns—are laid out on top of the spread, either manually or
programmed into an automated cutting system. Lastly, the fabric is cut to the
shape of the garment forms using either manually operated cutting equipment or
a computerized cutting system.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 31


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Embroidery and Screen Printing

Embroidery and screen printing are two processes that occur only if directly
specified by the customer; therefore, these processes are commonly
subcontracted to off-site facilities. Embroidery is performed using automated
equipment, often with many machines concurrently embroidering the same
pattern on multiple garments. Each production line may include between 10 and
20 embroidery stations. Customers may request embroidery to put logos or other
embellishments on garments.

Screen printing is the process of applying paint-based graphics to fabric using


presses and textile dryers. Specifically, screen printing involves sweeping a
rubber blade across a porous screen, transferring ink through a stencil and onto
the fabric. The screen printed pieces of fabric are then dried to set the ink. This
process may have varying levels of automation or may largely be completed at
manually operated stations. Like embroidery, screen printing is wholly determined
by the customer and may be requested to put logos or other graphics on
garments or to print brand and size information in place of affixing tags.

Sewing

Garments are sewn in an assembly line, with the garment becoming more
complete as it progresses down the sewing line. Sewing machine operators
receive a bundle of cut fabric and repeatedly sew the same portion of the
garment, passing that completed portion to the next operator. For example, the
first operator may sew the collar to the body of the garment and the next
operator may sew a sleeve to the body. Quality assurance is performed at the
end of the sewing line to ensure that the garment has been properly assembled
and that no manufacturing defects exist. When needed, the garment will be
reworked or mended at designated sewing stations. This labor-intensive process
progressively transforms pieces of fabric into designer garments.

Spot Cleaning and Laundry

In addition to identifying manufacturing defects, employees tasked with


performing quality assurance are also looking for cosmetic flaws, stains, or other
spots on the garment that may have occurred during the cutting and sewing
processes. Spots are often marked with a sticker and taken to a spot-cleaning
area where the garment is cleaned using steam, hot water, or chemical stain
removers.

Some customers request that a garment be fully laundered after it is sewn and
assembled; therefore, garment factories often have an on-site laundry or have
subcontract agreements with off-site laundry operations. Commercial laundry
facilities are equipped with at least three types of machines: washers, spinners,
and dryers. Some facilities also have the capability to perform special treatments,
such as stone- or acid-washing.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 32


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Ironing

After a garment is fully sewn and assembled, it is transferred to the ironing


section of the facility for final pressing. Each ironing station consists of an iron
and an ironing platform. The irons are similar looking to residential models, but
have steam supplied by an on-site boiler. Workers control the steam with foot
pedals and the steam is delivered via overhead hoses directly to the iron. In most
facilities, the ironing platforms are equipped with a ventilation system that draws
steam through the ironing table and exhausts it outside the factory.

Packaging and Shipping

In the last steps of making a product retail-ready, garments are folded, tagged,
sized, and packaged according to customer specifications. Also, garments may be
placed in protective plastic bags, either manually or using an automated system,
to ensure that the material stays clean and pressed during shipping. Lastly,
garments are placed in cardboard boxes and shipped to client distribution centers
to eventually be sold in retail

2.2.6 Sourcing of Raw materials

The major raw materials required for the park are Raw silk, zari and dyeing
chemicals. Traditionally the required raw silk is sourced from Bengaluru and
nowadays from Dharmapuri, the entire zari was earlier sourced from Gujarat now
Tamilnadu government has started one zari manufacturing unit – Tamilnadu Zari
Limited to cater to the needs of the handloom units in Kanchipuram, hence there
is absolutely no difficulty for the units proposed to be located in the Park to
procure their requirements of raw material.

The total plot area of the project is 30.35 ha (75 acres), which will be developed
in single phase. The facility is designed so as to suit the climate in Kanchipuram
and fit well into the surroundings. The criterion for design was to create a
sustainable process with value engineering and to achieve this without
extravagant expenditure.
The design concept considered for the proposed project is described below:

 Transition from inside and outside;


 Integration of building interior and surrounding landscaping;
 Maximum retention of natural elements in the site;
 The design will consider the climatic conditions of Kanchipuram;
 Landscape elements will be chosen appropriate to the local context;
 Disaggregated cluster of structures;
 Open space office interiors;
 Careful attention to Engineering detailing at both macro and micro levels;
 Power generators, transformers and all external utilities organized along a
segregated service area to enable and control the movement of heavy
vehicular traffic in the site; and
 Attention shall be paid to the design of energy efficient service systems, with
adequate provision of redundancies to cater to times of systems failure,
wherever deemed essential.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 33


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.3 MASTER PLAN

The Master Plan is developed in concern with the climatic factors and site
conditions. The proposed Master Plan for the PAHSPL is based on the industry
processes, analysis of the site, assessment of the immediate surrounding and
understanding the requirement of the individual units and is aimed at finalising
the physical placement of the industries, ascertaining the location and level of
infrastructure (physical & social) and determining the inter and intra circulation.

The Topography of the site is plain and red soil with good safe bearing capacity.
No electricity High Tension lines are passing through the site. The climate of the
region is generally not too hot at summer and during winters it is very cool and
pleasant. The region experiences rainfall during the south west monsoon. The site
indicating levels and contours is shown in Figure-2.3 and the master plan is
shown in Figure-2.4.

Infrastructure Availability

Water
The proposed Borewell Water sources at site are suitable for domestic and
industrial purposes.

Power
The Power is proposed from the grid of the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board through
the existing high tension line located at a distance of 1.0 km from the proposed
site.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 34


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE-2.2
CONTOUR MAP

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 35


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Biosludge
storage area

FIGURE-2.3
MASTER PLAN

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 36


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Telecommunication
Telecommunication infrastructure would not be a constraint due to the presence
of major telecom players in the area.

Sewage / Effluent Disposal


It is proposed to recycle and reuse the entire treated sewage/effluent for
gardening and other non-potable uses.

Planning concept

 The Park is planned as an ecofriendly park which would treat and reuse all
types of sewage/effluent generated by the industrial units to the permissible
standard as per the norms of the Tamilnadu State Pollution Control Board
 Apart from locating the industrial units, the Park proposes to have the
requisite physical and social infrastructure to cater to the needs of the
industries as well as the workers respectively
 The Master Plan is guided by the applicable development guidelines of the
Town & Country Planning Department, Govt. of Tamilnadu
 Providing good landscape view using the site contour is an important factor
that is considered for the master planning.

Master plan

 Since the linear road would act as the lifeline of the Park, it has been kept
wide enough (24m) to cater to the needs of the entire Park and offer good
ambience with green trees on both sides. The road has been punctuated with
a green recreational space at common facility in the middle.

 The guiding principle of the master plan is to provide quality recreational


space and bulk lung space to the users of the Park. It has been tried to use
the green ‘common plot’ as a foreground of the common facility building. The
central location of the green area makes it approachable. The bulk open
spaces have been provided at western side of the proposed park and the
quality recreation space at the centre.

 The Common Facilities has been strategically placed at appropriate places so


that it is within walking distance of all units and is easily approachable. The
utility of the Common facility will increase because of its central position.

 Sector specific Parks have an edge over normal industrial estates in terms of
physical infrastructure, common utilities and social infrastructure and this
concept has been fully exploited in working out the components of the Park
and also during the master planning process.

 The design brief specifies provision of all plots with supporting physical and
common infrastructure. Various infrastructure components planned in the Park
are presented in the Table 2.3.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 37


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

TABLE-2.3
COMPONENTS OF INFRASTRUCTURE

Sr. No. Infrastructure Components


1. Common Infrastructure Internal Roads
Street Lighting
Water Supply System
Storm Water Drainage
Sewage Treatment Plant
Electrical Distribution System
Standby Power
Telecom and I.T services.
Compound Wall
2. Building for Common Facilities Central Workshop/Spares centre
Testing And CAD Centre
Training / Sampling Centre
Marketing Centre
Crèche
Workers’ Hostel
Canteen
Service Providers Office
3. Building for Production Activities Handloom Silk Weaving Units
Silk Dyeing units
Cotton dyeing units
Garmenting units
Other Ancillary Units

Development Guidelines

All development guidelines prescribed by Town & Country Planning have been
followed for development of the Master plan as described below

Internal Building Layout in a Building Unit

In the case of a building unit which is intended to be developed with internal


roads, buildings, and other structures, no development permission shall be issued
to the owner or the person who has right to develop it, unless the said owner or
person who has right to develop has applied and has got the internal layout
approved by the Competent Authority as per these Regulations.

Common Plot
i. Minimum size of the common plot shall be 450 sq.m with no sides less than 4
metres exclusive of approaches, margins and no projection shall be permitted
in common plot.
ii. No construction shall be permitted in the common plot. Only electric
substation, overhead water tank, underground water tank, watchman room,
community hall for occupier of respective sub plots or tenements or flats, tube
well and rain water recharge well shall be permitted subject to margin as per
this regulations and maximum 15% of respective common plot area

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 38


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.3.1 Factory Buildings


The factory buildings have been designed for five categories as described below:
Weaving – I
22 plots of 3701.25 sq.m. (39840 sq.ft.) plot area/shed with 37.41 % ground
coverage for 96 loom sheds.

Weaving – II
2 plots of 702 sq.m (7560 sq.ft.) plot area/shed with 42.85% ground coverage
for 24 loom sheds.

Warping
6 plots of 879.97 sq.m (9472 sq.ft.) plot area/shed & 4 plots of 989.97 sq.m
(10656 sq.ft.) plot area/shed with 54.9% & 52.7% ground coverage respectively.

Garmenting
5 plots of 501.67 sq.m (5400 sq.ft.) plot area/shed with ground coverage of
49.3%

Dyeing
76 plots with ground coverage varying from 44.0% to 47.96%

Applicable norms, best practices and standards for area allocation, parking, fire
safety, public facilities etc. have been considered while designing the layout for
factory sheds

Typical Layout & Plans

The products to be manufactured in the units include silk sarees, fabrics, home
furnishing and silk garments. The work area shall be planned according to the
loom sizes for handlooms. Typically, each building shall be conceived in three
parts - the weaving shed, area for ancillary equipments like office and store,
checking, etc.. The weaving shed shall be provided with a steel trussed roof,
while the envelope for the ancillary equipments will be a concrete structure. The
height of the weaving shed is proposed to be at 5.5 metres (truss bottom) and
the R.C.C structure to match the roof truss bottom

Adequate fire exits shall be provided as per regulations along the beam allies.

Maximum daylight provision during the day through windows in the envelope
walls and well distributed lighting in the factory ceiling for nights would be
incorporated in the design to provide a 24 x 7 working environment. Typical
layout plans of the proposed factory shed buildings are presented as Figures.

Key features of Plot Layout

The Factory plots have been designed with average ground coverage of 40%
within plot area and 18.12% of the total site area; remaining area shall be kept
vacant and for developing greenbelt to provide an appropriate density of built
mass to the whole site. Appropriate setbacks for entry of emergency services like
fire tender, Spaces allocation for following activities shall be done in the shed.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 39


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

 Weaving department.
 Administrative office.
 Loading and unloading deck.
 Electrical room.
 Storage space for raw material and finished goods
 Storage space for tools
 Space for fabric inspection
 Maintenance room
 Toilet
 Parking spaces

TABLE-2.4
SHED AREAS

Plot Area of
Sr. No. of
Details area/shed shed
No. sheds
(Sq.m) (Sq.m)
1. 24 Silk loom shed 702.34 2 301.01
2. 96 Silk loom shed 3701.25 22 1384.63
3. Silk dyeing shed
i. Type 1 (2 in 1) 752.51 2 199.40
ii. Type 2 501.67 13 226.87
iii. Type 3 (5 in 1) 1672.25 1 735.79
4. Cotton dyeing shed
i. Type 1 551.84 7 240.61
ii. Type 2 501.68 5 240.61
iii. Type 2 (2 in 1) 501.68 8 481.23
iv. Type 2 (3 in 1) 501.68 1 721.86
v. Type 2 (4 in 1) 501.68 1 962.48
vi. Type 2 (5 in 1) 501.68 1 1203.09
vii. Type 3 602.01 2 273.13
viii. Type 3 (2 in 1) 602.01 4 546.27
ix. Type 4 627.10 1 1196.59
5. Embroidery shed 501.67 3 247.49
6. Readymade shed 501.67 2 247.49
7. Cotton sizing shed
i. Type 1 989.97 4 521.74
ii. Type 2 879.97 4 483.09
iii. Type 3 879.97 2 966.19
8. Admin, R & D, Office, Testing & Training 6406.44 1102.09
9. Canteen 1468.29 700.10
10. Crèche / dispensary 2281.23 1116.21
11. Warehouse 3591.3 1795.65
12. Worker’s hostel 3007.52 1154.00
Total -- 85 --

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 40


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.3.2 Proposed common infrastructure

Seismic zoning (Earthquake code IS: 1893: 2002)

The latest version of seismic zoning map of India given in the earthquake
resistant design code of India [IS 1893 (Part 1) 2002] which assigns four levels of
seismicity for India in terms of zone factors. In other words, the earthquake
zoning map of India divides India into 4 seismic zones (Zone II, III, IV and V)
unlike its previous version which consisted of five or six zones for the country.
According to the present zoning map, Zone 5 expects the highest level of
seismicity whereas Zone 2 is associated with the lowest level of seismicity. The
proposed site falls under Zone III. This zone is classified as Moderate Damage
Risk Zone which is liable to MSK VII and also 7.8. The IS code assigns a zone
factor of 0.16 for Zone III. The entire construction activity of the proposed
project will be considered as per the guidelines of IS: 1893:2002.

Site development and road network

Site Development and Boundary Wall

The Land identified for the park is barren land, which requires excavation/cutting,
filling and leveling at different places. The development of the land also includes
making the atmosphere with lot of greenery with plantation experts. This work
shall consist of cutting, removing and disposing of all materials such as trees,
bushes, shrubs, stumps, roots, grass, weeds, top organic soil, rubbish etc., from
the area of works. The task shall include necessary blasting, excavation,
backfilling of pits resulting from uprooting of trees and stumps to require
compaction, handling, salvaging, and disposal of cleared materials etc. All
excavations below the general ground level arising out of the removal of trees,
stumps, etc., shall be filled with suitable material and compacted thoroughly so
as to make the surface of these points conform to the surrounding area. Similarly
all branches of trees extending above the roadway shall be trimmed.

Compound wall running 2500 m with 2.25 m height by way of hollow blocks and
with Barbed wire Top fencing all along the border of the park is required to secure
the assets within the park and to prevent encroachment. A security post shall also
be provided for controlled entry and exit to the Park.

Proposed Roads

The Roads inside the park would be 24.0 m and 15.0 m wide with the branch
roads 12 and 10 m wide.

The roads will be laid to with stand heavy carriage trucks and 40’ container trucks
and wide enough to negotiate the curves and turns. The Total length of the roads
will be approximately 5000 m running along with trees planted on both the sides.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 41


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

TABLE-2.5
DETAILS OF ROAD NETWORK

S.No. Description Length in Kms


1. 10M wide road 1.334
2. 12M wide road 2.565
3. 15M wide road 0.760
4. 24M wide road 1.511
Total 6.170

Storm Water Drainage System

Rain water drainage channels provided at both sides of the road would collect the
rain water in the proposed collection and storage tank. In addition every loom
shed would have rain water harvesting system. The natural drainage pattern of
the site is distinctly planned towards south-West direction.

The entire storm water drainage system for the Park has been planned utilizing
the natural slopes for an economical design with an integrated rainwater
harvesting system.

The rain fall run-off from plots/units, and other covered areas into catch basin
connected to branch drain, laid along the road adjacent property line. The branch
drain carries the water into lateral, which in turn carries it to the trunk drain. The
rainwater from open spaces and from isolated places, flow over the ground
following the natural slope and get into the nearest drain through the vertical
grating. As a camber of 2.5’ on the pavement is provided, the runoff from the
ROW shall flow towards the drains provided on either side of road

The drains have been designed as the rectangular drain with R.R. Masonry work
and plaster on it. It will have cement concrete floor and RCC pre-cast cover slabs
for providing easy maintenance. For road crossings, culverts of R.C.C. pipes class
NP3 as per IS: 458 shall be provided. In certain cases where discharge is high,
R.C.C. Box culvert has been considered.

Total length of internal storm water drains is about 4800 mtrs. The storm water
drainage is integrated with the rain water harvesting facilities.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 42


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE – 2.4
STORM WATER NETWORK

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 43


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Rainwater Harvesting System

Rainwater harvesting (RWH) system comprises components of various stages -


transporting rainwater through pipes or drains, filtration, and storage in tanks for
reuse or recharge. The catchment of a water harvesting system is the surface
which directly receives the rainfall and provides water to the rainwater harvesting
system. Appropriate gutters shall be provided to route rainwater collected by
paved areas like terrace or courtyard of a building to collection tanks. The
rainwater run-off from all the un-paved areas shall be routed to rainwater
harvesting pits, provided at strategic locations within the project area.

The first flush shall be checked from entering collection system, using diversion
valves to ensure that runoff from the first spell of rain is flushed out and does not
enter the system. This needs to be done since the first spell of rain carries a
relatively larger amount of pollutants from the air and catchment surface.

Rainwater from paved and roof areas will be collected through rainwater
collection mechanism and stored for utilization within the project area. The
rainwater from landscaped, paved area and rest of the area within project
premises will be harvested to ground through rainwater recharge pits. The
overflow from the pits will be connected to storm water drainage system of the
project area.

Run off from the proposed project site is calculated using rational formula:

Q=CxIxA

Where,
Q= Run-off (m3/hr)
A= Catchment Area (Roof area – 5.50 ha, Landscaped area & OSR Area –
13.77 ha - Road & parking area – 7.37 ha)
C= Coefficient of Run-off (0.9, 0.3 & 0.7 respectively)
I = Intensity of rainfall = 21.66 mm/day or 0.021 m/day (assumed)

Thus,

Run-off from Roof area = 1040 m3/day


Run-off from Landscaped area = 868 m3/day
Run-off from Road, parking area = 1083 m3/day

The run-off from the roof areas shall be separately piped to an underground
collection tank, after duly filtering the same. This water is proposed to be used as
domestic water after necessary primary treatment. 7 Nos. of UG tanks, each of
capacity 100 m3 is proposed, with upstream filters.

The total calculated peak run-off from landscaped areas and roads & other areas
are 1951 m3/day, i.e. 81 m3/hr in total. This run-off is proposed to be channelized
through storm water drains to individual recharge pits and the rainwater will be
re-charged into underground aquifers.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 44


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Percolation rate of 0.40 is considered with percolation depth as 10 to 12-m; Size


of Percolation Pit is 1.8 m Diameter & 3.0 m Depth
3
Storage Volume in each pit = 7.6 m
3
Quantity of Runoff = 1951 m /day
Total nos. of storage pits required = (1951/7.6) * (1 - 0.40) = 154 nos.

About 160 nos. of recharge pits will be provided all along the periphery for
harvesting rainwater run-off.

Water Supply System

The total water requirement of the proposed project will be 4542 KLD, which is
detailed in section 2.4. of this chapter. The daily fresh water requirement for both
process and domestic will be met from the proposed borewells within plant site
after obtaining necessary approval from CGWA and treated water recycling. The
location of bore wells shall be determined after a detailed hydro – geological
investigation. Water drawn from the bore wells shall be collected in two
underground sumps having storage capacity 1.5 lacs litre each. The fresh water
will be subjected to Quartz filter and RO treatment and pumped to the overhead
tank of capacity 3 Lac litres. The net storage capacity of the park has been
designed for more than 2 days.

Design Criteria

Following criteria have been considered while designing the height of overhead
tanks and the distribution system:

i. The distribution system is designed for a residual pressure of 12m at the


farthest point of the system considering the height of industrial building. The
overhead tank on a required staging as a main source of water by gravity.

ii. The distribution network is planned on the basis of closed loops, so that a
specific pocket gets water from two or three points, thus ensuring that the
entire distribution system will not be affected in case one pipe is under repair.

TABLE-2.6
PARAMETERS CONSIDERED FOR DESIGN OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

Parameters Design Variable


Peak Factors 2.5 x Average Flow
Hazen and William’s Co-efficient for Cement 140
Mortar lined DI pipes/HDPE pipe
Minimum size in distribution system 100 mm

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 45


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Choice of Pipe Material

For the choice of pipe material, three options i.e. CI, GI and PVC pipes were
considered. Weighing the pros and cons of the above alternatives and after a
thorough evaluation of the same, G.I pipes have been selected since these pipes
have better mechanical properties, better load and impact higher flexibility,
speedy laying and easier handling and transportation as compared to C.I. pipes.

Fire Hydrant

External fire hydrant, double outlet, stand post type, as per IS-908 will be
provided to main water supply distribution lines at strategic locations as per
requirement. Fire brigade inlet connections and draw off connections shall be
provided into the distribution system at water works site.

Appurtenances

Following appurtenances shall be provided with pipes for water supply system -
Air Release Valves, Scour Valves, Butterfly valves / Sluice Valves, Pressure
reducing valves. Anchor block/ thrust blocks, Water level indicators in Overhead
reservoirs

The water from the OHT will be conveyed by gravity through pipes to the
individual industries & common facilities. The water demand for the Park includes
all forms of water use such as water required for processing units (make up
water), water required for workers, commercial use, landscaping and fire-fighting
uses.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 46


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE – 2.5
PIPELINE LAYOUT

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 47


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Electrical Transmission and Distribution

The Park would source its power requirement from TANGEDCO. In addition the
park proposes to install standby DG sets of 4 nos. x 500 kVA capacity. The Power
requirements of the units operating in the park are as well as common facilities
and services and cost required for power generation and distribution have been
worked out on the basis of installed capacity of the looms and other Machinery in
individual units, common Facilities and Infrastructure. The total power demand
for the proposed facilities is 17.3 MVA

The proposed electrical distribution system will receive 22 kV High Tension power
from TANGEDCO in a double pole structure located near the entrance of the park.
The power thus received will be transmitted to the sub-station by Underground
HT cable, the High tension power (22,000 V) will be converted to Low Tension
(415V) using transformers. The converted Low Tension power will be distributed
to the common buildings and common effluent treatment plant. The loom units
and dyeing units will obtain power from TANGEDCO as per their requirements
individually.

Telecom Network & IT Facilities

Telecom Facilities have been envisaged for a two way communication with in the
Park. As the Park would be spread over 30.35 ha, it is necessary to have a
communication network. The type of cables laid shall be compatible for voice/data
transmission, internet and video conferencing. The park will be equipped with
wireless data communication network to enable seamless flow of data and for
accessing internet.

Broad band Facilities shall be provided at the service office to enable the
beneficiaries to access latest developments and for business communication, etc.

Street Lighting System

Design Criteria

Basic requirement of road lighting is presented below:

 Adequate level of illuminations for heavy vehicles / light vehicles / cyclist.


 Uniform illumination level over the carriage way with minimum glare
 Safety of movement
 Minimum disturbance during fog condition/dust conditions
 Use of high efficiency lighting fixtures with high lumen output and low power
consumption and aesthetic look

Power Supply & Control System

 Power supply to road lighting system shall be fed through underground PVC
insulated, armoured, aluminum conductor cables.
 Distribution of power shall be through 415V, 3 Phase 4 wire system and
controlled through a self-powered synchronous timer.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 48


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

 Power supply for road lighting system shall be made available from the
proposed LT pillar boxes located at various places in the entire complex.
 Details and cost of the street lighting network are presented in the Tables
below and layout of Electrical Distribution network is presented under :

TABLE-2.7
TECHNICAL DETAILS OF STREET LIGHTING SYSTEM

10 & 12 m
Sr.No. Description 15 & 24 m ROW
ROW
1. Pole Arrangement Single arm Pole Single arm pole on
one side of the Road
2. Type of lightning fixtures 250W, HPSV lamp 150W, HPSV Lamp

3. Tilt of Fixtures 10 degree 10 degree

4. Lamp lux 25000 lumens 13500 lumens


5. Mounting height 9.5M 8M
6. Spacing 25m-30m 25m-30m

Standby Power System

As the park is positioning itself to deliver the products manufactured meeting


timeline especially at festive seasons and will have a major commercial and
financial impact on the individual units.

In order to meet committed delivery dates of the products and because of the
frequent load shedding scenario now prevailing in the state a secondary source of
power in the form of Diesel Generator is required.

The proposed standby power system will consist of 4 nos. of 500 kVA diesel
generator sets each with an output voltage of 415 V, 3 Phase 50 Hz.

The specification for the proposed standby system will be as follows.

TABLE-2.8
THE SPECIFICATION FOR THE PROPOSED STANDBY SYSTEM

Parameter Value
Rated Capacity 500 kVA
Type of Cooling Water Cooled
Rating Continuous
Governor Type Electronic
Confirming Standard ISO 3046 / BS 5514
Enclosure Acoustic, Approved by CPCB
Alternator
Insulation Class H
Output Voltage 415 V
Phases 3 Phase, 4 wire
Confirming Standard IS: 4722/BS: 5000/IEC: 60034

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 49


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.4 PROJECT REQUIREMENTS

2.4.1 Building Materials

The proposed silk park will be developed while adopting the best available
technology and usage of raw materials with appropriate specifications. The
required building materials of the proposed project are presented in Table-2.9.

TABLE-2.9
BUILDING MATERIAL REQUIREMENT
Sr. Mode of
Raw Material Quantity Source
No. Transportation
1. Cement 2,50,000 bags Local Suppliers Closed Trucks
2. Steel Local Suppliers Closed Trucks
(a) R.C.Steel 3,500 MT
(b) Structural Steel 9840 MT
3. Jelly – 20 MM 5,000 m3 Local Suppliers Closed Trucks
4. Jelly – 12.5 MM 5,000 m3 Local Suppliers Closed Trucks
5. Jelly – 40 MM 20,000 m3 Local Suppliers Closed Trucks
(Including road works)
6. Size – Stone 2,500 m3 Local Suppliers Closed Trucks
7. Chamber Bricks 50,00,000 m3 Local Suppliers Closed Trucks
(230 x 115 x 75 mm)
8. Soling Stone 10,000 m3 Local Suppliers Closed Trucks
9. Sand 15,000 m3 Local Suppliers Closed Trucks
10. Filling Earth 50,000 m3 Local Suppliers Closed Trucks

2.4.2 Manpower

The facility will provide employment to considerable number of personnel directly


and to many others indirectly. The manpower employed for the proposed textile
park during operation will be about 7000 persons for direct activities. The details
of manpower break-up are given in Table-2.10.

TABLE-2.10
MANPOWER BREAK-UP

Sr.No. Particulars Number of Persons


1. Park Employees 247
2. Employees of member units
Weaving 5400
Silk Dyeing 192
Garmenting 125
Cotton dyeing 724
Warping & Sizing 312
Total 7,000

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 50


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.4.3 Water requirement

The total water requirement of the proposed project is 4542 KLD. Out of which
792.0 KLD will be fresh water which will be met from the proposed borewells
within plant site after obtaining necessary approval from CGWA and the rest will
be met by recycling treated water. The trade effluent generated from the process
will be treated in the proposed Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs). The
domestic sewage (392 KLD) generated from the project will be treated in a
Common STP. The usable treated wastewater from CETPs of 3467 KLD will be
reused for process requirement. Treated wastewater from CSTP (392 KLD) will be
reused for toilet flushing (175 KLD) and the rest will be used for greenbelt &
landscape maintenance (217.0 KLD). The breakup of the estimated water
requirement is presented in Table - 2.11 & Figure – 2.7.

TABLE-2.11
DETAILS OF WATER REQUIREMENT

S. No. Purposes Quantity


(KLD)
Total Water Requirement
1. Total Industrial water demand for the member units
Boiler feed for CETP (MEE) 120.0
Cotton yarn dyeing 3427.0
Sizing units 7.0
Silk yarn dyeing units 468.0
Raw water RO reject to NF FEED 30.0
2. Commercial & Domestic requirement
(Park employees - 247 employees x 70 lpcd) 17.3
(Member units - 6753 employees x 70 lpcd) 472.7
Total water requirement (A) 4542.0
Recycle/Reuse of treated wastewater & losses
1. Boiler feed (recycled water) 108.0
2. Process water reuse 3467.0
3. STP water reused for toilet flushing 175.00
Sub Total (B) 3750.0
Daily Freshwater Requirement (A – B) 792.0

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Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur
Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District, Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE-2.6
WATER BALANCE
VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 52
Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

2.4.4 Power / fuel requirement

The total power demand for the proposed silk park is 17.3 MVA, which will be sourced
from Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation (TANGEDCO). 100 KVA of
solar power will be installed for common area lighting purposes.

TABLE-2.12
DETAILS OF FUEL REQUIREMENT

Capacity Units Quantity of fuel Mode of


Sr.No. Point of use Fuel used
(KVA) (nos.) used storage
1. DG Set Ultrapure low 500 4 100 lit/hr In-built
sulphur storage
content within DG Set
diesel enclosure
2. Boiler (1 x 6 T) Biomass 6 TPH 1 2000 Kg/hr Storage yard

2.5 WASTE / EFFLUENT GENERATION & MANAGEMENT

2.5.1 Sewage / Trade effluent management system

Sewage generation

The sewage / effluent generation from the Park shall include industrial effluent,
domestic wastewater as well as the sewage/effluent from Common Facilities
proposed in the park. The estimated waste water generation from the Park is
presented in Table 2.13.
TABLE-2.13
DETAILS OF SEWAGE / EFFLUENT GENERATION

Sr. Total Wastewater Wastewater


Description
No. Generation (KLD) Management
1. Domestic Wastewater Park employees – 13.8 CSTP
(Sewage) Member units – 378.2
Total sewage - 392
2. Effluent generation from Member units
i Cotton dyeing & sizing 3200.0 KLD CETP I
units
ii Silk dyeing 450.0 KLD CETP II
iii RO Reject 30.0 KLD Fed to Nano-filtration
Total trade effluent generated 3680.0 KLD

Sewage conveyance system (CSTP)


For collection of sewage from individual plots to Common Sewage Treatment
Plant (CSTP), RCC pipes will be used. The sewage conveyance lines have been
planned near to the property line minimizing the cutting for connection to plot
owners. On the roads with 24m and 12 m ROW, sewage conveyance lines have
been planned on both side of the road so as to connect to plot owners without
cutting the main carriageway. In smaller roads also, sewage conveyance lines

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 53


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

have been provided on both sides of the road keeping in mind the operation and
maintenance convenience. Total length of sewage conveyance pipes is 4500 m.
A Common Sewage Treatment Plant (CSTP) of 500 KLD capacity is proposed in
the Park. The design of STP has been carried out following the discharge
standards laid down by TNPCB for disposal into surface water.

Common Sewage Treatment Plant

The sewage generated from the unit will undergo the following treatment

 Primary treatment
 Secondary treatment and
 Tertiary treatment

Primary Treatment

Screening

Screener separates coarse & medium fine solids at the inlet. This is the process
which is a predetermined stage where escaping of solids is completely avoided,
whereby clogging of pumps & machinery in subsequent stages is avoided. The
collected wastes are disposed periodically and the screener which is attached with
brush is automatically cleaned. The screening equipment is controlled by pre-set
time switches/level sensors.

Storage & Homogenization Tank

The effluent from various concentration of process streams are


equalized/homogenized in this tank. A retention time of 24 hours is been given to
make bacteria acclimatize and uniform pollution load. The whole water volume is
kept in movement by aeration with disc bubble diffusers.

Neutralization

Neutralization is a process where pH is been maintained within 7 & 8 by adding


NaOH based on the online pH monitoring system automatically.

Secondary Treatment

Biological System

COD & BOD reduction happens in biological, due to the presence of biomass,
which breaks the chemical properties of the raw effluent. 50- 60 % of colour
reduction happens in biological system. The system operates at a retention time
of 24 hours. The appropriate FM ratio is been maintained here. The blower which
is supplying air to the Disc Diffuser System is been operated automatically, based
on the online DO meter. Fine bubble aerated disc diffusers are designed as per
the inlet BOD is been installed, to provide the necessary oxygen for the bacteria
at a level of 2 PPM – dissolved Oxygen.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 54


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE-2.7
COMMON SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (500 KLD)

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Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Effectiveness of the Biological system depends upon the De-sludge factor from
the Biological tank. BELT PRESS is installed to remove the sludge from biological
process and to maintain MLSS 5-6 g/l at FM ratio 0.05 to 0.07 for better
performance. Submersible flow mixers are also added, to keep moving the
effluent to avoid anaerobic reaction, sludge sedimentation & odour. 24 hrs of
retention time.

Clarifier

It clarifies and segregates the clear water from the biological tank and sediments
the activated sludge. The clear water overflows and moves to Filtration section.
The sediment sludge is removed through pumping and fed into biological tank, for
bacterial development. Retention time of 8 hours is maintained. Turbidity
reduction occurs at the outlet of clarifier.

Sludge recycling

Sludge extracted from Clarifier is pumped again to biological process, for bacterial
development. The sludge recycling must be regulated in such a way, to achieve a
sludge quantity in the recycling stream. The sludge recycle flow normally
maintained 1:1 ratio. The excess sludge water will be sent to Belt Press, for Solid
Sludge Cakes.

Tertiary Treatment

Sand filter

Suspended solids from the water coming from Biological system is been removed
here through a Sand Bed in the filter. The filtering nozzles are made of
polypropylene and the diameter of their holes is normally 0.25 mm, i.e. smaller
than the diameter of the smallest sand grain. Filtered solids are removed by
Backwashing which is done with both Air and Water with pressure of 50 m3/hr
and velocity of 6-7 m/hr respectively. The efficiency of this type of filter can
achieve 60-100 micron.

Ultra Filtration

Ultra filtration filters the solids particles up to 0.2 micron. Reduction of Suspended
solids level and colloidal particles is achieved here by capillary membranes. The
Scaling of solids in the membranes is been removed by Backwash process which
is done automatically. The permeate recovered is fed to UV treatment and sent
for GARDENING & FLUSHING. The backwash water is fed back to Biological
System.

UV Treatment

Biological treated water after Ultra Filtration sent to UV to kill bacteria and viruses
and re used for gardening and flushing.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 56


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

TABLE 2.14
CHARACTERISTICS OF INLET AND OUTLET FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT

PARAMETERS UNIT MEASURED IN INLET VALUE OUTLET VALUE


COD ppm 1000 15-20
BOD5 ppm 500 0-5
TDS ppm 300- 500 300-500
pH 6-7 6.5-7.5
Temperature °C 38 35
Color Pt/Co 10-50 10-25
TKN ppm 10 0-1
Phosphorous ppm 2 0
SS ppm 300 0
Total Hardness ppm CaCO3 20 20
Alkalinity ppm CaCO3 100 <80
Cl- ppm 100- 200 0
SO42- ppm 100-150 0
Fe2+ ppm 0-1 0
SiO2 ppm 5 0
RECOVERY % 100

Trade effluent conveyance system (CETP)

For collection of effluent from individual dyeing units to Common Effluent


Treatment Plant, RCC pipes shall be used. The effluent conveyance lines have
been planned near to the property line minimizing the cutting for connection to
plot owners.

In smaller roads also, effluent conveyance lines have been provided on both sides
of the road keeping in mind the operation and maintenance convenience. Total
length of effluent conveyance pipes is 2500 m. The design of CETP has been
carried out following the Zero discharge standards laid down by TNPCB.

Common Effluent need to be provided for the following capacities:

 CETP – I for Cotton yarn dyeing & sizing units – 3200.0 KLD
 CETP – II for Silk Yarn Dyeing Units – 450.0 KLD

Common Effluent Treatment Plant for cotton yarn dyeing & sizing unit

The effluent generated from the dyeing units shall be treated in

i. Primary treatment scheme and


ii. Secondary treatment scheme and
iii. Tertiary Treatment Scheme

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 57


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

And the product water from secondary & tertiary treatment scheme shall be
recycled for process reuse. The effluent generated from sizing units and domestic
sewage shall be treated separately in primary treatment scheme and shall be
reused for gardening and toilet flushing.

The process flow chart, process description of the proposed primary treatment
schemes (biological and chemical treatments), secondary treatment scheme
(reverse osmosis and nano-filtration system) and tertiary treatment scheme
(evaporation system) is detailed in the subsequent sections of this chapter.

Effluent treatment process

Treatment process

The effluent has to be treated for the following parameters:


 Acidity
 Total Suspended Solids
 BOD & COD
 Total Dissolved Solids

The following treatment methodology shall be suitably adopted for treatment of


wastewater generated from the proposed silk park:

Primary treatment

Screening

Screening is the first operation at any wastewater treatment works. This process
essentially involves the removal of large non-biodegradable and floating solids
that frequently enter a wastewater works, such as rags, papers, plastics, tins,
containers and wood. Efficient removal of these constituents will protect the
downstream plant and equipment from any possible damage, unnecessary wear &
tear, pipe blockages and the accumulation of unwanted material that will interfere
with the treatment process. Wastewater screening is generally classified into
either coarse screening or fine screening. Screens may be manually or
mechanically cleaned, with only the older and smaller treatment facilities using
manually cleaned screens as their primary or only screening device. Coarse
screens are typically used as primary protection devices, and usually have
openings of 10mm or larger. Most modern wastewater treatment plants will utilise
a combination of coarse and fine screening (i.e. upstream coarse screens
providing protection to downstream fine screens). Plants utilising mechanically
cleaned screens will normally have a standby screen in place, which can be put
into operation should the primary screening device be removed from service for
maintenance reasons, or in the event of mechanical failure.

Equalisation

The trade effluent generated from the various process streams shall be collected
in a collection tank so that the concentration variations of the different process
streams are equalized and the effluent can be treated for a uniform set of

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 58


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE-2.8
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT FOR COTTON YARN DYEING (3200 KLD)

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 59


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE-2.9
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT FOR COTTON YARN DYEING (3200 KLD)

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 60


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

parameters. The coarse suspended particles settle down by gravity in this tank
and the sludge is removed periodically to filter press / sludge drying beds.
Retention time of 24 hours is maintained make bacteria acclimatize and have
uniform pollution load.

Neutralisation

The equalized effluent is acidic in nature. Hence milk of lime is added to


neutralize the effluent and to raise the pH level to desired range of 7-9.

Cooling tower

The temperature is reduced to an extent of 5 - 6 °C degrees from the


temperature of homogenized effluent. The recommended temperature for
biological treatment is 35 – 36 °C.

Secondary Treatment

Biological system

The effluent is treated in an aerobic condition to degrade BOD & COD. The
microorganisms added to system will degrade the organic components in the
effluent. The system operates for a retention time of 48 hours. Blower connected
to the disc diffuser system will produce fine bubbles of air to aerate the system.
F/M ratio of 0.05 to 0.07 is maintained for better performance. Belt press is
installed to remove sludge from the system.

Clarifier

The clear water and the sludge from the biological system are separated in this
system. The system operates at a retention time of 8 hours. The overflow clear
water flows to the next system, the sludge which is sedimented are sent to
sludge recycling. This sludge will be recycled to biological system to maintain the
MLSS concentration. Excess sludge will be dewatered in belt press and form
cakes.

Tertiary Treatment

Sand Filter

The clarified water from the biological system is sent to the sand filter for further
removal of suspended particles. The filter is packed with layers of sand and
gravel. The water is allowed to pass through the filter, the void space of bed is
too small to retain the suspended particles and allow the clear water to pass
through this. The solids deposited in the sand filter can be removed by
backwashing.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 61


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Ultra Filtration

As the suspended particles are removed in the previous process, the colloidal
particles are removed in this process. Density of the colloidal particles are too
small hence they take longer time to settle down. Now using modern techniques
the colloidal particles are removed by passing them through ultra filters which can
remove particles upto 0.2 microns.

Softening Plant

Here the hardness is been removed that is present in the Ultra Filtered water.
90% hardness reduction is achieved here through a specialized resin. Reject send
for NF feed. The adsorbed reject in the resin media is been removed by
backwash & regenerating procedures through the dosage of HCL & NaOH. During
the exhaustion step the resin becomes progressively bound with Ca and Mg thus
it is called exhausted resin.

De- Carbonating Tower (Degasser)

De-carbonating is a process which allows carbon dioxide removal that is present


in the water. It is obtained by means of a degassed tower realized in
polypropylene which uses rashing- type- rings, also realized in polypropylene, as
filling material. The aeration of the column is obtained by means of air blowing
from the bottom by means of a centrifugal fan complete of a butterfly valve for
the flow adjustment. The condensation stage of the outlet air from the tower is
realized by means of a labyrinth demister.

Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis Process is the forced passage of water through a membrane


against the natural osmotic pressure to accomplish separation of ions and water.
In the process of Osmosis, a thin membrane of suitable material (Cellulose
Acetate or Polyamide) (0.10 to 0.15 mm thick) separates two salt solutions.
Water from the side of lower salt concentration flows through the membrane to
the solution of high concentration, attempting to equalize the salt content, while
the membrane allowing water flow blocks passage of salt ions. If pressure is
applied to the side of higher salt content, flow of water can be prevented. This
pressure at no net flow is called osmotic pressure. The osmotic pressure of sea
water is about 350 psi; brackish ground water pressure, having a lower salt
concentration, is significantly less. If pressure is increased, the water flow is
reversed and passes from salt water to fresh water. In this manner the salts are
separated from the solution.

The rate of water transfer depends primarily on the difference in salt


concentration between the solutions, characteristics of the membrane and
magnitude of the applied pressure. Spiral wound module, is constructed of large
membrane sheets covering both sides of a porous backing material that collects a
permeate. The membranes are sealed in pairs on the two long edges and one end
to form an envelope enclosing the permeate collector.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 62


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

The other end of the membrane envelope is connected to a central perforated


tube, which receives and carries away the permeate from the collectors. Several
of these membrane envelopes with mesh spacers between them for brine flow are
rolled up to form a spiral wound module. Saline water enters the end of the
module through voids between the membrane envelopes provided by the mesh
spacers. Under high pressure, water is forced from the brine in the spacer voids
through the membranes and conveyed by the enclosed porous permeate
collectors to the perforated tube in the center of the module. Reject brine
discharges from the spacer voids at the outlet end of the module.

Nano filtration
The Nano filtration process is a Reverse Osmosis process using a relatively open
RO membrane, allowing water and small univalent ions (Na+, K+, Cl-) to pass.
The filtration process takes place on a selective separation layer formed by an
organic semipermeable membrane. The driving force of the separation process is
the pressure difference between the feed (retentate) and the filtrate (permeate)
side at the separation layer of the membrane. However, because of its selectivity,
one or several components of a dissolved mixture are retained by the membrane
despite the driving force, while water and substances with a molecular weight <
200 D are able to permeate the semipermeable separation layer. Because nano
filtration membranes also have a selectivity for the charge of the dissolved
components, monovalent ions will pass the membrane and divalent and
multivalent ions will be rejected. The nano filtration technique is mainly used for
the removal of two valued ions and the larger mono valued ions such as heavy
metals. This technique can be seen as a coarse RO (reversed osmosis)
membrane. Because nano filtration uses less fine membranes, the feed pressure
of the NF system is generally lower compared to RO systems. Also the fouling
rate is lower compared to RO systems.

Applications for NF systems are:


 softening
 specific removal of heavy metals from process streams for reuse of water
 Reduction of salt contents of slightly brackish water
Typical membrane performance for NF membranes are 50% NaCl removed and
90% (or more) for CaSO4

Multiple Effect Evaporator

The ultimate reject from the membrane filtration processes is clear except for its
high TDS content. This can be treated only by evaporation. This industry shall be
provided with Multiple Effect Flash type Forced Circulation Evaporator. The
effluent from the sump is pumped into the heat exchanger where it absorbs heat
energy from the steam surrounding the heat exchanger tubes.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 63


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

TABLE 2.15
CHARACTERISTICS OF INLET AND OUTLET FROM COTTON YARN &
DYEING UNIT CETP

PARAMETERS UNIT MEASURED INLET VALUE OUTLET VALUE


COD ppm 1500-1800 15-20
BOD5 ppm 400-500 -
TDS ppm 8000 100-300
pH 8-9.5 6.5-7.0
Temperature °C 40 35
Color Pt/Co 1500 10-15
TKN ppm 40 0-1
Phosphorous ppm 10 0
SS ppm 200 0
Total Hardness ppm CaCO3 80 0-5
Alkalinity ppm CaCO3 1000 0-10
Cl- ppm 3.000-3500 0
SO42- ppm 800-1500 0
Fe2+ ppm 0-1 0
SiO2 ppm 20 0
RECOVERY % 88

Thereby the temperature of the liquor rises above 100 degree c. When this
supersaturated liquid enters the evaporating vessel, most of the liquid flashes
into vapour.
The remaining liquid is recirculated once again into the heat exchanger and the
process is repeated. The water vapour is condensed and reused as process /
boiler feed water.

As the process goes on the effluent gets concentrated with salts and gets
saturated. The salts tend to precipitate and get crystallized. These crystals are
collected in the conical bottom of the evaporation vessel. When the valve is
opened at suitable intervals, this is discharged as thick slurry into the batch filter.
This slurry is discharged into a solar evaporation bed. The salts shall be removed
and packed in containers for safe disposal.

Common Effluent Treatment Plant for silk yarn dyeing unit

The effluent generated from the dyeing units shall be treated in

i. Primary treatment scheme


ii. Secondary treatment scheme and
iii. Tertiary Treatment Scheme

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 64


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

And the product water from secondary & tertiary treatment scheme shall be
recycled for process reuse. The effluent generated from sizing units and domestic
sewage shall be treated separately in primary treatment scheme and shall be
reused for gardening and toilet flushing.

The process flow chart, process description of the proposed primary treatment
schemes (biological and chemical treatments), secondary treatment scheme
(reverse osmosis and nano-filtration system) and tertiary treatment scheme
(evaporation system) is detailed in the subsequent sections of this chapter.

Effluent treatment process

Treatment process

The effluent has to be treated for the following parameters:


 Acidity
 Total Suspended Solids
 BOD & COD
 Total Dissolved Solids

The following treatment methodology shall be suitably adopted for treatment of


wastewater generated from the proposed silk park:

Primary treatment

Screening

Screening is the first operation at any wastewater treatment works. This process
essentially involves the removal of large non-biodegradable and floating solids
that frequently enter a wastewater works, such as rags, papers, plastics, tins,
containers and wood. Efficient removal of these constituents will protect the
downstream plant and equipment from any possible damage, unnecessary wear &
tear, pipe blockages and the accumulation of unwanted material that will interfere
with the treatment process. Wastewater screening is generally classified into
either coarse screening or fine screening. Screens may be manually or
mechanically cleaned, with only the older and smaller treatment facilities using
manually cleaned screens as their primary or only screening device. Coarse
screens are typically used as primary protection devices, and usually have
openings of 10mm or larger. Most modern wastewater treatment plants will utilize
a combination of coarse and fine screening (i.e. upstream coarse screens
providing protection to downstream fine screens). Plants utilizing mechanically
cleaned screens will normally have a standby screen in place, which can be put
into operation should the primary screening device be removed from service for
maintenance reasons, or in the event of mechanical failure.

Equalisation

The trade effluent generated from the various process streams shall be collected
in a collection tank so that the concentration variations of the different process
streams are equalized and the effluent can be treated for a uniform set of

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 65


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

parameters. The coarse suspended particles settle down by gravity in this tank
and the sludge is removed periodically to filter press / sludge drying beds.
Retention time of 24 hours is maintained make bacteria acclimatize and have
uniform pollution load.

Neutralisation

The equalized effluent is acidic in nature. Hence milk of lime is added to


neutralize the effluent and to raise the pH level to desired range of 7-9.

Cooling tower

The temperature is reduced to an extent of 5 - 6 °C degrees from the


temperature of homogenized effluent. The recommended temperature for
biological treatment is 35 – 36 °C.

Secondary Treatment

Biological system

The effluent is treated in an aerobic condition to degrade BOD & COD. The
microorganisms added to system will degrade the organic components in the
effluent. The system operates for a retention time of 48 hours. Blower connected
to the disc diffuser system will produce fine bubbles of air to aerate the system.
F/M ratio of 0.05 to 0.07 is maintained for better performance. Belt press is
installed to remove sludge from the system.

Clarifier

The clear water and the sludge from the biological system are separated in this
system. The system operates at a retention time of 8 hours. The overflow clear
water flows to the next system, the sludge which is sedimented are sent to
sludge recycling. This sludge will be recycled to biological system to maintain the
MLSS concentration. Excess sludge will be dewatered in belt press and form
cakes.

Tertiary Treatment

Sand Filter

The clarified water from the biological system is sent to the sand filter for further
removal of suspended particles. The filter is packed with layers of sand and
gravel. The water is allowed to pass through the filter, the void space of bed is
too small to retain the suspended particles and allow the clear water to pass
through this. The solids deposited in the sand filter can be removed by
backwashing.

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 66


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur
Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District, Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE-2.10
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT FOR SILK DYEING (450 KLD)

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad/Coimbatore 67


Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-2
Project Description

Ultra Filtration

As the suspended particles are removed in the previous process, the colloidal
particles are removed in this process. Density of the colloidal particles are too
small hence they take longer time to settle down. Now using modern techniques
the colloidal particles are removed by passing them through ultra filters which can
remove particles upto 0.2 microns.

Softening Plant

Here the hardness is been removed that is present in the Ultra Filtered water.
90% hardness reduction is achieved here through a specialized resin. Reject send
for NF feed. The adsorbed reject in the resin media is been removed by
backwash & regenerating procedures through the dosage of HCL & NaOH. During
the exhaustion step the resin becomes progressively bound with Ca and Mg thus
it is called exhausted resin.

De- Carbonating Tower (Degasser)

De-carbonating is a process which allows carbon dioxide removal that is present


in the water. It is obtained by means of a degassed tower realized in
polypropylene which uses rashing- type- rings, also realized in polypropylene, as
filling material. The aeration of the column is obtained by means of air blowing
from the bottom by means of a centrifugal fan complete of a butterfly valve for
the flow adjustment. The condensation stage of the outlet air from the tower is
realized by means of a labyrinth demister.

Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis Process is the forced passage of water through a membrane


against the natural osmotic pressure to accomplish separation of ions and water.
In the process of Osmosis, a thin membrane of suitable material (Cellulose
Acetate or Polyamide) (0.10 to 0.15 mm thick) separates two salt solutions.
Water from the side of lower salt concentration flows through the membrane to
the solution of high concentration, attempting to equalize the salt content, while
the membrane allowing water flow blocks passage of salt ions. If pressure is
applied to the side of higher salt content, flow of water can be prevented. This
pressure at no net flow is called osmotic pressure. The osmotic pressure of sea
water is about 350 psi; brackish ground water pressure, having a lower salt
concentration, is significantly less. If pressure is increased, the water flow is
reversed and passes from salt water to fresh water. In this manner the salts are
separated from the solution.

The rate of water transfer depends primarily on the difference in salt


concentration between the solutions, characteristics of the membrane and
magnitude of the applied pressure. Spiral wound module, is constructed of large
membrane sheets covering both sides of a porous backing material that collects
the permeate. The membranes are sealed in pairs on the two long edges and one
end to form an envelope enclosing the permeate collector.

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Chapter-2
Project Description

The other end of the membrane envelope is connected to a central perforated


tube, which receives and carries away the permeate from the collectors. Several
of these membrane envelopes with mesh spacers between them for brine flow are
rolled up to form a spiral wound module. Saline water enters the end of the
module through voids between the membrane envelopes provided by the mesh
spacers. Under high pressure, water is forced from the brine in the spacer voids
through the membranes and conveyed by the enclosed porous permeate
collectors to the perforated tube in the center of the module. Reject brine
discharges from the spacer voids at the outlet end of the module.

Nano filtration
The Nano filtration process is a Reverse Osmosis process using a relatively open
RO membrane, allowing water and small univalent ions (Na+, K+, Cl-) to pass.
The filtration process takes place on a selective separation layer formed by an
organic semipermeable membrane. The driving force of the separation process is
the pressure difference between the feed (retentate) and the filtrate (permeate)
side at the separation layer of the membrane. However, because of its selectivity,
one or several components of a dissolved mixture are retained by the membrane
despite the driving force, while water and substances with a molecular weight <
200 D are able to permeate the semipermeable separation layer.

Because nano filtration membranes also have a selectivity for the charge of the
dissolved components, monovalent ions will pass the membrane and divalent and
multivalent ions will be rejected. The nano filtration technique is mainly used for
the removal of two valued ions and the larger mono valued ions such as heavy
metals. This technique can be seen as a coarse RO (reversed osmosis)
membrane. Because nano filtration uses less fine membranes, the feed pressure
of the NF system is generally lower compared to RO systems. Also the fouling
rate is lower compared to RO systems.

Applications for NF systems are:


 softening
 specific removal of heavy metals from process streams for reuse of water
 Reduction of salt contents of slightly brackish water
Typical membrane performance for NF membranes are 50% NaCl removed and
90% (or more) for CaSO4

Multiple Effect Evaporator

The ultimate reject from the membrane filtration processes is clear except for its
high TDS content. This can be treated only by evaporation. This industry shall be
provided with Multiple Effect Flash type Forced Circulation Evaporator. The
effluent from the sump is pumped into the heat exchanger where it absorbs heat
energy from the steam surrounding the heat exchanger tubes.

Thereby the temperature of the liquor rises above 100 degree c. When this
supersaturated liquid enters the evaporating vessel, most of the liquid flashes
into vapour.

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Chapter-2
Project Description

The remaining liquid is recirculated once again into the heat exchanger and the
process is repeated. The water vapour is condensed and reused as process /
boiler feed water.

As the process goes on the effluent gets concentrated with salts and gets
saturated. The salts tend to precipitate and get crystallized. These crystals are
collected in the conical bottom of the evaporation vessel. When the valve is
opened at suitable intervals, this is discharged as thick slurry into the batch filter.
This slurry is discharged into a solar evaporation bed. The salts shall be removed
and packed in containers for safe disposal.

TABLE 2.16
CHARACTERISTICS OF INLET AND OUTLET FROM SILK YARN & DYEING
UNIT CETP

PARAMETERS U.M. INLET VALUE OUTLET VALUE


COD ppm 1500 15-20
BOD5 ppm 400
TDS ppm 300- 500 100-300
pH 7-9 6.5-7.0
Temperature °C 40 35
Color Pt/Co 10-20 10-15
TKN ppm 5 0-1
Phosphorous ppm 2 0
SS ppm 100 0
Total Hardness ppm CaCO3 20 0-5
Alkalinity ppm CaCO3 100 0-10
Cl- ppm 100- 200 0
SO42- ppm 100-150 0
Fe2+ ppm 0-1 0
SiO2 ppm 10 0
RECOVERY % 92-95

2.5.2 Solid Waste Management

The solid waste will be generated from the various units i.e. weaving and sizing
operations. The waste generated from weaving & sizing operations and the inert
matter generated from the sweeping of internal roads and cleaning of drains on a
regular basis are non-hazardous in nature.

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Chapter-2
Project Description

Hazardous Waste

TABLE-2.17
DETAILS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION

Area of
land
Sr. Category Name of the Quantity Mode of earmarked
No. No. Waste T/Annum disposal for
storage
/disposal
1. 34.3 Biological sludge 2.8 MT/day Dried in Sludge 0.95 ha
from CETP drying beds and
disposed to
common facility
(TSDF) at
Gumidipoondi
2. Recovered salt 4263 Re-used --
MT/Annum

Non - Hazardous Waste

The sources of non-hazardous solid waste in the proposed silk park will comprise
the following:

 Wastage from loom / sizing operations;


 Solid waste from STP;
 Domestic waste (Rubbish, Garbage & Canteen waste)
 Inert matter from road cleaning and drain cleaning activities.

The characteristics of waste from all the above sources will be non-hazardous in
nature and can be disposed of safely along with the domestic municipal solid
waste.

It is estimated in the silk loom units, that the loom operations will generate the
waste of about 1 % of the total silk weaved and similarly the sizing operations are
expected to generate rags of about 1-2% of the total cloth sized. However, the
rags / solid waste generated from the sizing units can be recycled for various
useful purposes. The details of non-hazardous waste generated are given in
Table-2.18.

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TABLE-2.18
NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION
Sr. Generation Quantity
Source Capacity Disposal
No. rate (T/day)
1. Loom 1.62 lakh 1% of silk 1620
operations sarees/annum saree weaved units/annum
2. Sizing units 12,000 2% of cloth Sold to recyclers
240 Tonnes/
Tonnes sized
annum
/annum
3. Canteen 1200 people 0.5 kg/c/day Composted and used as
600 kg/day
waste manure
4. Garbage & 7000 people 0.1 kg/c/d Organic waste will be
rubbish degraded using Organic
Organic composition (60%) 420 kg/day Waste Converter and
In-organic composition 700 kg/day used as manure
(40%) 280 kg/day In-organic waste will be
disposed through
authorized recyclers
5 Biomass Ash 60 kg/hr Re-used or Sold out to
1.44 MT/day
co-processing units

Based on the above Table, 1620 units / annum of silk loom wastes & 240 tonnes /
annum of rags generated by the sizing units can be fully recycled for various local
level operations.

Disposal of Non-Hazardous Waste

Since the waste characteristics are non-hazardous in nature, the waste will be
segregated as organic and in-organic wastes and treated accordingly. Garbage
and rubbish generated (700 kg/day) will be segregated to organic waste (420
kg/day @60%) and in-organic waste (280 kg/day @ 40%). Organic waste will be
degraded using Organic Waste Converter and used as manure for greenbelt
maintenance. In-organic waste will be disposed-of through CPCB authorized
recyclers. Ash generated from burning of biomass is reused within the plant or
sold out to co-processing units.

2.6 LANDSCAPING AND GREENBELT DEVELOPMENT

Adequate land will be available for open spaces and other non-building purposes.
About 10.72 ha (35.32%) area will be reserved for green cover / lawn
development within the proposed facility. Suitable plant species of local varieties
will be planted with adequate spacing and density for their fast growth and
survival. The greenbelt/landscaping plan is shown in Figure-2.7.

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Chapter-2
Project Description

FIGURE-2.11
GREENBELT/LANDSCAPING LAYOUT

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Chapter – 3
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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

3.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

3.1 Introduction

This chapter illustrates the description of the existing environmental status of the
study area with reference to the prominent environmental attributes. The study
area covers the area falling within 10 km radius from the center of the proposed
silk park.

The existing environmental setting is considered to adjudge the baseline


environmental conditions, which are described with respect to climate, hydro-
geological aspects, atmospheric conditions, water quality, soil quality, vegetation
pattern, ecology and socio-economic profiles of people and land use. The
objective of this section is to define the present environmental status, which
would help in assessing the environmental impacts due to the proposed silk park.

This report incorporates the baseline data generated through primary surveys for
three months from 1st March 2013 to 31st May 2013 representing pre-monsoon
(summer) season.

3.1.1 Methodology

Appropriate methodologies have been followed in developing the EIA/EMP report.


The methodology adopted for the study is outlined below:

 Conducting reconnaissance surveys for knowing the study area; and


 Selecting sampling locations for conducting various environment baseline
studies.
The sampling locations have been selected on the basis of the following:

 Predominant wind directions recorded by the India Meteorological Department


(IMD) Meenambakkam, Chennai observatory;
 Existing topography;
 Drainage pattern and location of existing surface water bodies like
lakes/ponds, rivers and streams;
 Location of villages/towns/sensitive areas; and
 Areas, which represent baseline conditions.

The field observations have been used to:


 Assess the positive and negative impacts due to the proposed project; and
 Suggest appropriate mitigation measures for negating the adverse
environmental impacts, if any; and
 Suggesting post-project monitoring requirements and suitable mechanism for it.

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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

3.2 Land Use Studies

Studies on land use aspects of eco-system play an important role in identifying


sensitive issues and taking appropriate actions by maintaining ‘Ecological
Homeostasis’ for development of the region.

3.2.1 Objectives
The objectives of land use studies are:
 To determine the existing land use pattern in the study area;
 To analyze the impacts on land use in the study area; and
 To give recommendations for optimizing the future land use pattern vis-a-vis
proposed project in the study area and its associated impacts.

3.2.2 Methodology

The land use pattern of the study area has been studied by analyzing the available
secondary data such as the District Primary Census Handbook of Chennai and
Kancheepuram District. Major portion of the study area is comes under Chennai
Corporation area and urban area around the Chennai. So the available data is used
to calculate the land use data.

The land use is classified into four types - viz. forests, area under cultivation,
cultivable waste and the area not available for cultivation. The land under
cultivation is further sub-divided into two types viz. irrigated and un-irrigated.

3.2.3 Land Use Pattern in Study Area Based on Satellite imagery

Methodology

Information of land use and land cover is important for many planning and
management activities concerning the surface of the earth (Agarwal and Garg,
2000). Land use refers to man's activities on land, which are directly related to
land (Anderson et al., 1976). The land use and the land cover determine the
infiltration capacity. Barren surfaces are poor retainers of water as compared to
grasslands and forests, which not only hold water for longer periods on the
surface, but at the same time allow it to percolate down.

The terms ‘ land use’ and ‘land cover’ (LULC) are often used to describe maps
that provide information about the types of features found on the earth’s surface
(land cover) and the human activity that is associated with them (land use).
These are important parameters for number of environmental related
development projects associated with inland and coastal areas. It is necessary to
have information on existing land use / land cover but also the capability to
monitor the dynamics of land use resulting out of changing demands. Satellite
remote sensing is being used for determining different types of land use classes
as it provides a means of assessing a large area with limited time and resources.
However satellite images do not record land cover details directly and they are
measured based on the solar energy reflected from each area on the land.

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Chapter-3
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The amount of multi spectral energy in multi wavelengths depends on the type of
material at the earth’s surface and the objective is to associate particular land
cover with each of these reflected energies, which is achieved using either visual
or digital interpretation. In the present study the task is to study in detail the
land use and land cover in and around the project site respect to the
development of Residential Township Project. The study envisages different LULC
around the proposed project area and the procedure adopted is as below
Remote sensing satellite imageries were collected and interpreted for the 10-km
radius study area for analyzing the Land use pattern of the study area. Based on
the satellite data, Land use/ Land cover maps have been prepared.

Scale of mapping

Considering the user defined scale of mapping, 1:50000 IRS-P6, LISS-III data on
1:50000 scale was used for Land use / Land cover mapping of 10 km radius for
proposed SEZ site. The description of the land use categories for 10 km radius
and the statistics are given for core and buffer zones separately.

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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

FIGURE – 3.1
FLOW CHART SHOWING METHODOLOGY OF LANDUSE MAPPING

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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

Interpretation Technique

Standard on screen visual interpretation procedure was followed. The various


Land use / Land cover classes interpreted along with the SOI topographical maps
during the initial rapid reconnaissance of the study area. The physiognomic
expressions conceived by image elements of color, tone, texture, size, shape,
pattern, shadow, location and associated features are used to interpret the FCC
imagery. Image interpretation keys were developed for each of the LU/LC classes
in terms of image elements.

March 2012 FCC imagery (Digital data) of the study area was interpreted for the
relevant land use classes. On screen visual interpretation coupled with supervised
image classification techniques are used to prepare the land use classification.

i. Digitization of the study area (10 km radius from the proposed site) from the
topo maps
ii. Satellite Data Selection: In the present study the IRS –P6 satellite image with
path row 102-64 for the topo map of 57P-7. Have been procured and
interpreted using the ERDAS imaging software adopting the necessary
interpretation techniques.
iii. Satellite data interpretation and vectorization of the resulting units
iv. Adopting the available guidelines from manual of LULC mapping using
Satellite imagery (NRSA, 1989)
v. Field checking and ground truth validation
vi. Composition of final LULC map

The LULC Classification has been done at three levels where level -1 being the
broad classification about the land covers that is Built-up land, agriculture land,
waste land, wet lands, and water bodies. These are followed by level –II where
built-up land is divided into towns/cities as well villages. The Agriculture land is
divided into different classes such as cropland, Fallow, Plantation, while
wastelands are broadly divided into, Land with scrub and without Scrub and
Mining and Industrial wasteland. The wetlands are classified into inland wetlands,
coastal wetlands and islands. The water bodies are classified further into
River/stream, Canal, Tanks and bay. In the present study level II classification
has been undertaken. The satellite imagery of 10 km radius from the project site
is presented in Annexure – VI.

Field Verification

Field verification involved collection, verification and record of the different


surface features that create specific spectral signatures / image expressions on
FCC. In the study area, doubtful areas identified in course of interpretation of
imagery is systematically listed and transferred on to the corresponding SOI
topographical maps for ground verification. In addition to these, traverse routes
were planned with reference to SOI topographical maps to verify interpreted
LU/LC classes in such a manner that all the different classes are covered by at
least 5 sampling areas, evenly distributed in the area.

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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

Ground truth details involving LU/LC classes and other ancillary information about
crop growth stage, exposed soils, landform, nature and type of land degradation
are recorded and the different land use classes are taken.

Description of the Land Use / land cover classes

Built-up land

It is defined as an area of human settlements composed of houses, commercial


complex, transport, communication lines, utilities, services, places of worships,
recreational areas, industries etc. Depending upon the nature and type of utilities
and size of habitations, residential areas can be aggregated into villages, towns
and cities. All the man-made construction covering land belongs to this category.
The built up land occupies 9.43 %.

Agricultural land

This category includes the land utilized for crops, vegetables, fodder and fruits.
Existing cropland and current fallows are included in this category.

It is described as an area under agricultural tree crops, planted adopting certain


agricultural management techniques. Of all the agricultural lands, Plantation
occupies maximum of 34.91 % area within 10 km radius.

Wasteland

Wastelands are the degraded or under-utilized lands most of which could be


brought under productive use with proper soil and water management practices.
Wasteland results from various environmental and human factors.

Land with or without Scrub

The land, which is outside the forest boundary and not utilized for cultivation.
Land with or without scrub usually associated with shallow, stony, rocky
otherwise non-arable lands. Of all the wastelands, Salt affected land occupies
maximum of 1.19 % of the total area.

Water bodies

The category comprises area of surface water, either impounded in the form of
ponds, reservoirs or flowing as streams, rivers and canals. River cater channel is
inland waterways used for irrigation and for flood control.

The details of various land use classes are furnished in Table-3.1 & Figure-3.2

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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

TABLE-3.1
DIFFERENT LAND USE CLASSES AROUND 10 KM RADIUS FROM THE
PROJECT SITE

Area Percentage
Sr. No. Land Use / Cover
(Sq.km.) (%)
1. Built-up land
i. Built up land – urban / rural 30.7900 9.43
2. Agricultural land
i. Crop land 98.1200 30.04
ii. Fallow land 3.8900 1.19
iii. Plantation 114.0100 34.91
3. Land with or without Scrub
i. Land with scrub 1.3400 0.41
ii. Land without scrub 1.2500 0.38
iii. Salt affected land 3.8700 1.19
iv. Barren-rocky land 1.2600 0.39
4. Water bodies
i. Water body 72.0500 22.06
Total 326.58 100.00

The land use map of the study area based on satellite imagery is enclosed as
Annexure – V.

The land use analyses show that the area is of predominantly Plantation followed
by Crop land in the core and buffer zones of the study area. It is noticed since
there is no industrial development in and around the project site, there may not
have any direct impact on the existing land use and soil. However, it is generally
agreed that as the total volume of transport activity may increase due to the
development leading to negative externalities like pollution and congestion. Some
environmental damage may be acceptable if transport activity generates positive
net benefits to society.

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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

FIGURE-3.2
DETAILS OF LAND USE

3.3 Soil Characteristics

It is essential to determine the potentiality of soil in the area and to identify the
impacts of urbanization on soil quality. Accordingly, the soil quality assessment
has been carried out.

3.3.1 Data Generation

The sampling locations have been identified with the following objectives:

 To determine the baseline soil characteristics of the study area;


 To determine the impact of proposed project on soil characteristics; and
 To determine the impact on soils more importantly from agricultural
productivity point of view.

For studying soil characteristics of the region, soil sampling locations were
selected to assess the existing soil conditions in and around the project area
representing various land use types. The physical, chemical and heavy metal
concentrations were determined. The samples were collected using ramming a
core cutter into the soil up to a depth of 90 cm.

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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

The present study on the soil profile establishes the baseline characteristics. Four
soil samples were collected from the study area. At each location, soil samples
were collected from three different depths viz. 30 cm, 60 cm and 90 cm below
the surface and homogenized. The homogenized samples were analyzed for
physical and chemical characteristics.

The details of the soil sampling locations are given in Table-3.2 and shown in
Figure-3.3.
TABLE-3.2
DETAILS OF SOIL SAMPLING LOCATIONS

Distance
Direction
Code w.r.t.
Location w.r.t
No. proposed Site
proposed Site
(Km)
S1 Proposed site - -
S2 Vishar 2.2 West
S3 Mettupalayam 1.7 SW
S4 Narapakkam 0.9 South
S5 Vippedu 2.2 SE
S6 Kilkadhirpur 2.1 NE

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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

FIGURE-3.3
SOIL SAMPLING LOCATIONS

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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

3.3.2 Baseline Soil Status

The soil characteristics are shown in Table-3.3. The results are compared with
standard soil classification given in Table-3.4.

TABLE-3.3
SOIL ANALYSIS RESULTS

S. No Parameters Units S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
Sandy Sandy Sandy Sandy Sandy Sandy
1. Textural Class -
loam loam loam loam loam loam
2. Silt & Clay % 30.6 44.6 45.8 27.8 42.3 21.8
3. Sand % 69.4 55.4 54.2 72.2 52.2 70.2
4. pH of 10% Solution - 6.52 6.62 6.7 6.58 6.5 6.48
5. Bulk Density g/cc 1.2 1.22 1.26 1.19 1.19 1.09
6. Infiltration Rate cm/hr 1.6 1.62 1.66 1.62 1.76 1.42
7. Moisture Content % 26.2 22.5 27.7 24.8 26.7 22.8
8. Organic Matter % 1.96 2.15 2.08 1.98 2.18 1.88
mg/l as
9. Alkalinity 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.08
CaCO3
mg/l as
10. Acidity Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil
CaCO3
Sodium Absorption
11. % 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
Ratio
µ
12. Conductivity 114 122 121 120 119 124
mohs/cm
13. Available Nitrogen as N % 0.32 0.38 0.38 0.34 0.37 0.33
Available Phosphorous
14. % 0.27 0.31 0.33 0.29 0.31 0.28
as P
Available Potassium as
15. % 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
K
16. Available Boron as B ppm 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
17. Available Na Cl % 0.06 0.07 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.07
18. Available Na2CO3 % 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
19. Available iron as Fe % 0.34 0.26 0.37 0.39 0.37 0.39
Available Manganese
20. % 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
as Mn
21. Available Copper as Cu % 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
22. Available Zinc as Zn % 0.3 0.34 0.41 0.35 0.41 0.35

It has been observed that the texture of soil is mostly sandy loam in the study
area. It has been observed that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.48 to 6.7.

The electrical conductivity was observed to be in the range of 114-124


mhos/cm, with the maximum observed at Kilkadhirpur (S6) and the minimum at
Project site (S1) during the study period.

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TABLE-3.4
STANDARD SOIL CLASSIFICATION

Sr. No. Soil Test Classification


1 pH <4.5 Extremely acidic
4.51- 5.50 Very strongly acidic
5.51-6.0 moderately acidic
6.01-6.50 slightly acidic
6.51-7.30 Neutral
7.31-7.80 slightly alkaline
7.81-8.50 moderately alkaline
8.51-9.0 strongly alkaline
9.01 very strongly alkaline
2 Salinity Electrical Upto 1.00 Average
Conductivity (mmhos/cm) 1.01-2.00 harmful to germination
(1 ppm = 640 mmho/cm) 2.01-3.00 harmful to crops
(sensitive to salts)
3 Organic Carbon Upto 0.2: very less
0.21-0.4: less
0.41-0.5 medium,
0.51-0.8: on an average sufficient
0.81-1.00: sufficient
>1.0 more than sufficient
4 Nitrogen (Kg/ha) Upto 50 very less
51-100 less
101-150 good
151-300 Better
>300 sufficient
5 Phosphorus (Kg/ha) Upto 15 very less
16-30 less
31-50 medium,
51-65 on an average sufficient
66-80 sufficient
>80 more than sufficient
6 Potash (Kg/ha) 0 -120 very less
120-180 less
181-240 medium
241-300 average
301-360 better
>360 more than sufficient
Source: Handbook of Agriculture

3.4 Geology

Prelude

To demarcate different Geology, Soil using the remote sensing data such as
satellite imagery and existing literature and application of GIS techniques for
assessing the areal extent of the different classes that is interpreted, for the
proposed project site in Kancheepuram district.

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As per the EIA guidelines, the study area has been divided into Core zone and
Buffer zone which is about 10 km radius from the boundary of the proposed
project site area. The geology, Soil has to be assessed as it forms the basis for
any developmental planning.

Regional Geology

The Kancheepuram district is underlain by a wide range of consolidated and


fissured formations, form the oldest Archaeans, followed by semi-consolidated
formations of Mesozoic and Tertiary ages to the unconsolidated alluvial
formations of Quaternary age.

TABLE-3.5
GENERALIZED STRATIGRAPHIC SUCCESSION OF THE GEOLOGICAL
FORMATIONS

Water bearing
Era System Age Stage Lithology
characteristics
Recent Alluvium and beach Moderate to good
sands. supply of water
Pliestocene Laterites, Yields moderate to
conglomerates and meager supply of
older alluvium water
Cenazoic Quaternary Pliestocene to Vada Madurai Boulders, cobbles, Meager to moderate
upper boulder bed pebbles and gravels supply of water
Miocene chiefly of quartzites
----------------------Unconformity--------------------------
Tertiary Pliocene to Sandy clay (Marine) Good supply of water
Miocene mottled clay bound
sands, buff colored
clays and gravels
Mesozoic Upper Lower Satyavedu Ferruginous sand Meager to moderate
Gondwanas cretaceous to conglomerates stones conglomerates supply of water
lower Jurassic and boulders
Sriperumpudur Caly, shales and Meager to moderate
feldspathic sand supply of water
stones
----------------------Unconformity--------------------------
Azoic Archaeans Gneissic complex, Yields moderate to
charnockites, schists meager supply of
and granite associated water to wells along
basic and ultra basic the joints fissures and
intrusive other weathered zone

The semi-consolidated formations represent the upper Gondwanas of Jurassic to


Lower Cretaceous in age and the marine bed of cretaceous age. They comprise
sediments laid down unconformity on crystalline basement which were
metamorphosed subsequently. The upper Gondwana sediments consists of two
stages viz. the lower Sriperumbudur stage consisting of fluviatile clays, shales
and feldspathic sandstones and the Sathyavedu stage representing marine
sediments and boulders. The Sriperumbudur beds occur as patches, with easterly
dips at low angles. The age of Sriperumbudur is not certain, but the impressions
of the Foraminifera and ammonites are suggestive of an age varying from Upper
Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous.

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FIGURE-3.4
GEOLOGY OF KANCHIPURAM DISTRICT

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The Sathyavedu stage comprises beds of conglomerates mixed with a few beds of
course mottled sandstones, beds of clayey sandstones and sandy shales. The
conglomerate with a sandy clay matrix is hard and compact and exposures of it
are invariably strewn with shingle, pebbles and boulders. The total thickness of
formation exceeds 30 m.

A generalized stratigraphic succession of the geological formations met in the


study area is as follows.

Geology of the Study area:

Geologically, the 10km radius falls in sedimentary and hard rock formation. The
project site falls in Sedimentary Formation. The area is composed of Sandstone
and Shale, Hornblende-biotite gneiss. Quartz- Conglomerate, Sand and Silt. The
Project site is located in the Sandstone and Shale formation which forms a
potential aquifer.

Soil Classification:

The general soil type of Kancheepuram Taluk belongs to Arasanatham soil series.
The characteristics of the Arasanatham soil series is follows:

TABLE-3.6
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARASANATHAM SOIL

Location Kancheepuram taluk


Physiography Gently sloping
Topography Plain
Drainage Moderately drained
Parent Material Weathered Gneiss

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FIGURE-3.5
SOIL PROFILE

TABLE-3.7
SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION

Depth
Horizon Description
in cm
Light Yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4 M); loamy sand soft
(dry) friable (moist), moderate reaction to acid, many fine
Ap 0-17 and medium roots; common fine pores, rapid
permeability; pH 7.9.

Brown (10 YR 5/3M); sandy loam; friable (moist); slightly


sticky and slightly plastic (wet); fine and medium roots;
A1 17-44 common fine pores; moderately rapid permeability;
abrupt smooth boundary; pH 8.6.

Light Yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4 M); sandy clay loom;


firm (moist); slightly stick slightly plastic (wet) common
Bw1 44-78 fine and few coarse roots ; common; fine pores; slow
permeability; smooth boundary; pH 8.8.

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TABLE-3.8
SOIL CLASS DESCRIPTION

Sr. No. Soil Class


1. Deep, imperfectly drained, calcareous, clayey, soils
2. Deep, moderately well drained, calcareous, clayey soils
3. Deep, moderately well drained, stratified, loamy soils
4. Deep, somewhat excessively drained, loamy soils
5. Very deep, moderately well drained, calcareous, clayey soils
6. Very deep, well drained, loamy soils
7. River - Alluvial Soil

Regional Hydrogeology

Kancheepuram district is underlain by both sedimentary and fissured formations.


The important aquifer system in the district are constituted by

 Un-consolidated and semi-consolidated formations


 Weathered, fissured and fractured crystalline rocks

Porous formations

Semi-consolidated formation
Gondwana sandstones and shales and tertiary mottled clays and sandstones
represent the porous, semi-consolidated sediments. Ground water occurs under
water table conditions to confined conditions in the bedding planes and thin
fractures of shales. Ground water is extracted at the depth of 3.40 m below
ground level (bgl).

Un-consolidated formation
Un-consolidated formation occurs mainly along the banks of Palar river and the
Cheyyar rivers and the sand layers of the alluvium form the potential aquifer.
Areas between Walajabad and Kancheepuram, ground water obtained at the
depth of 10-21 m bgl. In areas covered by laterites, ground water is extracted at
the depth of 5-12m bgl by dug wells. Along the coast, wind blow sand act as
aquifer zones and groundwater is extracted by means of shallow dug wells and
radial arms.

The ground water resources of the Kancheepuram district have been computed
jointly by Central Ground Water Board and State Ground & Surface Water
Resources Data Centre (PWD, WRO, Government of Tamil Nadu) as on 31 st March
2004. The salient features of the computations are furnished in Table-3.1. The
computation of ground water resources available in the district has been done
using GEC 1997 methodology.

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TABLE-3.9
STATUS OF GROUNDWATER

Source: District groundwater Brochure, Kancheepuram District by CGWB, 2007

Project Site

TABLE-3.6
STATUS OF GROUNDWATER

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The District groundwater brochure by CGWB confers that the project area is
located in the safe zone with sufficient groundwater.

3.5 Meteorology

The meteorological data recorded during the monitoring period is very useful for
proper interpretation of the baseline information as well as for input prediction
models for air quality dispersion. Historical data on meteorological parameters will
also play an important role in identifying the general meteorological regime of the
region.

The year may broadly be divided into four seasons:

 Winter season : December to February


 Pre-monsoon season : March to May
 Monsoon season : June to September
 Post-monsoon season : October to November

3.5.1 Methodology

The methodology adopted for monitoring surface observations is as per the


standard norms laid down by Bureau of Indian Standards (IS : 8829) and India
Meteorological Department (IMD). On-site monitoring was undertaken for various
meteorological variables in order to generate the site-specific data. The generated
data is then compared with the meteorological data generated by IMD.

Methodology of Data Generation

The automatic meteorological instrument was installed on top of a building near


to the project site to record wind speed, direction, relative humidity and
temperature. Cloud cover is recorded by visual observation. Rainfall is monitored
by rain gauge. Hourly average, maximum, and minimum values of wind speed,
direction, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall have been recorded
continuously at this station during 1st March 2013 to 31th May 2013.

Sources of Information

Secondary information on meteorological conditions has been collected from the


nearest IMD station at Chennai Airport.

India Meteorological Department has been monitoring surface observations at


Chennai since 1891. Pressure, temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, wind
speed and direction are measured twice a day viz., at 0830 and 1730 hr. The
wind speed and direction data of IMD, Chennai has been obtained for the past
available 10 years. The data for the remaining parameters has been collected for
the last 10 years and processed.

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3.5.2 Synthesis of Data on Climatic Conditions

Analysis of the Data Recorded at IMD-Chennai

1) Temperature

The winter season starts from January and continues till the end of February.
January is the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at 33.3°C
with the mean daily minimum temperature at 17.0°C. Both the day and night
temperatures increase rapidly during the onset of Pre-monsoon season. During Pre-
monsoon the mean maximum temperature (May) is observed at 43.4°C with the
mean minimum temperature at 21.6°C. The mean maximum temperature in the
Monsoon season was observed to be 42.8°C whereas the mean minimum
temperature was observed to be 21.2°C. By end of September with the onset of
Northeast monsoon (October), day temperatures decrease slightly with the mean
maximum temperature at 35.9°C with the mean minimum temperature at 22.4°C.
The monthly variations of temperatures are presented in Table-3.5.1.

2) Relative Humidity

The air is generally very humid in the region especially during monsoon when the
average relative humidity is observed around 67% with a maximum and minimum
of 100% and 35% respectively. In the pre-monsoon period the relative humidity is
63%. During the pre-monsoon season the mean maximum humidity is observed at
100%, with the mean minimum humidity at 39% in the month of May and April
respectively. During winter season the humidity is found to be in line with the values
recorded during the Pre-monsoon season. The mean maximum humidity recorded
during winter season, which is the driest part of year with an average of 66%
relative humidity. The mean maximum relative humidity is observed to be 100%
with mean minimum humidity at 38%. The monthly mean variations in relative
humidity are presented in Table-3.5.1.

3) Atmospheric Pressure

The station level maximum and minimum atmospheric pressure levels are recorded
during the winter and monsoon seasons. The maximum pressure observed is in the
range of 1016.5 to 1003.5-mb, with the maximum pressure (1016.5-Mb) occurring
during the winter season, in the month of January. The minimum pressure observed
is in the range of 1013.6 to 999.9 Mb, with the minimum pressure (999.9-Mb)
occurring during the pre-monsoon season in the month of June. The average
pressure levels in all other months are found to be in the range of 1008.5 to
1010.6-mb. The monthly variations in the pressure levels are presented in Table-
3.5.1.

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4) Rainfall

It is observed that the north-east monsoon is more predominant than the south-
west monsoon. The southwest monsoon generally sets in during the last week of
May. About 30% of the rainfall is received during the southwest monsoon. The
rainfall gradually increases after September (and reaches maximum rainfall is
recorded in the month of November). The area experiences maximum rainfall
(308.0 mm) in the month of November. The Northeast monsoon rain occurs
between October to December and contribute to the rainfall by about 60% of the
total rainfall. Monthly variations in the rainfall for past available 10 years are given
in Table-3.5.1.

5) Cloud Cover

Generally light clouds are observed during winter mornings. During pre-monsoon
and the post-monsoon evenings the skies are either clear or lightly clouded. But in
post-monsoon mornings as well as monsoon mornings heavy clouds are commonly
observed. Whereas in the evening time the skies are light to moderately clouded
through out the year.

6) Special Weather Phenomena

Thunderstorms are frequent in pre-monsoon, post monsoon and early North-east


monsoon seasons. Occasional squalls occur in association with thunderstorms in the
later pre-monsoon season.

On an average three to four severe cyclonic storms form in the Bay of Bengal,
(mostly from April to June in pre-monsoon and September to December in post-
monsoon season). It is observed that cyclonic storms are five times more frequent
in the Bay of Bengal than in Arabian Sea. This is quite evident from the hazards that
the eastern coast faces year after year compared to west coast. The seasonal
frequencies of cyclones in East Coast of India during 1891-1982 are given in Table-
3.5.1 (A).

7) Wind Speed/Direction

The wind rose for the study period representing pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-
monsoon and winter season along with annual wind rose are shown in Figure-
3.7 (A), (B) & (C) and presented in Table-3.11.

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TABLE-3.10
CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA - IMD, CHENNAI (MINAMBAKAM)

Month Temperature (0C) Relative Atmospheric Rainfall


Humidity (%) Pressure (Mb) (mm)
Max Min Avg. 0830 1730 0830 1730
January 33.3 17.0 26.1 100 38 1016.5 1013.6 23.8
February 34.9 16.0 25.2 95 31 1012.2 1009.0 6.8
March 38.7 18.2 27.5 91 28 1010.6 1007.1 15.1
April 42.7 21.0 32.0 96 39 1008.4 1004.3 24.7
May 43.4 21.6 32.2 100 15 1004.5 1000.8 51.7
June 42.8 21.2 32.5 100 32 1003.5 999.9 52.6
July 39.5 22.3 31.0 95 35 1004.2 1000.7 83.5
August 39.0 22.0 31.0 98 32 1004.9 1001.1 124.3
September 37.8 21.5 29.5 97 35 1006.3 1002.4 118.0
October 35.9 22.4 28.7 98 46 1008.5 1005.3 267.0
November 34.4 18.0 27.0 99 42 1010.9 1003.1 308.0
December 31.7 17.8 25.0 100 34 1012.9 1010.0 139.1

TABLE-3.11
SEASONAL FREQUENCIES OF CYCLONES IN EAST COAST OF INDIA

Month Seasonal Frequency


January 4
February 0
March 2
April 11
May 15
June 32
July 33
August 27
September 23
October 40
November 40
December 22
Total 249

TABLE-3.12
SUMMARY OF WIND PATTERN – IMD, CHENNAI

Season First predominant winds Second predominant winds Calm condition in %


0830 1730 0830 1730 0830 1730
Pre- S (29.0) S (37.5) SSW (17.5) SSW (24.9) 10.3 1.7
monsoon
Monsoon SSW (17.3) SSW (20.3) SW (16.9) S (18.1) 10.5 8.2
Post NNE (17.0) E (15.0) N (15.5) NE (14.0) 21.0 25.0
monsoon
Winter NE (16.7) S (14.6) NNE (14.0) E (11.6) 31.0 16.7
Annual SSW (12.9) S (18.9) SW (10.0) SSW (14.2) 15.8 12.9

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FIGURE-3.7 (A)
WINDROSE FOR PRE MONSOON & MONSOON SEASON-IMD, CHENNAI

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FIGURE-3.7 (B)
WINDROSE FOR POST MONSOON & WINTER SEASON-IMD, CHENNAI

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FIGURE-3.7 (C)
ANNUAL WINDROSE -IMD, CHENNAI
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Analysis of Meteorological Data Recorded at Project Site

The meteorological data recorded at the project site during the study period (1st
March, 2013 to 31st May, 2013) is presented in Table-3.13.

TABLE-3.13
SUMMARY OF THE METEOROLOGICAL DATA AT SITE

Temperature (oC) Humidity (%) Total


Month Rainfall
Max Min Max Min
(mm)
March 2013 35.0 23.0 100 31 --
April 2013 36.0 26.0 89 34 0.25
May 2013 37.0 27.0 84 41 127.75

1) Temperature

It was observed that the temperature at the proposed site during study period
ranged from 23.0oC to 37.0oC. The monthly variations in the temperatures are
presented in Table-3.12.

2) Humidity

During the period of observation, the humidity ranged from 31.0% to 100.0%.
The monthly variations in the humidity are presented in Table-3.12.

3) Cloud Cover

Mostly clear skies were observed during the study period.

4) Wind Speed and Direction

The windrose for the study period representing winter season is shown in Figure-
3.8. A review of the windrose diagram shows that predominant winds are mostly
from South (20.9%) followed by SE (18.2%) direction. Calm condition was
recorded for 4.4%.

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FIGURE-3.8
SITE SPECIFIC WINDROSE (MARCH – MAY 2013)

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3.6 Air Quality


The ambient air quality with respect to the study zone of 10-km radius around the
project site forms the baseline information. The various sources of air pollution in
the region are industries and vehicular traffic. The prime objective of the baseline
air quality study was to assess the existing air quality of the area. The study area
represents mostly rural environment.

This section describes the selection of sampling locations, methodology adopted for
sampling, analytical techniques and frequency of sampling.

3.6.1 Methodology adopted for Air Quality Survey

Selection of Sampling Locations

The baseline status of the ambient air quality has been assessed through a
scientifically designed ambient air quality-monitoring network. The design of
monitoring network in the air quality surveillance program has been based on the
following considerations:

 Meteorological conditions on synoptic scale;


 Topography of the study area;
 Representatives of regional background air quality for obtaining baseline status;
 Representatives of likely impact areas.

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (AAQM) stations were set up at eight locations with
due consideration to the above mentioned points. Table-3.13 gives the details of
environmental setting around each monitoring station. The location of the selected
stations with reference to the project site is given in the same table and shown in
Figure-3.9.

TABLE-3.13
DETAILS OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING LOCATIONS

Station Name of the Distance w.r.t Direction w.r.t


Code Station project site (km) project site
AAQ1 Project Site - -
AAQ2 Kutteramedu 2.8 NNW
AAQ3 Kilambi 2.5 North
AAQ4 Mettukuppam 2.2 NNW
AAQ5 Kilkadhirpur 2.0 NE
AAQ6 Kudumkulam 2.2 East
AAQ7 Vippedu 2.0 SE
AAQ8 Vishar 2.1 West

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Frequency and Parameters for Sampling

The following frequency has been adopted for sampling:

Ambient air quality monitoring has been carried out with a frequency of two days
per week at all locations for study period from 1st March 2013 to 31st May 2013.
The baseline data of air environment is generated for the following parameters:

 Particulate Matter (PM10);


 Particulate Matter (PM2.5);
 Sulphur dioxide (SO2);
 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2);
 Carbon monoxide (CO);
 Ozone (O3);
 Ammonia (NH3);
 Lead (Pb);
 Arsenic (As);
 Nickel (Ni);
 Benzene (C6H6); and
 Benzo(a)Pyrene

Duration of Sampling

The sampling duration for PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, Pb, NH3, C6H6, BaP, As and Ni was
twenty-four hourly continuous samples per day and CO & O3 was sampled for 8–hrs
continuous thrice a day. This is to allow a comparison with the present revised
standards mentioned in the latest Gazette notification of the Central Pollution
Control Board (CPCB) (November 16, 2009).

TABLE-3.15
MONITORED PARAMETERS AND FREQUENCY OF SAMPLING
Parameters Sampling Frequency
PM10 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
PM2.5 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Ozone (O3) 08 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Ammonia (NH3) 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Lead (Pb) 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Arsenic (As) 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Nickel (Ni) 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 08 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Benzene (C6H6) 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
Benzo(a)Pyrene 24 hourly sample twice a week for three months

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Method of Analysis

The air samples were analyzed as per standard methods specified by Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB), IS: 5184 and American Public Health Association
(APHA).

3.6.2 Instruments used for Sampling

Dust Samplers of Pollutech instruments were used for monitoring PM10 (<10
microns), PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants like SO2 and NO2. Glass tubes were
deployed for collection of grab samples of Carbon monoxide. Gas Chromatography
techniques have been used for the estimation of CO, C6H6 & BaP. ICP used for Pb,
As & Ni and O3 & NH3 analysed using Chemiluminescence method.

3.6.3 Sampling and Analytical Techniques

The techniques used for ambient air quality monitoring and minimum detectable
levels are given in Table-3.16.

TABLE-3.16
TECHNIQUES USED FOR AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

Low
Sr. No. Parameters Test method detection
limit
1. PM10 (Respirable Particulate Matter Gravimetric (Respirable dust 5.0g/m3
% Suspended Particulate Matter) sampling / High volume sampling)
2. PM2.5 Gravimetric (FRM method / Low 2.0g/m3
volume sampling)
3. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Modified West &Gaeke method 4.0g/m3
4. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Sodium Arsenite method 9.0g/m3
5. Ozone (O3) Spectrophotometric method 2.0g/m3
6. Ammonia (NH3) Indo-phenol blue method 20.0g/m3
7. Lead (Pb) AAS/ICP-MS method after sampling
0.05 ng/m3
on EPM filter paper
8. Arsenic (As) AAS/ICP-MS method after sampling 0.2 ng/m3
on EPM filter paper
9. Nickel (Ni) AAS/ICP-MS method after sampling 0.10 ng/m3
on EPM filter paper
10. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Adsorption and extraction followed by
12.5g/m3
GC-MS analysis
11. Benzene (C6H6) Adsorption and desorption followed
1.0 ng/m3
by GC-MS analysis
12. Benzo (a) Pyrene (BaP) Solvent extraction followed by GC-MS 1.0 ng/m3

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FIGURE-3.9
AIR QUALITY SAMPLING LOCATIONS

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3.6.4 Presentation of Primary Data

Various statistical parameters like 98th percentile, average, maximum and minimum values have been computed from the observed
raw data for all the AAQ monitoring stations. The summary of these results for summer season is presented in Table-3.16

TABLE-3.17
SUMMARY OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY RESULTS

Parameters AAQ-1 AAQ-2 AAQ-3 AAQ-4 AAQ-5 AAQ-6 AAQ-7 AAQ-8


Maximum 72.3 72.9 59.7 64.1 57.8 58.4 59.0 65.3
Minimum 63.2 63.8 53.8 56.1 50.6 51.1 51.6 57.2
PM10
Average 68.1 68.7 56.3 60.4 54.5 55.0 55.5 61.5
(g/m3) 98%tile 71.9 72.6 59.4 63.8 57.5 58.1 58.7 65.1
Maximum 23.8 24.1 19.7 21.1 19.1 19.3 19.5 21.6
PM2.5 Minimum 20.9 21.1 17.7 18.5 16.7 16.9 17.0 18.9
(µg/m3) Average 22.5 22.7 18.6 19.9 18.0 18.1 18.3 20.3
98%tile 23.7 23.9 19.6 21.1 19.0 19.2 19.4 21.5
Maximum 11.3 10.8 9.7 10.5 8.5 8.6 8.7 9.6
SO2 Minimum 8.2 8.2 7.3 7.7 6.1 6.2 6.2 7.5
(g/m3) Average 9.5 9.0 8.4 8.8 7.3 7.4 7.5 8.7
98%tile 11.3 10.8 9.6 10.5 8.5 8.6 8.7 9.6
Maximum 16.8 16.0 13.7 14.0 14.7 14.9 15.0 14.2
NO2 Minimum 13.3 12.4 10.4 9.2 9.1 9.2 9.3 11.3
(g/m3) Average 15.5 13.8 11.5 12.5 11.2 11.3 11.4 12.9
98%tile 16.8 15.9 13.6 14.0 14.6 14.8 14.9 14.2
Maximum 575 610 573 557 537 542 548 568
CO Minimum 461 460 464 460 460 465 469 459
(g/m3) Average 496 501 493 489 484 488 493 496
98%tile 574 601 555 557 533 538 544 568

Note: Ozone (O3), Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Nickel (Ni), Benzene (C6H6) and Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) are found to exist
below Detectable Limit.

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3.6.5 Observations of Primary Data

The three months Ambient Air Quality data is given as Annexure – IX.
PM10: The maximum and minimum concentrations for PM10 were recorded as
72.9 g/m3 and 50.6 g/m3 respectively. The maximum concentration was
recorded at Kutteramedu and the minimum concentration was recorded at
Kudumkulam. The average values were observed to be in the range of 54.5 and
68.7 g/m3.

PM2.5: The maximum and minimum concentrations for PM2.5 were recorded as 24.1
g/m3 and 16.7 g/m3 respectively. The maximum concentration was recorded at
Kutteramedu and the minimum concentration was recorded at Kudumkulam. The
average values were observed to be in the range of 18.0 and 22.7 g/m3.

SO2: The maximum and minimum SO2 concentrations were recorded as 11.3 g/m3
and 6.1 g/m3. The maximum concentration was recorded at Project site and the
minimum concentration was recorded at Kudumkulam. The average values were
observed to be in the range of 7.3 and 9.5 g/m3.

NO2: The maximum concentration of 16.8 g/m3 for NO2 was recorded at Project
Site and minimum of 9.1 g/m3 observed at Kudumkulam. The average
concentrations were ranged between 11.2 and 15.9 g/m3.

CO: The maximum concentration of 610 g/m3 was recorded at Kutteramedu


village and minimum of 459 g/m3 observed at Mettukuppam. The average
concentrations were ranged between 484 and 501 g/m3.

The concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX and CO are observed to be well within
the standards prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for Industrial,
Rural, Residential and Other area. Other parameters including Ozone (O3),
Ammonia (NH3), Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Nickel (Ni), Benzene (C6H6) and
Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) are found to exist below Detectable Limit.

3.7 Water Quality


Selected water quality parameters of ground water and surface water resources
within the study area has been studied for assessing the water environment and
evaluate anticipated impact of the proposed project. Understanding the water
quality is essential in preparation of Environmental Impact Assessment and to
identify critical issues with a view to suggest appropriate mitigation measures for
implementation.
The purpose of this study is to:
 Assess the water quality characteristics for critical parameters;
 Evaluate the impacts on agricultural productivity, habitat conditions,
recreational resources and aesthetics in the vicinity; and
 Prediction of impact on water quality by this project and related activities.

The information required has been collected through primary surveys and
secondary sources.

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3.7.1 Methodology
Reconnaissance survey was undertaken and monitoring locations were finalized
based on:
 Drainage pattern;
 Location of residential areas representing different activities/likely impact
areas; and
 Likely areas, which can represent baseline conditions.
Water sources covering 10-km radial distance were examined for physico-chemical,
heavy metals and bacteriological parameters in order to assess the effect of
industrial and other activities on water. The samples were collected and analyzed
as per the procedures specified in 'Standard Methods for the Examination of Water
and wastewater' published by American Public Health Association (APHA).
Samples for chemical analysis were collected in polyethylene carboys. Samples
collected for metal content were acidified with 1 ml HNO3. Samples for
bacteriological analysis were collected in sterilized glass bottles. Selected physico-
chemical and bacteriological parameters have been analyzed for projecting the
existing water quality status in the study area. Parameters like temperature,
Dissolved Oxygen (DO), free Chlorine and pH were analyzed at the time of sample
collection.
3.7.2 Water Sampling Locations
Water samples were collected from 6 ground water and 1 surface water-sampling
locations. These samples were taken as grab samples and were analyzed for
various parameters to be compared with the standards for drinking water as per
IS:10500. The water sampling locations are listed below in Table-3.18 and are
depicted in Figure-3.9.
TABLE-3.18
DETAILS OF WATER SAMPLING LOCATIONS

Code Location Distance w.r.t. Direction w.r.t.


Project Site (km) Project Site
Ground Water
GW1 Project Site - -
GW2 Mel Kadhirpur 1.0 NNE
GW3 Kil Kadhirpur 1.5 NNE
GW4 Narapakkam 0.7 SSE
GW5 Vippedu 1.7 SSE
GW6 Vishar 1.5 West
Surface Water
SW1 Narapakkam Periya Eri Adjacent to site East

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3.7.3 Presentation of Results


Ground Water Quality
The results of the parameters analyzed for the 6 Ground water samples are
presented in Table-3.18 and are compared with the standards for drinking water
as per IS: 10500.

FIGURE-3.10
WATER SAMPLING LOCATIONS

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TABLE 3.19
GROUND WATER QUALITY

S. IS:10500
Parameter Units GW1 GW2 GW3 GW4 GW5 GW6
No. Limits
1 pH - 6.5 to 8.5 7.7 7.6 7.8 7.6 7.4 7.5
2 Colour Hazen 5 <1.0 1.0 1.0 <1.0 1.0 2.0
3 Odour - UO
4 Conductivity us/cm $ 447 693 635 450 505 773
5 Taste - Ag
6 Turbidity NTU 5 2 3 3 2 2 3.0
7 Total hardness as mg/l 300 220 350 300 230 240 190
CaCO3
8 Total Dissolved solids mg/l 500 223 355 316 234 264 414
9 Chlorides as Cl mg/l 250 24.8 35.5 53.2 28.4 28.4 53.2
10 Residual free mg/l 0.2 Min <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2
Chlorine
11 Fluoride as F mg/l 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1
12 Calcium as Ca mg/l 75 48 76 60 52 72 52
13 Magnesium as Mg mg/l 30 24.3 38.8 36.4 24.3 14.6 14.6
14 Sulphates as SO4 mg/l 200 8.6 2.6 2.1 2.4 2.1 2.1
15 Nitrates as NO3 mg/l 45 3.9 11.2 37.3 11.6 17.4 36
16 Phenolics as C6H5OH mg/l 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
17 Cyanide as CN mg/l 0.05 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02
18 Alkalinity as CaCO3 mg/l 200 175 300 200 180 200 280
19 Boron mg/l 1 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.02
20 Sodium as Na mg/l $ 4.9 6.2 5.6 3.9 5.5 78.9
21 Potassium as K mg/l $ 2.9 3.5 1.3 3 2.9 8.5
22 Iron as Fe mg/l 0.3 <0.01 <0.01 0.07 0.04 0.06 0.04
23 Copper as Cu mg/l 0.05 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01
24 Manganese as Mn mg/l 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
25 Aluminium as Al mg/l 0.03 0.1 0.07 0.12 0.21 0.11 0.34
26 Chromium as Cr+6 mg/l 0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
27 Cadmium as Cd mg/l 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01
28 Selenium as Se mg/l 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
29 Arsenic as As mg/l 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
30 Lead as Pb mg/l 0.05 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
31 Zinc as Zn mg/l 5 0.01 <0.01 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01
32 Mercury as Hg mg/l 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
33 Anionic detergents as mg/l 0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2
MBAS
34 Mineral oil mg/l 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
35 Pesticides mg/l Absent <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
36 E.Coli - Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent absent
37 Total Colifirms MPN/ 10 2 4 2 6 8 2
100
U.O.: Un-objectionable $: Not specified

The analysis results indicate that the pH ranges in between 7.4 to 7.8, which is well
within the specified standard of 6.5 to 8.5. The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
concentration is found to be ranging in between 223 to 414 mg/l.

Total hardness was observed to be ranging from 190 to 350 mg/l. The Chlorides
and Nitrates are found ranging from 24.8-53.2 mg/l and 3.9 – 37.3 mg/l.
Potassium found ranging in between 1.3 to 8.5 mg/l. The Heavy metals are found
to be below detectable limits.

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Surface Water Quality

The results of the parameters analyzed for the surface water samples are
presented in Table-3.20.
TABLE 3.20
SURFACE WATER QUALITY

IS:10500
S. No. Parameter Units SW1
Limits
1 pH - 6.5 to 8.5 8.1
2 Colour Hazen 5 1
3 Conductivity µS/cm $ 1568
4 Dissolved Oxygen mg / l 4 4.3
minimum
5 BOD, 5day mg / l 3 11.0
6 Total dissolved solids mg / l 1500 1097
7 Total hardness as mg / l 300 570
CaCO3
8 Chlorides as Cl mg / l 600 680
9 Fluorides as F mg / l 1.5 1.1
10 Sulphates as SO4 mg / l 400 28.7
11 Alkalinity mg / l $ 43.2
12 Nitrates as NaNO3 mg / l 50 45.7
13 Cyanides as CN mg / l 0.05 <0.02
14 Calcium Ca mg / l 75 190.0
15 Magnesium as Mg mg / l 30 11.0
16 Sodium as Na mg / l $ 1072.0
17 Potassium as K mg / l $ 31.8
18 Iron as Fe mg / l 50 0.05
19 Chromium as Cr+6 mg / l 0.05 <0.05
20 Cadmium as Cd mg / l 0.01 <0.01
21 Lead as Pb mg / l 0.1 <0.01
22 Copper as Cu mg / l 1.5 <0.01
23 Arsenic as As mg / l 0.2 <0.01
24 Selenium as Se mg / l 0.05 <0.01
25 Phenolics as C6H5OH mg / l 0.005 <0.001
26 Zinc as Zn mg / l 15 0.01
27 Mercury as Hg mg / l $ <0.001
28 Anionic detergents as mg / l 1 <1.0
MBAS
29 Oil and grease mg / l 0.1 <0.1
30 Insecticides mg / l Absent <0.001
31 Total Coliforms MPN/100 5000 76
ml
U.O. : Un-objectionable $ : Not specified

The analysis results indicate that the ground water pH value was found as 8.1. The
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentration was found as 1097.

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3.8 Noise Level Survey

The physical description of sound concerns its loudness as a function of frequency.


Noise in general is sound which is composed of many frequency components of
various loudness distributed over the audible frequency range. Various noise scales
have been introduced to describe, in a single number, the response of an average
human to a complex sound made up of various frequencies at different loudness
levels. The most common and universally accepted scale is the A weighted Scale
which is measured as dB (A). This is more suitable for audible range of 20 Hz to
20,000 Hz. The scale has been designed to weigh various components of noise
according to the response of a human ear.

The impact of noise sources on surrounding community depends on:

 Characteristics of noise sources (instantaneous, intermittent or continuous in


nature). It can be observed that steady noise is not as annoying as one which is
continuously varying in loudness;
 The time of day at which noise occurs, for example high noise levels at night in
residential areas are not acceptable because of sleep disturbance; and
 The location of the noise source, with respect to noise sensitive land use, which
determines the loudness and period of exposure.
The environmental impact of noise can have several effects varying from Noise
Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) to annoyance depending on loudness of noise. The
environmental impact assessment of noise due to construction activity, and
vehicular traffic can be undertaken by taking into consideration various factors like
potential damage to hearing, physiological responses, annoyance and general
community responses. Noise monitoring has been undertaken for 24-hr duration at
each location.

3.8.1 Identification of Sampling Locations

A preliminary reconnaissance survey has been undertaken to identify the major


noise generating sources in the area. Noise at different noise generating sources
has been identified based on the activities in the village area, ambient noise due to
industries and traffic and the noise at sensitive areas like hospitals and schools.
The noise monitoring has been conducted for determination of noise levels at five
locations in the study area. The environmental settings of each noise monitoring
location is given in Table-3.21 and depicted in Figure-3.11.

3.8.2 Method of Monitoring

Sound Pressure Level (SPL) measurements were measured at all locations; one
reading for every hour was taken for 24 hours. The day noise levels have been
monitored during 6 am to 10 pm and night levels during 10 pm to 6 am at all the
monitoring locations within the study area.

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TABLE-3.21
DETAILS OF NOISE MONITORING LOCATIONS
Distance w.r.t Direction
Location Location
Project Site w.r.t Zone
Code (Village)
(km) Project Site
N1 Project Site --- --- Residential
N2 Mel Kadhirpur 0.3 North Residential
N3 Kil Kadhirpur 1.7 NNE Residential
N4 Periyamettu theruvu 2.4 NE Residential
N5 Pallipalayam 2.5 ENE Residential
N6 Vippedu 1.8 SE Residential
N7 Narapakkam 0.2 South Residential
N8 Mettupalayam 1.8 SW Residential
N9 Vishar 2.1 WSW Residential
N10 Mettukuppam 2.3 NNW Residential

3.8.3 Parameters Measured During Monitoring

For noise levels measured over a given period of time interval, it is possible to
describe important features of noise using statistical quantities. This is calculated
using the percent of the time certain noise levels are exceeding the time interval.
The notation for the statistical quantities of noise levels are described below:

 L10 is the noise level exceeded 10 per cent of the time;


 L50 is the noise level exceeded 50 per cent of the time ; and
 L90 is the noise level exceeded 90 per cent of the time.

Equivalent Sound Pressure Level (Leq):

The Leq is the equivalent continuous sound level which is equivalent to the same
sound energy as the actual fluctuating sound measured in the same period. This is
necessary because sound from noise source often fluctuates widely during a given
period of time.

This is calculated from the following equation:

(L10 - L90)2
Leq = L50 + ------------
60
Lday is defined as the equivalent noise level measured over a period of time during
day (6 am to 10 pm).

Lnight is defined as the equivalent noise level measured over a period of time during
night (10 pm to 6 am).

A noise rating developed by Environmental protection Agency (EPA) for


specification of community noise from all the sources is the Day-Night Sound Level,
(Ldn).

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FIGURE-3.11
NOISE MONITORING LOCATIONS

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Day-Night Sound Level (Ldn):

The noise rating developed for community noise from all sources is the Day-Night
Sound Level (Ldn). It is similar to a 24 hr equivalent sound level except that during
night time period (10 pm to 6 am) a 10 dB (A) weighting penalty is added to the
instantaneous sound level before computing the 24 hr average.

This night time penalty is added to account for the fact that noise during night
when people usually sleep is judged as more annoying than the same noise during
the day time.
The Ldn for a given location in a community may be calculated from the hourly Leq's,
by the following equation.

Ldn = 10 log {1/24[16(10 Ld/10) + 8 (10(Ln+10)/10)]}

Where Ld is the equivalent sound level during the daytime (6 am to 10 pm) and Ln
is the equivalent sound level during the nighttime (10 pm to 6 am).

3.8.4 Presentation of Results

The statistical analysis is done for measured noise levels at eight locations for once
during study period. The parameters are analyzed for Lday, Lnight, and Ldn. These
results are tabulated in Table-3.22.

TABLE-3.22
NOISE LEVELS IN THE STUDY AREA

Code Location L10 L50 L90 LEQ Lday Lnight Ldn


N1 Project Site 55.8 51.7 44.1 54.0 56.9 42.8 56.0
N2 Mel Kadhirpur 69.2 63.8 61.9 64.7 68.2 53.9 67.0
N3 Kil Kadhirpur 69.1 64.1 61.8 65.0 66.9 51.8 65.9
N4 Periyamettu theruvu 54.9 48.2 42.9 50.6 53.3 41.7 52.7
N5 Pallipalayam 59.5 50.3 42.4 55.1 55.8 43.4 55.2
N6 Vippedu 49.4 45.1 42.0 46.7 47.6 43.8 51.0
N7 Narapakkam 50.6 46.1 42.7 47.1 49.1 44.2 51.7
N8 Mettupalayam 49.8 45.9 42.2 46.9 47.7 44.1 51.2
N9 Vishar 48.4 44.6 40.8 45.6 46.8 42.9 50.1
N10 Mettukuppam 47.3 43.1 39.2 44.2 45.2 40.8 48.2

3.9 Flora and Fauna Studies

3.9.1 Introduction

An ecological survey of the study area was conducted particularly with reference
to listing of species and assessment of the existing baseline ecological (Terrestrial
and Aquatic ecosystem) conditions.

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3.9.2 Objectives of Ecological Studies

The present study was undertaken with the following objectives:

 To assess the nature and distribution of vegetation in and around the proposed
project site
 To assess the distribution of animal life spectra;
 To understand the productivity of the water bodies;
 To ascertain migratory routes of fauna and possibility of breeding grounds.

3.9.3 Methodology Adopted for the Survey

To achieve the above objectives a detailed study of the area was undertaken in 10-
km radius as proposed facility as centre. The different methods adopted were as
follows:
 Generation of first hand data by undertaking systematic ecological studies in the
area;
 Interrogating local people so as to elicit information for local plants, animals and
their uses; and
 Gathering data for ethnobiology.

The present report gives the review of published secondary data and the results of
field sampling conducted during pre-monsoon season (2013).

3.9.4 Ecologically sensitive zones and Forest Blocks in Study Area

No forest area exists in the study area, so there will not be any impacts on
ecological sensitive zones or in forest blocks.

3.9.5 Flora-Primary Survey

Detailed studies conducted near to villages, forest blocks and along the highways to
identify the common plant species and to identify presence of any threatened,
medicinal and rare plant species in study area.

The primary data was generated through:

1. Preparing a general checklist of all plants encountered in the study area. This
would indicate the biodiversity for wild and cultivated plants. The plants so
encountered were classified into life form spectrum according to the
classification of Raunkiaer's classification of life form spectrum.
2. Local inhabitants were interviewed for uses of plants and animals and to get
ethnobiological data.

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3.9.5.1 Floristic Composition - Primary Survey

 Cryptogamic Vegetation

The area shows many algae, fungi, bryophytes and ferns. Algae are present in
aquatic bodies or in marshy places. Fungi, particularly from ascomycetes and
basidiomycetes are located on ground or epiphytically. Lichens of crustose, foliose
and fruticose types are present on different substrates (Lichens, Ascomycetes and
Basidiomycetes could be observed near hilly terrain). Bryophytes occur in wet areas
and occasionally on barks of trees and old walls of houses. The commonly observed
bryophtes in this area are Funaria sp and Polypodium sp Fern flora of the study area
is insignificant. The aquatic weeds Hydrilla sp, Chara sp, and Salvinia were observed
in small ponds in agricultural fields.

 Life Form Spectrum

Raunkiaer defined life forms as the sum of adaptations of plants to climate. Braun-
Blanquet (1951), whose system is adapted in this study, modified the Raunkiaer's
system. Following five of the ten classes created by Braun-Blanquet is present in the
study area.

- Phanerophytes : Shrubs and trees


- Therophytes : Annuals including ferns
- Hydrophytes : Water plants except plankton
- Hemicryptophytes : Plants with perennial shoots and buds close to surface.
- Geophytes : Plants, with perennating parts buried in substratum.

During field survey, maximum 288 number of plant species (except algae, fungi and
bryophytes) were recorded from the study area. Class wise distribution of plant
species are presented in Table-3.23.

TABLE-3.23
CLASS WISE DISTRIBUTION OF PLANT SPECIES IN THE STUDY AREA

Type of Species No. %


Phanerophytes (P) 130 45.14
Therophytes (T) 105 36.46
Hydrophytes (H) 10 3.47
Hemicryptophytes (He) 41 14.23
Geophytes (G) 02 0.70
Total 288 100

 Comments on the Life Form Spectrum

Life form spectrum is a reflection of plant community. A plant community is


governed by several factors like climatic, edaphic, topographic and biotic. Even
local variations in environment affect components of plant community.

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In the study area, maximum number of species are phanerophytes (45.14%)


followed by therophytes (36.46%). These classes are followed by hemicryptophytes
(14.23%) and hydrophytes (3.47%). Geophytes were found in very few numbers.

Presence of large number of phanerophytes (shrubs and trees) and therophytes


(annuals or herbaceous vegetation) indicates semiarid to tropical vegetation
structure.
Hemicryptophytes (predominantly grasses and sedges) were found to be significant
in the area. These indicate fertile and wet soil in upper layer of soil profile.
Hydrophytes were present in both the seasonal and perennial water bodies.

3.9.6 Endangered Plants

The study area did not record the presence of any critically threatened species. The
records of Botanical Survey of India and Forest department also did not indicate
presence of any endangered and or vulnerable species in this area.

3.9.7 Fauna

 Review of Secondary Published Data

Wildlife is significantly scarce in the Kancheepuram forest division, owing to the


scattered nature and limited distribution of degraded forests. There are no major
wildlife habitats in the study area.

 Primary Survey

The primary data was generated through:

1. Determining the bird population of migratory and local birds by taking 10


random readings at every location;
2. Observing mammals, amphibians and reptiles, noting their calls, droppings,
burrows, pugmarks and other signs; and
3. Physical observations were also carried out from the Machans for two-twelve
hour periods, one during day time and the other during night time for terrestrial
fauna;

Field studies were conducted during study period and details are presented in
Table-3.24

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Description of the Environment

TABLE-3.24
FAUNA OBSERVED AT THE STUDY AREA

Common Name Scientific Name Conservation Status as per


wildlife Protection Act, 1972
Avifauna
Little cormorant Phlacrocorax niger Sch-IV
Paddy bird Ardeola grayii grayii Sch-IV
Large egret Ardea alba modesta Sch-IV
Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis coromandus Sch-IV
Common pariah kite Milvus migrans govinda Sch-IV
Brahminy kite Haliastur Indus Indus Sch-IV
Bluetailed bee-eater Meops philippinus Sch-IV
Southern Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis indica Sch-IV
Black Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis macrocercus Sch-IV
Indian house sparrow Passer domesticus indicus Sch-IV
Pelicans Pelicanus philippensis philippensis Sch-IV
Little Greb or Bubchick Podiceps ruficolis Sch-IV
Rose ringed parakeet Psittacula krammeri Sch-IV
White Ibis Ibis leucocephalus Sch-IV
Spoon Bill Platale leucordia major Part-III of sch-I
Open Billed Stork Ciconia ciconia Sch-IV
Pond heron or Paddy Bird Ardeola grayii Sch-IV
Grey Heron Ardeola cinerea Sch-IV
Indian Moorhen Gallanulla chloropus indica Sch-IV
Darter or Snake Bird Anhinga rufa Sch-IV
Butterflies
Crimson rose Pachliopta hector Sch-IV
Lime butterfly Papilio demoleus Sch-IV
Tailed jay Graphium agamemnon Sch-IV
Peacock pansy Junoria almana Lin. Sch-IV
Great eggfly Hypolimnas bolina Sch-IV
Common crow Euploea core Sch-IV
Common sailor Neptis hylas Moore Sch-IV
Common grass yellow Eurema hecabe Sch-IV
Emigrant Catopsilia sp. Sch-IV
Psyche Leptosia nina Sch-IV
Glassy tiger Parantica aglea Sch-IV
Mammals
Rat Rattus sp. Sch-V
Hare Lepus nigricollis Sch-IV
Hyaena Hyaena hyaena Sch-III
Jackal Canis auries Part-II of sch-II
Monkey Macaca mulata Part-I of sch-II
Squirrel Funambulus pennanti Sch-IV
Wild pig Sus sucrofa sch-III
Field mouse Rattus norvegicus Sch-V
House rat Rattus rattus Sch-V
Bat Rhinolopus spp. Sch-V
Bat Hipposiderus spp. Sch-V
Common mongoose Herpestes edwardii Part-II of Sch-II
Bandicoot Bandicota indica Sch-V
Bandicoot Bandicota bengalensis Sch-V
Amphibians
Common frog Rana tigriana Sch-IV
Toad Buto melanosticus Sch-IV
Reptiles
Common garden lizard Calotes versicolor Sch-IV
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Chapter-3
Description of the Environment

Common Name Scientific Name Conservation Status as per


wildlife Protection Act, 1972
Monitor lizard Varanus benegalensis Part-II of Sch-II
Boa Cryx johni Sch-IV
Keel back (water snake) Xenochrophis spp. Sch-IV
Cat snake Boiga spp. Sch-IV
Krait Bangarus spp. Sch-IV
Indian cobra Naja naja Part-II of Sch-II

1 species of sch-I, 5 species of sch-II, 2 species of sch-III and rest of species


belongs to sch-IV and sch-V of wildlife protection act, 1972 were reported during
study period in study area.

3.10 Demography and Socio-Economics

The growth of industrial sectors and infrastructure developments in and around


the agriculture dominant areas, villages and towns are bound to create its impact
on the socio-economic aspects of the local population. The impacts may be
positive or negative depending upon the developmental activity. To assess the
impacts on the socio-economics of the local people, it is necessary to study the
existing socio-economic status of the local population, which will be helpful for
making efforts to further improve the quality of life in the area of study. To study
the socio-economic aspects of people in the study area around the proposed
project site, the required data has been collected from various secondary sources
and supplemented by the primary data generated through the process of a
limited door to door socio-economic survey.

3.10.1 Methodology adopted for the Study

The methodology adopted for the study is based on the review of secondary data,
such as District Census Statistical Handbooks-2001 and the records of National
Informatics Center, New Delhi, for the parameters of demography, occupational
structure of people within the general study area of 10-km radius around the
proposed project site.

3.10.2 Review of Demographic and Socio-Economic Profile - 2001

The sociological aspects of this study include human settlements, demography,


social such as scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and literacy levels besides
infrastructure facilities available in the study area. The economic aspects include
occupational structure of workers.

The salient features of the demographic and socio-economic details are described
in the following sections.

3.10.3 Demography

Distribution of Population

As per 2001 census, the study area consists of 273616 persons. The distribution
of population in the study area is given in Table-3.25. The males and females
constitute 50.19% and 49.80% of the study area population respectively.

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TABLE-3.25
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
Particulars 0-3 km 3-7 km 7-10 km 0-10 km
No. of Households 2807 10184 48290 61281
Male Population 6479 22883 107968 137330
Female Population 6328 23002 106956 136286
Total Population 12807 45885 214924 273616
Average Household Size 4.56 4.51 4.45 4.46
Male % 50.58 45.87 50.23 50.19
Female% 49.41 50.12 49.76 49.80
Source: District Census Statistics, Kancheepuram - 2001

Average Household Size

The average household size of the study area is 4.5 persons/family. The low
family size could be attributed to a high degree of urbanization with migration of
people with higher literacy levels who generally opt for smaller family size and
family welfare measures.

Sex Ratio

The configuration of male and female indicates that the males constitute to about
50.19% and females to 49.80% of the total population as per 2001 census
records. The sex ratio i.e. the number of females per 1000 males indirectly
reveals certain sociological aspects in relation with female births, infant mortality
among female children and single person family structure, a resultant of
migration of industrial workers. The study area on an average has 992 females
per 1000 males as per 2001 census.

3.10.4 Social Structure

As per 2001 census, the percentage of scheduled caste population is 42.24%


within 10-km radius study area. The percentage of Schedule Tribe population is
1.2%. The distribution of population by social structure is given in Table-3.26.

TABLE- 3.26
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Particulars 0-3 km 3-7 km 7-10 km 0-10
Schedule caste- 5426 13525 91198 115575
% To the total population 42.37 29.48 42.43 42.24
Schedule Tribes 511 380 2503 3394
% To the total population 4.0 0.8 1.2 1.2
Total SC and ST population 5937 13905 93701 118969
% To total population 46.36 30.30 43.60 43.48
Other caste population 6870 31980 121223 154647
% To total population 53.64 69.70 56.40 56.52
Total Population 12807 45885 214924 273616
Source: District Census Statistics, Kancheepuram - 2001

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Description of the Environment

3.10.5 Literacy Levels

The study area experiences an average literacy rate of 56.09%. The distribution
of literate and literacy rate in the study area is given in Table-3.27.

The male literacy rate i.e. the percentage of male literates to the total males (7
years and above) of the study area works out to be 64.82%. The female literacy
rate, which is an important indication for social change is observed to be 47.30%

TABLE 3.27
DISTRIBUTION OF LITERATE AND LITERACY RATES

Particulars 0-3 km 3-7 km 7-10 km 0-10 km


Total literate 7009 27463 118997 153469
Male Population 6479 22883 107968 137330
Female Population 6328 23002 106956 136286
Average literacy (%) 54.73 59.85 55.37 56.09
Male literate 4071 15780 69160 89011
% To study area literate 58.08 57.46 58.12 58.00
% To total male population 62.83 68.96 64.06 64.82
Female literate 2938 11683 49837 64458
% To study area literate 41.92 42.54 41.88 42.00
% To total female population 46.43 50.79 46.60 47.30
Total population 12807 45885 214924 273616
Source: District Census Statistics, Kancheepuram - 2001

3.10.6 Occupational Structure

The occupational structure of residents in the study area is studied with reference
to main workers, marginal workers and non-workers. The main workers include
10 categories of workers defined by the Census Department consisting of
cultivators, agricultural labourers, those engaged in live-stock, forestry, fishing,
mining and quarrying; manufacturing, processing and repairs in household
industry; and other than household industry, construction, trade and commerce,
transport and communication and other services.

The marginal workers are those workers engaged in some work for a period of
less than six months during the reference year prior to the census survey. The
non-workers include those engaged in unpaid household duties, students, retired
persons, dependents, beggars, vagrants etc.; institutional inmates or all other
non-workers who do not fall under the above categories.

As per 2001 census records, altogether the main worker works out to be 30.49%
of the total population. The marginal workers and non-workers constitute to
17.10% and 52.02% of the total population respectively. The distribution of
workers by occupation indicates that the non-workers are the predominant
population. The occupational structure of the study area is shown in Table-3.28.
The Demographic details in the study area are provided as Annexure – X.

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TABLE-3.27
OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE

Particulars 0-3 km 3-7 km 7-10 km 0-10 km


Total main workers 5092 18301 60040 83433
% to total population 39.76 39.88 27.94 30.49
Marginal workers 1317 2692 42793 46802
% to total population 10.28 5.87 19.91 17.10
Non-workers 6398 23841 112091 142330
% to total population 49.96 51.96 52.15 52.02
Total population 12807 44834 214924 272565
Source: District Census Statistics, Kancheepuram - 2001

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Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter-4
Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

4.0 ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS & MITIGATION MEASURES

4.1 Identification of Impacts

This Chapter deals with the identification and appraisal of various environmental
and social impacts due to the proposed project based on the prevailing baseline
setting and inventory of pollution sources described in the previous chapters.

Generally, the environmental impacts can be categorized as either primary or


secondary. Primary impacts are those, which attribute directly due to the
proposed project and the secondary impacts are those, which are indirectly
induced and typically include the associated investments and changed patterns of
social and economic developments.

The proposed project is likely to create impact on the environment in two distinct
phases:

 During the construction phase, which may be regarded as temporary or short


term; and
 During the functional phase which will have long-term effects.

The construction and functional phases of the proposed project comprises of


various activities each of which will have some impact on one or more
environmental parameters. Various impacts during the functional phase of the
project have been studied to estimate the impact on the environment and are
discussed briefly in the subsequent sections.

4.2 Impacts during Construction Phase

4.2.1 Impact on Topography and Land Use

The proposed project will be developed in 30.35 ha (75 acres) in Kilkadhirpur


Village, Kanchipuram Taluk of Kanchipuram District. The site is devoid of any
forest; hence the site clearance from the Forest Department is not involved.
Further, the site is devoid of any human habitations hence evacuation of the
project-affected persons is not involved in this project. Hence, no resettlement
and rehabilitation issues are involved in the proposed project.

No dry/wet agriculture is practiced in the site. This ultra modern project will be
developed while undertaking minimum cutting for making terraces for
construction of buildings while making minimum modifications in the terrain
conditions and implementing appropriate environmental measures.

There will be a change in the topography, which will be covered with the buildings
and road network in the site. However, there will be a significant improvement in
the aesthetics of the site.

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4.2.2 Impact on Soil


The proposed project site is presently not used for cultivation. The topsoil
removed from the site will be stored in dumps during construction period and in
the post construction phase, the topsoil will be spread on the un-built area of the
plot and tree plantations and green belt development will be taken up. As the
topsoil removed from the site will be re-used for growth of plants, no adverse
impact is envisaged due to removal of topsoil from the site.

The dripping of oil from construction vehicles might cause soil contamination. In
order to prevent soil contamination likely to result from the oil spill and dripping
from vehicles, drip pans will be placed at the parking places of vehicles and the
dripped oil will be collected. The collected dripped oil will be stored and
subsequently sent to the authorized recycling agencies, recognized by TNPCB.

4.2.3 Impact on Air Quality

During construction phase, suspended particulate matter will be the main


pollutant, which will be generated during the site development activities such as
leveling of land, cutting and filling activities, transportation of construction
material to the project site from various sources, operation of DG sets for drilling,
rock breaking, crushing etc.

Also, due to the increased vehicular movements, increase in NOx and CO


concentrations will be resulted at the project site. However, the increase in
pollution levels in the ambient air, will be negligible and also it is a temporary
phenomenon. As most of the construction equipment will be mobile, the
emissions are likely to be fugitive and not concentrated at a single place or
source. As the impacts will be localized in nature, the areas outside the proposed
project boundary are not likely to face any significant adverse impact with respect
to ambient air quality.

No major vegetative cover exists in the immediate vicinity of the project. Hence
no impacts on terrestrial flora and fauna are envisaged due to construction
activities.

4.2.4 Impact on Water Quality

During construction phase, water will be required only for construction of structures,
sprinkling on roads for dust suppression, domestic and non-domestic uses of the
construction workers, that too only during daytime.

Impact on water quality during construction phase will be due to non-point


discharges of sewage generated at the project site by the construction workforce.
However, due to relatively smaller area that will be taken-up for construction the
impact of water discharges at the site will be negligible.

At the construction site, adequate number of toilets with hygienic environment


will be provided. Sanitary wastewater will be treated in packaged STP and treated
water will be utilized for dust suppression.

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4.2.5 Impact due to Solid Waste Generation

During construction period, considerable quantities of earth and boulders will be


excavated from the foundations of various proposed structures. The excavated earth
and boulders will be used for leveling the low-lying terrain. The topsoil excavated
from the project site will be used for covering the area leveled with excavated
material from foundation trenches, on which tree plantations and green belt
development within the project premises will be undertaken.

During construction phase, total solid waste in terms of canteen wastes, food
packet wrappers. This may cause for environmental degradation at the project
site as well as its immediate surroundings, if adequate measures are not taken.

In order to avoid any solid waste disposal problems, an effective solid waste
management system by means of collection of wastes in dust bins and
transporting the same to the authorized dumping grounds by the contractors.
Strict adherence to the established solid waste collection and disposal system will
ensure clean environment during construction period.

4.2.6 Impact on Noise Levels

The major sources of noise during the construction phase will be due to operation
of construction equipments such as rock drills, pneumatic tools, concrete mixers,
cranes, generators, pumps, compressors, vibrators, etc. The operation of these
equipments will generate noise ranging between 70-85 dB (A). Due to moderate
levels of construction activities, the anticipated noise generation during
construction phase will be mostly confined to the facility itself and not anticipated
to have significant adverse impacts on the surrounding ambient noise levels. In
order to have less impact on noise levels in the area, the major works will be
carried out during daytime as far as possible.

Some construction equipments may generate more noise levels and might affect
the personnel operating these equipments. In order to safeguard the construction
workers working at the noise generation sources, these personnel will be provided
with proper personal protective equipments such as earplugs, earmuffs, etc.
Hence, no significant impact is envisaged due to the operation of the noise
generating equipment at the project site, if suitable mitigation measures are
adopted.

4.2.7 Impact on Terrestrial Ecology

The proposed project site is devoid of forest or thick vegetation. Only small bushes
which have grown in the recent past due to non-cultivation of the area will be
removed during leveling operations. Hence, there will not be any major impact on
the terrestrial ecology of the project site due to construction activities.

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Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

4.2.8 Impact on Aquatic Ecology

The construction of this project will be undertaken only during the non-monsoon
season; hence no run-off or discharges from the site will be let out. Further, suitable
de-siltation ponds will be provided to arrest the silt load if any during monsoon
period. Hence, no impact of water and wastewater discharges and associated
environmental pollution are envisaged during construction phase of the project.
Accordingly, no adverse impact on aquatic ecology of nearby tanks is envisaged
during this phase.

4.3 Impacts during Operational Phase

The proposed project involves construction and operation of Silk Park. The
following activities related to the operational phase will have some varying
impacts on the environment and are considered for impact assessment:

 Topography;
 Land use and building construction;
 Soil quality;
 Water quality;
 Storm water drainage;
 Solid waste generation;
 Air quality;
 Noise levels; and
 Terrestrial and aquatic ecology

4.3.1 Impact on Topography

During the operational phase of the project, no impact on topography of the


project site will be experienced, as all the land leveling and construction activities
will be completed during the construction phase of the project itself. However, the
avenue plantation will be grown with which the aesthetics will improve further.

4.3.2 Impact on Land Use and Building Construction

During the operational phase of the project, the project site which presently is a
dry land will be transformed for silk park usage with a well laid out internal roads,
decent building, beautiful landscaping, efficient air and water circulation systems,
impressive lighting system, efficient firefighting system etc. Accordingly, there
will be an immense positive impact on the land use pattern of the proposed
project site due to the project and the aesthetics will be improved impressively.

All the structures in the proposed project will be developed as per the prevailing
stipulations of Govt. of Tamilnadu. Care will be taken in provision of adequate
parking spaces as per norms, the project will not face any shortage in parking
space and accordingly all vehicles of the project will be parked inside the project
site premises. This will not compel the project managers to park the visitors
vehicles on the roads, outside the project, hence, it will not cause for traffic
congestions and hindrances or inconveniences to movements of people on the
roads and walkways.

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4.3.3 Impact on Soil Quality

All the impacts related with soils are restricted to the construction phase only;
hence there will not be any impact of the proposed project on soils of the project
site during the operational phase.

The topsoil removed during construction stage will be spread on landscaped areas
and plantation will be developed. The matured plantation will help reduction of
possible soil erosion.

The probable sources causing degradation of soil in the project site are due to
generation of solid wastes and wastewater from the proposed silk park. As
appropriate solid waste management systems will be followed, no soil pollution is
anticipated in the proposed project.

Further, the proposed greenbelt, green cover and avenue plantation measures will
enrich the soil binding characteristics and preserve topsoil from erosion.

4.3.4 Impact due to Earth Quake

The project site falls in the Seismic Intensity Zone-III, which is not prone for
severe earthquakes. Hence, this project is not likely to face any impact due to
severe earthquakes. Adequate care will be taken in construction of structures to
withstand tremors of earthquakes, if such eventuality occurs.

4.3.5 Impact on Water Quality

The total water requirement will be 4542 KLD. Out of which 792 KLD will be fresh
water which will be met from the proposed borewells within plant site. The
wastewater will be generated only from the dyeing plants & domestic sewage.
The entire wastewater generated will be treated in CETP & the treated water will
be reused for process house, flushing, watering the landscaped areas.

In order to conserve water resources and rainwater in the proposed project,


efforts will be made to recharge ground water resources by constructing
appropriate rainwater harvesting structures within the premises. The run-off from
the roof terrace will be separately piped to under ground collection tanks, after
duly filtering the same. This water is proposed to use as domestic water after
necessary treatment. Hence, construction of rainwater harvesting pits will
recharge the ground water, which is a positive impact due to the project. Storm
water run-off from the entire plot will be collected through a network of drains
constructed according to municipal regulations and the same will be discharged
into external drainage system.

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Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

4.3.6 Impact due to Solid Waste Generation

During operational phase of the project, considerable quantities of solid wastes


such as cloth waste will be sold to merchants and the inorganic sludge from
Effluent Treatment Plant will be disposed in Secured Landfill Facility. If the solid
wastes are not disposed off efficiently, these may cause for environmental
degradation. Maximum percentage of horticulture waste, such as dried leaves,
flowers etc. shall be utilized as manure.

In order to avoid problems associated with solid waste disposal problems, an


effective solid waste management system will be followed. Composting yard will
be developed for composting the biodegradable waste. The compost generated
will be utilized within project area for plantation activities. Ash generated from
burning of biomass shall be used for nourishing land and given to co-processing
industries. In the non-biodegradable waste, recyclable waste will be given to
authorized recyclers and the remaining will be disposed into the corporation
garbage collecting vehicles. The sludge generated from the CETP will be disposed
as per the CPCB norms.

4.3.7 Impact due to Fire Accidents

The proposed project design and development has been planned with utmost care
and all provisions have been made for the safety and security of the property as
well as the personnel.

For preventing fires wherever possible, fireproof materials will be used in


construction. Appropriate electrical cables and other electric appliances will be
used in the project to avoid fire accidents. For protection against fire, all the
blocks and yards will be equipped with efficient fire fighting system. DG sets will
be provided with inbuilt fuel (HSD) storage. No external storage of fuel is
envisaged.

4.3.8 Impact on Air Quality

Fugitive Emissions

The proposed project will be excellently landscaped with proper terracing and
benching and will be provided with pucca roads. As the entire project area will be
covered with good landscaping and tree/grass cover, generation of fugitive dust
within the premises is not anticipated. Even the dust, outside the project will be
minimal due to the proposed compound walls, which will function as barriers and
tree plantations along the boundary. Further, all fugitive emissions are likely to be
controlled to a great extent, through proper maintenance of tree plantations and the
green belt development undertaken within the project.

Gaseous Emissions

The sources of gaseous pollutants within the proposed project are only DG sets
and vehicular movement within the premises. The emissions of Sulphur dioxide
(SO2) and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) will be due to operation of DG sets, in case of

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Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

the failure of the power grid.

In order to disperse the emissions during operation of the DG sets, adequate


stack height will be provided as per TNPCB/CPCB norms i.e. Stack height of
22.5-m will be provided for each stack.

Air Quality Modeling

An attempt has been made to assess the impact of air quality due to operation of
DG-sets within the proposed project. The impact on ambient air quality has been
assessed by considering the following steps:

 The prevailing baseline environmental conditions established at the project


site and its study area of 10 km radius around the proposed project, during
the study period has been deployed for assessing the air quality;

 Site-specific meteorological data which was recorded hourly, over three


months has been used for the dispersion modeling; and

 Emissions from the proposed DG stacks have been considered for the
modeling simulations on the prediction of air quality during the operation
phase of the project.

Short term 24-hourly ground level concentrations (GLCs) have been computed as
per the CPCB Guidelines for air quality modeling. The GLCs are estimated by
using the site-specific meteorological data monitored data during study period
and the characteristics of the proposed stacks in the project.

 Details of Mathematical Modeling

Prediction of impacts on air environment has been carried out by using


Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) 1993 (upgraded in year 2000) complex
terrain dispersion model, based on the steady state Gaussian Plume dispersion,
designed for multiple point sources for short-term modeling. Dispersion modeling
has been carried out for three air pollutants namely SPM, SO2 and NOx.

 Model Options Used for Computations

The options used for short-term computations are as follows:

 The plume rise is estimated by Briggs formulae, but the final rise is always
limited to that of the mixing layer;
 Stack tip down wash is not considered;
 Buoyancy induced dispersion is used to describe the increasing plume
dispersion during the ascension phase;
 Calms processing routine is used by default;
 Wind profile exponents are used by default, ‘Irwin’;
 Flat terrain is used for computations;
 It is assumed that the pollutants do not undergo any physico-chemical
transformations and that there is no pollutant removal by dry deposition;
 Washout by rain is not considered; and
 Cartesian co-ordinate system has been used for computations.
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Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

 Model Input data

There will be 4 No. of DG set (500 KVA) & 1 no. of boiler (6 Tonne) are proposed
in the project. The anticipated stack emission levels from DG sets is given in
Table-4.1.
TABLE-4.1 (A)
DETAILS OF EXPECTED STACK EMISSIONS

DG Set
Sr. No. Description Unit
(500 KVA)
1. Stack height M 22.5
2. No. of Flue Nos. 4
3. Stack diameter at top M 0.25
4. Cross-sectional area m2 0.049
5. Flue gas velocity m/sec 13.8
6. Flue gas temperature °C 382
7. Gas flow rate Nm³/s 0.308
8. Emission Rate
A Particulate matter (SPM) mg/Nm3 63
g/s 0.019
B Sulphur dioxide (SO2) mg/Nm3 43
g/s 0.013
C Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) mg/Nm3 28
g/s 0.008

TABLE-4.1 (B)
DETAILS OF EXPECTED STACK EMISSIONS

Sr. No. Description Unit Boiler (6 TPH)


1. Stack height m 18.0 (each)
2. No. of Flue Nos. 1
3. Stack diameter at top m 0.25 each
4. Cross-sectional area m2 0.05
5. Flue gas velocity m/sec 5.0
6. Flue gas temperature °C 98
7. Gas flow rate Nm³/s 0.199
8. Emission Rate
A Particulate matter (SPM) mg/Nm3 124.0
g/s 0.024
B Sulphur dioxide (SO2) mg/Nm3 45
g/s 0.001
C Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) mg/Nm3 19
g/s 0.003

 Presentation of Results
The simulations were carried out to evaluate PM, SO 2 and NOx likely to be
contributed by the DG sets. In this short-term simulation model, the
concentrations can be estimated with about 1200 receptor points that will be
chosen to obtain an optimum description of variations in concentrations over the
project site and within 10 km radius around it, while covering 16 directions.
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Chapter-4
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By using this model, the incremental concentrations have been estimated. The
predicted incremental levels for PM, SO 2 and NOx from the operation of DG sets
during power grid failure are presented in Table-4.2. The isopleths for PM, SO2
and NOx are shown in Figure-4.1 to Figure -4.3 respectively.

TABLE-4.2
PREDICTED 24-HOURLY INCREMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS

Parameter Maximum Incremental Distance Direction


G.L.C.s (g/m3) (km)
PM 2.9 1.4 North
SO2 1.59 1.4 North
NOX 0.43 1.4 North

 Resultant Concentrations
The predicted maximum incremental GLCs as referred in Table-4.2 during the
operation of the proposed project for PM, SO2 and NOx are superimposed on the
maximum baseline PM, SO2 and NOx concentrations recorded during the study to
arrive at the likely resultant concentrations during operation of the DG sets as and
when operated, in the proposed facility.

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Chapter-4
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-10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0

-2000 -2000

-4000 -4000

-6000 -6000

-8000 -8000

-10000 -10000
-10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

FIGURE-4.1
SHORT TERM 24 HOURLY INCREMENTAL GLCS OF PM

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Chapter-4
Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

-10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0

-2000 -2000

-4000 -4000

-6000 -6000

-8000 -8000

-10000 -10000
-10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

FIGURE-4.2
SHORT TERM 24 HOURLY INCREMENTAL GLCS OF SO2

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Chapter-4
Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

-10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
10000 10000

8000 8000

6000 6000

4000 4000

2000 2000

0 0

-2000 -2000

-4000 -4000

-6000 -6000

-8000 -8000

-10000 -10000
-10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

FIGURE-4.3
SHORT TERM 24 HOURLY INCREMENTAL GLCS OF NOX

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Chapter-4
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The cumulative concentrations (baseline + incremental) in the worst case, when all
the DG sets are operated after implementation of the project are given in Table-4.3.

TABLE-4.3
RESULTANT CONCENTRATIONS DUE TO INCREMENTAL GLCs
Pollutant Maximum AAQ Incremental Resultant
Concentrations Concentration Concentration
(g/m3) (g/m3) (g/m3)
PM 65.1 2.9 68.0
SO2 11.1 1.59 12.69
NOx 16.2 0.43 16.63

The maximum GLCs for SPM, SO2 and NOx after implementation of the proposed
project are within the prescribed standards for rural and residential areas. However,
the DG sets will be operated only during the emergency conditions, when regular
power supply is disrupted.

4.3.9 Impact on Noise Levels

The noise generating sources from the proposed project is DG sets only. There is
no other major noise generating sources. The noise levels at the source for these
units will be in the range of 80-85 dB (A).

4.4 Indirect Impacts

4.4.1 Impacts on Public Health

The discharge of waste materials (wastewater and solid wastes) from the project
can have some adverse impacts on public health in the surrounding area, if
appropriate treatment procedures are not followed. As the project will be
designed as per the modern available technology for controlling the impacts, no
adverse impacts on public health in the area are anticipated.

4.4.2 Impact on Places of Tourist/Religious/Historical Importance

Considerable number of historical monuments or places of historical importance


are present near the project site. As the proposed project is a silk park, negligible
air pollution impacts will be resulted during the functional phase of the project;
hence no adverse impact will be resulted on these historical monuments due to
this project.

4.5 Mitigation Measures

4.5.1 Construction Phase

The construction phase involves site preparation, transportation of construction


materials and equipment and construction of the infrastructure. During this
phase, it is imminent that workers/labours will be staying on site till the
completion of construction. However, this is not a long-term impact as this is a
temporary phase.

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Chapter-4
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From the above activity, it is envisaged that there will be some effect on the
existing environment. To minimize these impacts, the proponent will undertake
all preventive and remedial measures, which are outlined hereunder.

Land Environment

The following management measures will be adopted:

 During the construction phase, as soon as construction is over, the surplus


earth will be utilized to fill up the low lying areas, the rubbish will be cleared
and all un-built surfaces be reinstated;

 The top soil from the excavated areas will be preserved in separate stacks for
re-use during the plantation;

 There will be minimum/optimum concreting of the top surfaces so that


sufficient scope for maximum groundwater recharge due to rainfall with
appropriate rain water harvesting measures

Water Environment

During monsoon period, the surface run-off will be likely to be affected due to the
construction work and loosening of topsoil. This will be likely to increase the
suspended solids in the run-off during heavy precipitation. Construction activities
will be sustained during heavy rains and construction material shall be properly
covered.

In order to reduce the impact on water quality, temporary sedimentation tanks


and bunds will be constructed for the settlement of the suspended matter.

Sanitation

The construction site will be provided with adequate toilet facilities for workers to
meet the proper standards of hygiene. These facilities will be connected to a
packaged STP and maintained to ensure minimum environmental impact.

Air Environment

During construction period, there will be likelihood of generation of dust and NOx
emissions. This can be attributed to leveling activity and vehicular movement.
The transport vehicles using petrol or diesel should be properly maintained to
minimize smoke in the exhaust. Water sprinkling is suggested to address this
issue.

Since there will be likelihood of fugitive dust from the construction activity, material
handling and from the truck movement in the premises, the project should go for
tree plantation program along the boundaries of the project site.

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Chapter-4
Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

Additional recommendations include the following:

 Sprinkling of water will be done at frequent intervals by preferably using


truck-mounted sprinklers;

 Construction equipment will be maintained and serviced regularly such that


the gaseous emissions from these equipment are maintained within the design
specifications; and
 Construction activities will be restricted to daytime only as much as possible
to minimize disturbance during nighttime.

Noise Environment

Generation of noise during construction phase will be due to operation of heavy


equipment and increased frequency of vehicular traffic in the area. Vibration
levels will also increase due to these activities. However, these impacts will be
short term and intermittent in nature. The noise effect on the nearest inhabitants
during the construction activity will be negligible, as the noise levels will be
dissipated within the project site itself. Nevertheless, the following mitigation
measures will be adopted:

 Provision for insulating caps and aids at the exit of noise source on the
machinery;
 The use of damping materials such as thin rubber/lead sheet for wrapping the
work places like compressors, generator sheets;
 Shock absorbing techniques will be adopted to reduce impact;
 Inlet and outlet mufflers will be provided, which are easy to design;
 Earmuffs will be provided to the workers and it should be enforced to be used
by the workers;
 Noise prone activities will be restricted to the extent possible during night
time, particularly during the period between 10 pm to 6 am in order to have
minimum environmental impact on the workers as well as on the
neighbourhood; and
 No worker will be allowed to expose to more than 90 dB (A) in an 8-hour shift
and under no circumstance the noise level from any equipment will be greater
than 115 dB (A).

Ecological Aspects

Project site is vacant land and there is no vegetation at site. The proper
landscaping will be mitigated the any adverse impacts. A comprehensive
greenbelt programme will improve the ecological condition of the region.

Storage of Hazardous Material

The hazardous materials used during the construction may include petrol, diesel,
welding gas and paints. These materials will be stored and handled as per the
guidelines specified under Hazardous Wastes (Storage, Handling and
Transportation) Management Rules of Environment Protection Act.

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Chapter-4
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Some of the precautions of storage include the following:

 Dyked enclosures will be provided so as to contain complete contents of the


largest tank; and
 Diesel and other fuels will be stored in separate dyke enclosures.

Site Security

Adequate security arrangement will be made to ensure that the local inhabitants
and the stray cattle are not exposed to the potential hazards of construction
activities.

Migrant Laborers

Safe and secure camping area will be provided for the migrant laborers during the
construction period. Adequate arrangements will be made for water supply and
sanitation.

The construction site should be provided with sufficient and suitable toilet facilities
for workers to allow proper standards of hygiene. These facilities will be connected
to a packaged STP and maintained to ensure minimum environmental impact.

Facilities to be provided by the Labour Contractor

The contractor has to provide following facilities to construction work force:

First Aid: At work place, first aid facilities will be maintained at a readily
accessible place where necessary appliances including sterilized cotton wool etc
will be available. Ambulance facilities will be kept readily available at workplace to
take injured person to the nearest hospital.

Potable Water: Sufficient supply of water fit for drinking will be provided at
suitable places.

Sanitary Facility: Within the precinct of very work place, latrines and urinals
should be provided at accessible place. These should be cleaned at least twice
during working hours and kept in a good sanitary condition. The contractor should
conform to sanitary requirement of local medical and health authorities at all
times.

Security: The contractor will provide necessary security to work force.

Facilities for Women: Facilities as per Factory Rules of the State Government
will be provided to the women work force. Separate toilets for women will be
provided with appropriate signboards.

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Chapter-4
Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

4.5.2 Operational Phase

The EMP in the design stage endeavors to mitigate the problems related to health,
safety and environment at the initial stage itself. The proposed facilities will be
designed taking into account all applicable standards/norms both for regulatory and
safety purpose.

The design of the project will be made by laying special emphasis on the measures
to minimize sewage generation and emission control at source. The specific control
measures related to gaseous emissions, liquid sewage discharges, noise generation,
solid waste disposal, etc are described below:

Air Pollution Management

Major pollutants envisaged from the proposed project are Particulates, Sulphur
dioxide and Oxides of Nitrogen due to traffic activities and during the emergency
operation of DG sets. The operation of DG sets will only be a temporary
phenomenon and hence it will not cause any major adverse impact on air
environment.

The emission standards of the vehicles plying in the complex will be of


international standards. Euro-III/Bharat-III standards will be used.

Parking Facilities

Adequate parking facilities will be provided within project premises, as per


Authority norms.

Water and Wastewater Management


 Controlled Water Use

The total water requirement of the project is about 4542.0 KLD. Out of which
792.0 KLD will be fresh water which will be met from the proposed borewells
within plant site. Wastage of water will be totally controlled and only the
minimum quantum of water will be used.

 Monitoring of Water Consumption


Periodic water audits will be conducted to explore the possibilities for
minimization of water consumption.

 Water Conservation

In order to reduce the water consumption in project, suitable measures will be


taken. For watering the plants and landscaped areas and toilet flushing treated
sewage will be used, thus conserving water.

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Chapter-4
Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

 Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

The quantity of wastewater generation depends upon the quantity of water used
for various purposes. The quantum of sewage generated from the project will be
about 490 KLD.

Wastewater generated from the domestic activities of the proposed project will be
treated in Sewage Treatment Plant and treated water will be utilized for flushing
and landscaping. Zero discharge will be maintained, there is no wastewater will
be discharged outside.

Rain Water Management

Rainwater harvesting may be defined as a process of augmenting the natural


infiltration of rainwater or surface run-off into the ground by some artificial
methods. The recharge method suggested for the project are recharge pits and
conserving the rainwater by artificially storing above ground and using the same
for human use. The recharge pits shall be designed, following the natural gradient
of the site. Separate water collection tanks have been designed at within the site
for collection and utilization of rainwater from paved areas.

A rainwater harvesting system comprises components of various stages -


transporting rainwater through pipes or drains, filtration, and storage in tanks for
reuse or recharge. The catchment of a water harvesting system is the surface,
which directly receives the rainfall and provides water to the rainwater harvesting
system. Appropriate gutters shall be provided to route rainwater collected by
paved areas like terrace or courtyard of a building to collection tanks. The
rainwater run-off from road, unpaved area, comprising lawn, garden or open
space area shall be routed to rainwater harvesting pits, provided all along the
periphery of the project area.

The first flush shall be checked from entering collection system, using diversion
valves to ensure that runoff from the first spell of rain is flushed out and does not
enter the system. This needs to be done since the first spell of rain carries a
relatively larger amount of pollutants from the air and catchment surface.

Noise Level Management

The incremental noise levels due to the proposed project will be less than 45-
dB(A) near the project boundaries in all the directions. The ambient noise levels
in the region are within the permissible limits. However, the greenbelt to be
provided will further attenuate the noise levels.

Recommendations

 Noise levels would be reduced by the use of absorbing material on roof walls
and floors;
 The project area would be thickly vegetated with species of rich canopy; and
 Adequate green belt and green cover and avenue plantation with an average
density of 1000 saplings/ha will be created to attenuate noise levels.

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Chapter-4
Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

4.6 Greenbelt Development

Implementation of garden and greenbelt development is of paramount


importance in development of the silk park project. In addition to augmenting the
existing vegetation, it will also prevent soil erosion, make the ecosystem more
complex and functionally more stable, make the climate more conductive and
restore water balance.

The greenbelt helps to capture the fugitive emissions and to attenuate the noise
generated in the premises apart from improving the aesthetics of the site.
Plantation program should be undertaken in all available areas. This would include
plantation in the premises, along the internal and external roads and in between
buildings.

The plant species selected for greenbelt will include the native species. These
saplings will be planted in rows. About 35.32% (10.72 ha) of the total
geographical land of the site will be brought under greenbelt/green cover
program.

The plantation at the proposed project will take into consideration of the existing
social forestry in the region. The proposed plantation will cover the following
design aspects:

 There will be a greenbelt all around the proposed project;


 All along the internal and external roads, plantation will be taken up;
 Shrubs and trees will be planted in encircling rows around the project site;
 Planting of trees in each row will be in staggered orientation (Triangular
form);
 Since the trunks of the tall trees are generally devoid of foliage, it will be
useful to have shrubs in front of the trees so as to give coverage to this
portion;
 Standard pit size will be 1 m x 1 m x 1 m; and
 The pits will be filled using good soil from nearby agricultural fields (3 parts)
and farmyard manure (1 part).

4.6.1 Plant Species for Greenbelt

Based on climate and soil characteristics of the study area, some species are
recommended for plantation. In order to have a ground cover, some fast growing
species, which do not require watering, have been recommended for mass
plantation. The species are as presented below:

 Acacia auriculiformis
 Casuarina equisetifolia
 Albezzia lebeck
 Leucena leucopholca

The above-mentioned species not only resist water stress but also covers the
ground quickly and also have wider soil adaptability.

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Chapter-4
Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

For protecting the environment from dust, temperature, chemicals, emissions the
following species have been recommended.

Plant species for Plant Area and its Boundary

 Syzygium cumminii Plant species for vacant spaces


 Casuarina equisetifolia
 Eucalyptus hybrid  Syzygium Cumminii
 Cocos nucifera  Cocos nucifera
 Artocarpus hetreophylla  Thespesia populanea
 Azadirachta indica  Borassus flabelliefera
 Polyalthia longifolira  Artocarpus heterophylla
 Thespesia populanea  Azadirachta indica
 Bauhinia purpuria  Pongamia glabra
 Bauhinia recemosa  Peltophorum ferrusinum
 Pongamia glabra  Terminalia arjun
 Peltophorum ferrusinium  Dalbergia sissoo
 Mangifera indica  Tectona grandis
 Dalberqia sissoo  Ficus reliosa
 Tecoma stans  Somania saman
 Tectona grandis  Mimusops elinqe
 Ficus reeligiosa  Casia fistula
 Somania saman  Bambuea multiplex
 Mimusops elinqi  Tamarindus indica
 Cassia fistula  Polyalthia longifolira
 Bambusa multiplex  Butea monosperma
 Tamarindus indica.  Bauhinia purpuria
 Bauhinia recemosa
 Pongamia glabra
 Peltophorum ferrusinium
 Calliandra callothyrus
 Carissa carandus
 Delonix regia
 Sesbania grandiflora
 Lannea coramandalica
 Mangifera indica

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Chapter – 5
Environmental Monitoring Program
Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 5
Environmental Monitoring Programme

5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME


5.1 Implementation Schedule of EMP
The mitigation measures suggested in the Chapter-4 will be implemented so as to
reduce the impact on environment due to the operations of the proposed project.
In order to facilitate easy implementation, mitigation measures are phased as per
the priority implementation. The priority of the implementation schedule is given in
Table-5.1.
TABLE-5.1
EMP IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE

Sr. No. Recommendations Requirement


1. Air pollution control measures Before commissioning of respective
textile processing units
2. Water pollution control measures Before commissioning of the project
3. Noise control measures Along with the commissioning of the
Project
4. Solid waste management During commissioning of the project
5. Green belt development Stage-wise implementation

5.2 Environmental Monitoring

The Post Project Monitoring to be carried out at the project is discussed below:
Monitoring and Reporting Procedure

Regular monitoring of important and crucial environmental parameters is of


immense importance to assess the status of environment during operational
phase. With the knowledge of baseline conditions, the monitoring program can
serve as an indicator for any deterioration in environmental conditions due to
operational phase and suitable mitigatory steps could be taken in time to
safeguard the environment. Monitoring is as important as that of control of
pollution since the efficiency of control measures can only be determined by
monitoring. The following routine monitoring program will be implemented under
the post project monitoring. The proposed monitoring program is given below:
Air Pollution and Meteorological Aspects
Both ambient air quality and stack emissions will be monitored. The ambient air
quality will be monitored once in three months in the work zone, at the DG set
location and surroundings through a reputed environmental laboratory recognized
by CPCB/MoEF. Similarly, the stack monitoring will be carried out once in three
months and the results will be reported to pollution control authorities.
Wastewater Quality
The domestic sewage/textile effluent emanating from the project will be
monitored once in a month for physico-chemical characteristics.

Noise Levels
Noise levels near the DG set (4 nos. x 500 KVA) will be monitored once in three
months.
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Chapter – 5
Environmental Monitoring Programme

Monitoring Equipment and Consumables

A well-equipped laboratory with consumable items will be provided for monitoring


of environmental parameters. Alternatively, monitoring can be outsourced to a
recognized laboratory.

5.3 Environmental Monitoring during Construction Phase

The environmental monitoring cell of the construction team will be coordinating


all the monitoring programs during the construction phase of all the proposed
textile units at the silk park. The proposed monitoring schedule during the
construction phase of the project is outlined in Table-5.2.

TABLE-5.2
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SCHEDULE DURING
CONSTRUCTION PHASE

Important
Monitoring Duration of
Sr. No. Monitoring Location Monitoring
Frequency Sampling
Parameters
A Project Activity : Earth work, land development and building construction
I Ambient Air Quality Monitoring
Six locations at proposed Once in a 8 hrs PM10, PM2.5,
project site (to monitor month SO2, NO2 and
impacts of proposed CO
construction activities)
II Ambient Noise Level
Eight locations at Once in a Hourly for 24 Sound Pressure
proposed project site (to month hrs Levels, Leq, Lmax
monitor impacts of
proposed construction
activities)
III Water Quality
Drainage Outfalls Once in a 24 hr BOD, TSS
(Drainage pipes adjacent month composite
to the development area
will be cleaned of soil
and aggregates)
IV Solid Waste Disposal Mechanism
Project site (Disposal site Daily Twice a day Physical
of construction debris Observation
and cutting material)
V Traffic Monitoring
Near Project Site (to Daily Hourly Vehicle count
monitor impacts of and type
temporary construction
traffic)
VI Occupational Health Twice in a Continuous General Health
and Safety week database aspects
management of
causalities

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Chapter – 5
Environmental Monitoring Programme

5.4 Environmental Monitoring during Operation Phase


The environmental monitoring cell will co-ordinate all the monitoring programs at
the silk park and data thus generated will be regularly furnished to the State
Regulatory Agencies.
TABLE-5.3
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SCHEDULE DURING
OPERATION PHASE
Proposed Monitoring Practice
Sr. No. Particulars Monitoring Duration of
Monitoring Parameters
Frequency Sampling
I Air Pollution & Meteorology
A Stack Monitoring
Proposed DG set & boiler Twice in a 30 min SPM, SO2, NO2, Temperature,
stacks month flow etc.,
B Ambient Air Quality Monitoring
10 locations within the Once in a 24 hrs PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3,
proposed site month continuously Pb, NH3, C6H6, BaP, As, Ni

C Meteorology
Meteorological data is Hourly/Daily Continuous Wind speed & direction,
monitored at the proposed on line temperature, relative
site for the functional Monitoring humidity, atm. pressure,
requirements. rainfall and solar radiation,
visibility etc.,
II Water and Wastewater Quality
A Wastewater quality
Sanitary (Raw and treated Once in a 24 hr As per EPA rules, 1996 or as
wastewater) & month composite specified by TNPCB,
Textile effluent Kanchipuram dt.
B Water quality
1 location within proposed Once in a Grab Parameters specified under
site month IS:10500-2001
“Specifications for Drinking
Water”
III Noise Level
8 locations within proposed site Continuous Hourly Sound Pressure Levels, Leq,
monitoring for Lmax
a day, once in
a month
DG Room Once in a 8 hr Sound Pressure Levels, Leq,
month continuous Lmax
with 1 hr
interval
IV Solid Waste Management
Solid waste storage area & STP / Daily Twice a day Physical Observation
CETP sludge disposal area
V Traffic Management
Near Entrance Monthly 24 hrs Vehicle count and type, dwell
continuously time
VI Occupational Health Yearly Continuous General Health aspects
database
management
of causalities
VII Safety/ Emergency Yearly Continuous Yearly emergency drill
database
management

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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 5
Environmental Monitoring Programme

5.5 Cost Provision for Environmental Measures

For environment protection, management, pollution control, treatment and


monitoring systems, appropriate budgetary provision would be made and
provision for recurring expenditure for environment management of the project
would be made. The details of budget allocation during functional phase are given
in Table-5.4.

TABLE-5.4
BUDGET ALLOCATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Budgetary allocation
(Rs. In lakhs)
Sr. No. Description
Capital O & M cost
cost per annum
1. Construction Phase
i. Dust Suppression and drainage management 5.0 ---
ii. Sanitary facility 5.0 ---
iii. Solid waste management / Noise protection 1.0 ---
iv. Misc. expenses 1.0 ---
2. Operational Phase
i. Sewage/Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) 3500.0 3000.0
ii. Storm water drainage and harvesting 246.6 1.0
iii. Landscaping and gardening 75.0 5.0
iv. Sludge Management/Disposal 200.0 50.0
v. Air Pollution control measures 50.0 10.0
vi. Environmental Monitoring --- 50.0
Total 4071.6 3116.0

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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 6
Additional Studies

6.0 ADDITIONAL STUDIES

6.1 Risk Assessment

Risk analysis involves the identification and assessment of risks the persons
involved in the proposed project and the neighboring populations are exposed to as
a result of hazard occurrence. This requires a thorough knowledge of failure
probability, credible accident scenario, vulnerability of population etc. Much of this
information is difficult to get or generate. Consequently, the risk analysis is often
confined to maximum credible accident studies.

In the sections below, the identification of various hazards, probable risks in the
proposed Silk Park, maximum credible accident analysis and consequence analysis,
which gives a broad identification of risks involved, are addressed. Based on the risk
estimation for fuel storage, a Disaster Management Plan (DMP) has been presented.

6.1.1 Approach to the Study

Risk involves the occurrence or potential occurrence of some accidents consisting of


an event or sequence of events. The risk assessment study covers the following:

 Identification of potential hazard areas;


 Identification of representative failure cases;
 Visualization of the resulting scenarios in terms of fire (thermal radiation) and
explosion;
 Assessment of the overall damage potential of the identified hazardous events
and the impact zones from the accidental scenarios;
 Assessment of the overall suitability of the site from hazard minimization and
disaster mitigation points of view;
 Furnishing specific recommendations on the minimization of the worst accident
possibilities; and
 Preparation of broad Disaster Management Plan (DMP), On-site and Off-site
Emergency Plan, which includes Occupational and Health Safety Plan.

6.1.2 Hazard Identification

Identification of hazards in the proposed silk park is of primary significance in the


analysis, quantification and cost effective control of accidents involving HSD. A
classical definition of hazard states that hazard is in fact the characteristic that
presents potential for an accident. Hence, the components of the proposed project
need to be thoroughly examined to assess their potential for initiating or
propagating an unplanned event/sequence of events, which can be termed as an
accident. The following two methods for hazard identification have been employed in
the study:

 Identification of major hazardous units based on Manufacture, Storage and


Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 of Government of India (GOI Rules,
1989); and

 Identification of hazardous units and storage units based on relative ranking


technique, viz. Fire-Explosion and Toxicity Index (FE&TI).

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Chapter – 6
Additional Studies

6.1.3 Identification of Major Hazardous Units


Hazardous substances may be classified into three main classes such as flammable
substances and unstable substances and toxic substances. The ratings for a large
number of chemicals/substances based on flammability, reactivity and toxicity have
been given in NFPA Codes 49 and 345 M. In the proposed project, HSD will be
stored in-build the DG set for generation of power in case of grid failure. The details
of HSD storage and its classification as per GOI rules are given in Table-6.1.
Hazardous characteristics of HSD are listed in Table-6.2.
TABLE-6.1
APPLICABILITY OF GOI RULES TO FUEL
Sr. Threshold Quantity (T) for
Chemical/ Listed in
No. Storage Application of Rules
Fuel Schedule
5,7-9,13-15 10-12
500 Lit – Inbuilt
1 HSD 3 (1) 25 MT 200 MT
storage within DG set

TABLE-6.2
PROPERTIES OF STORAGE FUELS

Chemical/ Codes/Label TLV FBP MP FP UEL LEL


Fuel °C %
HSD Flammable 5 mg/m3 369 338 32.96 7.5 0.6
TLV : Threshold Limit Value FBP : Final Boiling Point
MP : Melting Point FP : Flash Point
UEL : Upper Explosive Limit LEL : Lower Explosive Limit

6.1.4 Common Causes of Accidents

Based on the analysis of past accident information, common causes of accidents are
identified as:

 Poor housekeeping;
 Improper use of tools, equipment, facilities;
 Unsafe or defective equipment facilities;
 Lack of proper procedures;
 Failure to follow prescribed procedures;
 Jobs not understood;
 Lack of awareness of involved hazards;
 Lack of guides and safety devices; and
 Lack of protective equipment and clothing.

6.1.5 Failures of Human Systems

Major causes of human failures reported are due to:

 Stress induced by poor equipment design, unfavorable environmental


conditions, fatigue, etc.;
 Lack of training in safety and loss prevention;
 Indecision in critical situations; and
 Inexperienced staff being employed in hazardous situations.

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Chapter – 6
Additional Studies

Often, human errors are not analyzed while accident reporting and accident reports
only provide information about equipment and/or component failures. Hence, a
great deal of uncertainty surrounds analysis of failure of human systems and
consequent damages.

6.2 Hazard Assessment and Evaluation

6.2.1 Introduction

An assessment of the conceptual design is conducted for the purpose of identifying


and examining hazards related to utility and support systems, environmental
factors, facilities and safeguards.

6.2.2 Methodology
An assessment of the conceptual design is conducted for the purpose of identifying
and examining hazards related to utility and support systems, environmental
factors, facilities, and safeguards.
6.2.3 Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)
A preliminary hazard analysis is carried out initially to identify the major hazards
associated with storages in the proposed project. This is followed by consequence
analysis to quantify these hazards. No major hazards with potential for any
emergency situation exist in the project site. The other hazards related to the
storage areas are given below in Table-6.3 and the preliminary hazard analysis for
the proposed project is given in Table-6.4.
6.2.4 Maximum Credible Accident Analysis (MCAA)
Hazardous substances may be released as a result of failures or catastrophes,
causing possible damage to the surrounding area.
TABLE-6.3
PRELIMINARY HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR PROCESS AND STORAGE AREAS
Equipment Process Potential Hazard Provision
Diesel Generator Converts mechanical Mechanical hazards As above
energy into electrical and fire hazards in
energy.
1. Lube oil system
2. Cable galleries
3. Short circuits
Power - Fire and explosion All electrical fittings
Transformers and cables are
provided as per the
specified standards.
Switch Yard - Fire in cable galleries As above
control room and switch
HSD Storage Used as fuel for DG Fire & explosion Leaks detection
within DG set set. system will be
provided.

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Chapter – 6
Additional Studies

TABLE-6.4
PRELIMINARY HAZARD ANALYSIS IN GENERAL
PHA Description of Recommendation Provision
Category Plausible Hazard
Environ- If there is any - All electrical fittings and cables
mental leakage and will be provided as per the
factors eventuality of specified standards. All motor
source of ignition. starters are flame proof.
Highly inflammable A well designed fire Fire extinguisher of small size
nature of fuels may protection including and big size are provided at all
cause fire hazard in protein foam, dry potential fire hazard places. In
the storage facility. powder, CO2 extinguisher addition to the above, fire
should be provided. hydrant network is also
provided.

A disastrous situation may arise due to outcome of fire, explosion or toxic hazards in
addition to other natural causes, which eventually lead to loss of life, property and
ecological imbalance.

Major hazards posed by flammable storage can be identified taking recourse to MCA
analysis. Depending upon the effective hazardous attributes and their impact on the
event, the maximum effect on the surrounding environment and the respective
damage caused can be assessed.

The results of consequence analysis are useful for getting information about all
known and unknown effects that are of importance when some failure scenario
occurs in the proposed project and also to get information as how to deal with the
possible catastrophic events. It also gives the residents in the project and people
living in the vicinity of the area, an understanding of their personal situation.

Damage Criteria

The Inbuilt storage of HSD in the DG Set and unloading facility may lead to fire and
explosion hazards. The damage criteria due to accidental release of any
hydrocarbon arise from fire and explosion. The vapors of these fuels are not toxic
and hence no effects of toxicity are expected.

Tank fire will occur if the radiation intensity is high on the peripheral surface of
the tank leading to increase in internal tank pressure. Pool fire will occur when
fuel collected in the dyke due to leakage gets ignited.

 Fire Damage
A flammable liquid in a pool will burn with a large turbulent diffusion flame. This
releases heat based on the heat of combustion and the burning rate of the liquid. A
part of the heat is radiated while the rest is convicted away by rising hot air and
combustion products. The radiations can heat the contents of a nearby storage or
process unit to above its ignition temperature and thus result in a spread of fire. The
radiations can also cause severe burns or fatalities of workers or fire fighters located
within a certain distance. Hence, it will be important to know beforehand the
damage potential of a flammable liquid pool likely to be created due to leakage or
catastrophic failure of a storage or process vessel. This will help to decide the

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Chapter – 6
Additional Studies

location of other storage vessels and decide the type of protective clothing the
workers/fire fighters need, the duration of time for which they can be in the zone,
the fire extinguishing measures needed and the protection methods needed for the
nearby storage/process vessels. The damage effects on people and equipment due
to thermal radiation intensity are presented in Tables-6.5 and Table-6.6
respectively.
TABLE-6.5
DAMAGE DUE TO INCIDENT RADIATION INTENSITIES

Sr. Incident Type of Damage Intensity


No. Radiation Damage to Equipment Damage to People
(kW/m2)
100% lethality in 1 min. 1%
1. 37.5 Damage to process equipment
lethality in 10 sec.
Minimum energy required to ignite wood 50% Lethality in 1 min.
2. 25.0 at indefinitely long exposure without a Significant injury in 10 sec.
flame
Maximum thermal radiation intensity
3. 19.0 allowed on thermally unprotected -
adjoining equipment
Minimum energy to ignite with a flame;
4. 12.5 1% lethality in 1 min.
melts plastic tubing
Causes pain if duration is longer
5. 4.5 - than 20 sec, however blistering
is un-likely (First degree burns)
Causes no discomfort on long
6. 1.6 -
exposures
Source: Techniques for Assessing Industrial Hazards by World Bank

The effect of incident radiation intensity and exposure time on lethality is given in
Table- 6.6.
TABLE-6.6
RADIATION EXPOSURE AND LETHALITY

Radiation Intensity Exposure Time Lethality (%) Degree of Burns


(kW/m2) (seconds)
1.6 -- 0 No Discomfort even
after long exposure
4.5 20 0 1st
4.5 50 0 1st
8.0 20 0 1st
8.0 50 <1 3rd
8.0 60 <1 3rd
12.0 20 <1 2nd
12.0 50 8 3rd
12.5 -- 1 --
25.0 -- 50 --
37.5 -- 100 --

6.2.5 Recommended Approach to Combat with the Possible Accidents

Considering all possible accident scenarios as analyzed in the risk analysis, it is


established that there will not be any major potential hazards in the project
causing major damages inside and outside the boundary. In spite of this, the
project authorities should be well prepared to handle any such eventuality as
described below:
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Chapter – 6
Additional Studies

In case of Explosion:

The following measures and actions are to be taken:

 Evacuate the area in vicinity;


 Take all necessary actions to avoid escalation of the accident;
 If problem appears to be out of control, call fire brigade and police. Report to
district collector, etc.; and
 Provide first aid to the victims as suggested in the Material Safety Data
Sheets.

Spillage due to storage tank rupture or tanker failure

This accident scenario has considerable damage potential. In such scenario the
following steps should be taken:

 Contain fuel supply to the tankers;


 Determine the extent of damage; and
 Undertake all the emergency actions mentioned above.

Spillage from Storage tank, storage tank/tanker overfilling, pipe-hose


rupture
In addition the measure stated above, the following actions are to be taken:

 Stop further process of filling immediately;


 Note the amount of fuel spilled in the area;
 If the tanker is on the road, communicate about the accident to the traffic
police; and
 Take help of the traffic police for preliminary emergency actions.

Major Spillage due to storage tank rupture or tanker failure

This accident scenario has considerable damage potential. In such case the
following steps have to be taken up:

 Determine the extent of damage;


 Contain fuel supply to HSD tanks; and
 Undertake all the emergency actions mentioned above.

 Accident Involving HSD

In case of leakage of oil from flanges, valves, tail ends or during transfer from
truck tanker (TTS):

 Detect the source of leakage;


 If possible, try to collect the leaking oil in a suitable container;
 Bring portable fire extinguishers near to the area of leakage; and
 Stop flow of spilled oil and prevent it from coming into contact with any
ignition source.

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Chapter – 6
Additional Studies

If HSD is ignited at the source of leak:

In addition to the above, following actions are to be taken:

 Use fire extinguishers to diminish the fire;


 See that the flame does not impinge on tanks or any other adjacent
installation;
 If impingement of flame is unavoidable, put water curtain in between and cool
the adjacent installations;
 Give priority to closure of valve and stop the flow;
 Best trained personnel to prevent further spread of fire;
 Take all necessary actions to avoid escalation of the accident; and
 In case of fire, ensure suffocation and toxicity due to flame does not take
place.

In case of fire near HSD storage tanks:


 If the fire is near the storage tanks area, use water hydrant and DCP type fire
extinguishers;
 Never allow fire to spread to the area below the tank, start cooling the tank
by the emergency water spray; and
 Call fire brigade & police for assistance.

6.3 Disaster Management Plan

A disaster is a catastrophic situation in which suddenly, people are plunged into


helplessness and suffering, as a result, need protection, clothing, shelter, medical
and social care and other necessities of life.

Disasters can be divided into two main groups. In the first, disasters resulting
from natural phenomena like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storm surges,
cyclones, tropical storms, floods, avalanches, landslides, forest fires etc. The
second group includes disastrous events occasioned by man, or man’s impact
upon the environment. Examples are armed conflict, radiation accidents, campus
fires, river pollution, air, sea, rail and road transport accidents and can reach
catastrophic dimensions in terms of human loss.

There can be no set criteria for assessing the gravity of a disaster in the abstract
since this depends to a large extent on the physical, economic and social
environment in which it occurs. What would be considered a major disaster in a
developing country, ill-equipped to cope with the problems involved may not
mean more than a temporary emergency elsewhere. However, all disaster brings
in their wake similar consequences that call for immediate action, whether at the
local, national or international level, for the rescue and relief of the victims. This
includes the search for the dead and injured and removal of debris and social
care, the provision of temporary shelter to the homeless food, clothing and
medical supplies, and the rapid re-establishment of essential services.

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Chapter – 6
Additional Studies

6.3.1 Objectives of Disaster Management Plan (DMP)

The Disaster Management Plan is aimed to ensure safety of life, protection of


environment, protection of installation, restoration of production and salvage
operations in this same order of priorities. For effective implementation of the
Disaster Management Plan, it will be widely circulated and personnel training
given through rehearsals/drills.

The Disaster Management Plan would reflect the probable, consequential


severalties of the undesired event due to deteriorating conditions or through
‘Knock on’ effects. Further the management should be able to demonstrate that
their assessment of the consequences uses good supporting evidence and is
based on currently available and reliable information, incident data from internal
and external sources and if necessary the reports of outside agencies.

To tackle the consequences of a major emergency inside the factory or immediate


vicinity of the factory, a Disaster Management Plan has to be formulated and this
planned emergency document is called “Disaster Management Plan”.
The objective of the Disaster Management Plan is to make use of the combine
resources of the plant and the outside services to achieve the following:

 Effect the rescue and medical treatment of casualties;


 Safeguard other people;
 Minimize damage to property and the environment;
 Initially contain and ultimately bring the incident under control;
 Identify any dead;
 Provide for needs of relatives;
 Provide authoritative information to the news media;
 Secure the safe rehabilitation of affected area; and
 Preserve relevant records and equipment for the subsequent inquiry into
the cause and circumstances of the Emergency.

In effect, it is to optimize operational efficiency to rescue rehabilitation and


render medical help and to restore normalcy.

6.4 Social Impact Assessment

The impact of the proposed project will begin with the starting up of the
construction activities at the site. The proposed construction will provide
employment to considerable number of skilled, semi-skilled and un-skilled
construction labourers. In normal circumstances, the local people will be given
preference for the unskilled activities, as there are many construction laborers in
the vicinity of the project and are expected to be available with normal wages.
Presently, a large number of skilled and semi-skilled technicians and labourers
who in-migrated from various parts of India have been engaged in many
companies on wages/contract basis. Similar technicians and skilled workers will
either be brought or sourced from the local area for construction of the proposed
project.

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The peak labour force required during the construction period will be about 1000
per day and it is anticipated that about two thirds of the labour force will be
sourced from the local area. Provision of wage employment to the local populace
during construction period of the project will benefit the local area to some
extent. This will enhance the income levels of the construction labourers and lead
for their socio-economic wellbeing during the construction phase of the proposed
project, which will be positive impact due to the project.

In addition, the real estate in the region will get a boon and the land prices are
likely to shoot-up as part of speculation. Normally, the construction activity will
benefit the local populace in a number of ways, which include the requirement of
skilled, semi-skilled and un-skilled construction labourers, tertiary sector
employment and provision of goods and services for daily needs including
transport. In line with the above, some more recommendations are given below:

 Local people will be given preference;


 All the guidelines under the Labour Act and Safety Rules as specified under
Factories Act, 1948 will be implemented during the construction work to avoid
any accidents;
 The contractor will be instructed to provide cooking fuel to the workers to
prevent damage to trees. This will be part of the contractual agreement
between the project proponent and the contractor engaged for construction;
and
 The construction site will be secured with fencing and will have guarded entry
points.

6.5 Rehabilitation & Resettlement Action Plans


The proposed project does not involve any Rehabilitation & Resettlement issues,
as the entire land required for the proposed project is available under PAHSPL.

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Chapter - 7
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Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 7
Project Benefits

7.0 PROJECT BENEFITS


The proposed silk park is a momentous stride in the history of textile industry to
meet the objective of the Central and State Governments in expanding textile
exports from India and to meet the global demand in textile quality & quantity.
Successful implementation of this silk park would provide a replicable model for
development of other clusters across the country.
7.1 Improvement in the Physical Infrastructure

 The proposed silk park is well designed and uses the sustainable development
policy;
 To create an environment that could support the culture of good standards;
 To emphasise the policy of afforestation and rainwater harvesting to create a
better micro climate in the area;
 A well designing of drainage system provided for controls of overflow of water
during the rainy season; and
 To create a healthy environment for the residents.

7.2 Improvement in the Social Infrastructure


 Increased employment opportunities, and improved socio-economics. Overall
development of this project will create a positive impact to the community as
well as to the surrounding environment thereby ensuring sustainable
development.
7.3 Employment Potential
 During construction phase of the silk park, this project will provide temporary
employment to many unskilled and semi-skilled laborers in nearby villages.
 During operational phase, huge number of personnel either directly or
indirectly will be benefited by provision of employment / service.
 The Park is expected to generate direct employment of 7000 and indirect
employment of about 11000 persons as presented in the Table-7.1.
TABLE–7.1
EMPLOYMENT GENERATION

Sr.No. Particulars Number of Persons

1. Park Employees 247


2. Employees of member units
Weaving 5400
Silk Dyeing 192
Garmenting 125
Cotton dyeing 724
Warping & Sizing 312
Total 7,000

 The socio-economic development in the region will lead for enhancement of


quality of life of people in the region.
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Chapter – 7
Project Benefits

7.4 Economic Benefits

Some of the key economic benefits the Project would generate are listed below:

Production Capacity
The estimated production capacity of the park is presented in the Table-7.2.
TABLE 7.2
ESTIMATED PRODUCTION CAPACITY

Operating Prod. Capacity /


No. of
S.No. Activity units annum
Plots
Qty. UOM
1. 96 Silk loom shed 22 22 13500 RM / day
2. 24 Silk loom shed 2 2
3. Silk Dyeing shed 22 16 4500 kg/day
4. Cotton dyeing shed 54 30 38.5 t/day
5. Embroidery & 5 5 1000
piece/day
Readymades
6. Cotton warping & 10 10 6500 kg/day
sizing sheds
Total 115 85 -- --

Expected Investment in the Park

The aggregate investment in the Park is expected to exceed Rs. 266/- crores as
indicated in the Table 7.3.
TABLE 7.3
EXPECTED INVESTMENT

Amount
Sr. No. Investment details
(Rs. Crores)
1 Land, Factory Buildings, Plant & Machinery 180.88
2 Common Infrastructure and Facilities 85.12
Total 266.0

In addition to the induction of modern Handlooms with jaquards, warping and


garmenting machines, the proposed silk park would contribute the following
benefits to the economy as given in Table-7.4.

TABLE 7.4
ECONOMY BENEFITS

Sr. No. Output Benefits


1. Expected Exports Rs.50 Cr per annum
2. Expected Direct Employment 7000
3. Expected Indirect Employment 11000

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Chapter - 8
Administrative Aspects
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Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 8
Administrative Aspects of Environment Management Plan

8.0 ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN

8.1 Introduction

The Management Action Plan aims at controlling pollution at the source level to
the possible extent with the best available technology followed by treatment
measures before they are discharged to the environment.

However, it may have some positive or negative impacts on the surrounding


environment. The negative impacts are within the limits and can be easily
ameliorated to a significant extent through adoption of appropriate mitigative
measures.

8.2 Environmental Management System

The earlier chapters identified measures for environmental protection especially


for providing the necessary pollution control to comply with the standards
stipulating the limits for emitting pollutants in air, water or on land so that the
assimilative capacity is not exceeded. Standards are stipulated by various
regulatory agencies to limit the emission of pollutants in air and water. Similarly,
a mandatory practice is recommended for preparing an Environment Statement
each year in order to reduce the quantities of wastes. This in itself is not sufficient
since this does not provide an assurance that its environmental performance not
only meets, but also will continue to meet legislative and policy requirements.

In the present report, the Environmental Management Systems (EMS) is


discussed for the proposed integrated silk park, including employees
(direct/indirect) to ensure that the activities and services of the region conform to
the supportive and assimilative capacity. This is based on Bureau of Indian
Standard Specification IS: 13967 (1993): Environmental Management Systems -
Specification (equivalent to British Standard BS 7750).

8.2.1 Formation of an Environmental Management System

The Environmental Management System will enable PAHSPL to maximize its


beneficial effects and minimize its adverse effects - with emphasis on prevention.
It will:

 Identify and evaluate the environmental effects arising from the proposed
activities, and services to determine those of significance;

 Identify and evaluate the environmental effects arising from incidents,


accidents and potential emergency situations;

 Identify the relevant legislative and regulatory requirements;

 Enable priorities to be identified and pertinent environmental objectives and


targets to be set;

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Chapter – 8
Administrative Aspects of Environment Management Plan

 Facilitate planning, control, monitoring, auditing and review activities to


ensure that the policy is complied with; and

 Allow periodic evaluation to suit changing circumstances so that it remains


relevant.

8.2.2 Implementation of an Environmental Management System

It is essential that the top management is committed to development of its


activities in an environmentally sound manner and supports all efforts in
achieving this objective.

Efficient management of all the activities pertaining to project operations leads to


reduce/prevent wastes and efficient use of resources, which ultimately result not
only in environmentally sound practices but also better business returns.

Initial Environmental Review

PAHSPL will prepare an environmental review for the proposed facilities.


This will cover four areas:

 Legislative and regulatory requirements;


 Evaluation and registration of significant parameters and their environmental
 impacts;
 Review of environmental management practices and procedures; and
 Assessment of feedback from investigation of environmental incidents and
noncompliance with legislation, regulations or policies and procedures.

The resulting report will address:

 The nature and extent of problems and deficiencies;


 The priorities to be accorded to rectify them; and
 An improvement program designed to ensure that the personnel and material
resources required are identified and made available.

Environmental Policy

The top management will actively initiate, develop and support the environmental
policy, which is relevant to its proposed activities and services at the project and
their environmental effects.

Broadly, this will cover the following:


 Be consistent with the occupational health and safety policy and other
operational policies (such as quality policy);
 Indicate which of the activities are covered by the environmental
management system;
 Be communicated and implemented at all levels of the project operation; and
 Be available publicly.

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Chapter – 8
Administrative Aspects of Environment Management Plan

The policy for Environment Management will be proposed to create sound and
ecofriendly environment for sustainable development in and around the project
premises.

Organization and Personnel

To facilitate the implementation of the EMS, one of the most important aspects
relate to the organization and personnel. The related issues are:

 Define and document the responsibility, authority and inter-relations of key


personnel involved in the implementation of the environmental policy,
objectives and environmental management system;
 Identify the in-house verification requirements and procedures including
resources and personnel;
 Communicate to employees at all levels the importance of compliance with
the environmental policy, their role and responsibilities in achieving
compliance, the potential consequences of departures from the specified
procedures and identify and provide appropriate training; and
 Establish and maintain procedures to ensure that contractors are made aware
of the environmental management system requirements and provisions.

Environmental Aspects and Impacts

PAHSPL authorities will establish and maintain procedures for:

 Receiving, documenting and responding to internal as well as external


communications concerning environmental aspects and management;
 Identifying, examining and evaluating the environmental effects of its
activities under normal and abnormal/emergency situations (including risk
assessment) and compiling significant effects in a register; and
 Recording all legislative, regulatory and other policy requirements and codes
in a register.

Environmental Objectives and Targets

The objectives will be set with a view to realizing gradual and steady
improvements in environmental performance through application of best available
and economically viable practices.

The areas targeted for improvement will be those where improvements are most
necessary to reduce risks (to environment & the project) and liabilities. These will
be identified through cost-benefit analysis wherever practicable.

Environmental Management Program

The establishment of an environmental management program is the key to


compliance with the proposed project's environmental policy and achievement of
the environmental objectives and targets.

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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 8
Administrative Aspects of Environment Management Plan

Environmental Management Manual and Documentation

The documentation is intended to provide an adequate description of the


environmental management system. The manual is expected to provide a
reference to the implementation and maintenance of the system.

Operational Control

With respect to the proposed facilities, the management responsibilities will be


defined to ensure that the control, verification, measurement and testing of
environmental parameters within the silk park are adequately co-ordinated and
effectively performed.

The control, verification, measurement and testing will be made through


documented procedures and work instructions defining the manner of conducting
activities, the absence of which can lead to violation of the environment policy.

In the event of non-compliance, procedures for investigation of the causative


mechanism will be established and the factors reported for corrective actions.

Environment Management Plan

PAHSPL will prepare Environment Management plan (EMP) and establish and
maintain a system of records to demonstrate compliance with the environmental
management systems and the extent of achievement of the environmental
objectives and targets. In addition, the other records (legislative, audit and
review reports) and management records will address the following:

 Details of failure in compliance and corrective action;


 Details of incidents and corrective action;
 Details of complaints and follow-up action;
 Appropriate contractor and supplier information;
 Inspection and maintenance reports;
 Monitoring data;
 Environmental training records; and
 Housekeeping.

Environment Management Audits

The management audits are to determine whether the activities are conforming
to the environmental management systems and effective in implementing the
environmental policy. They may be internal or external, but carried out
impartially and effectively by a person properly trained for it. Broad knowledge of
the environmental process and expertise in relevant disciplines is also required.
Appropriate audit programs and protocols will be established.

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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 8
Administrative Aspects of Environment Management Plan

Environmental Statement

As a mandatory requirement under the Environment Protection Rules (1986) as


amended through the Notification issued by the Ministry of Environment and
Forests in April 1993, an Environmental Statement will be prepared annually. This
will include the consumption of total resources (e.g. water), quantity and
concentration of pollutants (air and water) discharged, quantity of hazardous and
solid waste generation, pollution abatement measures, conservation of natural
resources and cost of production vis-à-vis the investment on pollution abatement.

The intention of this statement is:

 To identify the areas where resources can be used more efficiently through a
comparison with the figures of a similar project (thereby reducing the
consumption of resources);
 To determine the areas where waste generation can be minimized at source
and through end of pipe treatment (thereby reducing the wastes generated
and discharged); and
 To initiate a self-correcting/improvement system through an internal analysis
to achieve cost reduction through more efficient practices.

Environmental Management Reviews

The senior management will periodically review the Environment Management


System (EMS) to ensure its suitability and effectiveness. The need for possible
changes in the environmental policy and objectives for continuous improvement
will be ascertained and revisions made accordingly.

EMS based on the above objectives will be formulated and implemented.

8.3 Environment Management Cell

Conscious of this, PAHSPL will create an Environment Management Cell consisting


of officers from various disciplines to co-ordinate the activities concerned with the
management and implementation of the environmental control measures at the
proposed silk park. This Environment Management Cell will be the nodal agency
to co-ordinate and provide necessary services on environmental issues during
operation of the project. This department interacts with TNPCB/SEIAA and other
environment regulatory agencies. The organization structure of the Environmental
Management Cell at the proposed project is shown in Figure-8.1.

The Environment Management Cell will be responsible to obtain Consent for


Operation under Water Act and Air Act from TNPCB. Basically, this Cell supervises
the monitoring of environmental pollution levels viz. ambient air quality, water
and effluent quality; noise level etc., either departmentally or by appointing
external agencies wherever necessary. Monitoring will be done in line with
regulatory compliance so as to ensure that the pollution is limited to allowable
values and to take corrective action by either providing new equipment or by
improving the performance of the pollution control equipment.

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Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 8
Administrative Aspects of Environment Management Plan

In case the monitored results of environmental pollution are found to exceed the
allowable values, the Environment Management Cell suggests remedial action and
gets these suggestions implemented through the concerned plant authorities. The
actual operation and maintenance of pollution control equipment of each unit is
under the respective plant managers. The Environment Management Cell also co-
ordinates all the related activities such as collection of statistics of health of
workers and population of the region, afforestation and green belt development.

Head of PAHSPL

Textile Unit Head

Manager – Environment /
Environment Engineer / Scientist

Members of Environmental Horticulturist


Complex Consultant

FIGURE-8.1
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF ENVIRONMENT CELL

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Chapter - 9
Summary & Conclusion
Environmental Impact Assessment for the proposed silk park by M/s. Perarignar Anna
Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

9.0 SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

9.1 Introduction

M/s. Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Limited (PAHSPL) proposes to


establish an integrated silk park with 115 plots for textile processing in an area of
30.35 ha at Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu to increase the export quality &
quantity for silk textile in the region and thereby creating a virtual for enhanced
economic development in and around the entire region.

9.1.1 Identification of the Project Proponent

M/s. Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Limited, a company promoted by


a group of leading silk saree manufacturers of Kanchipuram district to create a
silk park with world class infrastructural facilities. The proposed Park envisages
115 entrepreneurs (24 Weaving, 5 Garmenting, 22 silk dyeing, 54 cotton dyeing
and 10 cotton warping & sizing) to set up operating factory sheds in the park.

Identification of the Project

PAHSPL proposes the following operating units within the premises of the silk
park of 30.35 ha:

 22 plots of 96 silk loom shed with 22 factory sheds


 2 units of 24 silk loom shed with 2 factory sheds
 22 units of silk dyeing shed with 16 factory sheds
 54 units of cotton dyeing shed with 30 factory sheds
 5 units of embroidery & readymades shed with 5 factory sheds
 10 units of cotton warping & sizing sheds with 10 factory sheds

The project envisages setting up of Handlooms with Jaquards lifted by modern


pneumatic devices with the required back processes and garmenting units to
enter export markets for saree and garments. It will be a state-of-the-art textile
park with modern plant & machinery together with modern physical and social
infrastructure and would enable the entrepreneurs to produce high value added
products, enhance their productivity and meet international procurement
standards. The fabrics produced would be processed and stitched / garmented in
the Garment units, according to the designs of the manufacturers, the sarees
produced will be sold in the domestic / export markets.

9.1.2 Project Location

The proposed silk park will be developed at S. No. 3/3B, Kilkadhirpur village,
Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study area (10 km radius) of the proposed
project is covered in the survey of India toposheet nos. 57 P/9 & P/10.

The environmental setting around the proposed site is given in Table-9.1.

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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

TABLE-9.1
ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING AROUND THE PROPOSED SITE

Sr. No. Particulars Details


1. Site - Coordinates
A 12° 49’ 52” N 79° 38’ 43” E
B 12° 49’ 51” N 79° 39’ 12” E
C 12° 49’ 55” N 79° 39’ 14” E
D 12° 49’ 30” N 79° 39’ 13” E
E 12° 49’ 45” N 79° 38’ 49” E
Refer Figure 1.3 (Chapter-1) for co-ordinates
2. Elevation 314 ft. AMSL
3. Climatic Conditions Annual Max. Temp: 43.40C
Annual Min. Temp: 16.00C
Annual Total Rainfall: 1214.6-mm
Site Predominant Wind Direction: W, E & SE
4. Land use Agricultural – As per LPA, Kanchipuram
5. Nearest Highway NH-4, 4.2 km, North
6. Nearest Railway Station New Kanchipuram R.S. – 5.6 km, ENE
7. Nearest Airport Anna International Airport, Chennai - 57.2 km, ENE
8. Nearest habitations Narapakkam – 0.8 km, SSW
Vippedu – 0.8 km, S
Alavandharmedu – 0.8 km, SW
9. Densely populated area Kanchipuram – 5.3 km, East
10. Inland water bodies Palar River – 1.56 km, SSW
Vagavati River – 1.8 km, NNE
Narapakkan Periya Eri – East
Thangal Eri – South
Karaitangal Eri – 0.2 km, SE
Edayantangal Eri – 0.8 km SE
Gundukulam Eri – 0.9 km, East
Sevilimedu Lake – 3.0 km, SE
Kolivakkam Lake – 3.8 km, South
Mamandur Tank – 5.8 km, South
Ponneri Lake – 6.4 km, NE
Periyakarumbur Lake – 7.8 km, N
Nathapettai Lake – 8.4 km, East
Damal Lake – 8.7 km, NW
Vaiyavoor Lake – 8.9 km, ENE
11. Ecologically sensitive zones like Nil within 15.0 km from project boundary
Wild Life Sanctuaries, National
Parks and biospheres
12. Defense Establishments None within 10 km radius
13. Socio-economic factors No Resettlement and Rehabilitation issues
14. Nearest Sea Port Port of Chennai – 75.1 km, NE
15. Seismicity Zone Zone-III as per IS: 1893 (Part-1) 2002
16. Nearest Sea Coast Bay of Bengal – 64.5 km, East
17. Reserve Forests Nil within 15.0 km from project boundary
18. Historical / Archaeological places Kailasanathar temple – 4.0 km, ENE
Siva temple – 4.7 km, ENE
Ekambareswarar temple – 5.2 km, NE
Madhangeshwarar temple – 5.6 km, ENE
Kuberan temple 5.6 km, NE
Sri Kanchi Kamakshi Amman Temple – 5.7 km,
West
Iravatanesvara temple – 6.7 km, East
Vaigundaperumal temple – 5.9 km, East
Sri Varadharaja Perumal temple – 7.8 km, ESE
Note: All distances mentioned above are aerial distances from proposed site boundary

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Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

9.2 Project Description

The proposed project is a silk park with facilities for manufacture of Silk sarees
and other products like Silk Dress material etc.. The proposed silk park will be
installed with facilities for silk looms, silk dyeing, cotton dyeing, warping, sizing,
embroidery & garment manufacturing.

The proposed project will be developed in 30.35 ha (75 acres) land with a total
built-up area of 55,000 Sq.m. The proposed project consists of processing zone,
OSR area, common infrastructures like road, drainage, etc and service area
including CETP, RWH area.

The salient features of the proposed silk park are given in Table-9.2.

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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

TABLE-9.2
SALIENT FEATURES OF THE PROPOSED SILK PARK

Sr. No. Description Details


1. Proposed product mix  Silk sarees with designs in border and pallu
(Weaving and Printing)
 Cotton yarn & fabric processing
 Silk ladies dress material / Garments
 Silk sarees with embroidery and
embellishments
2. Installed capacity / Production
details Sr.
Prod. Capacity /
Activity Plots annum
No.
Qty. UOM
1. 96 Silk loom 22 13500 RM /
shed day
2. 24 Silk loom 2
shed
3. Silk Dyeing 22 4500
kg/day
shed
4. Cotton dyeing 54 38.5
t/day
shed
5. Embroidery & 3 1000 piece/d
Readymades ay
6. Cotton 2 6500 kg/day
warping &
sizing sheds
Total 115
_
3. Power requirement 17.3 MVA; Source: TANGEDCO
4. Fuel requirement HSD for DG Sets & Biomass for boiler
5. Water Requirement  Total water requirement: 4542 KLD
 Fresh water requirement: 792 KLD
Source: Proposed borewells within plant site
6. Details of Land use/Land Cover
Area in ha Area in %
within proposed site
(i) Factory buildings footprint 5.50 18.12
(ii) OSR area 3.05 10.05
Common Facilities (STP, TNEB,
(iii) 2.76 9.09
WBRIG, Museum & OHT)
(iv) Parking area 0.41 1.35
(v) Road area 6.96 22.93
(vi) Greenbelt & Landscaping 10.72 35.32
Hazardous waste storage area
(vii) 0.95 3.13
(CETP Sludge)
Total Plot Area 30.35 100.0
7. Total investment of the The project envisages a total investment of Rs.
project/activity. 266 Crores.
8. Funds allocated for EMP Capital cost: 4071.6 Lakhs
(capital cost and recurring cost Recurring cost: Rs. 3116 Lakhs/annum
per annum)
9. Estimated Employment  Direct Employment – 7000
Park employees – 247
Employees of member units - 6753
 Indirect Employment - 11000

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Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

9.3 Description of the Environment

The existing environmental setting is considered to adjudge the baseline


environmental conditions, which are described with respect to climate,
hydro-geological aspects, atmospheric conditions, water quality, soil quality,
vegetation pattern, ecology, land use and socio-economic profiles of people.

The present report incorporates the baseline data generated during summer season
(March 2013 to May 2013) and secondary data collected from various Government,
Semi-Government and Public sector organizations.

9.3.1 Land Use Pattern

The land use pattern of the study area has been studied by analyzing the
available secondary data published in the District Census Handbooks and based
on satellite imagery data. The land use analyses show that the area is of
predominantly Plantation followed by Crop land in the core and buffer zones of
the study area. It is noticed since there is no industrial development in and
around the project site, there may not have any direct impact on the existing
land use and soil. However, it is generally agreed that as the total volume of
transport activity may increase due to the development leading to negative
externalities like pollution and congestion. Some environmental damage may be
acceptable if transport activity generates positive net benefits to society.

9.3.2 Soil Quality

A total of six samples in the study area were collected for the assessment of soil
quality. It has been observed that the texture of soil is mostly sandy loam in the
study area. It has been observed that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.48 to 6.7.
The electrical conductivity was observed to be in the range of 114-124
μmhos/cm, with the maximum observed at Kilkadhirpur (S6) and the minimum at
Project site (S1) during the study period.

9.3.3 Meteorology

On-site monitoring was undertaken for various meteorological variables in order


to generate the site-specific data. Data was collected at site continuously from 1st
March 2013 to 31st May 2013. The maximum and minimum temperatures
recorded during the study period are 37.0oC and 23.0oC. The maximum and
minimum Relative Humidity was found as 100% and 31% respectively. A review
of the windrose diagram shows that predominant winds are mostly from South
(20.9%) followed by SE (18.2%) direction. Calm condition was recorded for
4.4%.

9.3.4 Ambient Air Quality

To establish the baseline status of the ambient air quality in the study area, the
air quality was monitored at eight locations.

The concentrations of the PM10 in the study area are relatively lower and range in
between 50.6 to 72.9 µg/m3.

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Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

The SO2 values recorded at the site during the study period was observed in the
range of 6.2 to 11.3 µg/m3 during summer season (2013) and concentrations of
the other gaseous components like NO2, CO in the study area which are well
within the limits specified in NAAQS of CPCB, with present level of activities.

9.3.5 Water Quality

Six ground water samples and one surface water sample within the study area
were considered for assessment.

Based on the results of the parameters analyzed for the surface water sample, it is
evident that most of the parameters of the samples comply with IS:2296 (Class C)
standards indicating their suitability for drinking and other purposes after
conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The parameters in ground waters
fairly meet the desirable standard limits of IS: 10500.

9.3.6 Ambient Noise Levels

The noise monitoring has been conducted at ten locations in the study area.

9.3.7 Socio-Economic Environment

As per 2001 census, the study area has a total population of 273616 persons. About
42.24 % of the population in the study area belongs to Scheduled Castes (SC) and
1.2 % to Scheduled Tribes (ST). The study area demonstrates an average literacy
rate of 56.09%. The main workers work out to be 30.49% of the total population.
The marginal workers and non-workers constitute to 17.10% and 52.02 % of the
total population respectively.

9.4 Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures

The environmental impacts due to the proposed silk park project have been
assessed and adequate management plan has been devolved to mitigate the
impacts.

9.4.1 Topography

The major envisaged topographical changes would be due to the manmade


structures like civil structures and factory sheds. The impact would be minor as
there would not be any tall structures.

The cutting and filling will be balanced at project site itself. The entire fill material
shall be sourced within park itself.

Further, there will not be any major climatological changes due to the proposed silk
park.

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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

9.4.2 Air Quality

During the operational phase of the silk park, the continuous air emissions are
expected to be from the standby DG sets (4 nos. x 500 KVA), boiler (6 TPH) used
for CETP and vehicular traffic inside the park. Hence, expected air emissions at
the vicinity of the project site will be PM, NOX, SO2, CO, un-burnt HC and smoke.

Based on the predicted concentrations and the post project concentrations of


various pollutants, it can be inferred that the area is unlikely to be significantly
affected due to the proposed project.

9.4.3 Water Resources

The total water requirement for the proposed facilities will be met from proposed
borewells within plant site. The sewage generated from weaving section and
sanitary wastewater to the tune of 392 KLD will be routed to the CSTP, which is
adequate to handle the load. The treated wastewater from STP will be reused for
greenbelt development and flushing purposes, thus conserving water resources.
Trade effluent generated from cotton yarn & sizing units (3200 KLD), silk dyeing
units (450 KLD) will be routed to separate CETP modules for treatment. No
discharge from the CETP is envisaged as the process is based on Zero Liquid
Discharge (ZLD) system. Adequate storm water drainages will be provided along
the factory sheds, layouts, office sheds and other access roads to drain off the
storm water during rainy season.

9.4.4 Noise Levels

There will not be any increase in ambient noise levels at the proposed site due to
the proposed facilities. Noise will be generated from various facilities in the park
due to operation of machineries, DG Sets etc. However, the individual operators
will provide necessary controlled equipments like acoustic enclosures, mufflers
and the proposed greenbelt development will also acts as noise barrier.

Hence, the impact of noise on the surrounding environment is likely to be


insignificant.

9.4.5 Soil Quality

The construction activities will result in loss of topsoil to some extent in the park
area. The topsoil removed during the leveling will be stacked separately and will
be used during the greenbelt development. Apart from localized constructional
impacts at the park site, no significant adverse impact on the soil in the
surrounding area is anticipated.

9.4.6 Solid Waste Management

Solid waste generated from the proposed additional facilities would be basically
the food waste and garbage from the canteen and sludge generated from CETP.

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Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

Ash generated from burning of biomass shall be sent to co-processing units. The
entire solid waste generated from the park will be managed/ disposed as per
TNPCB/CPCB norms. The hazardous waste shall be sent to authorized recyclers.

Hence, the impact on soil due to solid waste and wastewater generation is not
envisaged to be significant.

9.4.7 Flora and Fauna

There are no wild life sanctuaries within the 10 km of the project site. No
endangered fauna present in 10 km radius area.

Noise generated from the operation of the machineries may drive away the local
fauna to the neighbouring areas. However, these emissions during the operational
phase will be restricted to within the boundary of the site. Also, development of
adequate green belt to the site in the park will help in reducing the impacts on the
flora and fauna as the plant species will act as air and noise pollution sink. Thus,
the impact on the terrestrial ecology of the area would be insignificant.

9.4.8 Socio-Economic Aspects

The project will definitely help for the improvement of the socio-economic status
of the society in the region by generating direct or indirect employment
opportunities.

No land acquisition issues are thus involved. Hence, there are no Resettlement &
Rehabilitation issues are involved due to this project.

9.5 Environmental Monitoring Program

Regular monitoring of important and crucial environmental parameters is of


immense importance to assess the status of environment during park operation.
A comprehensive monitoring program has been proposed.

9.5.1 Budgetary Allocation for Environmental Protection

PAHSPL has proposed about Rs. 50 Lakhs/annum for environmental monitoring at


site premises.

9.6 Project Benefits

The proposed park is a well-designed project and uses the sustainable


development policy. The land value in the nearby area would increase thus
helping the locals. The continuous inflow of people and commercial development
around the proposed site will result in overall development of the locals. There
will be direct and indirect employment generation by the proposed project.

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Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

9.7 Justification for Implementation of the Project

The proposed project is an integrated silk park with dyeing units and thus
involved in causing considerable water pollution and environmental degradation,
with negligible adverse impacts on air & noise quality. With the implementation of
the proposed pollution control and environment management measures, the
anticipated impacts due to construction and operation of the proposed project will
be mitigated.

The proposed silk park will be provided with a fully operational ZLD-CETP, thus no
effluent will be let out of the project premises, completely eradicating the possible
water quality degradation due to the generation of dyeing effluent from the
proposed facilities.

Presently the project site is a barren land and has no vegetation. With the
proposed extensive green belt and landscaping, the environment within the
premises will definitely improve.

The proposed project will provide employment to a large number of personnel


either directly and indirectly during the operation stage of the proposed silk park.
This project will also generate indirect employment to a considerable number of
families, who will render their services during the construction phase of the
project.

9.8 Summary of Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation

The summary of anticipated adverse environmental impacts and mitigation


measures are given in Table-9.1.

9.9 Conclusion

The proposed project has certain level of adverse impacts on the local
environment. With the effective implementation of the environment management
plan, suggested in Chapter-4, the proposed project will have no significant
environmental impacts.

However, development of this project has certain beneficial impact/effects in


terms of providing the employment during the operational phase of the project.

Further, the proposed project will act as catalyst to the socio-economic


development in the potential growth centres identified by the Textile industry &
Government.

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Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

TABLE-9.3
ANTICIPATED ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION

Probable
Discipline Potential Negative Impacts Mitigative Measures Remarks
Sources
Constructional Impact
Water Quality Increase in suspended solids Loose soil at During monsoon season run-off from construction site ---
due to soil run-off during heavy construction will be routed to a temporary sedimentation tank for
precipitation site settlement of suspended solids
Air Quality Increase in dust and NOx Vehicular Isolate the construction area with flexible enclosures/ Construction vehicles will
concentration movements, curtains so that the air emissions will not spread in the be maintained properly
excavation surroundings. for reducing air pollution
and leveling levels from vehicle
activity Sprinkling of water in the construction area and unpaved exhausts.
roads. Proper maintenance of vehicles will be done.

Restrict dust-generating activities, such as blasting or


top soil removal, to calm wind conditions.

Cover heavy vehicles moving offsite.

Restrict vehicle speed on construction roads and ensure


vehicles use only dedicated construction roads and
access points.

Visually monitor particulate emissions from diesel


vehicles and carryout regular maintenance on all plant
and equipment.

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Chapter – 9
Summary & Conclusion

Probable
Discipline Potential Negative Impacts Mitigative Measures Remarks
Sources
Noise Increase in noise level Construction Develop and implement a construction noise Equipment will be kept in
equipment management plan. good condition to keep
the noise level within 90-
Limit hours of construction where practical. dB (A).

Where blasting occurs, pit shapes and blast campaigns Workers will be provided
will be designed such that the blast faces are oriented with necessary protective
away from noise sensitive receivers. equipment e.g. earplugs,
earmuffs.

Terrestrial Clearing of vegetation Soil enabling Landscaping and extensive plantation will be done Open spaces reserved
Ecology activities will be green turfed and
appropriate type of
plantations will be done
in these parks
Socio- Land oustees Land The proposed site is presently free from encumbrances, --
economics Acquisition hence private land acquisition and resultant
rehabilitation and resettlement issues are not involved

Excavated Loss of excavated top soil Excavation The topsoil will be properly stored and used for leveling --
Material in the low-lying area. The construction debris will be
used to level the low lying area

Operational Impact
Water Quality Deterioration of quality of Discharge Provide adequate treatment and conditioning facilities so All wastewater generated
receiving water body, if any. from domestic that the treated sewage/effluent conforms to the will be treated in
and regulatory standards. STP/ZLD-CETP and
process/dyein treated wastewater from
g effluent STP will be reused for
landscaping and flushing.

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Summary & Conclusion

Probable
Discipline Potential Negative Impacts Mitigative Measures Remarks
Sources
Noise Increase in noise levels from Vehicular Equipment will be designed to conform to noise levels There will be no major
the project movement prescribed by regulatory agencies impacts due to Noise in
and DG set the project.
operation
Green belt will be
developed all along the
boundary wall for
attenuating the noise

Air Quality Increase in dust and gaseous Vehicular Usage of Bharat-III/Euro-III compliant vehicles. The resultant air quality
pollutants in ambient air traffic, Stack will conform to the
emissions Usage of Ultrapure low sulphur fuel for transportation stipulated standards.
from DG set, and for DG set.
Boiler Adequate stack heights
Motorable roads in the project will be paved to reduce will be provided to DG
dust emission. Sets for the proper
dispersion of pollutants
Ensure operational procedures are adequately Emissions from DG sets
implemented and regularly reviewed so as to identify will be controlled to
opportunities for continual improvement. below regulatory
standards

Traffic Impacts Impact on infrastructure and Automobile Improvement of infrastructure, provision of the proper Proper roads will reduce
impact on air quality and noise movement parking yard and evaluate impact of traffic density and the dust emissions to a
levels vehicular emissions. great extent.

Solid waste Impact on human health Domestic All solid waste will be segregated at source and -
usage Biodegradable waste will be vermin composted and non-
biodegradable waste will be given to authorized agents
for disposal.

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Summary & Conclusion

Probable
Discipline Potential Negative Impacts Mitigative Measures Remarks
Sources
Demography Strain on existing amenities like Influx of All ultra-modern civic amenities will be provided inside The proposed project
and Socio- housing, water sources and people of the complex would generate
economics sanitation and infrastructure proposed employment both directly
facilities. project. and indirectly.

This would enhance


overall socio-economic
development and quality
of life of people

Terrestrial Impact on plant species Vehicular It is recommended to develop greenbelt to an extent of As emissions will be
Ecology movement 10.72 ha (35.32%). within limits, no active
and emissions damage to vegetation is
from stack Part of the treated wastewater from domestic uses can expected.
be used for greenbelt development

Storm water Impact on water resources Rain water Provide separate storm water drainage network Separate storm water
Control etc., drains will be provided
Provide rainwater harvesting structures for conservation
of rainwater

Fire and Safety Accidents / disasters related to Storage of Prepare DMP and implement DMP A well-laid firefighting
fire and safety HSD, system and fire
chemicals, extinguishers will be
etc., installed as per fire safety
norms. Regular fire
safety training and mock
drills will also be
conducted.

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Handloom Silk Park Limited at Kilkadhirpur Village, Kanchipuram Taluk & District,
Tamilnadu, India
Chapter – 10
Disclosure of Consultant

10.0 DISCLOSURE OF CONSULTANT

10.1 Introduction

VIMTA Labs Limited is a leading multi-disciplinary testing and research


laboratory in India. VIMTA provides contract research and testing services in the
areas of clinical research, pre-clinical (animal) studies, clinical reference lab
services, environmental assessments and analytical testing of a wide variety of
products.

VIMTA - Environment Division has been in the forefront of its vision to provide
better environment through guiding and assisting the industry for sustainable
development. A stalwart in the mission to protect and preserve the natural
resources on earth for future generations, Vimta offers extensive research and
consultancy services in the field of Environment. With its rich experience, multi-
disciplinary expertise and with the support of its state-of the-art analytical
equipment, the services offered by Vimta are wide ranging and encompasses
entire gamut of Environment Management and Monitoring Services. With its
emphasis on quality services, Vimta, over the years, has evolved itself into a
single reference point in India for Comprehensive Environmental Services.
10.2 The Quality Policy

 VIMTA is committed to good professional practices and quality of operations in


its testing, validation and research services.
 VIMTA shall ensure customer satisfaction by maintaining independence,
impartiality and integrity in its operations.
 VIMTA shall provide the services in accordance with national and international
norms.
 VIMTA shall implement quality system as per ISO/IEC 17025 and applicable
GLPs & GCPs, to generate technically valid results/data.
 VIMTA shall ensure that all its personnel familiarize with the policies and
procedures of the quality system and implement the same in their work.

10.3 Milestones and Accreditations

 1984 - Registered with an initial investment of Rs.2 Lakhs.


 1985 - Recognized by ISI (now known as Bureau of Indian Standards).
 1987 - Qualified by the criteria of Ministry of Environment and Forests was
notified as one of the 14 standard Environmental Laboratories published in the
Gazettee of India.
 1988 - Licensed for carrying out tests on Drugs and Pharmaceuticals.
 1990 - Cherlapally land purchased with plans of larger, more comprehensive
facility.
 1991 - Accredited by NCTCF, DST, Government of India (the forerunner of
NABL).
 1992 - Laboratories shifted to new facility at Cherlapally.
 1993 - State-of-the-art equipment worth Rs.60 million procured.
 1995 - Accredited by NABL under its revised scheme, certified by Standards
Australia, Quality Assurance Services as per ISO/IEC Guide 25 and ISO 9002.
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 1996 - GLP Compliance.


 1997 - Restructuring of Vimta from 165 to 100 associates with same
performance.
 1998 - Accreditation by GOSSTANDART and joint venture for certification of
Food Exports with ROSTEST, Russia.
 2001 - World Bank Recognition.
 2002 – ANVISA Brazil certification.
 2003 - USFDA accepts Vimta Bioequivalence study report. Showcased Vimta
at AAPS (USA) and ICSE-CPHI (Germany).
 2003 – Vimta VHS Research Center inaugurated at Chennai, Launched district
laboratories at Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada, Patient service centers
launched at 160 locations across the country.
 2003 – Vimta Labs Recognized by Saudi Arabian Standards Organization.
 2004 - Vimta increases people strength from 225 in 2003 to 400 in 2004.
Vimta achieves export turnover of $ 2.5 million.
 2004 - Vimta releases its first fortnightly medical newsletter “Vaidyalekha”,
Vimta enters Gulf market - bags a contract for Environmental Consultancy in
Kuwait.
 2004 - Vimta acquires 10.7 acres of land in S.P.Biotech Park – Genome
Valley, Hyderabad, to create a world class Research Laboratory of 150000
sq.ft by July 2005.
 2004 – Vimta starts a new state of the art speciality services in Molecular
Diagnostics at TICEL Bio-Tech Park” at Chennai.
 2006 – Vimta expands its overseas activities. Undertakes environmental
assignments in Saudi Arabia and Tanzania
 2008 – Vimta has been Pre-Qualified by World Health Organization (WHO).
 2009–Undertaken Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment in
Cameroon, Africa
 2010 – Accredited by QCI/NABET, Government of India for EIA report
preparation
 2011- Undertaking environmental and social impact assessment study in
Tanzania, Africa as per IFC-World Bank Guidelines

10.4 Management and Board of Directors

1. Dr. S.P. Vasireddi Chairman and Managing Director


2. Mrs. Harita Vasireddi Director Projects
3. Mr.V. Harriman Director – Technical
4. Mr. V.V. Prasad Executive Director
5. Mr. S. Subrahmanyam Director
6. Mr. T.S. Ajai Director
7. Dr. Pavuluri Subba Rao Director
8. Prof. D. Balasubramanian Director

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10.5 Services Offered

Spread over the 70,000 Sq.ft lush green garden premises at Cherlapally,
Hyderabad (India), the scientifically designed and meticulously groomed
infrastructural facility of the Central Laboratory of VIMTA has the most
sophisticated instruments backed by an excellent team of professionals. The
40,000 Sq.ft, three-storied, 120 roomed, centrally air conditioned state-of-the-art
Laboratory equipped with Rs.100 million worth analytical instruments and
computerized data management systems, all under one roof is perhaps the only
one of its kind in South Asia in the contract testing and research sector.
Vimta offers various services under the following divisions:

 Environment;
 Analytical;
 Clinical Reference Lab; and
 Clinical Research.

The environment division of VIMTA Labs Limited (Vimta) has its presence all over
India including a strong association with international consultants like Japan Bank
for International Cooperation (JBIC), Kennametal Inc. - USA, BBL - UK, Rudal
Blanchard – UK, E&E Solutions – Japan, NEPESCO & KNPC – Kuwait, Marafiq –
Saudi Arabia and others. Vimta has the following credentials:

 Recognitions by BIS;
 Recognitions by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India;
 Recognitions by State Pollution Control Boards (wherever applicable) ;
 Recognitions by Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of India (NABL) ;
 Recognitions by Ministry of Defense, Govt. of India;
 Recognitions by APEDA, Ministry of Commerce, Govt. of India;
 Recognitions by Saudi Arabia Standard Organization (SASO), Saudi Arabia;
 Recognitions from NEMC, Tanzania;
 Accreditations by NCTCF;
 Certification from Standard Australia;
 Recognition from ANVISA Brazil;
 Quality Assurance Services as per ISO/IEC 17025; and
 Quality Assurance Services as per ICH Guidelines

10.6 Services

Environment essentially being a multi-disciplinary science, the range of services


offered by the Division are also comprehensive and caters to the needs of
industry, pollution control agencies, regulatory authorities and in a larger pursuit
of a green globe. The services under Environmental Assessments include:

 Site Selection and Liability Studies;


 Environmental Impact Assessments;
 Environment Management Plans;
 Carrying Capacity based Regional Studies;
 Environmental Audits;
 Solid and Hazardous Waste Management;

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 Risk Assessment (MCA,HAZON,HAZOP) & DMP;


 Occupational Health and Safety, Industrial Hygiene;
 Environmental Monitoring for Air, Meteorology, Water, Soil, Noise, Ecology
and Socio-Economic;
 Industrial Emission Source Monitoring;
 Offshore Sampling and Analysis of Marine Water and Sediments;
 Marine Ecological Studies;
 Marine Impact Assessment;
 Rehabilitation and Resettlement Studies;
 Forestry and Ecological Studies;
 Geological and Hydro-geological Studies;
 Land Use /Land Cover Studies based on Remote Sensing;
 Socio-Economic Studies;
 Due Diligence Studies;
 Epidemiological Studies;
 Wasteland Management Studies; and
 Study on Bio-indicators.

The services under Environmental Chemistry include:

 Analysis of Water, Wastewater, Soil, Solid Waste, Hazardous waste as per


Indian and International Codes;
 Source Emissions and Work Zone Air/Noise quality monitoring;
 Analysis of SVOCs, VOCs, PAH, BTEX, AOX, PCB’s, TCLP metals, TOC etc.;
 Categorization of Hazardous Waste; and
 Pesticide Residue Analysis.

10.7 Facilities

Vimta-Environment Division is located in scientifically designed Central Laboratory


with the state-of the-art modern facilities to offer vide range of services in indoor
and outdoor monitoring and analytical characterization in the field of
Environment. Further, it is ably supported by highly skilled and experienced team
of professionals in the fields of Science, Engineering, Ecology, Meteorology, Social
Planning, Geo & Hydro-geology, and Environmental Planning.

Besides the regular monitoring equipment such as Respirable Dust Samplers,


Automatic Weather Monitoring Stations, Stack Monitoring Kits, Personal
Samplers, Noise Meters, Portable Water Kits etc, the other major specialized
equipment include:

 Monostatic Sodar–Designed by National Physical Laboratory, GOI;


 Integrated Noise Level Meter–Quest, U.S.A;
 Flue Gas Analyzers–Testo, Germany;
 113-A Gravimetric Dust Sampler-Casella, London;
 ICP AES– Varian, USA;
 Gas Liquid Chromatographs with FID, ECD & pFPD–Varian, USA;
 Gas Chromatograph with Mass Detector–Varian, USA;
 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer [AAS]–Varian, USA;
 PAS-AFC-123 instrument;

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Disclosure of Consultant

 High Performance Liquid Chromatograph;


 Laser Particle Size Analyzer;

 Monostatic Sodar – Designed by National Physical Laboratory, GOI;


 Integrated Noise Level Meter–Quest, U.S.A;
 Flue Gas Analyzers–Testo, Germany;
 113-A Gravimetric Dust Sampler-Casella, London;
 ICP AES– Varian, USA;
 Gas Liquid Chromatographs with FID, ECD & pFPD–Varian, USA;
 Gas Chromatograph with Mass Detector–Varian, USA;
 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer [AAS]–Varian, USA;

10.8 Quality Systems

The fact that Environment division and its supporting Site Laboratories are
accredited by NABL (IS0-17025) and Ministry of Environment and Forests and by
other international bodies such as Asian Development Bank (ADB) and World
Bank stands testimony to its emphasis on Quality Systems.

10.9 Achievements

Being the first laboratory to be recognized under Environment Protection (EP) Act
by GOI in 1986, Environment Division with its best mind power and industrial
knowledge competency that allows it to compare with the best in the business.

 The Environment Division till date has executed about 350 Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environment Management Studies with Risk
Assessment and Disaster Management Plans and obtained statutory
approvals.
 Supported by the strong modern laboratory support and experienced hands,
Environment division is well equipped in conducting Due Diligence, Phase-I
and Phase-II studies.
 Undertaken specialized studies such as Regional Environmental Impact
Assessment on Carrying Capacity Principle; Upper Air Meteorological studies
using SODAR for major Industrial Complexes.
 Associated with prestigious studies such as Environmental Pollution
monitoring around Taj Trapezium, Pre and Post Satellite launch studies for
SHAR, ISRO and monitoring for offshore Oil & Gas exploration for deep-sea
water and sediment sampling.
 The services offered include vide spectrum of industries covering Power,
Chemical, Cement, Mining, Steel & Alloys, Metallurgical, Dye & Intermediates,
Bulk Drugs, Pesticides, Agro-Chemicals, Petro-Chemicals, Refineries, Pulp &
Paper, Oil & Gas Exploration & Production, Asbestos, Infrastructure, River
valley, Foundries etc.
 The Environment division has also offered its services to major infrastructure
projects such as Ports, Oil & Gas Pipelines, Green field Air Ports, Roads and
Highways.

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DETAILS OF PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN CURRENT EIA REPORT

Sr. No. Name Qualification Position Contribution Experience


1 Mr. M. Janardhan M.Tech (Env) Head & Vice Co-ordination About 20 years of experience in the field of air quality impacts, and noise,
President(Env) environmental management and environmental engineering
2 Mr. K.S. Muneeswaran M.E. (Env. Engg) Senior Manager Co-ordination About 22 years of experience in the field of environmental chemistry and
PGDES, PGDIS environmental impact assessment
3 Mr. G.V. Raghava Rao M.Tech (Env) Dy. Manager Expert About 11 years of experience in the field of Environmental Impact
Assessment studies
4 Mr. P.Niranjan Babu B.Com Asst Manager Secretarial About 21 years of experience in the field of Environmental Monitoring and
secretarial assistance
5 Ms. Durga Bhavani M.Sc. (Env. Sci) Group leader Expert About 8 years of experience in the field of environmental impact assessment
6 Dr. Subba Reddy M.Sc., Ph.D Scientist Expert About 6 years of experience in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment
studies
7 Mr. S. Kishore Kumar M.Tech (Env) Env Engineer Expert About 3 years of experience in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment
studies
8 Mr. J. Bharatvaj M.E., (Env. Engg) Env. Engineer Expert About 2 year of experience in the field of environmental monitoring and
environmental impact assessment
9 Ms.S. Nandhini M.Tech (Env) Env. Engineer Expert About 1 year of experience in the field of environmental monitoring and
environmental impact assessment
10 Mr. ACH Ramesh Kumar M.Sc (Env) Scientist Expert About 10 years of experience in the field of Environmental Impact
Assessment studies
11 Mr. T. Seshagiri Rao M.Sc (Env) Scientist Expert About 8 years of experience in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment
studies
12 Dr. Subba Reddy M.Sc., Ph.D Scientist Expert About 6 years of experience in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment
studies
13 Mr. G. Krishnamoorthy M.Sc., (Env. Sci) Scientist Expert About 3 years of experience in the field of Environmental Science and
monitoring
14 Mr. A. Ashok B.Tech (Biotechnology) Jr. Env. Engineer Expert About 1 year of experience in the field of Environmental Science and
monitoring
15 Mr. P. Krishna I.T.I (Civil) Sr. Draftsman Cartography About 12 years experience in the field of Environmental and Civil Drawings
16 Mr. J. Ramakrishna I.T.I (Civil) Sr. Draftsman Cartography About 11 years experience in the field of Environmental and Civil Drawings

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Annexures
ANNEXURE-I
ToR ISSUED BY SEIAA
ANNEXURE-I
ToR ISSUED BY SEIAA
ANNEXURE-I
ToR ISSUED BY SEIAA
ANNEXURE-I
ToR ISSUED BY SEIAA
ANNEXURE-I
ToR ISSUED BY SEIAA
ANNEXURE-I
ToR ISSUED BY SEIAA
ANNEXURE-I
ToR ISSUED BY SEIAA
COMPLIANCE REPORT
TERMS OF REFERENCE ISSUED BY SEIAA, TAMILNADU
LR.NO. SEIAA-TN/F.No.683/M-XXXVI/TOR-111/2012 dated 15.04.2013 &
LR. NO. SEIAA-TN/F 683/7(c) and 7(h)/TOR-EXTN/227/2015 dated 09.10.2015

TERMS OF REFERENCE [TOR]

S.No ToR Condition Reply


The committee observed that the project The exemption order vide no. G.O.(3D)
comes under Item No. 7(c) & 7(h) of the No.26 dated 27.07.2015 from the
schedule. Based on the presentation made Environment & Forests (EC.3) Department
by the proponent, the committee noted that exempting the proposed activity from the
this Silk Park with dyeing units is proposed purview of the G.O. Ms. No. 127, E & F
at a distance of 1.559 km from the Palar Dept, dated 8.5.98 is attached as
River, which is a prohibited activity as Annexure-XIIb
per G.O. Ms. No. 127, E & F Dept, dated
8.5.98 and hence the committee decided to
prescribe the ToR as follows, for the
preparation of EIA report, with a condition
that the Proponent shall obtain and
furnish exemption order from the State
Govt. exempting this proposed activity from
the purview of the G.O. Ms. No. 127, E & F
Dept, dated 8.5.98, while submitting the
EIA report.
1. Executive summary of the project – giving a The Executive summary of the project is
prima facie idea of objectives the proposal, enclosed as Annexure-XVII.
use of resources, justification, In addition, it
should provide a compilation of EIA report,
including EMP and post project monitoring
plan in brief
Project Description
2. Details of the Industries, for which the park The details are provided in Chapter-2, Pg.
is being planned and their proposed No. 39 & 40.
capacities of installation, if available. In the
absence of complete details, indicate the
type of industries and being considered
3. Justification for selecting for proposed site of The justification of the project are provided
the Silk Park in Chapter-9, Pg. No. 175
4. Details on strategy being followed for the The details are provided in Chapter-2, Pg.
development of Silk Park No. 25.
5. Land requirement for the project including its The land break up details are provided in
break up for various purposes, its availability Chapter -2, Pg. No. 25.
and optimization and also the peripheral
greenbelt inside the boundary
6. Details of the proposed layout clearly The proposed layout indicating various
demarcating various units/ industries, places in the proposed site are provided in
processing zones, admin area, roads, plots, Chapter -2, Pg. No. 39.
green belt, common utilities area etc, shall
be shown along with contour map.
Landscape plan including open spaces may
be described
7. All the coordinates of Silk park site is to be The co-ordinates of the silk park are
demarcated on the topographical sheet. provided along with study area map
prepared from Survey of India toposheet.
Refer Chapter-1, Pg. No. 18 & 19.
8. Details of infrastructure development within The proposed infrastructure development
the silk park in this region for the silk park are provided in Chapter-1,
Pg. No. 14, 15
9. Complete process flow diagram describing The process flow diagram of the proposed
each unit, it processes and operations, along activity is given in Chapter-2, Pg. No. 25.
with material and energy inputs and outputs
(material & energy balance)
COMPLIANCE REPORT
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10. Individual and/ or common facilities for Domestic wastes will be properly
waste collection, treatment, recycling an segregated and composted. Hazardous
disposal (all effluent, emission and refuse wastes generated in the premise will be
including MSW and hazardous wastes). disposed through Treatment Storage and
Disposal Facility. (TSDF)
11. Commitment from concerned authorities The letters from concerned bodies are
regarding availability of power, water and attached as Annexures.
sewerage network

12. Details of solid waste management including Hazardous wastes generated in the
arrangements for hazardous waste premise will be disposed through
management and e-waste Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility.
(TSDF)
13. Details of provisions made for safety in Storage of raw materials, products and
storage of materials, products and wastes. wastes are properly segregated and will
stored according to material compatibility.
14. Details of industries for which CETP facility is The raw materials used in the CETP are
proposed including raw materials used for provided in Chapter-2, Pg. No. 26
products manufactured
15. Details of water requirement with water Water requirement with water balance are
balance for various units. provided in Chapter-2, Pg. No. 51 & 52
16. Expected quantity of wastewater from each The expected quantity wastewater from
industry and justification for selecting the the proposed project is provided in
proposed capacity of treatment plant/ Chapter-2, Pg. No. 53. The details of the
modules treatment modules are provided in
Chapter-2, Pg. No. 53 – 70.
17. Characteristics of effluent and proposed The characteristics of the effluent and
segregation of streams, if any from proposed stream are provided in Chapter-
individual industries 2, Pg. No. 57 & 64.
18. Details of conveyance of the effluent from The pipeline layout is provided in Chapter-
the units to the proposed CETP along with 22, Pg. No.47.
the layout plan indicating the pipeline route

19. Monitoring protocol on the collection of Monitoring protocols on the collection of


effluent through pipeline effluent through pipeline are provided in
Chapter-5, Pg. No. 145
20. Details on physical, chemical and biological The details of the physical, chemical and
characteristics of the combined effluent and biological characteristics of the combined
its concentrations and basis for the same. effluent are provided in Chapter-2, Pg.
No.64.
21. Details of equalization tank, at least for The details of the equalization tank are
24 hrs. and guard ponds for holding treated provided in Annexure-XV.
wastewater and details of continuous
monitoring facilities
22. Details of proposed treated schemes The treatability studies are carried out as
supported by treatability studies including per the condition.
source separation of streams for specific
mode of collection and treatment either at
individual industry or at CETP (based on
economic and operational ease
considerations)
23. Built-in flexibility provisions to deal with The details are provided in Chapter-2
quantitative and qualitative fluctuations
24. Organizational setup for collection of pre- The organizational setup for the pre-
treated effluents, treatment and disposal of collection of effluents, treatment and
the treated effluents, etc, and deployment of disposal are provided in Chapter-5.
qualified/ skilled manpower.
25. Details of O&M for maximum utilization of The O & M details of the CETP and CSTP
the designed capacity of the plant are provided in Annexure-XV.
COMPLIANCE REPORT
TERMS OF REFERENCE ISSUED BY SEIAA, TAMILNADU
LR.NO. SEIAA-TN/F.No.683/M-XXXVI/TOR-111/2012 dated 15.04.2013 &
LR. NO. SEIAA-TN/F 683/7(c) and 7(h)/TOR-EXTN/227/2015 dated 09.10.2015

26. Proposed monitoring protocol for stage wise The proposed monitoring protocol are
quality w.r.t various characteristics and provided in Chapter-5.
maintenance schedules followed for all the
rotating equipment including lubricating/ oil
fill, operational chemicals and laboratory
chemicals
27. For any sensitive environmental parameters Improved materials are going to be used
such as heavy metals, fluorides etc, details for construction and the materials will be
on improved material of construction of painted regularly to prevent corrosion.
tanks and other equipment such as corrosive
resistance, allowance etc.,
28. Details of power consumption and stand-by The details on the power consumption and
arrangements like the diesel generator (DG) back up facility are provided in Chapter-2,
Sets, dual fuel (gas & oil) for uninterrupted Pg. No. 53
operation of treatment plant
29. Impact of the project on local infrastructure The impact of the project on local
of the study area such as road network, etc. infrastructure, details of agency
if the study area requires any other responsible are provided in Chapter-3 and
infrastructure, details of the agency Chapter-4.
responsible for the same should be included
along with the time frame
30. Details of laboratory, workshop, database, All the mentioned will be established
library, waste exchanger centers etc. in CETP during the construction phase and will be
in use in operation phase of the project
31. Availability of the land for proper treatment The land split up is provided in Chapter-2,
for ultimate capacity and to accommodate Pg. No.25. The CETP has been designed
required greenbelt development based on ultimate capacity. 35% of total
land area has been allotted for greenbelt
development.
32. Details of proposed methods of water Proposed rainwater harvesting system are
conservation and recharging provided in Chaper-2, Pg. No. 44. Water
conservation methods are briefly given in
Chapter-2.
33. Management plan of solid/ hazardous waste The solid waste management is provided in
generation, storage, utilization and disposal Chapter-4, Pg. No. 70- 72
34. Detailed plan of treated wastewater disposal Treated wastewater reuse are shown in
/ reuse/ utilization and disposal water balance in Chapter-2, Pg. No. 51
35. Details of odour problem and its The effluent management systems have
management the sufficient capability to control odour.
36. Details of greenbelt development along with The details of the greenbelt are provided in
the budget/ area indicated in the Chapter-2, Pg. no. 72
Environment Management Plan (EMP)
37. Details of environmental audit proposed for The environmental audit will proposed at
the project the operational stage of the project
38. Details regarding infrastructure facilities such Details regarding construction phase are
as sanitation, fuel storage, rest room etc, to provided in Chapter-4, Pg. No. 125
the workers during construction and
operation phase
39. Details of agreements made between CETP Details of the CETP member units
member units specifying details including the specifying details are provided in
characteristics of effluent Annexure-XV.
40. Details on equity by the member industries/ The equity details can be collected only
non–refundable membership fee to ensure after the construction phase.
continuity of CETP membership and financial
model etc.,
41. Any litigation pending against the project Not Applicable
and / or any direction/ order passed by any
Court of law related to the environmental
pollution and impacts in the last two years, if
COMPLIANCE REPORT
TERMS OF REFERENCE ISSUED BY SEIAA, TAMILNADU
LR.NO. SEIAA-TN/F.No.683/M-XXXVI/TOR-111/2012 dated 15.04.2013 &
LR. NO. SEIAA-TN/F 683/7(c) and 7(h)/TOR-EXTN/227/2015 dated 09.10.2015

so, details thereof


42. Does the details of the company have well The environmental policy will be formed
laid down Environmental policy approved by after the construction phase of the project
its board of directors? If so, it may be
detailed in the EIA report.
43. Does the Environmental policy prescribe for The environmental policy will be followed
standard operating process/ procedures to in operational phase of the project.
bring into focus of any infringement/
deviation/ violation of the environmental or
forest norms/ conditions? If so, it may be
detailed in the EIA report
44. What is the hierarchical system or The administrative order of the company
Administrative order of the company to deal are provided in Chapter-8, Pg. No. 166
with the environmental issues and for
ensuring compliance with the EC
conditions. Details of the system may be
given.
45. Does the company have a system of Yes, non-compliance if any will be reported
reporting of non-compliances/ violations of to Pollution Control Board.
environmental norms to the Board of
Directors of the company and /or
shareholders or stakeholders or stakeholders
at large? This reporting mechanism
shall be detailed in the EIA report.
Description of the Environment
46. The study area shall be up to a distance of The study are of 10 km radius prepared
10 km from the boundary of the using Survey of India toposheet are
proposed site and all along the collection provided in Chapter-1, Pg. No. 18
network, treated wastewater carrying pipe-
line and the receiving environment at the
point of disposal.
47. Location of the project site and nearest The details of the project site and nearest
habitats with distances from the project habitat are provided in Chapter-1, Pg. No.
site to be demarcated on a toposheet 20
(1:50000 scale).
48. Landuse based on satellite imagery including Landuse based on satellite imagery is
location specific sensitivities such as provided as Annexure-VI.
national parks / wildlife sanctuary, villages,
industries, etc. for the study area.
49. Topography details of the project area. The topography of the study are provided
in Chapter-1, Pg. No. 20
50. The baseline data to be collected from the The baseline data w.r.t air, noise, water,
study area w.r.t. different components land, biology and socio-economics
of environment viz. air, noise, water, land, according to TOR re provided in Chapter-3.
and biology and socio-economic.
Actual monitoring of baseline environmental
components shall be strictly
according to the parameters prescribed in
the TOR by the Authority.
51. Geological features and geo-hydrological Geological and hydrogeological details of
status of the study area. the study area are provided in Chapter-3,
Pg. No. 86- 93.
52. Surface water quality of nearby water The surface water and nearby water are
sources and other surface drains provided in Chapter-3, Pg. No.111
53. Details on ground water quality. The details of the groundwater quality are
provided in Chapter-3, Pg. No. 110
54. Details on water quality parameters such as The given water quality parameters are
pH, Temperature (oC), Oil and tested for groundwater and surface water.
grease. Cyanide* (as CN), Ammoniacal
COMPLIANCE REPORT
TERMS OF REFERENCE ISSUED BY SEIAA, TAMILNADU
LR.NO. SEIAA-TN/F.No.683/M-XXXVI/TOR-111/2012 dated 15.04.2013 &
LR. NO. SEIAA-TN/F 683/7(c) and 7(h)/TOR-EXTN/227/2015 dated 09.10.2015

nitrogen* (as N), Phenolic compounds* (as


C6H5OH), Hexavalent Chromium*, Total
chromium*, Copper*, Nickel*,
Lead*, Arsenic*, Mercury*, Cadmium*,
Selenium*, Fluoride*, Boron*, Radioactive
materials*. Alfa emitters*, Hc/ml, Beta
emitters*, Hc/ml*, etc. (* - as applicable).
55. Details on existing ambient air quality and The details of the existing ambient air
expected, stack and fugitive emissions for quality, expected stack and fugitive
PM10, PM2.5, SO2*, NOx*, VOCs* Carbon emissions are provided in Chapter-3.
oxides (CO and CO2) etc., and evaluation of
the adequacy of the proposed pollution
control devices to meet standards for point
sources and to meet AAQ standards. (* - As
applicable)
56. The air quality contours may be plotted on a The air quality contours of various
location map showing the location pollutants are provided in Chapter-4, Pg.
of project site, habitation nearby, sensitive No. 134-136.
receptors, if any and wind roses.
57. Details on noise levels at Details on the noise levels at the sensitive
sensitive/commercial receptors. and commercial receptors are presented in
Chapter-3, Pg. No. 115
58. Site-specific micro-meteorological data The site specific micrometeorological data
including mixing height. are provided in Chapter-2, Pg. No. 100
59. One season site-specific data excluding 3 months of non-monsoon are taken as
monsoon season. study period. The months March 2013 –
May 2013.
60. Proposed baseline monitoring network for The baseline monitoring authenticated by
the consideration and approval of the the accredited consultant
Competent Authority.
61. Ecological status (terrestrial and aquatic) of Ecological status of the study area are
the study area such as habitat type provided in Chapter-3, Pg. no. 115 – 120.
and quality, species, diversity, rarity,
fragmentation, ecological linkage, age,
abundance etc.
62. If any incompatible land use attributes fall The exemption order vide no. G.O.(3D)
within an l0 km radius of the project No.26 dated 27.07.2015 from the
boundary, proponent shall describe the Environment & Forests (EC.3) Department
sensitivity (distance, area and exempting the proposed activity from the
significance) and propose the additional purview of the G.O. Ms. No. 127, E & F
points based on significance for review Dept, dated 8.5.98 is attached as
and acceptance by the SEAC. Incompatible Annexure-XIIb
land use attributes include:

 Public water supply areas from


rivers/surface water bodies, from
ground water
 Scenic areas/tourism areas/hill resorts
Religious places, pilgrim centers that
attract over 10 lakh pilgrims a year
 Protected tribal settlements (notified
tribal areas where industrial activity is
not permitted)
 CRZ
 Monuments of national significance,
World Heritage Sites
Cyclone, Tsunami-prone areas (based
on last 25 years)
 Airport areas
COMPLIANCE REPORT
TERMS OF REFERENCE ISSUED BY SEIAA, TAMILNADU
LR.NO. SEIAA-TN/F.No.683/M-XXXVI/TOR-111/2012 dated 15.04.2013 &
LR. NO. SEIAA-TN/F 683/7(c) and 7(h)/TOR-EXTN/227/2015 dated 09.10.2015

 Any other feature as specified by the


State or local government and other
features as
locally applicable, including prime
agricultural lands, pastures, migratory
corridors, etc.
63. If ecologically sensitive attributes fall within Not applicable
10 km radius of the project
boundary, proponent shall describe the
sensitivity (distance, area and significance)
and propose the additional points based on
significance for review and acceptance by the
SEAC. Ecological sensitive attributes include:

 National parks
Wild life sanctuaries, Game reserve
 Tiger reserve/elephant reserve/turtle
nesting ground
 Mangrove area, Wetlands
 Reserved and Protected forests, etc.
 Any other closed/protected area
under the Wild Life (Protection) Act,
1972, any other area locally applicable
Anticipated Environmental impacts and mitigation measures
64. Anticipated generic environmental impacts Impacts of the project and its magnitude
due to this project are indicated in Table are briefed in Chapter-4.
-4.2, which may be evaluated for
significance and based on corresponding
likely impacts VECs may be identified.
Baseline studies may be conducted for all the
concerned Valued Environmental
Components (VECs) and likely impacts will
have to be assessed for their magnitude in
guidance.
65. While identifying the likely impacts, also Anticipated impacts of the projects are
include the following for analysis of briefed in Chapter-4.
significance and required mitigation
measures:
 Impacts due to transportation of raw
materials and end products on the
surrounding environment
 Impacts on surface water, soil and
groundwater
 Impacts due to air pollution
 Impacts due to odour pollution
 Impacts due to noise
 Impacts due to fugitive emissions
 Impact on health of workers due to
proposed project activities
 Impact on the disposal mode-specific
receiving environment
66. Proposed odour control measures. The proposed effluent treatment and
sewage
67. Action plan for the greenbelt The action plan for greenbelt development
development – species, width of are provided in Chapter-4, Pg. No. 143 &
plantations, planning schedule etc. in 144.
accordance to CPCB published guidelines.
68. In case of likely impact from the Not applicable
proposed project on the surrounding
COMPLIANCE REPORT
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LR.NO. SEIAA-TN/F.No.683/M-XXXVI/TOR-111/2012 dated 15.04.2013 &
LR. NO. SEIAA-TN/F 683/7(c) and 7(h)/TOR-EXTN/227/2015 dated 09.10.2015

reserve forests, Plan for the conservation


of wild fauna in consultation with the
State Forest Department.
69. Details in case, if the effluent conveyance The storage tanks proposed are 3200 KL,
system uses pipe lines, details regarding 450 KL and 500 KL for CETP I, CETP II and
minimum (one day) storage tank with CSTP respectively.
mixing facility to keep it in aerobic
conditions at source industry and
mechanism to ensure compliance with
prescribed standards at this storage tank.
70. Details regarding soil and groundwater The details regarding regular monitoring
impacts and regular monitoring protocols procedures are provided in Chapter -5
suggested for ensuring no significant
impacts, besides preventive measures.
71. Impacts due to laying of pipe lines for There is no impact on pipeline is
effluent collection and for the disposal of the envisaged.
treated wastewaters.
72. Details of storm water collection network and Details of storm water network are
utilization plan, etc. provided in Chapter-2,
73. Proposed measures for occupational safety The safety of workers are provided in
and health of the workers. Analysis of Chapter-4.
alternative resources and technologies
74. Comparison of alternate sites considered and The site was prescribed by the ministry of
the reasons for selecting the proposed site. handloom, so alternative site was
Conformity of the site with the proposed.
prescribed guidelines in terms of CRZ,
river, highways, railways, etc.
75. Drainage area and alterations, if any due to As the site is barren land no drainage
the project. system is presently available.
76. Details on improved technologies. Details on improved technologies are
provided in Chapter-2.
Environmental Monitoring Program
77. Monitoring programme for pollution control The monitoring programme for pollution
at source. control at source are provided in Chapter-
5, Pg. No. 146, 147
78. Monitoring pollutants at receiving Monitoring of pollutant at the operational
environment for the appropriate notified phase are provided in Chapter-5, Pg. No.
parameters - air quality, groundwater, 147
surface water, etc. during operational phase
of the project.
79. Specific programme to monitor safety and Monitoring of safety at operational phase
health protection of workers. are provided in Chapter-5, Pg. No. 147
80. Appropriate monitoring network has to be Appropriate monitoring for the project are
designed and proposed, to assess the provided
possible residual impacts on VECs
81. Details of in-house monitoring capabilities The in-house will be provided with on-line
and the recognized agencies if proposed for monitoring facilities and monthly
conducting monitoring. monitoring will be carried out by accredited
third party labs.
Additional studies
82. Details on risk assessment and damage The details of the risk assessment are
control during different phases of the provided in Chapter-6.
project and proposed safeguard measures.
83. Details on socio-economic development The details of the socio-economic
activities such as commercial property development and activities are provided in
values, generation of jobs, education, social Chaptrer-6, Pg. No. 156 & 157
conflicts, cultural status, accidents, etc.
84. Proposed plan to handle the socio-economic Only positive impacts are envisaged as it
influence on the local community. The plan will be handled suitably
COMPLIANCE REPORT
TERMS OF REFERENCE ISSUED BY SEIAA, TAMILNADU
LR.NO. SEIAA-TN/F.No.683/M-XXXVI/TOR-111/2012 dated 15.04.2013 &
LR. NO. SEIAA-TN/F 683/7(c) and 7(h)/TOR-EXTN/227/2015 dated 09.10.2015

should include quantitative dimension as far


as possible.
85. Details on compensation package for the As, no resettlement and rehabilitation is
people affected by the project, envisaged for this project, no people are
considering the socio-economic status of the affected. The positive impacts such as
area, homestead ousters, land ousters and employment are provided in Chapter-7, Pg.
landless laborers. No. 157
86. Points identified in the public hearing and The points raised and suitable action are
commitment of the project proponent to the provided in the minutes of meeting. All the
same. Detailed action plan addressing the details will be addressed during operational
issues raised, and the details of necessary phase of project
allocation of funds.
Environmental management plan
87. Administrative and technical organizational The details are provided in Chapter-8.
structure to ensure proposed post-project
monitoring programme for approved
mitigation measures.
88. EMP devised to mitigate the adverse Environment management proposed are
impacts of the project should be provided provided in Chapter-9, 176-179
along with item-wise cost of its
implementation (capital and recurring costs).
89. Allocation of resources and responsibilities Allocation of resources and responsibilities
for plan implementation. are provided in Chapter-7, Pg. No. 160 and
in Chapter-8, Pg. No. 162.
90. Details of the emergency preparedness Details of emergency preparedness and
plan and on-site and off-site disaster disaster management plan are provided in
management plan. Chapter-6, Pg. No.155
Besides the above. the following general points will be followed:-
a. All the documents may be properly We shall comply with the given points and
referenced with index and continuous documents.
page numbering.
b. Where data are presented in the report
especially in tables, the period in which
the data were collected and the sources
should be indicated
c. While preparing the EIA report, the
instructions for the proponents and
instructions for the consultants issued by
MoEF vide O.M. No. J-11013/41/2006-
IA.II(I) dated 4th August 2009, which are
available on the website of this ministry
should also be followed.
The consultants involved in the preparation
of EIA/EMP report after accreditation
with Quality Council of India (QCI)/National
Accreditation Board of Education and
Training (NABET) would need to include a
certificate in this regard in the EIA/EMP
reports prepared by them and data provided
by other organization/Laboratories
including their status of approvals etc. In this
regard circular no F. No.J. 11013/77/2004-
IA-II(I) dated 2nd December, 2009,l8th
March 2010, 28th May 2010,
28th June 2010 and 3Oth September 201 I
posted on the Ministry's website
http://www.moef.nic.in/ may be referred.
Kanchipuram Silk Park – Detailed Project Report

Executive Summary

1. Project Name Kanchipuram Arignar Anna Centenary Memorial


Handloom Silk Park Ltd
2. Location • The Project site is located at Kilkathirpur village,
Kanchipuram Taluk & District at the state of
Tamilnadu.
• The nearest airport is International Airport at
Chennai, 75 Kms from the Project Site
• Road connectivity is through State highway and
Rail connectivity is through Arakkonam Railway
Station - 60 kms away.
3.Nature of • The proposed park would have facilities for
Activities manufacture of primarily Silk sarees and other
Planned products like Silk Dress material etc., as detailed
in the Table below:

Production
Sl. No. of capacity per
Activity annum
No Units
Qty Unit
1 Handloom Weaving-I 10 0.43 lac Sarees
(96 Looms)
2 Handloom Weaving-II 25 0.52 lac Sarees
(48 Looms)
3 Silk Dyeing 59 1110 Tonnes
4 Garmenting 4 3 lac Pieces
5 Auto / manual Reeling
/ Twisting /Warping
13 65 Tonnes
6 Embroidery 2 12000 Pieces
7 Printing 1 22000 Pieces
8 Zari Manufacturing 1 7875 Kgs
Total 115
4. Project • Kanchipuram is famous for its handloom silk sarees
Rationale and fabrics. According to Tamil epic ‘Silapadikaram’
the silk handloom weaving activity existed from 2nd
Century AD at Kanchipuram. The location of project,
availability of skilled handloom weavers, power and
water for silk dyeing is proving it to be an ideal place
for silk industry. The proposed project site is located
near Kanchipuram town.

C.S.Architects Pvt Ltd – Project Management Division I


Kanchipuram Silk Park – Detailed Project Report

• The Project is aimed at developing world class eco-


friendly infrastructure for the handloom silk industry
and to integrate all the activities from ‘reeling’ in the
silk saree value chain
5. Details of Name of SPV – Kanchipuram Arignar Anna
SPV Centenary Memorial Handloom Silk Park Ltd
Place of Registration of SPV – Chennai, Tamilnadu.
Current Board of Directors :
The SPV has been formed; incorporation of the same
is in process and expected to be completed within 5
working days.
6. Project To establish a Hi-Tech integrated silk Park at Kilkathirpur,
Objectives Kanchipuram district, Tamilnadu, with State of Art
Manufacturing facilities for the entire silk value chain for
Domestic and Export markets
7. Proposed Silk
Product Mix a. Silk sarees with designs in border and pallu(Weaving
and Printing
b. Silk sarees with designs in entire saree(Weaving and
Printing)
c. Silk ladies dress material / Garments.
d. Silk Sarees with embroidery and embellishments
8. Number of All the promoters of the proposed Park belong to families
Entrepreneurs who have been engaged in various line of activities in the
silk industry and have business links all over the country
and overseas for marketing of the products proposed to be
manufactured in the units to be setup in the park. The
entrepreneurs propose to set up modern state of the art
manufacturing facilities for Silk weaving, processing,
reeling/twisting/warping with the required forward
linkages as described in the Table below:
Sl. Type of Activity No. of
No Entrepreneurs
1 Handloom Weaving-I 10
2 Handloom Weaving-II 25
3 Silk Dyeing 59
4 Garmenting 4
5 Reeling / Twisting /Warping 13
6 Embroidery 2
7 Printing 1
8 Zari Manufacturing 1
115

C.S.Architects Pvt Ltd – Project Management Division II


Kanchipuram Silk Park – Detailed Project Report

9. Marketing • The proposed Park will have ready market for its
products primarily in Domestic and to certain extent
in all foreign countries
10. Land • Area – 75 acres
• Land Cost – Rs 7.5 crores
• Land is allotted by Govt of Tamilnadu as its
contribution towards equity.
11. Master Plan/ • The Land is proposed to be utilized as under:
Land Use • Common Infrastructure – 31.84 % ( 23.88 acres)
• Common Facilities – 9.89 % ( 7.42 acres)
• Factory Buildings – 46.93 % ( 35.2 acres)
• Open Green Spaces –11.34% ( 8.5 Acres)
12.Common • Roads- 0.5 Km of 24 M and 0.76 Km of 15 Mt and
Infrastructures 3.8 Km of 10 & 12 mts wide
Planned • Water Supply –1 UG Sump, 1 OHT – 150 KLD
• Electricity Demand– 1.00MW
• Storm Water Drainage-4500 Mts for entire park
• Common ETP –0.50 MLD
• Common Sewerage Treatment Plant- 75 KLD
• Standby power -500 kVA
13. Building for The Following Common facilities have been planned in
Common the Park:
Facilities • Exhibition / Display Centre
• Design Studio / R&D Centre
• Testing & Training Centre
• Marketing Centre
• Canteen, Rest House / Crèche
• First Aid Centre
• Central Workshop and Spares
• Admin and Service Providers office
• Raw Material & Finished goods warehouse.
14. Building for • 115 factory sheds have been planned inside the park
Production for silk weaving and Preparatory, silk processing,
Purpose Garmenting and others.
• The total buildup area required for the above
production activities will be 1,40,000 sqm.

C.S.Architects Pvt Ltd – Project Management Division III


Kanchipuram Silk Park – Detailed Project Report

15. Project Cost Sl. Items Amount % Share


No (Rs. Cr.)
1 Land 7.50 9%
2 Common 21.47 25%
Infrastructure
3 Common Facilities 16.89 20%
4 Factory Buildings 33.98 41%
5 Technical Fees 3.99 5%
Project Cost eligible (83.83)
under SITP
6 Pre Operative 3.13
Expenses (IDC Etc)
Total 86.96
16. Means of Sl. Items Amount %
Finance No (Rs. Cr) Share
1 Promoter’s contribution 17.39 20%
2 State Govt Contribution 7.50 8.62%
3 Grants under SITP 33.53 38.56%
4 Term Loans 28.54 32.82%
Total 86.96 100.00%
17. Estimated The Total Investment would aggregate to over Rs 119.86
Investment in Crores as described as follows:
Park
Sl. No Investment details Amount
(Rs. Crores)
1 Land, Factory Buildings, 81.50
Plant & Machinery
2 Common Infrastructure and 38.36
Facilities
Total 119.86
18. Estimated • Direct Employment –7000
Employment • Indirect Employment – 11000
Generated
19. Estimated The combined sales turnover of all the units in the Park
Production / would aggregate to around Rs. 118 crores per annum.
Sales

C.S.Architects Pvt Ltd – Project Management Division IV


Kanchipuram Silk Park – Detailed Project Report

Project Implementation and O&M Framework


20. O&M Framework KSP would be responsible for the Operations and
Maintenance (O&M) of the assets including common
facilities like electricity generation and distribution,
training centre, roads, etc. The Company would
adequately staff its operations and maintenance
team and carry out O&M activity in-house wherever
necessary and engage outside agencies for O&M
work
21. Recovery Charges KSP would recover its fixed costs as well as O&M
by the SPV charges from the Industrial Units by way of the
following monthly charges:

• Charge I -Monthly Fixed Infrastructure


Charge apportioned to all units on the
basis of allocable area of each industrial
unit to recover the fixed costs relating to
administration, operation and
maintenance of Infrastructure and
common facilities.

• Charge II - Monthly Variable Utility


Charge based on monthly consumption of
utilities such as water, power and effluent
treatment together with variable expenses
of the SPV apportioned to all units on the
basis of allocable area to each of the
Industrial Units.

22. Contractual The following contractual agreements would be


Agreements executed between KSP and the Industrial Units to
facilitate execution of project and collection of
monthly charges:
• Share Subscription Agreement between SPV
and the Industrial Units.
• Leave and License/Lease Agreement between
SPV and the Industrial Units providing rights
to the Industrial Units for setting up textile
manufacturing facilities in the Park.
• Service Providers Agreement between SPV
and O&M service providers.
• Other Agreements, if required, would be
executed as the project moves forward.

C.S.Architects Pvt Ltd – Project Management Division V


Kanchipuram Silk Park – Detailed Project Report

23.Statutory Prior Environmental Clearance from SEIAA



Clearances Consent to establish from Tamilnadu

Pollution control board
• Approval of layout and building plans by
Department of Town and Country Planning,
Govt of Tamilnadu.
24. Implementation The Project is expected to be completed within 24
Schedule months from the date of approval of the project by
Government of India

Financial Appraisal

25. Operational & • A detailed operational and financial


Financial Assessment assessment of the entrepreneurs has been
of the Entrepreneurs carried out with a view to ascertaining their
textile/other business experience as well as
their financial strength

• Almost all the entrepreneurs are existing


players in the silk industry while the others
have experience of running other businesses.
All the entrepreneurs have the required
financial resources to invest in the Project.

26. Financial • Since the SPV proposes to raise external debt


Assessment of the SPV for part funding the Project outlay, the
financial assessment of the SPV includes
determining the likely cost of services that
would need to be recovered by the SPV from
the Industrial Units as well as the financial
impact of the proposed financing structure of
the project including special covenants related
to Debt Service etc. The SPV would also
charge the Industrial Units a mark-up over its
operating cost to build-up a cash reserve in
order to meet any temporary cash deficits in
future.
The SPV would generate requisite profits and
cash flows to meet its operation and
maintenance cost as evidenced by the
following key financial ratios:
• IRR – 25%
• Average DSCR – 1.75 times

C.S.Architects Pvt Ltd – Project Management Division VI


Kanchipuram Silk Park – Detailed Project Report

27. Financial Typical Handloom weaving Unit


Assessment of a • A Typical Unit in the Park would comprise of
Typical Unit 48 Handlooms fitted with jacquard.
• The units would be able to generate cash
profits after bearing the recurring cost of the
infrastructure charged by the SPV
• Key projected financial ratios of a typical unit
are as under:
• Average DSCR –3.82 times
• IRR – 27 %
• Debt / Equity– 1.55

C.S.Architects Pvt Ltd – Project Management Division VII


Kanchipuram Silk Park – Detailed Project Report

28. Compliance to SITP norms


The Project Complies with all the criteria as laid down by the Project
Approval Committee (PAC) under SITP as described in the table below:

Sl.No Criteria Compliance by the


Project
No. of Entrepreneurs Aggregate Minimum
investment in Land,
factory buildings and
plant & Machinery
(Rs. In Crore)
1 50 and above 100 • Number of
Between 25 and 150 Entrepreneurs: 115
49 Aggregate investment
Between 5 and 300 in land, factory
buildings and Plant &
24
Machinery : Rs 81.50
Crores
It was also decided that in deserving cases,
The Project being
the PAC may relax the investment criteria
exclusively for a Handloom
such as in case of Handloom Sector
Park, is recommended for
relaxation of the investment
criteria

2 No single entrepreneurs shall possess Compliant.


more than 20% of the area earmarked for
industrial use within the Park.
3 Aggregate investment in land, factory • Aggregate investment
buildings and Plant & Machinery by the in land, factory
entrepreneurs in a Park shall be atleast buildings and Plant &
twice to the cost of common Machinery: Rs. 81.50
infrastructure proposed for the Park. crores
Cost of Common
Infrastructure: Rs. 21.45
crores and therefore
compliant.

Our Recommendation:
In view of the foregoing, The Project may be approved by the Project
Approval Committee (PAC) under SITP.

C.S.Architects Pvt Ltd – Project Management Division VIII


5 Km Radius Map

Co-ordinates
A 12° 49’ 52” N 79° 38’ 43” E
B 12° 49’ 51” N 79° 39’ 12” E
C 12° 49’ 55” N 79° 39’ 14” E
D 12° 49’ 30” N 79° 39’ 13” E
E 12° 49’ 45” N 79° 38’ 49” E

A B C
E
D

Perarignar Anna Handloom Silk Park Limited

5 km Radius Map

- Proposed Silk Park Boundary


ANNEXURE - VI
LAND USE DETAILS WITHIN THE STUDY AREA

SI.No Description Forest Irrigated Un-irrigated Cultivable waste land Area n/a for cultivation Total area
0-3 km radius
1 Kil Kadirpur 0 215.15 105.57 0 310.2 630.92
2 Mel Kadirpur 0 117.3 21.48 0.32 177.83 316.83
3 Mettukuppam 0 76.29 53.8 1.07 50.73 181.99
4 Mettupalayam 0 60.4 155.02 78.85 107.5 401.77
5 Narapakkam 0 89.65 0 49.74 115.51 254.9
6 Venkatapuram 0 39.49 3.22 89.96 135.5 268.17
7 Vippedu 0 134.4 0 111.95 158.53 404.88
8 Vishar 0 195.94 0 46.01 232.62 474.57
Sub total 0 928.62 339.09 377.9 1288.42 2934.03
3-7 km radius
1 Achukattu 0 29 0 0 10.04 39.04
2 Arappanamcheri 0 0 132.15 0 67.35 199.5
3 Ariyaperumbakkam 0 191.74 88.33 0.05 109.72 389.74
4 Erivakkam 0 14.56 13.14 22.89 23.94 74.53
5 Hanumanthapettai 41.6 0 0 0 0 41.6
6 Kilambi 0 285.85 150.21 8.2 229.11 673.37
7 Kolivakkam 0 86.76 0 168.31 314.33 569.4
8 Kuttiramedu 0 230.78 96.12 7.04 164.35 498.29
9 Mel Ottivakkam 0 71.86 73.85 39.04 85.82 270.57
10 Musarapakkam 0 900.02 30 3.9 318.12 1252.04
11 Muttuvedu 0 59.23 0 9.4 69.57 138.2
12 Netteri 0 19.08 0 8.12 63.16 90.36
13 Odatangal 0 127.34 75.8 13.49 77.52 294.15
14 Olukkavakkam 138 397.49 7.37 196.78 254.86 994.5
15 Pappankuli 0 122.9 105.59 16.19 206.2 450.88
16 Perumpakkam 56.1 1215.51 538.75 459.81 488.47 831.96
17 Pichavadi 0 66.11 0 11.7 105.47 183.28
18 Putteri 0 245.03 154.5 9.56 190.08 599.17
19 Settitangal 0 56.81 0 24.97 21.1 102.88
20 Sirukaveripuram 0 32.66 177.3 0 90.42 300.38
21 Sitterimedu 0 38.7 50.51 76.73 49.67 215.61
22 Timmasamudram 0 136.24 120.13 148.36 132.87 537.6
23 Tiruppakuli 0 295 62.94 150.1 72.41 580.45
24 Tulagumtandalam 0 76.29 36.07 0.2 60.76 173.32
25 Velatottam 0 61.47 160.07 0 198.17 419.71
26 Velikkapattadai 0 1.25 0 0 24.61 25.86
Sub total 235.7 4761.68 2072.83 1374.84 3428.12 9946.39
7-10 km radius
1 Arupalayam 0 197.75 253.45 3.38 379.49 834.07
2 Damal 0 973.21 383.8 0.22 505.39 1862.62
3 Edarpalayam 0 141.57 30.18 2.17 329.81 503.73
4 Injambakkam 0 182.09 21.24 15.2 55.4 273.93
5 Karaipettai 0 253.5 109.28 34.67 175.55 572.8
6 Karandai 0 232.29 109.26 109.29 198.32 649.16
7 Kilar 0 264.38 237.68 12.9 286.36 801.32
8 Konnerikuppam 0 266.17 199.44 40.26 447.28 953.15
9 Kuram 0 380.15 232.45 40.08 220.3 872.98
10 Mel Bangaram 0 50.04 23.24 0 42.17 115.45
11 Muttavakkam 0 95.11 24.13 0 88.04 207.28
12 Namandi 0 64.1 2 8.72 56.84 131.66
13 Nellur 0 125.57 124.02 21.91 110.94 381.54
14 Olukkal pattu 0 149.51 65.79 0 33.69 248.99
15 Orikka 0 47.21 0 0 412.37 459.38
16 Padappam 0 26.47 11.55 2.05 5.44 45.51
17 Periya karumbur 0 136.59 28.42 24.58 81.93 271.52
18 Sembarambakkam 0 96.4 95.52 6.83 72.63 271.38
19 Seyyanur 0 1197.98 298.67 852.49 1854.08 4202.32
20 Sinnayankulam 0 50.07 0 0 149.07 199.14
21 Tenambakkam 46.58 199.75 49.16 51.59 90.32 437.4
22 Tirukkalikadu 56.38 0 0 0 10.29 37.84
23 Tiruvadirayapuram 0 53.24 295 1.45 114.81 465.4
24 Vandiyur 0 97.59 55.18 0.75 51.87 205.39
25 Vembakkam 0 59.49 25.63 0.04 46.03 131.09
26 Vishakandikuppam 0 98.16 21.1 19.05 42.05 180.36
Sub total 102.96 5438.39 2696.19 1247.63 5860.47 15315.41
Grand total 338.66 11128.69 5108.11 3000.37 10577.01 28195.83
ANNEXURE-IX
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY LEVELS

TABLE-1
Location : At Project Site (AAQ1)
CO
S. No. PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOx
I II III
1 71.4 23.5 9.3 13.3 495 575 483
2 65.2 21.5 8.9 13.7 513 543 490
3 67.4 22.2 8.4 16.8 495 543 495
4 71.5 23.6 9.1 13.3 543 461 489
5 71.6 23.6 9.6 13.5 495 483 462
6 70.5 23.2 11.3 16.8 495 462 483
7 67.1 22.1 8.2 13.3 495 472 483
8 66.5 21.9 8.6 16.4 472 574 524
9 70.5 23.2 9.6 14.7 489 483 462
10 69.3 22.9 9.0 14.0 462 535 495
11 66.6 22.0 8.9 15.2 483 472 495
12 68.8 22.7 10.0 16.0 574 483 495
13 66.3 21.9 8.6 16.4 543 466 495
14 63.2 20.9 8.7 16.7 461 543 472
15 64.9 21.4 9.6 16.8 478 461 472
16 66.3 21.9 8.772 16.7 483 483 472
17 70.6 23.3 9.5 15.7 472 483 469
18 71.2 23.5 10.0 16.4 477 483 466
19 66.7 22.0 11.3 16.7 472 495 483
20 67.4 22.2 9.3 16.8 543 543 543
21 65.4 21.6 9.8 16.6 462 495 543
22 68.0 22.4 10.0 16.2 495 462 483
23 72.3 23.8 11.3 16.7 483 495 543
24 69.9 23.1 9.0 14.2 524 529 543
25 66.1 21.8 9.4 16.4 478 495 461
26 65.4 21.6 9.6 15.7 462 490 543
Maximum 72.3 23.8 11.3 16.8 575
Minimum 63.2 20.9 8.2 13.3 461
Average 68.1 22.5 9.5 15.5 496
98 %tile 71.9 23.7 11.3 16.8 574
Benzene (C6H6), Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) ng/m3, Lead (Pb), Ozone (O3)
Ammonia (NH3), Arsenic (As) ng/m3 and Nickel (Ni) ng/m3
are Below the Detectable Limit
3
All the values except BaP, As, Ni and Hg are expressed as µg/m
ANNEXURE-IX
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY LEVELS

TABLE-2
Location : Kutteramedu (AAQ2)
CO
S. No. PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOx
I II III
1 72.0 23.8 8.8 12.7 472 546 460
2 65.7 21.7 10.8 14.7 489 518 489
3 67.9 22.4 8.2 12.7 472 472 472
4 72.1 23.8 8.7 13.5 518 518 483
5 72.2 23.8 9.2 13.0 472 489 529
6 71.1 23.5 8.3 13.7 472 575 460
7 67.7 22.3 8.3 12.8 483 466 460
8 67.0 22.1 8.2 13.9 460 546 541
9 71.1 23.5 9.2 14.1 472 460 552
10 69.9 23.1 8.6 13.4 518 518 472
11 67.2 22.2 8.4 14.6 460 575 610
12 69.4 22.9 9.5 13.4 546 598 472
13 66.9 22.1 8.2 15.7 518 460 472
14 63.8 21.1 8.3 16.0 575 518 575
15 65.5 21.6 9.2 13.0 589 472 518
16 66.9 22.1 8.4 14.5 460 460 604
17 71.2 23.5 9.1 14.7 472 518 460
18 71.8 23.7 9.5 12.4 483 460 598
19 67.3 22.2 10.8 14.1 460 472 460
20 67.9 22.4 8.8 14.7 518 518 518
21 66.0 21.8 9.3 12.8 460 472 518
22 68.6 22.6 9.5 13.2 472 466 460
23 72.9 24.1 10.8 14.3 460 472 518
24 70.5 23.3 8.6 13.6 489 460 518
25 66.6 22.0 8.9 12.4 518 472 472
26 66.0 21.8 9.2 14.2 575 518 518
Maximum 72.9 24.1 10.8 16.0 610
Minimum 63.8 21.1 8.2 12.4 460
Average 68.7 22.7 9.0 13.8 501
98 %tile 72.6 23.9 10.8 15.9 601
Benzene (C6H6), Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) ng/m3, Lead (Pb), Ozone (O3)
Ammonia (NH3), Arsenic (As) ng/m3 and Nickel (Ni) ng/m3
are Below the Detectable Limit
3
All the values except BaP, As, Ni and Hg are expressed as µg/m
ANNEXURE-IX
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY LEVELS

TABLE-3
Location : Kilambi (AAQ3)
CO
S. No. PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOx
I II III
1 58.9 19.5 8.2 10.7 466 519 466
2 53.8 17.8 7.9 11.9 464 492 483
3 55.6 18.4 7.4 13.5 472 492 467
4 59.1 19.5 8.1 10.5 492 466 483
5 59.2 19.5 8.6 11.1 467 472 518
6 58.2 19.2 7.8 11.6 466 467 467
7 55.4 18.3 7.3 12.3 489 490 469
8 54.9 18.1 7.7 10.4 483 519 518
9 58.2 19.2 8.6 11.1 483 495 500
10 57.2 18.9 8.0 10.4 467 483 489
11 55.0 18.2 7.9 13.7 466 466 472
12 56.8 18.7 8.9 11.6 519 472 466
13 54.8 18.1 7.7 10.6 492 518 472
14 54.7 18.0 7.8 13.0 490 492 518
15 53.8 17.7 8.6 11.1 466 529 490
16 54.8 18.1 9.6 12.3 490 518 559
17 58.3 19.2 8.5 11.0 469 467 527
18 58.8 19.4 8.9 11.6 500 483 550
19 55.1 18.2 9.7 12.2 472 466 552
20 55.6 18.4 8.2 10.7 492 492 573
21 54.1 17.8 8.7 11.3 469 466 492
22 56.2 18.5 8.9 11.6 529 518 469
23 59.7 19.7 9.6 12.0 483 483 492
24 57.8 19.1 8.0 10.4 495 538 492
25 54.6 18.0 8.3 12.5 518 552 472
26 54.1 17.8 8.6 11.1 535 541 492
Maximum 59.7 19.7 9.7 13.7 573
Minimum 53.8 17.7 7.3 10.4 464
Average 56.3 18.6 8.4 11.5 493
98 %tile 59.4 19.6 9.6 13.6 555
Benzene (C6H6), Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) ng/m3, Lead (Pb), Ozone (O3)
Ammonia (NH3), Arsenic (As) ng/m3 and Nickel (Ni) ng/m3
are Below the Detectable Limit
3
All the values except BaP, As, Ni and Hg are expressed as µg/m
ANNEXURE-IX
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY LEVELS

TABLE-4
Location : Mettukuppam (AAQ4)
CO
S. No. PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOx
I II III
1 64.5 21.3 8.5 11.3 490 568 478
2 58.9 19.4 9.6 11.6 508 538 460
3 60.9 20.1 7.7 13.9 490 538 490
4 64.6 21.3 8.4 11.3 538 496 460
5 64.8 21.4 9.3 11.5 490 460 472
6 63.7 21.0 8.0 14.1 490 485 478
7 60.7 20.0 7.5 11.3 460 474 478
8 60.1 19.8 7.9 14.0 472 568 460
9 63.7 21.0 7.7 12.5 483 478 472
10 62.7 20.7 8.2 11.9 469 495 490
11 60.2 19.9 8.2 12.9 478 518 490
12 62.2 20.5 9.2 13.7 568 529 500
13 60.0 19.8 7.9 13.9 538 483 490
14 57.2 18.9 9.6 14.2 459 538 472
15 58.7 19.4 8.8 13.7 483 460 518
16 60.0 19.8 9.5 13.9 478 478 495
17 63.8 21.1 8.7 13.4 518 478 460
18 64.4 21.3 9.2 13.9 489 478 472
19 60.3 19.9 9.3 13.6 500 490 478
20 60.9 20.1 8.5 11.3 538 538 538
21 59.2 19.5 8.9 13.6 518 490 538
22 61.5 20.3 9.2 11.4 490 460 478
23 65.3 21.6 8.9 13.4 478 490 538
24 63.2 20.9 8.2 12.1 460 518 538
25 59.8 19.7 9.6 14.1 472 490 460
26 59.2 19.5 8.8 13.4 489 529 538
Maximum 65.3 21.6 9.6 14.2 568
Minimum 57.2 18.9 7.5 11.3 459
Average 61.5 20.3 8.7 12.9 496
98 %tile 65.1 21.5 9.6 14.2 568
Benzene (C6H6), Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) ng/m3, Lead (Pb), Ozone (O3)
Ammonia (NH3), Arsenic (As) ng/m3 and Nickel (Ni) ng/m3
are Below the Detectable Limit
3
All the values except BaP, As, Ni and Hg are expressed as µg/m
ANNEXURE-IX
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY LEVELS

TABLE-5
Location : Kilkadhirpur (AAQ5)
CO
S. No. PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOx
I II III
1 63.3 20.9 8.5 9.2 481 557 469
2 57.8 19.1 8.2 11.6 499 528 460
3 59.7 19.7 7.7 13.3 481 528 481
4 63.4 20.9 8.4 9.2 528 500 484
5 63.5 21.0 8.9 11.5 481 489 474
6 62.5 20.6 8.1 13.5 481 483 469
7 59.5 19.6 10.5 9.2 483 460 469
8 58.9 19.5 7.9 13.7 460 557 489
9 62.5 20.6 8.9 12.5 518 469 472
10 61.5 20.3 8.3 11.9 460 483 481
11 59.1 19.5 8.2 12.9 469 524 481
12 61.0 20.1 9.3 13.6 557 460 489
13 58.8 19.4 7.9 13.9 528 478 481
14 56.1 18.5 8.1 13.3 518 528 500
15 57.6 19.0 8.9 13.9 483 518 460
16 58.8 19.4 10.4 12.3 469 469 483
17 62.6 20.7 8.8 13.3 460 460 466
18 63.2 20.8 9.3 11.3 472 469 460
19 59.2 19.5 10.4 14.0 472 481 469
20 59.7 19.7 8.5 12.9 528 528 528
21 58.0 19.2 9.0 13.5 495 481 528
22 60.3 19.9 9.3 13.8 481 483 469
23 64.1 21.1 10.4 13.4 469 481 528
24 62.0 20.5 8.3 12.0 495 472 528
25 58.6 19.3 8.7 11.2 460 481 477
26 58.0 19.2 8.9 13.3 469 460 528
Maximum 64.1 21.1 10.5 14.0 557
Minimum 56.1 18.5 7.7 9.2 460
Average 60.4 19.9 8.8 12.5 489
98 %tile 63.8 21.1 10.5 14.0 557
Benzene (C6H6), Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) ng/m3, Lead (Pb), Ozone (O3)
Ammonia (NH3), Arsenic (As) ng/m3 and Nickel (Ni) ng/m3
are Below the Detectable Limit
3
All the values except BaP, As, Ni and Hg are expressed as µg/m
ANNEXURE-IX
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY LEVELS

TABLE-6
Location : Kudumkulam (AAQ6)
CO
S. No. PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOx
I II III
1 57.1 18.8 6.9 9.5 469 503 460
2 52.1 17.2 6.6 9.8 472 476 474
3 53.9 17.8 8.3 14.7 489 476 474
4 57.2 18.9 6.8 9.5 476 460 460
5 57.3 18.9 7.2 9.7 524 513 474
6 56.4 18.6 6.5 12.7 537 500 489
7 53.7 17.7 6.1 9.6 489 483 500
8 53.2 17.5 6.4 14.5 531 503 506
9 56.4 18.6 8.5 10.6 469 460 466
10 55.4 18.3 6.7 12.5 474 474 500
11 53.3 17.6 6.6 10.9 460 500 490
12 55.0 18.2 7.5 11.5 503 489 460
13 53.1 17.5 8.4 9.5 476 460 469
14 50.6 16.7 6.5 12.0 489 476 460
15 51.9 17.1 7.2 9.1 460 507 481
16 53.1 17.5 8.4 12.0 489 520 460
17 56.5 18.6 7.1 11.3 478 500 476
18 57.0 18.8 7.5 9.5 460 495 489
19 53.4 17.6 8.4 12.5 500 460 460
20 53.9 17.8 6.9 9.4 476 476 476
21 52.3 17.3 7.3 12.4 529 500 535
22 54.4 18.0 7.5 13.2 483 512 460
23 57.8 19.1 8.4 12.0 489 460 474
24 56.0 18.5 6.7 10.2 460 495 476
25 52.9 17.4 8.5 9.4 500 489 460
26 52.3 17.3 7.2 11.3 490 460 476
Maximum 57.8 19.1 8.5 14.7 537
Minimum 50.6 16.7 6.1 9.1 460
Average 54.5 18.0 7.3 11.2 484
98 %tile 57.5 19.0 8.5 14.6 533
Benzene (C6H6), Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) ng/m3, Lead (Pb), Ozone (O3)
Ammonia (NH3), Arsenic (As) ng/m3 and Nickel (Ni) ng/m3
are Below the Detectable Limit
3
All the values except BaP, As, Ni and Hg are expressed as µg/m
ANNEXURE-IX
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY LEVELS

TABLE-7
Location : Vippedu (AAQ7)
CO
S. No. PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOx
I II III
1 57.7 19.0 7.0 9.6 474 508 465
2 52.7 17.4 6.7 9.9 476 481 479
3 54.4 18.0 8.4 14.9 494 481 479
4 57.8 19.1 6.9 9.6 481 465 465
5 57.9 19.1 7.3 9.8 530 518 479
6 56.9 18.8 6.6 12.8 542 505 494
7 54.2 17.9 6.2 9.7 494 488 505
8 53.7 17.7 6.5 14.6 537 508 511
9 56.9 18.8 8.6 10.7 474 465 470
10 56.0 18.5 6.8 12.6 479 479 505
11 53.8 17.8 6.7 11.0 465 505 495
12 55.6 18.3 7.5 11.7 508 494 465
13 53.6 17.7 8.5 9.6 481 465 474
14 51.1 16.9 6.6 12.1 494 481 465
15 52.5 17.3 7.3 9.2 465 512 486
16 53.6 17.7 8.5 12.1 494 525 465
17 57.0 18.8 7.2 11.4 483 505 481
18 57.6 19.0 7.5 9.6 465 499 494
19 53.9 17.8 8.5 12.6 505 465 465
20 54.4 18.0 7.0 9.5 481 481 481
21 52.9 17.4 7.3 12.5 534 505 540
22 54.9 18.1 7.5 13.4 488 517 465
23 58.4 19.3 8.5 12.1 494 465 479
24 56.5 18.6 6.8 10.3 465 499 481
25 53.4 17.6 8.6 9.5 505 494 465
26 52.9 17.4 7.3 11.4 495 465 481
Maximum 58.4 19.3 8.6 14.9 542
Minimum 51.1 16.9 6.2 9.2 465
Average 55.0 18.1 7.4 11.3 488
98 %tile 58.1 19.2 8.6 14.8 538
Benzene (C6H6), Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) ng/m3, Lead (Pb), Ozone (O3)
Ammonia (NH3), Arsenic (As) ng/m3 and Nickel (Ni) ng/m3
are Below the Detectable Limit
3
All the values except BaP, As, Ni and Hg are expressed as µg/m
ANNEXURE-IX
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY LEVELS

TABLE-8
Location : Vishar (AAQ8)
CO
S. No. PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NOx
I II III
1 58.2 19.2 7.0 9.7 479 513 469
2 53.2 17.5 6.7 10.0 481 486 483
3 55.0 18.1 8.5 15.0 499 486 483
4 58.3 19.2 6.9 9.7 486 469 469
5 58.4 19.3 7.3 9.9 535 523 483
6 57.5 19.0 6.6 12.9 548 510 499
7 54.8 18.1 6.2 9.8 499 493 510
8 54.2 17.9 6.5 14.8 542 513 516
9 57.5 19.0 8.7 10.8 479 469 475
10 56.5 18.7 6.8 12.7 483 483 510
11 54.3 17.9 6.7 11.1 469 510 500
12 56.1 18.5 7.6 11.8 513 499 469
13 54.1 17.9 8.6 9.7 486 469 479
14 51.6 17.0 6.6 12.3 499 486 469
15 53.0 17.5 7.3 9.3 469 517 490
16 54.1 17.9 8.6 12.3 499 530 469
17 57.6 19.0 7.2 11.5 488 510 486
18 58.1 19.2 7.6 9.7 469 504 499
19 54.4 18.0 8.6 12.8 510 469 469
20 55.0 18.1 7.0 9.6 486 486 486
21 53.4 17.6 7.4 12.6 540 510 545
22 55.5 18.3 7.6 13.5 493 522 469
23 59.0 19.5 8.6 12.3 499 469 483
24 57.1 18.8 6.8 10.4 469 504 486
25 53.9 17.8 8.7 9.6 510 499 469
26 53.4 17.6 7.3 11.5 500 469 486
Maximum 59.0 19.5 8.7 15.0 548
Minimum 51.6 17.0 6.2 9.3 469
Average 55.5 18.3 7.5 11.4 493
98 %tile 58.7 19.4 8.7 14.9 544
Benzene (C6H6), Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) ng/m3, Lead (Pb), Ozone (O3)
Ammonia (NH3), Arsenic (As) ng/m3 and Nickel (Ni) ng/m3
are Below the Detectable Limit
3
All the values except BaP, As, Ni and Hg are expressed as µg/m
ANNEXURE - X
DEMOGRAPHIC DATA WITHIN THE STUDY AREA

SI.No Description TRU No. of Households Total Population Total Male Total Female Total SC Total ST Total Literate Male Literate Female Literate Total Working Main workers Marginal workers Non workers
0-3 km radius
1 Kil Kadirpur Rural 904 4106 2092 2014 1862 164 2304 1351 953 2086 2072 14 2020
2 Mel Kadirpur Rural 243 1131 592 539 498 0 627 367 260 685 381 304 446
3 Mettukuppam Rural 207 873 435 438 0 17 432 274 158 553 346 207 320
4 Mettupalayam Rural 195 897 451 446 746 0 485 270 215 401 241 160 496
5 Narapakkam Rural 375 1680 874 806 351 192 902 531 371 848 712 136 832
6 Venkatapuram Rural 372 1739 852 887 1438 23 851 482 369 685 585 100 1054
7 Vippedu Rural 345 1489 732 757 521 73 880 492 388 720 337 383 769
8 Vishar Rural 166 892 451 441 10 42 528 304 224 431 418 13 461
Sub total 2807 12807 6479 6328 5426 511 7009 4071 2938 6409 5092 1317 6398
3-7 km radius
1 Achukattu Rural 179 756 352 404 0 0 493 265 228 460 408 52 296
2 Arappanamcheri Rural 427 1841 934 907 79 3 1327 740 587 672 649 23 1169
3 Ariyaperumbakkam Rural 221 974 496 478 280 0 477 308 169 556 311 245 418
4 Erivakkam Rural 17 88 50 38 23 0 67 40 27 33 32 1 55
5 Hanumanthapettai Rural 435 1882 935 947 347 114 1058 624 434 795 176 261 394
6 Kilambi Rural 824 4021 1979 2042 1337 5 2327 1300 1027 2013 1964 49 2008
7 Kolivakkam Rural 303 1337 663 674 352 0 653 394 259 809 733 76 528
8 Kuttiramedu Rural 79 329 175 154 33 40 153 96 57 169 161 8 160
9 Mel Ottivakkam Rural 406 1798 929 869 1213 19 1050 630 420 1143 733 410 655
10 Musarapakkam Rural 1110 5143 2541 2602 1684 45 2784 1632 1152 2583 2490 93 2560
11 Muttuvedu Rural 117 508 230 278 215 0 303 161 142 268 264 4 240
12 Netteri Rural 250 1180 594 586 47 9 703 411 292 384 381 3 796
13 Odatangal Rural 161 677 328 349 126 0 350 184 166 365 176 189 312
14 Olukkavakkam Rural 503 2235 1112 1123 558 0 1166 713 453 1006 660 346 1229
15 Pappankuli Rural 151 623 304 319 95 0 386 209 177 290 240 50 333
16 Perumpakkam Rural 620 2520 1235 1285 1089 0 1279 727 552 1307 953 354 1213
17 Pichavadi Rural 39 186 95 91 82 0 126 67 59 96 96 0 90
18 Putteri Rural 637 2961 1449 1512 2139 0 1804 1022 782 1193 1146 47 1768
19 Settitangal Rural 378 1667 818 849 329 11 890 499 391 679 524 155 988
20 Sirukaveripuram Rural 859 3874 1966 1908 652 53 2476 1421 1055 1977 1888 89 1897
21 Sitterimedu Rural 163 728 360 368 110 0 225 148 77 441 441 0 287
22 Timmasamudram Rural 418 2026 996 1030 942 0 1432 803 629 592 582 10 1434
23 Tiruppakuli Rural 1033 4704 2405 2299 1330 81 3241 1868 1373 1836 1760 76 2868
24 Tulagumtandalam Rural 107 488 253 235 0 0 280 173 107 299 252 47 189
25 Velatottam Rural 172 791 395 396 375 0 499 296 203 381 296 85 410
26 Velikkapattadai Rural 575 2548 1289 1259 88 0 1914 1049 865 1004 985 19 1544
Sub total 10184 45885 22883 23002 13525 380 27463 15780 11683 21351 18301 2692 23841
7-10 km radius
1 Arupalayam Rural 599 2632 1328 1304 1424 197 1229 775 454 1240 1087 153 1392
2 Damal Rural 1474 6633 3269 3364 1124 138 3672 2150 1522 3587 3384 203 3046
3 Edarpalayam Rural 326 1398 704 694 978 14 885 509 376 600 407 193 798
4 Injambakkam Urban 2408 10117 5259 4858 1962 1 7267 4038 3229 3676 3154 522 6441
6 Karandai Rural 696 3110 1550 1560 1071 1 1676 1003 673 1473 1146 327 1637
7 Kilar Rural 336 1451 745 706 651 12 885 528 357 915 914 1 536
8 Konnerikuppam Rural 801 3773 1915 1858 2294 134 2341 1328 1013 1380 1305 75 2393
9 Kuram Rural 448 1975 974 1001 326 4 1083 652 431 1110 1102 8 865
10 Mel Bangaram Rural 111 511 243 268 0 0 308 183 125 379 378 1 132
11 Muttavakkam Rural 218 989 478 511 171 0 557 321 236 561 538 23 428
13 Nellur Rural 348 1536 762 774 448 46 802 476 326 510 464 46 1026
14 Olukkal pattu Rural 221 956 499 457 435 0 535 343 192 449 447 2 507
15 Orikka Rural 1020 4607 2310 2297 875 66 3087 1709 1378 2211 2034 177 2396
16 Padappam Rural 70 328 163 165 242 0 199 112 87 194 32 162 134
18 Sembarambakkam Rural 251 1176 613 563 682 0 698 423 275 512 494 18 664
19 Seyyanur Rural 35989 160488 80512 79976 75256 1673 85635 50037 35598 78259 38985 39274 82229
20 Sinnayankulam Rural 282 1299 615 684 496 13 782 410 372 520 247 273 779
21 Tenambakkam Urban 2090 9357 4722 4635 1409 199 5951 3347 2604 4058 3436 622 5299
23 Tiruvadirayapuram Rural 399 1729 869 860 898 2 956 533 423 737 192 545 992
25 Vembakkam Rural 153 659 343 316 456 3 333 215 118 359 191 168 300
26 Vishakandikuppam Rural 50 200 95 105 0 0 116 68 48 103 103 0 97
Sub total 48290 214924 107968 106956 91198 2503 118997 69160 49837 102833 60040 42793 112091
Grand total 61281 273616 137330 136286 110149 3394 153469 89011 64458 130593 83433 46802 142330
ANNEXURE-XI
ECOLOGICAL DETAILS

FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AROUND PROJECT SITE (10KM RADIUS)

Sr. No. Technical Name Family Life Form


I. Agricultural Crops
1 Sorghum vulgare Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
2 Triticum vulgare Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
3 Zea mays Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
4 Oryza sativa Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
II. Commercial Crops (including vegetables)
5 Abelomoschus indicus Malvaceae Therophyte
6 Allium cepa Liliaceae Geophyte
7 Allium sativum Liliaceae Geophyte
8 Annona squamosa Annonaceae Phanerophyte
9 Arachis hypogia Fabaceae Geophyte
10 Brassica oleracea var botrydis Cruciferae Therophyte
11 Brassica oleracea var capitata Cruciferae Therophyte
12 Cajanus cajan Fabaceae Therophyte
13 Carica papaya Caricaceae Therophyte
14 Catharanthes pusillus Compositae Therophyte
15 Cicer arietinum Fabaceae Hemicryptophyte
16 Citrus lemon Ruataceae Therophyte
17 Colacasia esculenta Areaceae Geophyte
18 Coreandrum sativum Umbelliferae Hemicryptophyte
19 Daucus carota Umbelliferae Geophyte
20 Gossypium sp Malvaceae Therophyte
21 Lycopersicum esculentus Solanaceae Therophyte
22 Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Phanerophyte
23 Memordia charantia Cucurbitaceae Therophyte
24 Pepaver somneferrum Pepavaraceae Hemicrptophyte
25 Pisum sativum Fabaceae Therophyte
26 Psidium guava Myrtaceae Phanerophyte
27 Solanum melongena Solanceae Hemicryptophyte
28 Solanum sp(Chillies) Solanaceae Hemicryptophyte
III. Plantations
29 Acacia nilotica Mimosaceae Phanerophyte
30 Albizia lebbeck Mimosaceae Phanerophyte
31 Albizia odorattissima Mimosaceae Phanerophyte
32 Albizia procera Mimosaceae Phanerophyte
33 Anacardium occidentale Anacardiaceae Phanerophyte
34 Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Phanerophyte
35 Bauhinia variegate Caesalpinaceae Phanerophyte
36 Bauhinia purpuria Caesalpinaceae Phanerophyte
37 Bambusa arundanaceae Poaceae Phanerophyte
38 Butea superba Caesalpinaceae Phanerophyte
39 Butea frondosa Caesalpinaceae Phanerophyte
40 Eucalyptus sp Myrtaceae Phanerophyte
41 Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarinaceae Phanerophyte
42 Delonix regia Caesalpinaceae Phanerophyte
43 Leucena leucophloe Caesalpinaceae Phanerophyte
IV. Natural Vegetation/Forest Type
44 Abrus precatorius Fabaceae Therophyte
45 Abutilon indicum Malvaceae Phanerophyte
46 Acacia leucophloe Mimosaceae Phanerophyte
47 Acalypha lanceolata Euphorbiaceae Therophyte
48 Acanthospermum hispidum Compositae Therophyte
49 Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae Therophyte
50 Adathoda vasica Acanthaceae Therophyte
51 Adina cordifolia Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
52 Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Phanerophyte
53 Aerva lanata Compositae Phanerophyte
54 Agave wightii Agavaceae Phanerophyte
55 Ageratum conyzoides Compositae Therophyte
56 Ailanthes excela Simaroubaceae Phanerophyte
ANNEXURE-XI
ECOLOGICAL DETAILS

Sr. No. Technical Name Family Life Form


57 Alangium lamarkii Alangiceae Phanerophyte
58 Aloe barbedensis Agavaceae Geophyte
59 Alternanthera sessilis Amaranthaceae Therophyte
60 Alysicarpus monilifer Fabaceae Therophyte
61 Ammania baccafera Lytharaceae Therophyte
62 Antidesma diandrum Euphorbiaceae Hemicryptophyte
63 Argemone mexicana Papevaraceae Therophyte
64 Asparagaus racemosus Liliaceae Therophyte
65 Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Phanerophyte
66 Barleria prionoites Acanthaceae Therophyte
67 Bidens biternata Compositae Therophyte
68 Blepharis asperima Acanthaceae Phanerophyte
69 Blumea lacera Compositae Therophyte
70 Boerheavia chinensis Nycataginaceae Therophyte
71 Boerheavia diffusa Nyctaginaceae Therophyte
72 Borreria stricta Rubiaceae Therophyte
73 Brassica camprestris Cruciferae Therophyte
74 Buchanania angustifolia Anacardiaceae Phanerophyte
75 Caesalpina pulcherima Caesalpinaceae Phanerophyte
76 Calotropis gigantia Asclepiadaceae Phanerophyte
77 Calotropis procera Asclipiadaceae Phanerophyte
78 Canna indicda Cannaceae Therophyte
79 Capparis aphylla Capparidaceae Therophyte
80 Capparis deciduas Capparidaceae Phanerophyte
81 Capsicum annulatum Solanaceae Therophyte
82 Careya arborea Palmae Phanerophyte
83 Carissa carandus Apocyanaceae Phanerophyte
84 Casearia graveolens Samydiaceae Phanerophyte
85 Cassia auriculata Caesalpinaceae Therophyte
86 Cassia occidentalis Caesalpinaceae Therophyte
87 Cassia absus Caesalpinaceae Therophyte
88 Cassia tora Caesalpinaceae Phanerophyte
89 Cayratia terifolia Vitaceae Phanerophyte
90 Caryota urens Palmae Phanerophyte
91 Ceiba pentandra Bombacaceae Phanerophyte
92 Cestrum diurnum Rubiaceae Theophyte
93 Cestrum noctrunum Rubiaceae Therophyte
94 Chloris varigata Poaceae Therophyte
95 Chrysanthemum sp Compositae Therophyte
96 Cissus quadrangularis Vitaceae Therophyte
97 Citrus liminoites Rutaceae Phanerophyte
98 Citrus media Rutaceae Phanerophyte
99 Cleome gynandra Capparidaceae Therophyte
100 Cleome viscose Capparidaceae Therophyte
101 Clitoria ternate Fabaceae Therophyte
102 Cocos nucifera Palmae Phanerophyte
103 Cordia myxa Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
104 Crataeva adsoni Capparidaceae Phanerophyte
105 Crotalaria burhia Fabaceae Therophyte
106 Crotalaria medicagenia Fabaceae Therophyte
107 Croton bonplandinum Amaryllidaceae Therophyte
108 Cryptostegia grandiflora Orchidaceae Hemicryptophyte
109 Cuscuta reflexa Cuscutaceae Epiphyte
110 Daemia extensa Fabaceae Therophyte
111 Dalbergia latifolia Fabaceae Phanerophyte
112 Dalbergia paniculta Fabaceae Phanerophyte
113 Datura metal Solanaceae Therophyte
114 Dillenia pentagyna Dillineaceae Phanerophyte
115 Delphinium ajacus Ranunculaceae Phanerophyte
116 Dendrophthe falcate Loranthaceae Hemicryptophyte
117 Echinops echinatus Compositae Therophyte
118 Eclipta alba Compositae Therophyte
ANNEXURE-XI
ECOLOGICAL DETAILS

Sr. No. Technical Name Family Life Form


119 Eclipta prostrate Compositae Hemicryptophyte
120 Eichhornia cressipes Pontederiaceae Hydrophyte
121 Emblica officinale Euphorbiaceae Phanerophyte
122 Erythroxylon monogynum Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
123 Emilia lajerium Compositae Hemicryptophyte
124 Erythrina indica Papillionaceae Phanerophyte
125 Euphorbia geniculata Euphorbiaceae Therophyte
126 Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae Therophyte
127 Euphorbia hyperocifolia Euphorbiaceae Therophyte
128 Euphorbia nerifolia Euphorbiaceae Phanerophyte
129 Euphorbia neruri Euphorbiaceae Therophyte
130 Euphorbia nivula Euphorbiaceae Therophyte
131 Euphorbia thymiflora Euphorbiaceae Phanerophyte
132 Euphorbia tricauli Euphorbiaceae Hemicryptophyte
133 Evolvulus alsinoides Convolvulaceae Therophyte
134 Evolvulus numalaris Convolvulaceae Therophyte
135 Fagonia cretica Zygophyllaceae Phanerophyte
136 Feronia elephantum Rutaceae Phanerophyte
137 Ficus benghalensis Moraceae Phanerophyte
138 Ficus carica Moraceae Phanerophyte
139 Ficus glomerata Moraceae Phanerophyte
140 Ficus hispida Moraceae Phanerophyte
141 Ficus racemosus Moraceae Phanerophyte
142 Ficus relisiosa Moraceae Phanerophyte
143 Ficus gibbosa Moraceae Phanerophyte
144 Flacourtia indica Flacourtiaceae Phanerophyte
145 Flacourtia latifolia Flacourtiaceae Phanerophyte
146 Flacourtia Montana Flacourtiaceae Phanerophyte
147 Fumaria indica Papillionaceae Hemicryptophyte
148 Gardenia latifolia Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
149 Gardenia lucida Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
150 Garuga pinnata Burseraceae Phanerophyte
151 Gloriosa superba Liliaceae Phanerophyte
152 Gmelina arborea Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
153 Gomphrena globosa Amaranthaceae Therophyte
154 Gossypium herbaceum Malvaceae Therophyte
155 Grewia abutifolia Tiliaceae Phanerophyte
156 Grewia salivifolia Tiliaceae Phanerophyte
157 Grewia subinaqualis Tiliaceae Phanerophyte
158 Gynandropis gynandra Capparidaceae Hemicryptophyte
159 Helictris isora Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
160 Heliotropium indicum Rubiaceae Hemicryptophyte
161 Helitropium ovalifolium Rubiaceae Hemicryptophyte
162 Hemidesmus indicus Asclepiadaceae Phanerophyte
163 Hibiscus gibbosa Malvaceae Therophyte
164 Hibiscus micronthus Malvaceae Therophyte
165 Hibiscus ovalifolia Malvaceae Therophyte
166 Hibiscus rosa-cianensis Malvaceae Therophyte
167 Holostemma annularia Aslepiadaceae Phanerophyte
168 Hyptis suavalens Labiatae Therophyte
169 Ichnocarpus frutens Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
170 Ipomea carnea Convolvulaceae Phanerophyte
171 Ipomea coccinea Convolvulaceae Therophyte
172 Ipomea tuba Convolvulaceae Hemicryptophyte
173 Ixora parviflora Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
174 Ixora singapuriens Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
175 Jasmimum arborens Oleaceae Phanerophyte
176 Justia simplex Acanthaceae Therophyte
177 Jussiaea suffraticosa Onagraceae Hydrophyte
178 Justia diffusa Acanthaceae Therophyte
179 Justicia diffusa Acanthaceae Therophyte
180 Kyllinga trceps Cyperaceae Hemicryptophyte
ANNEXURE-XI
ECOLOGICAL DETAILS

Sr. No. Technical Name Family Life Form


181 Lantana camara Verbinacaee Phanerophyte
182 Lathyrus sativus Papillionaceae Hemicryptophyte
183 Lawsonia inermis Lythraceae Phanerophyte
184 Lemna minor Lemnaceae Hydrophyte
185 Lepidogathis cristata Acanthaceae Therophyte
186 Leucas aspera Labiatae Therophyte
187 Leucas longifolia Labiatae Therophyte
188 Lophophora tridinatus Scrophulariaceae Geophyte
189 Lygodium flexosum Schiaceae Therophyte
190 Malvastrum coramandalicum Malvaceae Therophyte
191 Marselia quadrifolia Marseliaceae Phanerophyte
192 Medicago indica Papillionaceae Phanerophyte
193 Medicago lymorpha Papillionaceae Therophyte
194 Mimusops hexandra Sapotaceae Phanerophyte
195 Medicago polymorpha Papillionaceae Therophyte
196 Merremia emerginata Convolvulaceae Therophyte
197 Michaelia champaca Annonaceae Phanerophyte
198 Millingtonia hartensis Bignoniaceae Phanerophyte
199 Mimosa hamata Mimosaceae Therophyte
200 Mollugo hirta Aizoaceae Therophyte
201 Moringa olerifera Moringaeae Phanerophyte
202 Morus alba Moraceae Phanerophyte
203 Murraya exotica Rutaceae Phanerophyte
204 Murraya koenigii Rutaceae Phanerophyte
205 Musa paradisica Musaceae Therophyte
206 Nelumbium nuciferum Magnoliaceae Hydrophyte
207 Nerium indicum Apocyanaceae Phanerophyte
208 Nicotiana plubigera Solanaceae Hemicryptophyte
209 Nymphia sp Magnoliaceae Hydrophyte
210 Ocimum americanum Labiatae Therophyte
211 Ocimum basillum Labiatae Therophyte
212 Oldenlandia umbellate Convolvulaceae Therophyte
213 Opuntia dillinii Opuntiaceae Therophyte
214 Indigofera pulchella Papillionaceae Phanerophyte
215 Prema tomentaosa Rubiaceae Phanerophyte
216 Opuntia elator Cacataceae Therophyteq
217 Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae Therophyte
218 Panicum milliria Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
219 Panicum notatum Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
220 Papaver somniferum Papaveraceae Hemicryptophyte
221 Parkinsonia aculata Mimosaceae Phanerophyte
222 Parthenium hysterophorus Compositae Therophyte
223 Paspalum strobilanthus Passifloraceae Hemicryptophyte
224 Passiflora foetida Passifloraceae Phanerophyte
225 Pavonia zeylanica Malvaceae Phanerophyte
226 Phyllanthes emblica Euphorbiaceae Phanerophyte
227 Phyllanthes nirurii Euphorbiaceae Therophyte
228 Physalis minima Solanaceae Therophyte
229 Pithocolobium dulce Mimosaceae Phanerophyte
230 Polyalthia longifolia Annonaceae Phanerophyte
231 Pongamia pinnata Fabaceae Phanerophyte
232 Portulaca oleracea Portulaccaceae Therophyte
233 Psidium guava Myrtaceae Phanerophyte
234 Punica granulatum Puniaceae Therophyte
235 Raphanus sativus Cruciferae Therophyte
236 Rosa machata Rosaceae Therophyte
237 Saccharum munja Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
238 Salmalia malabarica Salmaliaceae Phanerophyte
239 Sapindus emerginatus Sapindaceae Phanerophyte
240 Saraca indica Caesalpinaceae Therophyte
241 Sida cordifolia Malvaceae Phanerophyte
242 Sansvera suavalens Agavaceae Therophyte
ANNEXURE-XI
ECOLOGICAL DETAILS

Sr. No. Technical Name Family Life Form


243 Sida orientalis Malvaceae Phanerophyte
244 Sida vernanifolia Malvaceae Hemicryptophyte
245 Sesamum indicum Pedaliaceae Hemicryptophyte
246 Solanum nigrum Solanaceae Therophyte
247 Solanum suratensis Solanaceae Phanerophyte
248 Solanum xanthocarpum Solanaceae Therophyte
249 Sterculia villosa Tiliaceae Therophyte
250 Sygygium cumini Myrtaceae Phanerophyte
251 Tagetus sp Compositae Therophyte
252 Tamarindus indica Caesalpinaceae Phanerophyte
253 Tecomella undulate Bignoniaceae Therophyte
254 Tectona grandis Verbinaceae Phanreophyte
255 Tephrosia purpuria Fabaceae Therophyte
256 Thespesia lampas Malvaceae Phanerophyte
257 Tinospora cordifolia Rhamnaceae Therophyte
258 Tragus biflorus Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
259 Tribulus terrestris Zygophyllaceae Therophyte
260 Tridax procumbens Compositae Therophyte
261 Tripogon jacquimontii Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
262 Triumferta pilosa Tiliaceae
263 Vernonia cinera Compositae Therophyte
264 Vicoa indica Compositae Phanerophyte
265 Vitex negungo Verbinaceae Therophyte
266 Vitis vermifera Vitaceae Therophyte
267 Wrightia tomentosa Apocyanaceae Phanerophyte
268 Xanthium strumariumk Compositae Therophyte
269 Yucca gloriosa Agavaceae Therophyte
270 Zizyphus jujube Rhamnaceae Phanerophyte
271 Zizyphus oenoplica Rhamnaceae Therophyte
VI. Grasslands
272 Cenchurus ciliaris Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
273 Apluda mutica Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
274 Chloris dolichosta Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
275 Dichanthium annulatum Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
276 Sachharum spontanseum Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
277 Aristida adscensionsis Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
278 Cyperus aristatus Cyperaceae Therophyte
279 Digetaria Segetaria Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
280 Digetaria stricta Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
281 Digetaria adscendens Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
282 Eragrostis biferia Poaceae Therophyte
283 Eragrostis diahena Poaceae Therophyte
284 Eragrostis japonica Poaceae Therophyte
285 Eragrostis tenella Poaceae Therophyte
286 Fibrystylis dichotoma Poaceae Hemicryptophyte
287 Ichnocarpus frutenscens Poaceae Therophyte
288 Setaria glauca Cyperaceae Hemicryptophyte
Endemic species No endemic species recorded/reported as per
BSI records
Endangered species No endangered plant species recorded/reported
as per BSI
ANNEXURE-III
APPLICABLE ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

1.0 Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards (Dated 16th November, 2009)

The revised NAAQ standards issued on 16th November, 2009 are given in Table-
1.
TABLE-1
REVISED NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
(Dated 16th November, 2009)

Pollutant Time Weighted Concentration in Ambient Air (µg/m3)


Average Industrial Ecologically Sensitive
Residential, Areas (notified by
Rural & Central Government)
Other Areas
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Annual Average* 50 20
(µg/m3) 24 Hours** 80 80
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Annual Average* 40 30
(µg/m3) 24 Hours** 80 80
Particulate Matter Annual Average* 60 60
(Size less than 10 µg) 24 Hours** 100 100
(PM10) (µg/m3)
Particulate Matter Annual Average* 40 40
(Size less than 2.5 µg) 24 Hours** 60 60
(PM2.5) (µg/m3)
Ozone (O3) (µg/m3) 8 Hours** 100 100
1 Hour** 180 180
Lead (Pb) (µg/m3) Annual Average* 0.5 0.5
24 Hours** 1.5 1.0
Carbon monoxide (CO) 8 Hours** 2000 2000
(µg/m3) 1 Hour** 4000 4000
Ammonia (NH3) Annual Average* 100 100
(µg/m3) 24 Hours** 400 400
Benzene (C6H6) Annual* 5 5
Benzo(o) Pyrene Annual* 0.001 0.001
(BaP)- particulate
phase only (µg/m3)
Arsenic (As) (µg/m3) Annual* 0.006 0.006
Nickel (Ni) (µg/m3) Annual* 0.020 0.020
Note:
*Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year at a particular
site taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.
**24 hourly/8 hourly/1 hourly monitored values, as applicable, should be met 98%
of the time in a year. However 2% of the time, it may exceed but not on two
consecutive days of monitoring.

2.0 Ambient Air Quality Standards (Dated 11th April 1994)

National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQ) Standards for ambient air prescribed by
Central Pollution Control Board vide Gazette Notification dated 11 th April, 1994
are given below in Table-2.

AIII-1
ANNEXURE-III
APPLICABLE ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

TABLE-2
NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (Dated 11th April 1994)

Pollutant Time Weighted Concentration in Ambient Air (µg/m3)


Average Industrial Residential, Sensitive
Area Rural & Areas
Other Areas
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Annual Average* 80 60 15
(µg/m3) 24 Hours** 120 80 30
Oxides of Nitrogen Annual Average* 80 60 15
(NOx) (µg/m3) 24 Hours** 120 80 30
Suspended Particulate Annual Average* 360 140 70
Matter (SPM) (µg/m3) 24 Hours** 500 200 100
Respirable Particulate Annual Average* 120 60 50
Matter (Size less than 24 Hours** 150 100 75
10 microns) (µg/m3)
Lead (Pb) (µg/m3) Annual Average* 1.0 0.75 0.50
24 Hours** 1.5 1.0 0.75
Carbon monoxide (CO) 8 Hours 5000 2000 1000
(µg/m3) 1 Hour** 10000 4000 2000
Note:
* Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken
twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.
** 24 hourly/8 hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. However 2% of
the time, it may exceed but not on two consecutive days.

3.0 Noise Limits and Guidelines for Diesel Generators

Noise from DG set shall be controlled by providing an acoustic enclosure or by


treating the room acoustically, at the users end;
The acoustic enclosure or acoustic treatment of the room shall be designed for
minimum 25 dB (A) insertion loss or for meeting the ambient noise standards,
whichever is on the higher side (if the actual ambient noise is on the higher
side, it may not be possible to check the performance of the acoustic
enclosure/acoustic treatment. Under such circumstances the performance
may be checked for noise reduction upto actual ambient noise level,
preferably, in the nighttime). The measurement for Insertion Loss may be
done at different points at 0.5 m from the acoustic enclosure/room, and then
averaged;
These limits shall be regulated by the State Pollution Control Boards and the
State Pollution Control Committees;
The manufacturer shall offer to the user a standard acoustic enclosure of 25
dB (A) insertion loss and also a suitable exhaust muffler with insertion loss of
25 dB (A);
The user shall make efforts to bring down the noise levels due to the DG set,
outside his premises, within the ambient noise requirements by proper siting
and control measures;
Installation of a DG set must be strictly in compliance with the
recommendations of the DG set manufacturer; and
A proper routine and preventive maintenance procedure for the DG set should
be set and followed in consultation with the DG set manufacturer which would
help prevent noise levels of the DG set from deteriorating with use.

AIII-2
ANNEXURE-III
APPLICABLE ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

4.0 Ambient Noise Standards

Ambient standards with respect to noise have been notified by the Ministry of
Environment and Forests vide gazette notification dated 26th December 1989
(amended in February, 2000). It is based on the ‘A’ weighted equivalent noise level
(Leq). The ambient noise standards are presented in Table-2.

TABLE-2
AMBIENT NOISE STANDARDS

Area Code Category of Area Noise Levels dB(A) Leq


Day time* Night Time
A Industrial Area 75 70
B Commercial Area 65 55
C Residential Area 55 45
D Silence Zone** 50 40
Note:
* Daytime is from 7 am to 10 pm.
** Silence zone is defined as area up to 100 meters around premises of hospitals, educational
institutions and courts. Use of vehicle horns, loud speakers and bursting of crackers are
banned in these zones.

5.0 Noise Standards for Occupational Exposure

Noise standards in the work environment are specified by Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA-USA) which are being enforced by Government of
India through model rules framed under Factories Act. These are given in Table-3
below.
TABLE-3
STANDARDS FOR OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

Total Time of Exposure per Day in Hours Sound Pressure Level in


(Continuous or Short term Exposure) dB(A)
8 90
6 92
4 95
3 97
2 100
3/2 102
1 105
¾ 107
½ 110
¼ 115
Never >115
Note:
1. No exposure in excess of 115 dB(A) is to be permitted.
2. For any period of exposure falling in between any figure and the next higher
or lower figure as indicated in column (1), the permissible level is to be
determined by extrapolation on a proportionate scale.

AIII-3
ANNEXURE-III
APPLICABLE ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

6.0 Wastewater Discharge Standards

The wastewater discharge standards for “discharge on land for irrigation” are
stipulated under the Environment Protection Rules (1993) and are given below in
Table-4.

TABLE-4
WASTE WATER DISCHARGE STANDARDS

Sr. List of Parameters Units Standard


No. (On Land Irrigation)
1 Color and Odor -- All efforts should be made to
remove color and unpleasant odor
as far as practicable.
2 Suspended Solids Mg/l 200
3 Particle size of Suspended Solids -- Shall pass 850 micron IS sieve.
4 pH value -- 5.5 to 9.0
o
5 Temperature C Not specified.
6 Oil and grease, Max. mg/l 10.0
7 Total residual chlorine, Max. mg/l Not specified
8 Ammonical nitrogen (as N), Max. mg/l Not specified
9 Total Kjeldhal nitrogen (as N),Max mg/l Not specified
10 Free ammonia (as NH3), Max. mg/l Not specified
11 Biochemical oxygen demand (3 days at mg/l 100.0
27°C), Max.
12 Chemical oxygen demand, Max. mg/l Not specified
13 Arsenic (as As), Max. mg/l 0.2
14 Mercury (as Hg), Max. mg/l Not specified
15 Lead (as Pb), Max. mg/l Not specified
16 Cadmium (as Cd), Max. mg/l Not specified
17 Hexavalent chromium (as Cr+6), Max. mg/l Not specified
18 Total chromium (as Cr), Max. mg/l Not specified
19 Copper (as Cu), Max. mg/l Not specified
20 Zinc (as Zn), Max. mg/l Not specified
21 Selenium (as Se), Max. mg/l Not specified
22 Nickel (as Ni), Max. mg/l Not specified
23 Cyanide (as CN), Max. mg/l 0.2
24 Fluorides as F mg/l Not specified
25 Dissolved phosphates (as P),Max mg/l Not Specified
26 Sulphides as (S), Max. mg/l Not specified
27 Phenolic compounds (as C2H5OH), Max. mg/l Not specified
28 Radioactive Materials
a] Alpha Emitters, Max. mC/ml 10-7
b] Beta Emitters, Max. mC/ml 10-7
29 Bio-assay test -- 90% survival of fish after 96
hours in 100% effluent.
30 Manganese (as Mn) mg/l Not specified
31 Iron (as Fe) mg/l Not specified
32 Vanadium (as V) mg/l Not specified
33 Nitrate nitrogen mg/l Not specified

Note: These standards shall be applicable for industries, operations or processes other than
those industries, operations or process for which standards have been specified in Schedule of
the Environment Protection Rules, 1989.

AIII-4
ANNEXURE-IV
METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

1.0 Meteorology

The methodology adopted for monitoring surface observations is as per the


standard norms laid down by Bureau of Indian Standards (IS:8829) and India
Meteorological Department (IMD).

1.1 Methodology of Data Generation

The Central Monitoring Station (CMS) equipped with continuous monitoring


equipment was installed at site at a height of about 10 m above ground level to
record wind speed, direction, relative humidity and temperature. The
meteorological monitoring station was located in such a way that it is free from
any obstructions and as per the guidelines specified under IS:8829. Cloud cover
was recorded by visual observation. Rainfall was monitored by rain gauge.

The continuous recording meteorological instrument of Dynalab, Pune (Model


No.WDL1002) has been used for recording the met data. The sensitivity of the
equipment is as given in Table-1.

TABLE-1
SENSITIVITY OF METEOROLOGY MONITORING STATION

Sr. No. Sensor Sensitivity


1 Wind speed Sensor ± 0.02 m/s
2 Wind direction Sensor ± 3 degrees
3 Temperature Sensor ± 0.2oC

Hourly maximum, minimum and average values of wind speed, direction and
temperature were recorded continuously with continuous monitoring equipment. All
the sensors were connected to filter and then logged on to datalogger. The readings
were recorded in a memory module, which was attached to datalogger. The
memory module was downloaded in computer through Dynalab software. The
storage capacity of memory module was 256 KB. Data was downloaded every
fortnight into the computer. The data was recorded continuously. The recovery of
data was about 98%. The rest of 2 % data gaps were filled by referring to IMD data
and daily weather reports in the local newspapers. However, Relative Humidity and
Rainfall were recorded manually.

1.2 Ambient Air Quality

The air samples were analyzed as per standard methods specified by Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB), IS: 5184 and American Public Health Association
(APHA).

The techniques used for ambient air quality monitoring and minimum detectable
level are given in Table-3.

AIV-1
ANNEXURE-IV
METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

TABLE-3
TECHNIQUES USED FOR AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

Parameters Test Method Minimum Detectable


[as per GSR 826(E), Sch-VII] Limit (g/m3)
Particulate Matter, PM10 Gravimetric Method 1.0
Particulate Matter, PM2.5 Gravimetric Method 1.0
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Improved West and Gaeke 4.0
Method
Nitrogen dioxide (NOx) Modified Jacob and Hochheiser 4.0
Method
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Gas Monitor 12.5
(3 x 8 hr)
Ozone (O3) (3 x 8 hr) Spectroscopic analysis 0.01 ppm /20 g/m3
Ammonia, NH3 Indophenol Blue method 4.0
Benzene, C6H6 Solvent extraction followed by 0.001
GC analysis
Benzo(a)pyrene in Solvent extraction followed by 0.0001
Particulate phase GC analysis
Heavy metals in AAS/ICP method 0.0001
particulate phase for
Arsenic (As), Nickel (Ni),
Lead (Pb)

1.3 Water Analysis

Samples for chemical analysis were collected in polyethylene carboys. Samples


collected for metal content were acidified with 1 ml HNO3. Samples for
bacteriological analysis were collected in sterilized glass bottles. Selected physico-
chemical and bacteriological parameters have been analyzed for projecting the
existing water quality status in the study area. Parameters like temperature,
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and pH were analyzed at the time of sample collection.

The methodology for sample collection and preservation techniques was followed as
per the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) mentioned in Table-4.
TABLE-4
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOP)
FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER SAMPLING

Parameter Sample Collection Sample Storage/


Size Preservation
pH Grab sampling 50 ml On site analysis
Plastic /glass container
Electrical Grab sampling 50 ml On site parameter
Conductivity Plastic /glass container
Total suspended Grab sampling 100 ml Refrigeration,
solids Plastic /glass container can be stored for 7
days
Total Dissolved Grab sampling 100 ml Refrigeration,
Solids Plastic /glass container can be stored for 7
days
BOD Grab sampling 500 ml Refrigeration, 48 hrs
AIV-2
ANNEXURE-IV
METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

Parameter Sample Collection Sample Storage/


Size Preservation
Plastic /glass container
Hardness Grab sampling 100 ml Add HNO3 to pH<2,
Plastic /glass container refrigeration; 6
months
Chlorides Grab sampling 50 ml Not required; 28 days
Plastic /glass container
Sulphates Grab sampling 100 ml Refrigeration; 28 days
Plastic /glass container
Sodium, Plastic container 100 ml Not required; 6
Potassium months
Nitrates Plastic containers 100 ml Refrigeration; 48 hrs
Fluorides Plastic containers only 100 ml Not required; 28 days
Alkalinity Plastic/ glass 100 ml Refrigeration; 14 days
containers
Ammonia Plastic/ glass 100 ml
Add H2SO4 to pH>2,
containers refrigeration, 28 days
Hexavalent Plastic/ Glass rinse 100 ml Grab sample;
Chromium, Cr+6 with 1+1 HNO3 refrigeration; 24 hrs
Heavy Metals Plastic/ Glass rinse 500 ml Filter, add HNO3 to
(Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, with 1+1 HNO3 pH>2; Grab sample; 6
Fe, Zn, Pb etc.) months
Source: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,
Published By APHA, AWWA, WEF 19 th Edition, 1995

1.3.1 Analytical Techniques

The analytical techniques used for water and wastewater analysis is given in the
Table-5.
TABLE-5
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER ANALYSIS

Parameter Method
pH APHA-4500-H+
Colour APHA-2120 C
Odour IS: 3025, Part-4
Temperature APHA-2550 B
Dissolved Oxygen APHA-4500 O
BOD APHA-5210 B
Electrical conductivity APHA-2510 B
Turbidity APHA-2130 B
Chlorides APHA-4500 Cl-
Fluorides APHA-4500 F-
Total dissolved solids APHA-2540 C
Total suspended solids APHA-2540 D
Total hardness APHA-2340 C
Sulphates APHA-4500 SO4-2
Arsenic APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3114 B/ APHA-3500 As
Calcium APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 Ca
Magnesium APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 Mg
Sodium APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 Na

AIV-3
ANNEXURE-IV
METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

Parameter Method
Potassium APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 K
Manganese APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 Mn
Mercury APHA-3112 B/ APHA-3500 Hg
Selenium APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3114 B/ APHA-3500 Se
Lead APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 Pb
Copper APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 Cu
Cadmium APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 Cd
Iron APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 Fe
Zinc APHA-3120 B/ APHA-3500 Zn
Boron APHA-4500 B
Coliform organisms APHA-9215 D
Alkalinity APHA-2320 B

1.4 Soil Quality

At each location, soil samples were collected from three different depths viz. 30
cm, 60 cm and 90 cm below the surface and are homogenized. This is in line with
IS: 2720 & Methods of Soil Analysis, Part-1, 2nd edition, 1986 of (American
Society for Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America). The homogenized
samples were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics. The soil samples
were collected and analyzed once in each season.

The samples have been analyzed as per the established scientific methods for
physico-chemical parameters. The heavy metals have been analyzed by using
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and Inductive Coupled Plasma Analyzer.

The methodology adopted for each parameter is described in Table-6.

TABLE-6
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR SOIL ANALYSIS

Parameter Method (ASTM number)


Grain size distribution Sieve analysis (D 422 – 63)
Textural classification Chart developed by Public Roads Administration
Infiltration capacity Infiltrometer
Bulk density Sand replacement, core cutter
Porosity Void ratio
Sodium absorption ratio Flame colourimetric (D 1428-82)
PH pH meter (D 1293-84)
Electrical conductivity Conductivity meter (D 1125-82)
Nitrogen Kjeldahl distillation (D 3590-84)
Phosphorus Molybdenum blue, colourimetric (D 515-82)
Potassium Flame photometric (D 1428-82)
Copper AAS (D 1688-84)
Iron AAS (D 1068-84)
Zinc AAS (D 1691-84)
Boron Surcumin, colourimetric (D 3082-79)
Chlorides Argentometric (D 512-81 Rev 85)
Fluorides Fusion followed by distillation and estimation by
Ion selective electrod.

AIV-4
ANNEXURE-IV
METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

1.5 Noise Levels

1.5.1 Method of Monitoring

Noise level monitoring was carried out continuously for 24-hours with one hour
interval starting at 0030 hrs to 0030 hrs next day. The noise levels were monitored
on working days only and Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays were not
monitored. During each hour Leq were directly computed by the instrument based
on the sound pressure levels. Lday (Ld), Lnight (Ln) and Ldn values were computed
using corresponding hourly Leq of day and night respectively. Monitoring was
carried out at ‘A’ response and fast mode.

Parameters Measured During Monitoring

For noise levels measured over a given period of time interval, it is possible to
describe important features of noise using statistical quantities. This is calculated
using the percent of the time certain noise levels exceeds the time interval. The
notation for the statistical quantities of noise levels is described below:

 Hourly Leq values have been computed by integrating sound level meter.

 Lday: As per the CPCB guidelines the day time limit is between 07:00 hours to
22.00 hours as outlined in Ministry of Environment and Forest Notification S.O.
123 (E) dated 14/02/2000.

 Lnight: As per the CPCB guidelines the night time limit is between 22:00 hours to
07.00 hours as outlined in Ministry of Environment and Forest Notification S.O.
123 (E) dated 14/02/2000.

A rating developed by Environmental Protection Agency, (US-EPA) for specification


of community noise from all the sources is the Day-Night Sound Level, (Ldn).

Ldn: It is similar to a 24 hr equivalent sound level except that during night time
period (10 PM to 07 AM) a 10 dB (A) weighting penalty is added to the
instantaneous sound level before computing the 24 hr average. This nighttime
penalty is added to account for the fact that noise during night when people usually
sleep is judged as more annoying than the same noise during the daytime.

The Ldn for a given location in a community may be calculated from the hourly Leq’s,
by the following equation.

15 9
[10  10
( Leqi / 10) ( Leqi 10/ 10)
]
Ldn  10Log i 1 i 1
24

AIV-5
DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
FOR COTTON CETP, SILK CETP TO
MEET ZLD & DETAILED PROJECT
REPORT FOR SEWAGE TREATMENT
PLANT & RAW WATER TREATMENT
PLANT

SUBMITTED
TO

Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board


Chennai

PRESENTED BY
PERARIGNAR ANNA HANDLOOM SILK PARK
LTD.,
KANCHIPURAM

1
INDEX

S.NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO

1 DETAILED PROJECT REPORT – COTTON CETP 3 – 47

2 DETAILED PROJECT REPORT – SILK CETP 48 - 72

3 DETAILED PROJECT REPORT – SEWAGE 73 - 92


TREATMENT PLANT

4 DETAILED PROJECT REPORT – RAW WATER 93- 107


TREATMENT PLANT

5 ONLINE MONITORING SYSTEM 108

2
DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
FOR COTTON CETP TO MEET ZLD

SUBMITTED
TO

Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board


Chennai

PRESENTED BY
PERARIGNAR ANNA HANDLOOM SILK PARK
LTD.,
KANCHIPURAM

3
CONTENTS

S.NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO

1.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION ABOUT PROCESS SCHEME – 5


COTTON CETP

1.2 EXPECTED INLET PARAMETERS & EXPECTED TREATED 19


RO PERMEATE WATER CHARACTERISTICS – COTTON
CETP

1.3 EXPECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFLUENT AT EACH 20


STAGE – COTTON CETP

1.4 DESIGN ADEQUACY REPORT – COTTON CETP 22

1.5 TOTAL SLUDGE FROM PLANT – COTTON CETP 44

1.6 EXPECTED TANK DIMENSION AND CAPACITY – COTTON 45


CETP

1.7 PUMP DETAILS – COTTON CETP 46

1.8 CONCLUSION – COTTON CETP 47

4
1.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION ABOUT PROCESS SCHEME

The CETP has control of pumping raw effluent from the individual members and install
flow meters, which will be monitored as recommended by TNPCB.

1.1.1 PRIMARY TREATMENT:

 SCREENER:

 Screener separates coarse & medium fine solids at the inlet. This is the process
which is a predetermined stage where escaping of solids is completely avoided,
whereby clogging of pumps & machinery in subsequent stages is avoided.

 The collected wastes are disposed periodically and the screener which is attached
with brush is automatically cleaned. The screening equipment is controlled by pre-
set time switches/level sensors.

ROTATING BRUSH SCREENER


5
 STORAGE & HOMOGENIZATION TANK:

 The effluent from various concentration of process streams are


equalized/homogenised in this tank. A retention time of 24 hours is been given to
make bacteria acclimatise and uniform pollution load.

 The whole water volume is kept in movement by aeration with disc bubble diffusers
& submersible mixers.

pH : 9 to 10.5
TDS :7500 to 8000 mg/Ltrs
RAW EFFLUENT Chlorides : 3000 to 3500 mg/Ltrs
(HOMOGENIZED Sulphates :800 to 1500 mg/Ltrs
EFFLUENT) PARAMETERS BOD : 400 to 500 mg/Ltrs
COD : 1500 to 1800 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 80 to 100 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate : 800 to 1000 mg/Ltrs

STORAGE & HOMOGENIZING TANK

6
 NEUTRALIZATION:
 Neutralization is a process where pH is been maintained between 7 – 8 by addition
of HCL/H2SO4 based on the online pH monitoring system automatically.

 COOLING TOWER:
 The temperature is reduced to an extent of 5 - 6 °C degrees from the temperature of
homogenized effluent. The recommended temperature for biological treatment is 35
– 36 °C.

COOLING TOWER

7
 BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM:
 COD & BOD reduction happens in biological, due to the presence of biomass,
which breaks the chemical properties of the raw effluent. 50- 60 % of colour
reduction happens in biological system.
 The appropriate FM ratio is been maintained here.
 Evacuates CO2, Nitrogen.
 Fine bubble aerated disc diffusers designed as per the inlet BOD is been installed, to
provide the necessary oxygen for the bacteria at a level of 2 PPM – dissolved
Oxygen.
 The blower which is supplying air to the Disc Diffuser System is been operated
automatically, based on the online DO meter.
 Effectiveness of the Biological system depends upon the De-sludge factor from the
Biological tank. BELT PRESS is installed to remove the sludge from biological
process and to maintain MLSS 5- 6 g/l at FM ratio 0.05 to 0.07 for better
performance.
 Submersible flow mixers are also added, to keep moving the effluent to avoid
anaerobic reaction, sludge sedimentation & odour.
 48 hours retention time.

BIOLOGICAL TANK

8
 CLARIFIER

 It clarifies and segregates the clear water from the biological tank and sediments the
activated sludge.

 The clear water overflows and moves to Filtration section.

 The sediment sludge is removed through pumping and fed into biological tank, for
bacterial development.

 Retention time – 8 hours.

CLARIFIER
9
 SLUDGE RECYCLING:

 Sludge extracted from Clarifier is pumped again to biological process, for bacterial
development.
 The sludge recycle flow normally maintained 1:1 ratio.
 The excess sludge water will be sent to Belt Press, for Solid Sludge Cakes.

pH : 6.5 to 7
TDS : 7500 to 8000 mg/Ltrs
Chlorides : 3000 to 3500 mg/Ltrs
BIOLOGICAL Sulphates : 700 to 1600 mg/Ltrs
TREATMENT SYSTEM – BOD : 15 to 25 mg/Ltrs
OUTLET PARAMETERS COD : 150 to 180 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 80 to 100 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate : 600 to 800 mg/Ltrs

1.1.2 SECONDARY TREATMENT:

 SAND FILTER:

 Suspended solids from the water coming from Biological system is been removed
here through a Sand Bed in the filter. The filtering nozzles are made of
polypropylene and the diameter of their holes is normally 0.25 mm, i.e. smaller than
the diameter of the smallest sand grain.

 Filtered solids are removed by Backwashing which is done with both Air and Water
with pressure of 50m3/H and velocity of 6-7 m/H respectively. The efficiency of
this type of filter can achieve 60-100 micron.

10
SAND FILTER WITH ITS FRONTAL PIPING & PUMP ASSEMBLY

 ULTRA FILTRATION:

 Ultra filtration filters the solids particles up to 0.2 micron. Reduction of Suspended
solids level and colloidal particles is achieved here by capillary membranes.
 The Scaling of solids in the membranes is been removed by Backwash process
which is done automatically. The permeate recovered is fed to Softener filter and
the backwash water is fed back to Biological System.

11
pH : 6.5 to 7
TDS : 7500 to 8000 mg/Ltrs
WATER PARAMETERS - Chlorides : 3000 to 3500 mg/Ltrs
AFTER UF TREATMENT Sulphates : 700 to 1600 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 5 to 10 mg/Ltrs
COD : 120 to 150 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 80 to 100 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate : 600 to 800 mg/Ltrs

ULTRAFILTRATION SKID
12
 SOFTENING PLANT:

 Here the hardness is been removed that is present in the Ultra Filtered water. 90%
hardness reduction is achieved here through a specialized resin. Reject send for NF
feed.
 The adsorbed reject in the resin media is been removed by backwash & regenerating
procedures through the dosage of HCL & NaOH.
 During the exhaustion step the resin becomes progressively bound with Ca and Mg
thus it is called exhausted resin.

SOFTENER FILTER

13
 DE-CARBONATING TOWER: (DEGASSER)

 De-carbonating is a process which allows carbon dioxide removal that is present in


the water. It is obtained by means of a degassed tower realized in polypropylene
which uses rashing- type- rings, also realized in polypropylene, as filling material.
 The aeration of the column is obtained by means of air blowing from the bottom by
means of a centrifugal fan complete of a butterfly valve for the flow adjustment. The
condensation stage of the outlet air from the tower is realized by means of a
labyrinth demister.

DECARBONATING TOWER WITH ITS BLOWER ASSEMBLY


pH :6 - 7
TDS :7300-7800 mg/ltr
SOFTENER & DEGASSER Chlorides : 3200-3800 mg/ltr
OUTLET PARAMETERS Sulphates :700-1600 mg/ltr
( RO FEED) BOD :0-10 mg/ltr
COD :120-150 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 5 - 10mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 80- 100 mg/ltr
14
1.1.3 TERTIARY TREATMENT:

 REVERSE OSMOSIS:
 Reverse Osmosis Process is the forced passage of water through a membrane
against the natural osmotic pressure to accomplish separation of ions and water. In
the process of Osmosis, a thin membrane of suitable material (Cellulose Acetate
Polyamide) (0.10 to 0.15 mm thick) separates two salt solutions.
 The rate of water transfer depends primarily on the difference in salt concentration
between the solutions, characteristics of the membrane and magnitude of the applied
pressure. A 3 stage RO is constructed here with both Brackish and Sea water
membranes. Result of the process gives PERMEATE and SALT SOLUTION.
 Recovery of the permeate is achieved about 86 – 88%.In first stage around 70 % is
achieved , in 2nd stage 50 % is achieved and in the final stage around 20 % is
achieved contributing the total recovery. All the stages are in series connection and
no storage tanks in between.
 No of Brackish & Seawater membranes – 198 no’s.
 pH, TDS is been monitored online.

REVERSE OSMOSIS SKID

15
EXPECTED TREATED RO PERMEATE WATER CHARACTERISTICS
Parameters U.M. Value
Recovery % 88
COD ppm 15-20
TDS ppm 100-300
pH - 6.5-7
Temperature °C 35
Colour Pt/Co 10-15
TKN ppm 0-1
Phosphorous ppm 0
Surfactants ppm 0
SS ppm 0
Total Hardness ppm CaCO3 0-5
Alkalinity ppm CaCO3 0-10

pH : 6.5-7.5
TDS : 60000-65000mg/ltr
Chlorides : 26000 -32000 mg/ltr
RO REJECT WATER Sulphates : 5600- 1300 mg/ltr
CHARACTERISTICS BOD : 8- 100 mg/ltr
COD : 1000-1250 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 50-100 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 600-800 mg/ltr

1.1.4 REJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:


 SATURATOR (PHYSCIO CHEMICAL) WITH QF, UF & DT:
Saturator -To remove silica , Bicarbonate and hardness in RO reject before
Nano filtration.
 The RO Reject will be transferred to Degasser to remove the bicarbonate
followed by Quartz Filter/Disc Filter followed by UF and then fed in Nano
Filtration.
 The RO reject contains hardness of about 100-150 mg/l & 100 mg/l of silica
which will affect the NF recovery. To increase the BRINE RO & NF
recovery the hardness, silica has to be reduced. Reduction of the hardness &
silica will certainly increase the recovery and increase the life of the
Membranes.

16
 NANO FILTRATION:

pH : 6 -7
TDS :60000-65000 mg/ltr
Chlorides : 26000-32000mg/ltr
NF FEED PARAMETERS Sulphates : 5600-1300mg/ltr
BOD : 10-50mg/ltr
COD : 500-1000 mg/ltr
Total Hardness :25-50 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 80-150 mg/ltr

 The Nano filtration process is a Reverse Osmosis process using a relatively


open RO membrane, allowing water and small univalent ions (Na+, K+, Cl-)
to pass.
 The filtration process takes place on a selective separation layer formed by
an organic semi permeable membrane. The driving force of the separation
process is the pressure difference between the feed (retentiate) and the
filtrate (permeate) side at the separation layer of the membrane. However,
because of its selectivity, one or several components of a dissolved mixture
are retained by the membrane despite the driving force, while water and
substances with a molecular weight < 200 D are able to permeate the semi
permeable separation layer.
 Because Nano filtration membranes also have selectivity for the charge of
the dissolved components, monovalent ions will pass the membrane and
divalent and multivalent ions will be rejected. The Nano filtration technique
is mainly used for the removal of two valued ions and the larger mono
valued ions such as heavy metals.

NANOFILTRATION KIT
17
pH :6-7
TDS : 40000-50000 mg/Ltrs
NF BRINE – NF PERMEATE Chlorides : 20000-30000mg /Ltrs
CHARACTERISTICS Sulphates : 100-200 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 0-20 mg/Ltrs
COD : 200-300 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness :100-200 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate : 40- 100 mg/Ltrs

 MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR:

pH : 6-7
MEE FEED TDS : 70000-80000 mg/Ltrs
Chlorides :12000-15000 mg/Ltrs
Sulphates :25000-30000 mg/Ltrs

REJECT from MEE Mother liquor to solar pan

 Chloride and Sulphate salts are recovered here towards the usage of CETP member
units with five effective falling film followed with crystallizer for sulphate and three
forced circulate for mixed salt. The volume sent to solar pond jacket evaporator is
reduced by this process.(Process scheme attached)

 The effluent from the sump is pumped into the heat exchanger where it absorbs heat
energy from the steam surrounding the heat exchanger tubes. Thereby the
temperature of the liquor rises above 100 degree c. When this supersaturated liquid
enters the evaporating vessel, most of the liquid flashes into vapour.

 The remaining liquid is re-circulated once again into the heat exchanger and the
process is repeated. The water vapor is condensed and reused as process / boiler
feed water.

 As the process goes on the effluent gets concentrated with salts and gets saturated.
The salts tend to precipitate and get crystallized. These crystals are collected in the
conical bottom of the evaporation vessel. When the valve is opened at suitable
intervals, this is discharged as thick slurry into the batch filter. This slurry is

18
discharged into a solar evaporation bed. The salts shall be removed and packed in
containers for safe disposal.

1.2 EXPECTED COTTON CETP INLET PARAMETERS & OUTLET WATER


CHARACTERISTICS:

UNIT
PARAMETERS MEASURED INLET VALUE OUTLET VALUE

COD Ppm 1500-1800 15-20


-
BOD5 Ppm 400-500

TDS Ppm 8000 100-300

pH - 8-9.5 6.5-7.0

Temperature °C 40 35

Color Pt/Co 1500 10-15

TKN Ppm 40 0-1

Phosphorous Ppm 10 0

SS Ppm 200 0

Total Hardness ppm CaCO3 80 0-5

Alkalinity ppm CaCO3 1000 0-10

Cl- Ppm 3.000-3500 0

SO42- Ppm 800-1500 0


0
Fe2+ Ppm 0-1
0
SiO2 Ppm 20

RECOVERY % 88

19
1.3 EXPECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFLUENT AT EACH STAGE:

pH : 9 to 10.5
1 RAW EFFLUENT TDS :7500 to 8000 mg/ltr
Chlorides : 3000 to 3500 mg/ltr
(HOMOGENIZED Sulphates :800 to 1500 mg/ltr
EFFLUENT) BOD : 400 to 500 mg/ltr
COD : 1500 to 1800 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 80 to 100 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 800 to 1000 mg/ltr

pH : 6.5 to 7
2 BIOLOGICAL OUTLET TDS : 7500 to 8000 mg/ltr
Chlorides : 3000 to 3500 mg/ltr
Sulphates : 700 to 1600 mg/ltr
BOD : 15 to 25 mg/ltr
COD : 150 to 180 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 80 to 100 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 600 to 800 mg/ltr

pH : 6.5 to 7
3 UF OUTLET TDS : 7500 to 8000 mg/ltr
Chlorides : 3000 to 3500 mg/ltr
Sulphates : 700 to 1600 mg/ltr
BOD : 5 to 10 mg/ltr
COD : 120 to 150 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 80 to 100 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 600 to 800 mg/ltr

pH :6 - 7
4 SOFTNER & DEGASSER TDS :7300-7800 mg/ltr
OUTLET Chlorides : 3200-3800 mg/ltr
( RO FEED) Sulphates :700-1600 mg/ltr
BOD :0-10 mg/ltr
COD :120-150 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 5 - 10mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 80- 100 mg/ltr
20
pH : 6.5-7.5
5 RO REJECT TDS : 60000-65000mg/ltr
Chlorides : 26000 -32000 mg/ltr
Sulphates : 5600- 1300 mg/ltr
BOD : 8- 100 mg/ltr
COD : 1000-1250 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 50-100 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 600-800 mg/ltr

pH : 6 -7
6 NF FEED TDS :60000-65000 mg/ltr
Chlorides : 26000-32000mg/ltr
Sulphates : 5600-1300mg/ltr
BOD : 10-50mg/ltr
COD : 500-1000 mg/ltr
Total Hardness :25-50 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 80-150 mg/ltr

pH :6-7
7 NF BRINE TDS : 40000-50000 mg/ltr
Chlorides : 20000-30000mg /ltr
Sulphates : 10-50 mg/ltr
BOD : 0-20 mg/ltr
COD : 200-300 mg/ltr
Total Hardness :100-200 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 40- 100 mg/ltr

pH : 6-7
8 MEE FEED TDS : 70000-80000 mg/ltr
Chlorides :12000-15000 mg/ltr
Sulphates :25000-30000 mg/ltr

9 REJECT from MEE Mother liquor to solar pan

21
1.4 DESIGN ADEQUACY REPORT:

 Effluent Flow: 3200 cu. m/day

1. COLLECTION CUM EQUALISATION TANK:

Capacity : 3200 KL
Average effluent flow : 134 cu. m/h
Retention time required : 10-12 hrs. (Considering one batch completion)
Retention time available : 24 hrs
Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD Capacity

2. AERATION TANK:

Influent BOD : 500 mg/l max (Assumed)


Process selected : Activated extended biological process.
2.1 Design conditions:

F/M (Food/Microbes) = 0.05


MLSS (Mixed liquor suspended solids) = 5000 mg/l
2.2 Calculation of Aeration tank volume:

F/M = So/( x MLVSS)


F/M - Food to microbe’s ratio in d –1
So - Influent substrate concentration in mg/l.
MLVSS - Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids in mg/l = 0.8 x MLSS
 - Hydraulic retention time = V/Q
V - Aeration tank volume in Cu. m
Q - Effluent flow in cu. m per day
Hence substituting these values,

V = 6400 KL, Q = 134 cum.hr, retention time = 48 hrs.


Recommended retention time : 24 - 30 hrs
Designed retention time : 48 hrs
Selected volume = 6400 KL.

22
Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD Capacity.

3. AIR QUANTITY CALCULATION:

Total BOD to be removed = 500 x 3200 = 1600


kg/day.
Hence O2 to be transferred = 1600 kg/day
Method of aeration = fine bubble diffusers.
SOTE (Standard O2 Transfer Efficiency) for 6 m submergence = 0.1 %
Hence O2 required 1600/0.1 = 16000 kg/day.
Assuming  factor (ratio of SOTE in clean water to effluent water) = 0.8
And another F factor (Factor for fouling of diffusers) = 0.8,
Oxygen requirement = 16000/ (0.8 x 0.8) =
25000 kg/day
Oxygen % in the atmospheric air = 20 %.
Hence air requirement = 125000 kg/day.
With sp. Gravity of air, at 50 Deg C = 0.8 kg/cu. m,
Air requirement = 68965 cu. m/day
Air requirement in hours = 3445 cu. m/h.
Blower selection was made to 3000 cu. m/h – 3 no’s, air flow at 0.6 bar.

3.1 Diffuser calculation:


Diffuser requirement 9 inch: 1378 no’s (2.5cum.hr air X 1378m3/hr = 3445 cum.hr)
Membrane : EPDM
Selected no of diffusers : 1600 no’s
Blower selected : 3000 m3/hr – 0.6 bar
No of blowers : 3 No’s
Power : 105 kW
Based on the diffusers pore size increase during running time 40 % extra air calculated.

Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD Capacity

4. CLARIFIERS:

Biological Process:
Hydraulic loading (Design velocity) - 0.6 cu. m/sq. m/hr
23
Maximum flow - 150 cu. m/h
Area of clarifier required - 249 sq. m
Dia of clarifier required - 18 m
Selected Dimension - 16 m dia X 3.5 H – 2 NO’S
Retention time for settling - 7-8 hrs
Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD Capacity

5. SAND FILTER:

Size : 2.5 m Ø x 2.8 m H


No of filter : 3 no
Design Feed flow : 70 m3/hr
Required feed flow : 63 m3/hr
Operating hours : 20 hrs.
Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD capacity

6. ULTRA FILTRATION PLANT:

Average feed flow : 208 cu. m/h


Membrane Quantity : 58 No’s
Make : INGE/BERGHOFF
Type : Hollow fiber
Molecular weight cut off : 0.2 Micron
Operation mode : Dead end filtration.
Recommended flux rate : 40 – 55 Ltrs/h/m2.
Net flux considered : 43 Ltrs/h/m2
No of elements required : 58 no’s of elements
Designed for : 58 no’s of elements
Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD capacity

7. SOFTENER FILTER:

Softener filter : 3 no’s


Size : 1800 mm dia X Height 2500 mm.
Resin volume : 8000 lit
Feed flow rate/filter : 60 m3/hr.
Operating hours : 20 hrs /day
24
7.1 Resin Calculation:
Manufacture recommendation : 50 GPL
Total Hardness in feed : 80 PPM
Total amount hardness in 3200 cum : 256000 gram
Assuming 50 GPL, required resin volume : 5120 liters
Excess resin taken for backwash : 2880 lit
Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD capacity.

ULTRA FILTRATION DESIGN SHEET- 3200 CUM.DAY

25
8. DEGASSER:
Decarbonating Tower : 1 no’s
Capacity : 2200 mm dia & 5000 m Ht.
Flow rate : 180 cu. m/ hr
Inlet total alkalinity : 1000 PPM
Air required for 1 m3 : 48.66 m3/ hr
Total air required for 180 m3/ hr : 8758.8 m3/ hr
Designed capacity : 9000 m3/hr
Operating Hours : 20 hrs
Hence Adequate for 3.2 MLD capacity

9. RO PLANT STAGE – 1:

Plant Running Parameters:


Required feed flow : 160 cu.m.hr (3200 Cu. m/day)
Design Feed flow rate : 180 cu. m/h
Operating hours : 20 hrs
Permeate flow rate :112 cu. m/hr (2240 Cu. m/day)
Recovery % : 70 %
Reject flow rate : 48 cu. m/hr (960 Cu. m/day)
Feed Pressure Required : 300 psi
Feed TDS : 8000 ppm
Permeate TDS : < 200 ppm
Reject TDS : 26348 ppm

Membrane selection : 8” dia x 40” long –198 Nos.


Membrane type : Spiral wound polyamide, fouling resistance type brackish
water element.
Make/model : Dow/GE/Hydranautics
Surface area of each element : 400 sq. ft., (37.38 sq. m)
Total surface area : 7357.68 m2

26
Average flux : 17.12 lmh
As per the manufacturer’s recommendation:

Max. Performance @ Nacl : 40 cu. m/day for each membrane.


Hence the flux selected is within the limit.
Hence adequate for 3.2MLD Capacity

10. RO PLANT STAGE 2:

Design Feed flow rate : 54 Cu. m/hr (1080 Cu. m/day)


Required flow rate : 48 Cu. m/hr (960 Cu. m/day)
Permeate flow rate : 24 Cu. m/hr (480 Cu. m/day)
Reject flow rate : 24 Cu. m/hr (480 Cu. m/day)
Recovery % : 50 %
Feed Pressure Required : 700 psi
Feed TDS : 26275 ppm
Permeate TDS : < 200 ppm
Reject TDS : 52351 ppm

Membrane selection : 8” dia x 40” long – 60 Nos.


Membrane type : Spiral wound polyamide, sea water membrane.
Make/model : Dow/GE/Hydranautics
Surface area of each element : 370 sq. ft
Total surface area : 2062 m2
Average flux : 13.09 lmh

As per membrane manufacturer recommendation:

Max. Performance @ Nacl : 25 Cu. m/day for each membrane.


Max, Flux : 29.5 LMH
Hence the flux selected is within the limit.

Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD Capacity

11. RO PLANT 3RD STAGE:


27
Operating parameters:
Design Feed flow rate : 27 Cu. m/hr (540 Cu. m/day)
Required flow rate : 24 Cu. m/hr
Permeate flow rate : 4.8 Cu. m/hr (96 Cu. m/day)
Reject flow rate : 19.2 Cu. m/hr (384 Cu. m/day)
Recovery % : 20 %
Feed Pressure Required : 850 psi
Feed TDS : 52351 ppm
Permeate TDS : < 200 ppm
Reject TDS : 65540 ppm

Membrane selection : 8” dia x 40” long – 18 No’s


Membrane type : Spiral wound polyamide, sea water membrane
Make/model : Dow/GE/Hydranautics
Surface area of each element : 370 sq. ft.
Total surface area : 618 m2
Average flux : 8.73 lmh

As per membrane manufacturer recommendation:

Max. Performance @ Nacl : 25 Cu. m/day for each membrane.


Max, Flux : 29.5 LMH
Hence the flux selected is within the limit.

Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD Capacity

28
RO ROSA DESIGN SHEET:

29
30
31
32
33
34
12. DEGASSER FOR RO REJECT:

De carbonating Tower : 1 no’s


Capacity : 1300 mm dia & 5000 m Ht.
Flow rate : 30 cu. m/hr
Inlet total alkalinity : 1000 PPM
Air required for 1 m3 : 48.66 m3/ hr
Total air required for 30 m3/ hr : 1460 m3/hr
Designed capacity : 1600 m3/hr
Operating Hours : 20 hrs
Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD capacity

13. ULTRA FILTRATION FOR RO REJECT:

Average feed flow : 37 Cu. m/hr


Membrane Quantity : 12 No’s
Make : INGE/BERGHOFF
Type : Hollow fiber
Molecular weight cut off : 0.2 Micron
Operation mode : Dead end filtration.
Net flux : 50 lts/ h/ m2.
No of elements required : 12 no’s of elements

Designed for : 12 no’s of elements


Feed flow required : 25 m3/ hr
Designed feed flow : 37 m3/hr

Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD capacity

35
ULTRA FILTRATION DESIGN SHEET FOR RO REJECT:

36
14. NANO FILTRATION PLANT:

Plant Running Parameters:

Design feed flow rate : 40 Cu. m/hr


Operation hours considered : 20 Hours
Feed flow rate required : 23 Cu. m/hr (384 Cu. m/day)
Recovery % : 60 %
Brine flow rate : 13.26 Cu. m/hr
Reject flow rate : 8.84 Cu. m/hr
Feed Pressure Required : 400 Psi
Reject from RO @ 88 % : 384 m3/ day
Reject from raw water plant : 30 m3/ day
Softener Rejects : 8 m3/ day
Reject from Silk CETP RO : 36 m3/ day
Total reject to NF feed : 458 m3/ day
Total reject to NF feed : 23 m3/ day
Reject from NF @ 60 % : 183 m3/ day

Hence design feed flow adequacy for 3.2 MLD

Feed TDS : 60000 - 65000 ppm


Permeate TDS : 45000 - 50000 ppm
Reject TDS : 75000 – 85000 ppm
Membrane selection : 8” dia x 40” long – 60 No’s
Membrane type : Spiral wound polyamide, NF membranes
Make/model : GE/KOCH/DOW
Surface area of each element : 355 sq. ft., 33 sq. m
Total surface area : 21300 sq. ft., i.e. 1980 m2
Average flux : 12.98 lmh
Hence the flux selected is within the limit.

Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD capacity


37
DESIGN FOR NF:

38
39
15. RO FOR BRINE CONCETRATION:

Operating Parameters:
Feed flow rate : 17 Cu. m/hr (340 Cu. m/day)
Required flow rate : 13.25 Cu. m/hr (265 Cu. m/day)
Permeate flow rate : 5.0 Cu. m/hr (100 Cu. m/day)
Reject flow rate (BRINE) : 8.25 Cu. m/hr (165 Cu. m/day)
Recovery % : 38 %
Feed Pressure Required : 1200 psi
Feed TDS : 50000 ppm
Permeate TDS : < 1000 ppm.
BRINE TDS : 75000 – 80000 ppm

Membrane selection : 8” dia x 40” long – 48 No’s


Membrane type : Spiral wound polyamide, sea water membrane
Make/model : Dow/GE/Hydranautics
Surface area of each element: 370 sq. ft.
Total surface area : 1783 m2
Average flux : 3.62 lmh

As per membrane manufacturer recommendation:

Max. Performance @ Nacl : 25 Cu. m/day for each membrane.


Hence the flux selected is within the limit.

Hence adequate for 3.2 MLD capacity

40
RO DESIGN SHEET FOR BRINE CONCENTRATION

41
42
16. REJECT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DETAILS:

MEE: FIVE FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR & TWO FORCED CIRCULATION


EVAPORATOR WITH CRYSTALIZER & FILTRATION SYSTEM:

Operation hours : 20 Hrs


Reject from NF (MEE FEED) : 183 KL/day
Plant design capacity : 300 KL/day
Rate of evaporation : 90 %
Feed flow rate : 15 Cu. m/Hr (300 Cu. m/day)
Condensate flow rate : 13.5 Cu. m/Hr (270 Cu. m/day)
Concentrate : 1.5 Cu. m/Hr (30 Cu. m/day)
Installed capacity : 15 Cu. m/Hr (300 Cu. m/day)
Required feed flow : 10.65 Cu. m/hr (213 cum/day)

Hence, adequate for 3.2MLD Capacity


.
TWO FORCED CIRUCLATION EVAPORATOR & AGITATED REACTOR:

Operation hours : 20 Hrs


Reject from MEE : 17.7 KL/day
Design capacity : 30 KL/day
Rate of evaporation : 65-70 %
Feed flow rate : 1.5 Cu. m/Hr (30 Cu. m/day)
Condensate flow rate : 0.97 Cu. m/Hr (19.5 Cu. m/day)
Concentrate : 0.53 Cu. m/Hr (10.6 Cu. m/day)
Hence okay for 3.2MLD Capacity.

Hence all the above equipments are handling the flow to run up to 3.2 MLD without any
problem.

43
17. SOLAR PAN:

As advised by TNPCB, Solar Pond requirement for 1 KL = 225 sq. m. So for 12 KL, 2700
sq. m space allocated for Solar Pond.

1.5 TOTAL SLUDGE FROM PLANT

The sludge expected, from the COTTON CETP Plant for full flow, is as explained below.

A. BIOLOGICAL SLUDGE

The excess digested biological sludge will be collected and dewatered by pumps through
screw pumps into Belt press suitable for biological sludge. This will be approximately 2.5 -
3 ton/day. Bio sludge will utilize for bio fuel to boilers and fertilizers. Excess sludge will be
disposes, as advised by TNPCB.

B. SATURATOR SLUDGE

From saturator, chemical sludge approximately 0.5 – 1 tons of sludge on dry basis is
expected per day through filter press/belt press. The CETP will dispose sludge as advised
by TNPCB.

C. CHLORIDE & SULPHATE SALT


The sodium chloride recovered from Nano filtration concentrated up to 75-80 GPL in
reverse osmosis and will re-use in dye house and for softening plant. Sulphate recovered
from multiple effective evaporators will re-use in dye house and excess will be sale for
required industry.
D. MIXED SALT:
The mixed salt is purely inorganic and since having the M.E.E will have 40-50 % moisture
and can be disposed as advised by TNPCB. The CETP will explore the positively of end
use by any chemical industry for economical safe disposal. Suitable Records and Online
data of sludge generate shall be maintained. This salt will be dried in solar pan, bagged and
disposed. This quantity will be approximately 10-12 tons/day.

44
1.6 TANK CAPACITIES AND PROPOSED TANK DIMENSIONS:

VOLUME- Retention time-


S.NO TANK NAME L * B * H - meter m3 in Hours

1 LIFTING SUMP 22.4 x 3 x 4.9 295 2.2

2 HOMOGENISING TANK 42 X 12.8 X 6 3072 23


42 X 12.8 X 6.5 – 2
3 BIOLOGICAL TANK no’s 6548 49
16 M DIA X 3.5 – 2
4 CLARIFER no’s 703 8

5 CLARIFIER OUTLET TANK 27 X 2.1 X 6.0 340 2.5

6 QUARTZ OUTLET TANK 27 X 4.6 X 6.0 745 5.5

7 UF OUTLET TANT 27 X 4.6 X 6.0 745 5.5

8 SOFTNER PERMEATE TANK 27 X 4.6 X 6.0 745 5.5


27 X 7.1 X 6.0 1150 &
9 RO PERMEATE TANK & 27 X 30 X 6.0 4860 45

10 RO REJECT TANK 27 X 3.7 X 6.0 599


SATURATOR TREATED WATER
11 TANK 27 X 1.25 X 6.0 202
ULTRA FILTRATION TREATED
12 WATER TANK 27 X 1.9 X 6.0 307
NF BRINE CONCENTRATED RO
13 FEED TANK 27 X 1.25 X 6.0 202

14 NF BRINE TANK 27 X 1.25 X 6.0 320

15 MEE FEED TANK 27 X 6.2 X 6.0 1000

16 SLUDGE THICKENER 4 X 4.4X 4.4 155 2 NO’S

45
1.7 COTTON CETP PUMP DETAILS:

QUANTITY-
RUNNING +
CAPACITY- STAND BY IN
S.NO AREA OF THE PUMP MAKE m3/hr NO’S

1 LIFTING SUMP PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 150 2+1

2 BIOLOGICAL FEED PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 100 2+1

2 SLUDGE RECYCLE PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 150 1+1

3 BIOLOGICAL BLOWER ROBUSCH/AERZEN 3000 2+1

4 QUARTZ FEED PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 60 3+1

5 QUARTZ BACKWASH PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 65 1+1

6 UF FEED PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 225 1+1

7 SOFTNER FEED PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 100 2+1

8 RO FEED PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 90 2+1


RO 1ST STAGE HIGH PRESSURE
9 PUMP GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 90 2
RO 1ST STAGE 2ND ARRAY
10 BOOSTER PUMP GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 95 1

11 RO 2ND STAGE BOOSTER PUMP GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 60 1

12 RO 2ND STAGE 2ND ARRAY GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 40 1

13 RO 3RD STAGE BOOSTER PUMP GRUNDFOS 30 1

14 NF FEED PUMP GRUNDFOS/FLYGT/TAHA 30 1+ 1

15 NF HIGH PRESSURE PUMP GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 30 1

16 NF BOOSTER PUMP GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 20 1

17 NF 2ND STAGE BOOSTER PUMP GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 10 1


ULTRA FILTRATION FEED- RO
18 REJECT CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS 40 1+1

19 ULTRA FILTRATION B/W CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS 250 1+1

20 MEE FEED PUMP CALPEDA/TAHA 15 1+1

46
1.8. CONCLUSION

The PERARIGNAR ANNA HANDLOOM KANCHIPURAM SILK PARK COTTON


CETP is very earnest in its approach and have taken steps in identifying the Technical
Issues and will carry out full improvements and achieve ZLD for 100% flow.

47
DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
FOR SILK CETP TO MEET ZLD

SUBMITTED
TO

Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board


Chennai

PRESENTED BY
PERARIGNAR ANNA HANDLOOM
SILK PARK LTD.,
KANCHIPURAM

48
CONTENTS

S.NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO

2.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION ABOUT SILK CETP PROCESS SCHEME 50

2.2 EXPECTED INLET PARAMTERS & EXPECTED TREATED RO 61


PERMEATE WATER CHARACTERISTICS OF SILK CETP

2.3 EXPECTED CHARECTERISTICS OF EFFLUENT AT EACH 62


STAGE OF SILK CETP

2.4 DESIGN ADEQUACY REPORT – SILK CETP 63

2.5 TOTAL SLUDGE FROM PLANT – SILK CETP 69

2.6 EXPECTED TANK DIMENSIONS AND VOLUME OF EACH 70


TANK – SILK CETP

2.7 PUMP DETAILS – SILK CETP 71

2.8 CONCLUSION 72

49
2.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIOUS STAGES IN ZLD SILK CETP
OPERATIONS:

The CETP has control of pumping raw effluent from the individual members and Install
flow meters; this will be monitored as recommended by TNPCB.
The Treatment Scheme planned is as described below.

2.1.1 PRIMARY TREATMENT:

 SCREENER:
 Screener separates coarse & medium fine solids at the inlet. This is the process
which is a predetermined stage where escaping of solids is completely avoided,
whereby clogging of pumps & machinery in subsequent stages is avoided.
 The collected wastes are disposed periodically and the screener which is attached
with brush is automatically cleaned. The screening equipment is controlled by pre-
set time switches/level sensors.

ROTATING BRUSH SCREENER

50
 STORAGE & HOMOGENIZATION TANK:

 The effluent from various concentration of process streams are


equalized/homogenised in this tank. A retention time of 24 hours is been given to
make bacteria acclimatise and uniform pollution load.
 The whole water volume is kept in movement by aeration with disc bubble diffusers
& submersible mixers.

pH : 7 to 9
TDS : 300 to 500 mg/ltr
RAW EFFLUENT WATER Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/ltr
CHARACTERISTICS Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/ltr
BOD : 300 to 400 mg/ltr
(HOMOGENIZED WATER)
COD : 600 to 800 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 10 to 20 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate :600 to 800 mg/ltr

STORAGE & HOMOGENIZING TANK

51
 NEUTRALIZATION TANK:
 Neutralization is a process where pH is been maintained between 7 – 8 by addition
of HCL/H2SO4 based on the online pH monitoring system automatically.

NEUTRALIZATION TAKES PLACE AT THE OUTLET OF HOMOGENIZED TANK

 COOLING TOWER:

 The temperature is reduced to an extent of 5 - 6 °C degrees from the temperature of


homogenized effluent. The recommended temperature for biological treatment is 35
– 36 °C.

COOLING TOWER
52
 BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM:

 COD & BOD reduction happens in biological, due to the presence of biomass,
which breaks the chemical properties of the raw effluent. 50- 60 % of colour
reduction happens in biological system.
 The appropriate FM ratio is been maintained here.
 Evacuates CO2, Nitrogen.
 Fine bubble aerated disc diffusers designed as per the inlet BOD is been installed, to
provide the necessary oxygen for the bacteria at a level of 2 PPM – dissolved
Oxygen.
 The blower which is supplying air to the Disc Diffuser System is been operated
automatically, based on the online DO meter.
 Effectiveness of the Biological system depends upon the De-sludge factor from the
Biological tank. BELT PRESS is installed to remove the sludge from biological
process and to maintain MLSS 5- 6 g/l at FM ratio 0.05 to 0.07 for better
performance.
 Submersible flow mixers are also added, to keep moving the effluent to avoid
anaerobic reaction, sludge sedimentation & odour.
 48 hours retention time.

BIOLOGICAL TANK AT COMMISSIONING STAGE


53
 CLARIFIER:

 It clarifies and segregates the clear water from the biological tank and sediments the
activated sludge. The clear water overflows and moves to Filtration section.

 The sediment sludge is removed through pumping and fed into biological tank, for
bacterial development. Retention time – 8 hours.

CLARIFIER

 SLUDGE RECYCLING:

 Sludge extracted from Clarifier is pumped again to biological process, for bacterial
development.

 The sludge recycling must be regulated in such a way, to achieve a sludge quantity
in the recycling stream. The sludge recycle flow normally maintained 1:1 ratio.

 The excess sludge water will be sent to Belt Press, for Solid Sludge Cakes.

pH : 7 to 8
TDS : 300 to 500 mg/ltr
Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/ltr
BIOLOGICAL OUTLET Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/ltr
WATER CHARACTERISTICS BOD : 5 to 10 mg/ltr
COD : 120 to 150 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 10 to 20 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate :500 to 600 mg/ltr

54
2.1.2 SECONDARY TREATMENT:

 SAND FILTER:

 Suspended solids from the water coming from Biological system is been removed
here through a Sand Bed in the filter.

 The filtering nozzles are made of polypropylene and the diameter of their holes is
normally 0.25 mm, i.e. smaller than the diameter of the smallest sand grain.

 Filtered solids are removed by Backwashing which is done with both Air and Water
with pressure of 50m3/H and velocity of 6-7 m/H respectively. The efficiency of
this type of filter can achieve 60-100 micron.

QUARTZ FILTERS WITH ITS FRONTALPIPING AND PUMP ASSEMBLY


55
 ULTRA FILTRATION:

 Ultra filtration filters the solids particles up to 0.2 micron. Reduction of Suspended
solids level and colloidal particles is achieved here by capillary membranes.
 The Scaling of solids in the membranes is been removed by Backwash process
which is done automatically. The permeate recovered is fed to Softener filter and
the backwash water is fed back to Biological System.

pH : 7 to 8
ULTRA FILTRATION TDS : 300 to 500 mg/ltr
OUTLET WATER Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/ltr
CHARACTERISTICS Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/ltr
BOD : 2 to10 mg/ltr
COD : 100 to 120 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 10 to 20 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate :500 to 600 mg/ltr

ULTRAFILTRATION SKID
56
 SOFTENING PLANT:

 Here the hardness is been removed that is present in the Ultra Filtered water. 90%
hardness reduction is achieved here through a specialized resin.

 The adsorbed reject in the resin media is been removed by backwash & regenerating
procedures through the dosage of HCL & NaOH.

 During the exhaustion step the resin becomes progressively bound with Ca and Mg
thus it is called exhausted resin.

SOFTENER FILTERS WITH ITS FRONTAL PIPING

57
 DE-CARBONATING TOWER: (DEGASSER)

 De-carbonating is a process which allows carbon dioxide removal that is present in


the water. It is obtained by means of a degassed tower realized in polypropylene
which uses rashing- type- rings, also realized in polypropylene, as filling material.
 The aeration of the column is obtained by means of air blowing from the bottom by
means of a centrifugal fan complete of a butterfly valve for the flow adjustment. The
condensation stage of the outlet air from the tower is realized by means of a
labyrinth demister. The degassed water is stocked in a storage tank and then pumped
in to the circuit.

DECARBONATING TOWER

SOFTENER & DEGASSER pH : 7 to 8


OUTLET ( RO FEED) TDS : 300 to 500 mg/ltr
WATER Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/ltr
CHARACTERISTICS Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/ltr
BOD : 2 to10 mg/ltr
COD : 100 to 120 mg/ltr
Total Hardness : 0to 10 mg/ltr
Bicarbonate : 50 to 80 mg/ltr
58
2.1.3 TERTIARY TREATMENT:

 REVERSE OSMOSIS:

 Reverse Osmosis Process is the forced passage of water through a membrane


against the natural osmotic pressure to accomplish separation of ions and water. In
the process of Osmosis, a thin membrane of suitable material (Cellulose Acetate
Polyamide) (0.10 to 0.15 mm thick) separates two salt solutions.
 The rate of water transfer depends primarily on the difference in salt concentration
between the solutions, characteristics of the membrane and magnitude of the applied
pressure. A 3 stage RO is constructed here with both Brackish and Sea water
membranes. Result of the process gives PERMEATE and SALT SOLUTION.
 Recovery of the permeate is achieved about 86 – 88%.In first stage around 70 % is
achieved , in 2nd stage 50 % is achieved and in the final stage around 20 % is
achieved contributing the total recovery. All the stages are in series connection and
no storage tanks in between. The RO concentration to be utilized for ash quenching,
roof spraying & dust suppression.
 No of Brackish Membrane – 36 no’s.
 pH, TDS is been monitored online.
 The RO reject will be fed in to NF Feed Tank of Cotton & Yarn CETP for the
further treatment.

RO SKID
59
EXPECTED TREATED RO PERMEATE WATER CHARACTERISTICS

Parameters U.M. Value

Recovery % 92-95

COD ppm 15-20

TDS ppm 100-300

pH 6,5-7

Temperature °C 35

Colour Pt/Co 10-15

TKN ppm 0-1

Phosphorous ppm 0

Surfactants ppm 0

SS ppm 0

Total Hardness ppm CaCO3 0-5

Alkalinity ppm CaCO3 0-10

pH : 6.5-7.5
TDS : 5000-6500mg/Ltrs
RO REJECT – WATER Chlorides : 2000-2300 mg/Ltrs
CHARACTERISTICS Sulphates : 800- 1000 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 8- 100 mg/Ltrs
COD : 500-1000 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 50-100 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate : 600-800 mg/Ltrs

60
2.2. SILK CETP PROJECT – WATER INLET PARAMETERS & OUTLET
CHARACTERISTICS:

Parameters U.M. Inlet Value OUTLET VALUE

RECOVERY % 92-95

COD ppm 1500 15-20

BOD5 ppm 400 0-5

TDS ppm 300- 500 100-300

pH 7-9 6.5-7.0

Temperature °C 40 35

Color Pt/Co 10-20 10-15

TKN ppm 5 0-1

Phosphorous ppm 2 0

SS ppm 100 0

Total Hardness ppm CaCO3 20 0-5

Alkalinity ppm CaCO3 100 0-10

Cl- ppm 100- 200 0

SO42- ppm 100-150 0

Fe2+ ppm 0-1 0


SiO2 ppm 10 0

61
2.3. EXPECTED CHARECTERISTICS OF EFFLUENT AT EACH STAGE:

pH : 7 to 9
TDS : 300 to 500 mg/Ltrs
1 RAW EFFLUENT Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/Ltrs
(HOMOGENIZING TANK) Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 300 to 400 mg/Ltrs
COD : 1200 to 1500mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 10 to 20 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate :600 to 800 mg/Ltrs

pH : 7 to 8
TDS : 300 to 500 mg/Ltrs
2 BIOLOGICAL OUTLET Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/Ltrs
Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 5 to 10 mg/Ltrs
COD : 120 to 150 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 10 to 20 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate :500 to 600 mg/Ltrs

pH : 7 to 8
TDS : 300 to 500 mg/Ltrs
3 ULTRA FILTRATION Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/Ltrs
OUTLET Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 2 to10 mg/Ltrs
COD : 100 to 120 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 10 to 20 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate :500 to 600 mg/Ltrs

pH : 7 to 8
TDS : 300 to 500 mg/Ltrs
4 SOFTNER & DEGASSER Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/Ltrs
OUTLET ( RO FEED) Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 2 to10 mg/Ltrs
COD : 100 to 120 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 0to 10 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate : 50 to 80 mg/Ltrs

pH : 7 to 8
TDS : 3500 to 6000mg/Ltrs
5 RO REJECT Chlorides : 1200 to 2500 mg/Ltrs
( TO NF FEED TANK OF Sulphates : 1200 to 2000 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 20 to 120 mg/Ltrs
COTTON&YARN CETP)
COD : 1200 to 1500 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 80to 120 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate : 600 to 1000 mg/Ltrs

62
2.4 DESIGN ADEQUACY REPORT:

Effluent Flow: 450 cu. m/day

1. STORAGE & HOMOGENIZING TANK:

Capacity : 450 KL
Average effluent flow : 18.75 cu. m/h
Retention time required : 10-12 hrs, considering one batch completion.
Retention time available : 24 hrs, hence OK

Hence adequate for 450 m3/day Capacity

2. AERATION TANK:

Influent BOD : 400 mg/l max.(assumed).


Process selected : Activated sludge process.
Design conditions:
F/M (Food/Microbes) = 0.10
MLSS (Mixed liquor suspended solids) = 2000 mg/l
Calculation of Aeration tank volume:
F/M = So/( x MLVSS)
F/M : Food to microbe’s ratio in d –1
So : Influent substrate concentration in mg/l.
MLVSS: Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids in mg/l = 0.8 x MLSS
 : Hydraulic retention time. = V/Q:
V- Aeration tank volume in Cu. m
Q – Effluent flow in Cu. m/day
Hence substituting these values,
V = 900 KL, Quantity: 23 m3/ hr
Selected volume = 900 KL.
Recommended Retention Time : 24 - 30 hours
Designed retention time : 48 hrs
Hence adequate for 450 m3/day Capacity

63
3. AIR QUANTITY CALCULATION:

Total BOD to be removed = 400 x 450 = 180 kg/day.


Hence O2 to be transferred = 180 kg/day
Method of aeration = fine bubble diffusers.
SOTE (Standard O2 Transfer Efficiency) for 6 m submergence = 0.1 %
Hence O2 required 1000/0.1 = 180 kg/day.
Assuming  factor (ratio of SOTE in clean water to effluent water) = 0.8
And another F factor (Factor for fouling of diffusers) = 0.8,
Oxygen requirement = 900/ (0.8 x 0.8) = 1406 kg/day
Oxygen % in the atmospheric air = 23.2 %.
Hence air requirement = 6060 kg/day.
With sp. Gravity of air, at 50 Deg C = 0.8 kg/cu. m,
Air requirement = 7575 cu. m/day, = 378 cu. m/h.
Blower selection was made to 500 cu. m/h air flow at 0.6 bar.- 2 no’s
Diffuser calculation:
Diffuser requirement 9 inch : 152 no’s
Membrane : EPDM
Selected no of diffusers 9 inch : 226 no’s
Blower selected : 500 m3/ hr – 0.6 bar
No of blowers : 2 No’s

Hence adequate for 450 m3/day Capacity

4. CLARIFIER:

Biological Process:
Hydraulic loading (Design velocity) : 0.6 cu. m/sq. m/hr
Maximum flow : 25 cu. m/h
Area of clarifier required : 41.7sq. M
Dia of clarifier required :8m
Selected, Dimension : 9 m dia X 3.5 H
Retention time for settling : 8-10 hrs
Hence adequate for 450 m3/day Capacity
64
5. SAND FILTER:

Size : 1.5 m Ø x 2.8 m H


No of filter : 1 no
Design Feed flow : 30 m3/ hr
Required feed flow : 22.5 m3/hr
Operating hours : 20 hrs
Hence adequate for 450m3/day capacity
6. UF FILTRATION PLANT:
Average feed flow : 35 cu. m/hr
Membrane Quantity : 11 No’s,
Make : DOW/INGE/GE/BERGHOFF
Type : Hollow or flat fiber sheet type
Molecular weight cut off : 0.2 Micron
Operation mode : Dead end filtration
Recommended flow rate : 53 Ltrs/h/m2.
Required total surface area : 530 m2
Designed : 660 m2
No of elements designed : 11 no’s of elements
Hence adequate for 450 m3.day capacity
7. SOFTENER FILTER:
Softener filter : 1 no’s
Size : 1000 mm dia X Ht 2500 mm.
Resin volume : 900 lit
Feed flow rate/filter : 30 m3/ hr
Resin calculation:
Manufacture recommendation : 50 gpl
Total Hardness in feed M : 50 PPM
Total amount hardness in 450 cum : 22500 gram
Assuming 50 gpl, required resin volume : 450 liters
Excess resin taken for backwash : 450 lit
Hence adequate for 450 m3.day capacity
65
UF DESIGN SHEET FOR SILK CETP:

66
8. DEGASSER:
Decarbonating tower : 1 no’s
Capacity : 1200 mm dia & 5000 m Ht.
Flow rate : 30 cu. m/hr
Inlet total alkalinity : 800 PPM
Air required for 1 m3 : 48.66 m3/ hr
Total air required for 30 m3/ hr : 1460 m3/hr
Designed capacity : 1500 m3/hr
Operating Hours : 20 hrs
Hence adequate for 450 m3/day capacity

9. RO PLANT:

Plant Running Parameters:

Required feed flow : 22.5 cu.m.hr


Design Feed flow rate : 25 cu. m/hr (500 Cu. m/day)
Permeate flow rate : 23 cu. m/hr (460 Cu. m/day)
Recovery % : 92 %
Reject flow rate : 2 Cu. m/hr (40 Cu. m/day)
Feed Pressure Required : 300 psi
Feed TDS : 600 ppm
Permeate TDS : < 200 ppm.
Reject TDS : 6000 ppm
As per design reject flow : 36 cum. M/day
Membrane selection : 8” dia x 40” long –36 Nos.
Membrane type : Spiral wound polyamide, fouling resistance type brackish water
element.
Make/model : Dow/GE/Hydranautics
Surface area of each element : 400 sq. ft (37.38 sq. m)
Total surface area : 1337 m2
Average flux : 17.19 lmh

As per the manufacturer’s recommendation:


Max. Performance: 44 cu. m/day for each membrane.
Max. Flux: 40.12 LMH
Hence the flux selected is within the limit.

Hence adequate for 3.2MLD Capacity


67
RO DESIGN SHEET FOR SILK CETP:

68
2.5 TOTAL SLUDGE FROM PLANT:

The sludge expected from the SILK CETP Plant for full flow is, as mentioned below.

A. BIOLOGICAL SLUDGE:

The excess digested biological sludge will be collected and dewatered by pumps
through screw pumps into Belt press suitable for biological sludge. This will be 300 -500
kg/day

B. MIXED SALT:

The mixed salt is purely inorganic and since having the M.E.E will have 40-50 % moisture
and can be disposed as advised by TNPCB. The CETP will explore the positively of end
use by any chemical industry for economical safe disposal. Suitable Records and Online
data of sludge generate shall be maintained. This salt will be dried in solar pan, bagged and
disposed. This quantity will be approximately 250- 500 kg/day.

69
2.6 SILK CETP TANK CAPACITIES AND PROPOSED TANK DIMENSIONS:

VOLUME- Retention time- in


S.NO TANK NAME L*B*H - meter m3 Hrs

1 SCREENER 5.4m x 3.40m 18.36

4 M X 5 M X 3.5 M
2 LIFTING PUMP SUMP 60 3.2

7.1 M X 9 M X 6 M
+
3 HOMOGENIZING TANK 459.78 24
6.7 M X 1.9 M X 6 M

4.4 M X 1.9 M X 6 M
+
6 BIOLOGICAL TANK 14.4 M X 9 M X 6 M 907.21 48
+
6.9M X 1.9 M X 6 M

8 CLARIFIER DIA 9 M X 3.5M 190 10

CLARIFIED WATER STORAGE


10 3 M X 2.7 M X 6 M 48.6 2.592
TANK

Q.F TREATED WATER STORAGE


11 6.5 M X 2.7 M X 6 M 105.3 5.616
TANK

U.F TREATED WATER STORAGE


12 6.5 M X 2.7 M X 6 M 105.3 5.616
TANK

S.F TREATED WATER STORAGE


13 6.5 M X 2.7 M X 6 M 105.3 5.616
TANK

RO PERMEATE WATER STORAGE


14 25.5 M X 5.9 M X 6 M 902.7 48
TANK

RO REJECT WATER STORAGE


15 25.5 M X 1 M X 6 M 153 8.16
TANK

70
2.7 PUMP DETAILS:

QUANTITY-
RUNNING +
CAPACITY- STAND BY IN
S.NO AREA OF THE PUMP MAKE m3/hr NO’S

1 LIFTING SUMP PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 25 2+ 1

BIOLOGICAL FEED
2 PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 35 1+1

SLUDGE RECYCLE
2 PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 35 1+1

3 BIOLOGICAL BLOWER ROBUSCHI/EVEREST/AERZEN 600 1+1

QUARTZ FEED
4 /BACKWASH PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 35 1+1

5 UF FEED PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 40 1+1

6 UF BACKWASH PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 160 1+1

SOFTNER FEED &


7 BACKWASH PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 35 1+1

8 RO FEED PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 30 1+1

RO 1ST STAGE HIGH


9 PRESSURE PUMP GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 30 1
RO 1 ST STAGE 3RD
ARRARY BOOSTER
10 PUMP GRUNDFOS/FLYGT 10 1
RO REJECT TO NF
FEED TANK(COTTON
11 ETP) FEED PUMP CALPEDA/GRUNDFOS 30 1+1

71
2.8 CONCLUSION:

The ANNA KANCHIPURAM SILK PARK SILK CETP is very earnest in its approach and
have taken steps in identifying the Technical issues and will carry out full improvements
and achieve ZLD for 100% flow.

72
DETAILED PROJECT REPORT
FOR SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

SUBMITTED
TO

Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board


Chennai

PRESENTED BY

PERARIGNAR ANNA HANDLOOM


SILK PARK LTD.,
KANCHIPURAM

73
CONTENTS

S.No Description PAGE NO

3.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION ABOUT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT 75


PROCESS SCHEME

3.2 EXPECTED INLET PARAMTERS & EXPECTED UF & UV 83


TREATED WATER CHARACTERISTICS - STP

3.3 EXPECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE WATER AT 84


EACH STAGE

3.4 DESIGN ADEQUACY REPORT – STP 85

3.5 TOTAL SLUDGE FROM PLANT – STP 89

3.6 EXPECTED TANK DIMENSION AND PROPOSED TANK 90


VOLUME – STP

3.7 PUMP DETAILS - STP 91

3.8 CONCLUSION 92

74
3.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIOUS STAGES IN STP OPERATIONS:

The CETP has control of pumping raw effluent from the individual members and install
flow meters; this will be monitored as recommended by TNPCB.

The Treatment Scheme planned for STP is as described below.

3.1.1 PRIMARY TREATMENT:

 SCREENER:

 Screener separates coarse & medium fine solids at the inlet. This is the process
which is a predetermined stage where escaping of solids is completely avoided,
whereby clogging of pumps & machinery in subsequent stages is avoided.

 The collected wastes are disposed periodically and the screener which is attached
with brush is automatically cleaned. The screening equipment is controlled by pre-
set time switches/level sensors.

75
 STORAGE & HOMOGENIZATION TANK:

 The effluent from various concentration of process streams are


equalized/homogenised in this tank. A retention time of 24 hours is been given to
make bacteria acclimatise and uniform pollution load.
 The whole water volume is kept in movement by aeration with disc bubble
diffusers.

pH : 6 to 8
TDS : 300 to 500 mg/Ltrs
RAW EFFLUENT Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/Ltrs
(HOMOGENIZING TANK) Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 400 to 500 mg/Ltrs
COD : 800 to 1000 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardness : 10 to 20 mg/Ltrs
Bicarbonate :80 to 100 mg/Ltrs

76
HOMOGENATION TANK

 NEUTRALIZATION:

 Neutralization is a process where pH is been maintained between 7 – 8 by addition


of NaOH based on the online pH monitoring system automatically.

77
NEUTRALISATION TANK
 BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM:
 COD & BOD reduction happens in biological, due to the presence of biomass, which
breaks the chemical properties of the raw effluent. 50- 60 % of colour reduction
happens in biological system.
 The appropriate FM ratio is been maintained here.
 Evacuates CO2, Nitrogen.
 Fine bubble aerated disc diffusers designed as per the inlet BOD is been installed, to
provide the necessary oxygen for the bacteria at a level of 2 PPM – dissolved Oxygen.
 The blower which is supplying air to the Disc Diffuser System is been operated
automatically, based on the online DO meter.
 Effectiveness of the Biological system depends upon the De-sludge factor from the
Biological tank. BELT PRESS is installed to remove the sludge from biological process
and to maintain MLSS 5- 6 g/l at FM ratio 0.05 to 0.07 for better performance.
 Submersible flow mixers are also added, to keep moving the effluent to avoid anaerobic
reaction, sludge sedimentation & odour.
 24 hours retention time.

BIOLOGICAL TANK

78
 CLARIFIER:

 It clarifies and segregates the clear water from the biological tank and sediments the
activated sludge.

 The clear water overflows and moves to Filtration section.

 The sediment sludge is removed through pumping and fed into biological tank, for
bacterial development.

 Retention time – 8 hours. Turbidity reduction occurs at the outlet of clarifier.

CLARIFIER

 SLUDGE RECYCLING:

 Sludge extracted from Clarifier is pumped again to biological process, for bacterial
development.

 The sludge recycling must be regulated in such a way, to achieve a sludge quantity
in the recycling stream. The sludge recycle flow normally maintained 1:1 ratio.

 The excess sludge water will be sent to Belt Press, for Solid Sludge Cakes.

79
pH : 7 to 8
TDS : 300 to 500 mg/Ltrs
BIOLOGICAL OUTLET Chlorides :100 to 200 mg/Ltrs
WATER Sulphates : 100 to 150 mg/Ltrs
BOD : 5 to 10 mg/Ltrs
CHARACTERISTICS
COD : 80 to 100 mg/Ltrs
Total Hardn